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John D Hamilton, Professor of Medicine and Associate Professor

Contact Info:
Office Location:  Division of Infectious Diseases
Office Phone:  (919) 668-3368
Email Address: send me a message
Web Page:  http://faculty.duhs.duke.edu/faculty/info?pid=758


M.D.University of Colorado at Colorado Springs1964
Research Interests:

1) My laboratory is engaged in studies of viral latency using murine cytomegalovirus, a member of the family of beta-Herpes viruses.  Of particular interest in our laboratory, has been the mechanisms of control of latent virus.  This question is, we believe, a biologically very important one since it has direct and indirect implications for viral transmission, prevention and treatment of disease.

2) In experiments using reverse transcriptase PCR, we were able to detect immediate-early I transcripts at a level roughly 10-fold higher than that of viral genome, indicating that a significant fraction of latent virus is transcriptionally active.  These findings may be indicative of an abortive infection in which transcription is limited to the immediate-early genes, or the result of a very low level persistent infection, or a transient reactivation of latent virus.  To further assess the state of viral activity in latent infection we have tested the activity of monoclonal antibodies against putative latent viral proteins.  We have further established the gene map location encoding one of these unique proteins and is found to be distinct from the immediate early genes.  Further studies using immunohistochemistry indicate that this viral gene is active during latency although not exclusively and therefore not likely to be a regulatory gene for latency.  Presently using a recombinant virus containing the gene for green fluorescent protein we will attempt to localize the cellular reservoir latent virus by confocal microscopy.

3) In addition, I have been very active in the conduct of clinical trials relevant to HIV/AIDS.  These include a study of early versus late AZT of which I was co-principal investigator in this VA Cooperative Study and I am principal investigator for a pending application to the NIH for an Adult AIDS Clinical Trials Network.

4) I am both a frequent reviewer of manuscripts submitted for publication in the general area of basic and clinical virology and I have been appointed  to several national advisory committees including White House Task Force on HIV Vaccine (FCCSET), the Medical Research Advisory Committee of the Department of Veterans Affairs, and the FDA Antiviral Advisory Committee.

5)  Key Words
     Virus, latency, molecular, cytomegalovirus, immunocompromised, HIV, hepatitis


Glomerulonephritis • Renal Dialysis • Vaccination • Cytotoxicity, Immunologic • HLA Antigens • Pneumoconiosis • Textile Industry • Choice Behavior • Immunity, Cellular • Transplantation Immunology • Psychotherapy • Students, Medical • Health • Health Services • Personnel, Hospital • Dust • Gossypium • Decision Support Techniques • Hypersensitivity, Delayed • Insulin • Sex Characteristics • Intestinal Absorption • Informed Consent • Hepatitis B Surface Antigens • Adenocarcinoma • Urethra • Professional-Patient Relations • Self Assessment (Psychology) • Virus Latency • Clinical Trials as Topic • Ethics, Medical • Risk Assessment • Therapeutic Human Experimentation • Mitosporic Fungi • Disease Models, Animal • Cortisone • Licensure, Medical • Blood Gas Analysis • Carbon Dioxide • Respiratory Tract Diseases • Decision Making • Patient Selection • Withholding Treatment • Viral Vaccines • Urinary Bladder • Environmental Monitoring • Cost of Illness • Health Care Costs • Education, Medical, Undergraduate • Quality of Health Care • Minority Groups • Disability Evaluation • Patient Admission • Quality of Life • Luminescent Proteins • Virus Activation • Hepatitis C • CD4 Lymphocyte Count • Viral Load • Kidney Transplantation • HIV Seroprevalence • HIV-1 • Cytomegalovirus Infections • Tuberculin Test • Aerospace Medicine • Occupational Diseases • Curriculum • Neoplasm Transplantation • Atrial Fibrillation • Cardiomegaly • Heart Failure • Hypoxia, Brain • Neurologic Manifestations • Pathology • Pulmonary Artery • Pulmonary Heart Disease • Respiratory Insufficiency • Thrombosis • Dementia • War • Gluten • Coccidioidomycosis • Textiles • Muromegalovirus • Schizophrenic Psychology • Variation (Genetics) • Disease Transmission, Vertical • GB virus C • Outcome Assessment (Health Care) • Accreditation • Disease Outbreaks • Hospital Units • Community Health Services • Machiavellianism • Personality • Pneumonia, Viral • Cold • Hibernation • Colloids • Emulsions • Macromolecular Substances • Homosexuality • Immunity • Life Style • Tomography, X-Ray Computed • Herpes Zoster • Regional Blood Flow • Xenon • Communicable Diseases • Delivery of Health Care • Microbiology • African Americans

Representative Publications   (More Publications)

  1. O'Brien WA, Hartigan PM, Hamilton JD and the VA Cooperative Study Group on AIDS: Changes in plasma HIV-1 RNA and CD4+ lymphocyte counts and the risk of progression to AIDS. N Eng J Med 334;426-431, 1996.
  2. Yu Y, Henry SC, Xu F and Hamilton JD: Expression of a murine cytomegalovirus early-late protein in "latently" infected mice. J Infect Dis 172:371-379, 1995.
  3. Henry SC and Hamilton JD: Murine cytomegalovirus immediate-early gene 1 is transcribed in the spleen during latent infection. J Infect dis 1678:950-954, 1993.
  4. Hamilton JD, Hartigan PM, Simberkoff MS, et al: A controlled trial of early versus late treatment with zidovudine in symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infection. N Eng J Med 326:437-443, 1992.
  5. Klotman ME, Henry SC, Greene RC, Brazy PC, Klotman PE and Hamilton JD: Detection of mouse cytomegalovirus nucleic acid in latently infected mice by in vitro enzymatic amplification. J Infect Dis 161:221-225, 1990.
  6. Hamilton JD, Fitzwilliam JF, Cheung KS, Shelburne J, Lang DJ and Amos DB: Viral infection-homograft interactions in a murine model. J Clin Invest 62:1303-1312, 1978.

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