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Kenneth E. Glander, Professor Emeritus

Kenneth E. Glander

Primate ecology and social organization: the interaction between feeding patterns and social structure; evolutionary development of optimal group size and composition; factors affecting short and long-term demographic changes in stable groups; primate use of regenerating forests.

Contact Info:
Office Location:  130 Science Dr., 108 Bio Sci Bldg, Durham, NC 27708
Office Phone:  (919) 699-2995
Email Address: send me a message
Web Page:  http://evolutionaryanthropology.duke.edu/people?Gurl=%2Faas%2FBAA&Uil=glander&subpage=profile

Typical Courses Taught:


Ph.D.The University of Chicago1975
M.A.The University of Chicago1971
B.A.University of Texas, Austin1969

Primate Ecology
Behavioral Ecology and Physiology
Primate Reproduction
Primate Biology
Research Interests:

Current projects: Diet selection by wild primates, Physiology of free-ranging primates, Determining the effect of light on primate circadian rhythms

My research focuses on the primate diet with four key objectives: 1) identifying what is selected from what is available and the chemical explanations for the selection; 2) characterize the behavioral and physiological adaptations of wild primates in response to their changing environmental conditions; 3) illuminating the interaction between diet and the gut microbiome; and 4) validating the relationship between primate circadian behavior and their 24-hour luminous environment. Research addressing these objectives is carried out in Costa Rica (CR) and at the Duke University Lemur Center (DLC). 

Objective 1: Begun in 1970, my long-term field project investigating the interaction between plant-produced chemicals and primate feeding behavior as well as the impact this has on primate social organizations continues My research protocols have expanded to include: how food characteristics affect tooth wear (collaboration with Dr. Mark Teaford); understanding the functional anatomy of wild primates living in their natural habitat (collaboration with Drs. Christopher Vinyard and Susan Williams); the evolutionary development of optimal group size and composition; the relationship between food quality/quantity and body size; the factors affecting short and long-term demographic changes in established groups; and the role of regenerating forests on primate density. The study population consists of 75-100 individually marked mantled howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata) living in dry forest habitats in northwestern Costa Rica. 

Objective 2: Basic physiology research (e.g. core body temperature, EMG, blood glucose levels, heart rate, metabolic rate) on primates has historically been limited to the laboratory. A revolution in miniaturization has allowed us to effectively utilize conventional lab-based technologies in a field setting. We are measuring the subcutaneous and core body temperatures of free-ranging monkeys. These data on internal temperatures are then related to ambient temperature at the animal’s location while documenting natural behaviors. For the same individuals, we record blood glucose levels as a measure of available energy, hormonal profiles related to temperature and energy regulation as well as dietary nutritional values. In addition, we record variation in weather conditions throughout the animals’ forest habitats during wet and dry seasons allowing us to relate this environmental variation to the behavioral and physiological data from free-ranging monkeys. By directly linking subcutaneous and core body temperature, available energy, and hormonal variation to environmental conditions in free-ranging animals, we are able to interpret primate behaviors in the context of the environmentally dictated selection pressures these animals experience. 

Objective 3: Primates cannot digest the complex carbohydrates (leaves, bark, flowers) they consume and must rely on cellulose-digesting microbes in their gut. These microbes have cellulose-digesting abilities and play a key role in providing energy to their hosts. Microbial fermentation of plant material is a critical component for many primates, as the host alone cannot digest and extract nutrients from most plant material and all primates, including humans, consume some plant material (tarsiers are the exception). The microbial community of the gut affects many physiological characteristics of mammals, including the ability to digest and break down polysaccharides, that would otherwise be rendered indigestible The human microbiome has been extensively studied, but little is know about the nonhuman microbiome. For humans, diet is known to be a powerful predictor as well as shaper of gut microbiomes. For example, gut bacteria have been shown to be different in obese and lean humans (Bajzer & Seeley, 2006). Also, changing the proportion of ingested fats, carbohydrates, and protein can dramatically alter the functional group distribution of the gut flora and fauna. To comprehend these and other relationships in wild and captive primates, the recent advent of high-throughput metagenomics sequencing will be used to characterize their gastrointestinal microbiome. The bacterial 16S rRNA gene is analyzed to characterize the fecal microbial community structure of the mantled howling monkey in CR and lemurs at DLC. 

Objective 4: There is a scientific debate about the photic niche (diurnal, nocturnal, crepuscular, cathemeral) of lemurs (Perry et al., 2007; Tan et al., 2008). The debate is based on observations of daily behavior patterns that is then used as indicators of evolutionary shifts (e.g., from nocturnal to diurnal activity) and has direct implications for whether the ancestral primate was nocturnal or diurnal. Compounding the debate is the conflicting data in the literature indicating that the same species occupies different photic niches. A recent study clearly suggests that the physical characteristics of light (e.g., intensity) during the night (and perhaps during the day) define whether lemurs will show, nocturnal, diurnal or cathemeral behavior (Erkert and Cramer, 2006). The debate over the evolution of lemur nychthemeral behavior specifically and that of primates in general would be much better informed by data from controlled experiments where behavior patterns were functionally related to the physical characteristics of light (intensity, duration, spectrum, timing) during the day and during the night. A collaboration with Rennselaer’s Lighting Research Center (LRC) was established to obtain a better understanding of how the light/dark cycle affects primates. The LRC is the world's leading university-based research and education organization devoted to lighting. LRC engineers built and installed a custom-built LED lighting fixture with nine separate channels of light sources [one polychromatic (white) light and eight narrow-band LED sources: 407 nm, 436 nm, 460 nm, 478 nm, 502 nm, 519 nm, 597 nm, 631 nm] at the DLC. By systematically modulating the physical characteristics of the light under controlled conditions at the DLC, we hope to establish which light regimes result in different behavior patterns, and how those relate to their natural environment, both seasonally and monthly (lunar cycle).

Adaptation, Biological • Age Factors • Aging • Algorithms • Alouatta • Analysis of Variance • Anesthetics • Animal Feed • Animal Migration • Animals • Animals, Laboratory • Animals, Newborn • Animals, Wild • Anthropology, Physical • Arm • Asian Langurs • Behavior, Animal • Biological Evolution • Birth • Birth Intervals • Blood Glucose • Body Constitution • Body Height • Body Temperature Regulation • Body Weight • Breeding • Calibration • Carbon Isotopes • Cebidae • Cebus • Cercopithecidae • Cholesterol • Climate • Colostrum • Competitive Behavior • Costa Rica • Cuspid • Dental Casting Technique • Dental Impression Technique • Dental Occlusion • Diet • Digestion • Dog physiology • Drinking Behavior • Drug Combinations • Dust • Eating • Ecology • Ecosystem • Energy Intake • Environment • Estrus • Fatty Acids • Fatty Acids, Nonesterified • Feces • Feeding Behavior • Female • Fiber Optic Technology • Food Preferences • Hair • Haplorhini • Head • Helminthiasis • Helminthiasis, Animal • Hominidae • Howling Monkeys • Humans • Hydrology • Hylobates • Immobilization • Incisor • Indonesia • Infant • Insects • Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic • Jaw • Ketamine • Larva • Least-Squares Analysis • Leg • Lemur • Lemurs • Lipids • Lipoproteins • Lipoproteins, HDL • Lipoproteins, LDL • Lipoproteins, VLDL • Lorisidae • Macaca fascicularis • Madagascar • Male • Manatee diets • Mandible • Mastication • Microbiome • Microscopy, Electron, Scanning • Milk • Molar • Monkey Diseases • Nature • New World monkeys • Nitrogen Isotopes • Odontometry • Oligosaccharides • Phencyclidine • Phospholipids • Phylogeny • Plant Leaves • Platyrrhini • Ponds • Pongo pygmaeus • Population Dynamics • Population Growth • Pregnancy • Primate/Plant interactions • Primates • Protozoan Infections • Protozoan Infections, Animal • Rain • Regression Analysis • Remote Sensing Technology • Reproduction • Science • Seasons • Sex Characteristics • Sex Factors • Sexual Behavior, Animal • Sexual Maturation • Silicon Dioxide • Social Behavior • Species Specificity • Spectrum Analysis, Raman • Strepsirhini • Temperature • Testis • Thermometers • Tiletamine • Time Factors • Tooth • Tooth Abrasion • Tooth Attrition • Trees • Triglycerides • Tropical Climate • Urea • Weather • Zolazepam

Curriculum Vitae
Current Ph.D. Students   (Former Students)

    Representative Publications   (More Publications)   (search)

    1. Glander, KE, Average body weight for mantled howling monkeys (Alouatta pallilata): an assessment of average values and variability, in New Perspectives In The Study Of Mesoamerican Primates, edited by A. Estrada, P.A. Garber, M. Pavelka, & L. Luecke (2006), pp. 247-263, Springer, New York [PDF[abs]
    2. Glander, KE, Nonhuman primate self-medication with wild plant foods, in Eating On The Wild Side: The Pharmacologic, Ecologic, and Social Implications Of Using Noncultigens, edited by Etkin, Nina, (1994), pp. 227-239, University of Arizona Press, Tucson & London [repository]
    3. Glander, KE, Howling monkey feeding behavior and plant secondary compounds: A study of strategies, in The Ecology of arboreal folivores, edited by Montgomery, GG (June, 1978), pp. 561-573, Smithsonian Inst Pr [repository]
    4. Glander, KE, Dispersal patterns in Costa Rican mantled howling monkeys, International Journal of Primatology, vol. 13 no. 4 (August, 1992), pp. 415-436, Springer Nature, ISSN 0164-0291 [repository], [doi]  [abs]
    5. Teaford, MF; Lucas, PW; Ungar, PS; Glander, KE, Mechanical defenses in leaves eaten by Costa Rican howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata)., American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 129 no. 1 (January, 2006), pp. 99-104, ISSN 0002-9483 [16136580], [doi]  [abs]
    6. Clayton, JB; Glander, KE, Dietary choices by four captive slender lorises (Loris tardigradus) when presented with various insect life stages., Zoo Biology, vol. 30 no. 2 (March, 2011), pp. 189-198 [20872876], [doi]  [abs]
    7. Clarke, MR; Glander, KE, Secondary transfer of adult mantled howlers (Alouatta palliata) on Hacienda La Pacifica, Costa Rica: 1975-2009., Primates; Journal of Primatology, vol. 51 no. 3 (July, 2010), pp. 241-249 [20339901], [doi]  [abs]
    8. Teaford, Mark F., ; Glander, KE, Dental microwear and diet in a wild population of mantled howlers (Alouatta palliata), in Adaptive Radiations of Neotropical Primates, edited by Norconk, MA; Rosenberger, AL; Garber, PA (1996), pp. 433-499, SPRINGER, ISBN 0306453991 [repository]
    9. Ungar, PS; Teaford, MF; Glander, KE; Pastor, RF, Dust accumulation in the canopy: a potential cause of dental microwear in primates., American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 97 no. 2 (June, 1995), pp. 93-99, ISSN 0002-9483 [7653510], [doi]  [abs]
    10. Glander, KE, Morphometrics and growth in captive aye-ayes, Folia Primatol, vol. 62 no. 1-3 (1994), pp. 108-114, ISSN 0015-5713 [7721196]
    11. Glander, KE, The impact of plant secondary compounds on primate feeding behavior, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 25 no. 3 S (January, 1982), pp. 1-18, WILEY [repository], [doi]  [abs]
    12. Glander, KE; Wright, PC; Daniels, PS; Merenlender, AM, Morphometrics and testicle size of rain forest lemur species from southeastern Madagascar, Journal of Human Evolution, vol. 22 no. 1 (January, 1992), pp. 1-17, Elsevier BV, ISSN 0047-2484 [repository], [doi]  [abs]
    13. Glander, KE; Fedigan, LM; Fedigan, L; Chapman, C, Capture techniques and measurements of three monkey species in Costa Rica, Folia Prim, vol. 57 no. 2 (1991), pp. 70-82, ISSN 0015-5713 [1786909], [doi]  [abs]
    14. Teaford, MF; Glander, KE, Dental microwear in live, wild-trapped Alouatta palliata from Costa Rica., American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 85 no. 3 (July, 1991), pp. 313-319, ISSN 0002-9483 [1897604], [doi]  [abs]
    15. Glander, KE; Wright, PC; Seigler, DS; Randrianasolo, V; Randrianasolo, B, Consumption of cyanogenic bamboo by a newly discovered species of bamboo lemur., American Journal of Primatology, vol. 19 no. 2 (January, 1989), pp. 119-124, WILEY, ISSN 0275-2565 [Gateway.cgi], [doi]  [abs]
    Selected Grant Support

    • Collaborative Research: Ecological and Functional Morphology of Feeding in Free-Ranging, National Science Foundation, BCS-0720025.      
    • Collaborative Research: Ecological and Functional Morphology of Feeding in Free-Ranging Mantled Howling Monkeys, National Science Foundation, BCS-0720028.      
    • Energy Balance in Free-Ranging Lemurs, St. Catherines Island Research Program.      
    • The ecology of manatees in Mexico, The Mohamed bin Zayed Species Conservation Fund.      

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