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The paper uses a rich administrative data set from North Carolina to explore the extent to which that state’s relatively sophisticated school-based accountability system has exacerbated the challenges that schools serving low performing students face in retaining and attracting high quality teachers. Most clear are the adverse effects on retention rates, and hence on teacher turnover, in such schools. Less clear from our analysis is the extent to which that higher turnover has translated into a decline in the average qualifications of the teachers in the low performing schools. Other states with less sophisticated accountability systems should expect even greater unintended systemic effects of the type identified here.