H. Frederik Nijhout, John Franklin Crowell Professor  

H. Frederik Nijhout

Fred Nijhout is broadly interested in developmental physiology and in the interactions between development and evolution. He has several lines of research ongoing in his laboratory that on the surface may look independent from one another, but all share a conceptual interest in understanding how complex traits arise through, and are affected by, the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. 1) The control of polyphenic development in insects. This work attempts to understand how the insect developmental hormones, ecdysone and juvenile hormone, act to control alternative developmental pathways within a single individual. His studies and those of his students have dealt with the control of sequential polyphenism in metamorphosis, of alternate polyphenisms in caste determination of social insects and the many seasonal forms of insects. 2) The regulation of organ and body size in insects. Ongoing research deals with the mechanism by which insects asses their body size and stop growing when they have achieved a characteristic size. Other studies deal with the control of growth and size of imaginal disks. This work is revealing that the control of body and organ size does not reside in any specific cellular or molecular mechanism but that it is a systems property in which cellular, physiological and environmental signals all contribute in inextricable ways to produce the final phenotype. 3) The development and evolution of color patterns in Lepidoptera. Ongoing research attempts to elucidate the evolution of mimicry using genetic and genomic approaches. 4) The development, genetics and evolution of complex traits. Complex traits are those whose variation is affected by many genes and environmental factors and whose inheritance does not follow Mendel’s laws. In practice this involves understanding how genetic and developmental networks operate when there is allelic variation in their genes. This work attempts to reconstruct complex traits through mathematical models of the genetic and developmental processes by which they originate, and uses these models to study the effects of mutation and selection. Currently metabolic networks (e.g. folate metabolism) are being used to develop a deeper understanding of the functional relationships between genetic variation and trait variation, and of the mechanisms by which genetic and environmental variables interact to produce phenotypes. More on web page: http://www.biology.duke.edu/nijhout/

Education:
Ph.D., Harvard University, 1974
M.A., Harvard University, 1972
B.S., University of Notre Dame, 1970

Office Location: 322 Bio Sci Bldg, Durham, NC 27708
Office Phone: (919) 684-2793
Email Address: hfn@duke.edu
Web Page: http://www.biology.duke.edu/nijhout/

Specialties:
Developmental Biology
Evolution
Genetics
Organismal Biology and Behavior

Research Categories: Developmental physiology/development and evolution

Research Description: Fred Nijhout is broadly interested in developmental physiology and in the interactions between development and evolution. He has several lines of research ongoing in his laboratory that on the surface may look independent from one another, but all share a conceptual interest in understanding how complex traits arise through, and are affected by, the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. 1) The control of polyphenic development in insects. This work attempts to understand how the insect developmental hormones, ecdysone and juvenile hormone, act to control alternative developmental pathways within a single individual. His studies and those of his students have dealt with the control of sequential polyphenism in metamorphosis, of alternate polyphenisms in caste determination of social insects and the many seasonal forms of insects. 2) The regulation of organ and body size in insects. Ongoing research deals with the mechanism by which insects asses their body size and stop growing when they have achieved a characteristic size. Other studies deal with the control of growth and size of imaginal disks. This work is revealing that the control of body and organ size does not reside in any specific cellular or molecular mechanism but that it is a systems property in which cellular, physiological and environmental signals all contribute in inextricable ways to produce the final phenotype. 3) The development and evolution of color patterns in Lepidoptera. Ongoing research attempts to elucidate the evolution of mimicry using genetic and genomic approaches. 4) The development, genetics and evolution of complex traits. Complex traits are those whose variation is affected by many genes and environmental factors and whose inheritance does not follow Mendel’s laws. In practice this involves understanding how genetic and developmental networks operate when there is allelic variation in their genes. This work attempts to reconstruct complex traits through mathematical models of the genetic and developmental processes by which they originate, and uses these models to study the effects of mutation and selection. Currently metabolic networks (e.g. folate metabolism) are being used to develop a deeper understanding of the functional relationships between genetic variation and trait variation, and of the mechanisms by which genetic and environmental variables interact to produce phenotypes. More on web page: http://www.biology.duke.edu/nijhout/

Representative Publications   (More Publications)   (search)

  1. HF Nijhout and RZ German, Developmental causes of allometry: new models and implications for phenotypic plasticity and evolution., Integr Comp Biol, vol. 52 no. 1 (July, 2012), pp. 43-52 [22634387], [doi]  [abs].
  2. R Ben-Shachar, Y Chen, S Luo, C Hartman, M Reed and HF Nijhout, The biochemistry of acetaminophen hepatotoxicity and rescue: a mathematical model., Theor Biol Med Model, vol. 9 (December, 2012), pp. 55 [23249634], [doi]  [abs].
  3. TM Duncan, MC Reed and HF Nijhout, The relationship between intracellular and plasma levels of folate and metabolites in the methionine cycle: a model., Mol Nutr Food Res, vol. 57 no. 4 (April, 2013), pp. 628-636 [23143835], [doi]  [abs].
  4. HM Hines, R Papa, M Ruiz, A Papanicolaou, C Wang, HF Nijhout, WO McMillan and RD Reed, Transcriptome analysis reveals novel patterning and pigmentation genes underlying Heliconius butterfly wing pattern variation., BMC Genomics, vol. 13 (June, 2012), pp. 288 [22747837], [doi]  [abs].
  5. EH Cho and HF Nijhout, Development of polyploidy of scale-building cells in the wings of Manduca sexta., Arthropod Struct Dev, vol. 42 no. 1 (January, 2013), pp. 37-46 [23017249], [doi]  [abs].
  6. G Davidowitz, HF Nijhout and DA Roff, Predicting the response to simultaneous selection: genetic architecture and physiological constraints., Evolution, vol. 66 no. 9 (September, 2012), pp. 2916-2928 [22946812], [doi]  [abs].
  7. V Callier and HF Nijhout, Supply-side constraints are insufficient to explain the ontogenetic scaling of metabolic rate in the tobacco Hornworm, Manduca sexta., PLoS One, vol. 7 no. 9 (September, 2012), pp. e45455 [23029018], [doi]  [abs].
  8. MC Reed, HF Nijhout and JA Best, Mathematical insights into the effects of levodopa., Front Integr Neurosci, vol. 6 (July, 2012), pp. 21 [22783173], [doi]  [abs].
  9. H Padmanabha, F Correa, M Legros, HF Nijhout, C Lord and LP Lounibos, An eco-physiological model of the impact of temperature on Aedes aegypti life history traits., J Insect Physiol, vol. 58 no. 12 (December, 2012), pp. 1597-1608 [23068992], [doi]  [abs].
  10. S Geenen, FB du Preez, M Reed, HF Nijhout, JG Kenna, ID Wilson, HV Westerhoff and JL Snoep, A mathematical modelling approach to assessing the reliability of biomarkers of glutathione metabolism., Eur J Pharm Sci, vol. 46 no. 4 (July, 2012), pp. 233-243 [21888969], [doi]  [abs].
  11. R Obeid, K Hartmuth, W Herrmann, L Gortner, TR Rohrer, J Geisel, MC Reed and HF Nijhout, Blood biomarkers of methylation in Down syndrome and metabolic simulations using a mathematical model., Mol Nutr Food Res, vol. 56 no. 10 (October, 2012), pp. 1582-1589 [22930479], [doi]  [abs].
  12. V Callier and HF Nijhout, Control of body size by oxygen supply reveals size-dependent and size-independent mechanisms of molting and metamorphosis., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol. 108 no. 35 (August, 2011), pp. 14664-14669 [21873228], [doi]  [abs].
  13. RD Reed, R Papa, A Martin, HM Hines, BA Counterman, C Pardo-Diaz, CD Jiggins, NL Chamberlain, MR Kronforst, R Chen, G Halder, HF Nijhout and WO McMillan, optix drives the repeated convergent evolution of butterfly wing pattern mimicry., Science, vol. 333 no. 6046 (August 30, 2011), pp. 1137-1141 [21778360], [doi]  [abs].
  14. HF Nijhout, Dependence of morphometric allometries on the growth kinetics of body parts., J Theor Biol, vol. 288 (August 15, 2011), pp. 35-43 [21864540], [doi]  [abs].
  15. SD Lawley, M Cinderella, MN Hall, MV Gamble, HF Nijhout and MC Reed, Mathematical model insights into arsenic detoxification., Theor Biol Med Model, vol. 8 (August 1, 2011), pp. 31 [21871107], [doi]  [abs].
  16. AP Moczek, S Sultan, S Foster, C Ledón-Rettig, I Dworkin, HF Nijhout, E Abouheif and DW Pfennig, The role of developmental plasticity in evolutionary innovation., Proc Biol Sci, vol. 278 no. 1719 (July, 2011), pp. 2705-2713 [21676977], [doi]  [abs].
  17. J Best, HF Nijhout and M Reed, Bursts and the efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors., Pharmacopsychiatry, vol. 44 Suppl 1 (May, 2011), pp. S76-S83 [21547871], [doi]  [abs].
  18. ML Neuhouser, HF Nijhout, JF Gregory, MC Reed, SJ James, A Liu, B Shane and CM Ulrich, Mathematical modeling predicts the effect of folate deficiency and excess on cancer-related biomarkers., Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, vol. 20 no. 9 (July, 2011), pp. 1912-1917 [21752986], [doi]  [abs].
  19. HF Nijhout and LW Grunert, The cellular and physiological mechanism of wing-body scaling in Manduca sexta., Science, vol. 330 no. 6011 (December, 2010), pp. 1693-1695 [21109634], [doi]  [abs].
  20. A Tobler and HF Nijhout, Developmental constraints on the evolution of wing-body allometry in Manduca sexta, Evolution & Development, vol. 12 no. 6 (November, 2010), pp. 57-66 [21040425], [doi]  [abs].
  21. HF Nijhout, Molecular and Physiological Basis of Colour Pattern Formation, ADVANCES IN INSECT PHYSIOLOGY: INSECT INTEGUMENT AND COLOUR, vol. 38 (August, 2010), pp. 219-265 [Gateway.cgi], [doi] .
  22. J Best, HF Nijhout and M Reed, Serotonin synthesis, release and reuptake in terminals: a mathematical model., Theor Biol Med Model, vol. 7 (August, 2010), pp. 34 [20723248], [doi]  [abs].
  23. HF Nijhout, Photoperiodism in Insects: Effects on Morphology, in Photoperiodism: The Biological Calendar, edited by Nelson RJ, Denlinger DL and Somers DE, Photoperiodism: The Biological Calendar (August, 2010), pp. 318-341, Oxford University Press [doi]  [abs].
  24. MC Reed, A Lieb and HF Nijhout, The biological significance of substrate inhibition: a mechanism with diverse functions., Bioessays, vol. 32 no. 5 (May, 2010), pp. 422-429 [20414900], [doi]  [abs].
  25. A Tobler and HF Nijhout, A switch in the control of growth of the wing imaginal disks of Manduca sexta., PLoS One, vol. 5 no. 5 (May, 2010), pp. e10723 [20502707], [doi]  [abs].
  26. J Best, M Reed and HF Nijhout, Models of dopaminergic and serotonergic signaling., Pharmacopsychiatry, vol. 43 Suppl 1 (May, 2010), pp. S61-S66 [20480448], [doi]  [abs].
  27. SE Diamond, SD Hawkins, HF Nijhout and JG Kingsolver, Evolutionary divergence of field and laboratory populations of Manduca sexta in response to host-plant quality, Ecological Entomology, vol. 35 no. 2 (April, 2010), pp. 166-174 [doi]  [abs].
  28. HF Nijhout, DA Roff and G Davidowitz, Conflicting processes in the evolution of body size and development time., Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, vol. 365 no. 1540 (February, 2010), pp. 567-575 [20083633], [doi]  [abs].
  29. JH Bowsher and HF Nijhout, Partial co-option of the appendage patterning pathway in the development of abdominal appendages in the sepsid fly Themira biloba., Dev Genes Evol, vol. 219 no. 11-12 (January, 2010), pp. 577-587 [20182886], [doi]  [abs].
  30. DC Thomas, DV Conti, J Baurley, F Nijhout, M Reed and CM Ulrich, Use of pathway information in molecular epidemiology., Human genomics, vol. 4 no. 1 (December, 2009), pp. 21-42 [doi]  [abs].
  31. HF Nijhout, JF Gregory, C Fitzpatrick, E Cho, KY Lamers, CM Ulrich and MC Reed, A mathematical model gives insights into the effects of vitamin B-6 deficiency on 1-carbon and glutathione metabolism., J Nutr, vol. 139 no. 4 (April, 2009), pp. 784-791 [19244383], [doi]  [abs].
  32. AS Howell, NS Savage, SA Johnson, I Bose, AW Wagner, TR Zyla, HF Nijhout, MC Reed, AB Goryachev and DJ Lew, Singularity in polarization: rewiring yeast cells to make two buds., Cell, vol. 139 no. 4 (November, 2009), pp. 731-743 [19914166], [doi]  [abs].
  33. HF Nijhout, Developmental phenotypic landscapes, Evolutionary Biology, vol. 35 no. 2 (June, 2008), pp. 100-103 [doi] .
  34. HF Nijhout and Y Suzuki, Environment and genetic accommodation., Biological Theory, vol. 3 no. 1-9 (2009) .
  35. Suzuki Y, Nijhout HF, Genetic basis of adaptive evolution of a polyphenism by genetic accommodation, Journal of Evolutionary Biology, vol. 21 (January, 2008), pp. 57-66 .
  36. JA Best, HF Nijhout and MC Reed, Homeostatic mechanisms in dopamine synthesis and release: a mathematical model., Theor Biol Med Model, vol. 6 (2009), pp. 21 [19740446], [doi]  [abs].
  37. Nijhout HF, Reed MC, A mathematical model for the regulation of juvenile hormone titers, J. Insect Physiology, vol. 54 (January, 2008), pp. 255-264 .
  38. MC Reed, J Best and HF Nijhout, Passive and active stabilization of dopamine in the striatum, Bioscience Hypotheses, vol. 2 no. 4 (2009), pp. 240-244 [doi]  [abs].
  39. D Leduc, F Escartin, HF Nijhout, MC Reed, U Liebl, S Skouloubris and H Myllykallio, Flavin-dependent thymidylate synthase ThyX activity: implications for the folate cycle in bacteria., J Bacteriol, vol. 189 no. 23 (December, 2007), pp. 8537-8545 [17890305], [doi]  [abs].
  40. Y Suzuki and HF Nijhout, Constraint and developmental dissociation of phenotypic integration in a genetically accommodated trait., Evol Dev, vol. 10 no. 6 (November, 2008), pp. 690-699 [19021739], [doi]  [abs].
  41. RD Reed, P-H Chen and HF Nijhout, Cryptic variation in butterfly eyespot development: the importance of sample size in gene expression studies, EVOLUTION & DEVELOPMENT, vol. 9 no. 1 (2007), pp. 2-9 [Gateway.cgi] .
  42. HF Nijhout, Size matters (but so does time), and it's OK to be different., Dev Cell, vol. 15 no. 4 (October, 2008), pp. 491-492 [18854132], [doi]  [abs].
  43. HF Nijhout, WA Smith, I Schachar, S Subramanian, A Tobler and LW Grunert, The control of growth and differentiation of the wing imaginal disks of Manduca sexta., Dev Biol, vol. 302 no. 2 (February, 2007), pp. 569-576 [17112498], [doi]  [abs].
  44. HF Nijhout, M Reed and C Ulrich, Mathematical models of one-carbon metabolism, Vitamins and Hormones, vol. 79 (September, 2008), pp. 45-82 .
  45. AW Shingleton, WA Frankino, T Flatt, HF Nijhout and DJ Emlen, Size and shape: the developmental regulation of static allometry in insects., Bioessays, vol. 29 no. 6 (June, 2007), pp. 536-548 [17508394], [doi]  [abs].
  46. CM Ulrich, MC Reed and HF Nijhout, Modeling folate, one-carbon metabolism, and DNA methylation., Nutr Rev, vol. 66 Suppl 1 (August, 2008), pp. S27-S30 [18673484], [doi] .
  47. Brandon, R.N. and Nijhout, H.F., The empirical non-equivalence of genic and genotypic models of selection: A decisive refutation of genic selectionism and pluralistic genic selectionism., Philosophy of Science, vol. 73 (2007), pp. 277-297 .
  48. CM Ulrich, M Neuhouser, AY Liu, A Boynton, JF Gregory, B Shane, SJ James, MC Reed and HF Nijhout, Mathematical modeling of folate metabolism: predicted effects of genetic polymorphisms on mechanisms and biomarkers relevant to carcinogenesis., Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, vol. 17 no. 7 (July, 2008), pp. 1822-1831 [18628437], [doi]  [abs].
  49. JH Bowsher and HF Nijhout, Evolution of novel abdominal appendages in a sepsid fly from histoblasts, not imaginal discs., Evol Dev, vol. 9 no. 4 (July, 2007), pp. 347-354 [17651359], [doi]  [abs].
  50. MC Reed, RL Thomas, J Pavisic, SJ James, CM Ulrich and HF Nijhout, A mathematical model of glutathione metabolism., Theor Biol Med Model, vol. 5 no. 8 (July, 2008), pp. 8 [18442411], [doi]  [abs].
  51. DF Anderson, JC Mattingly, HF Nijhout and MC Reed, Propagation of fluctuations in biochemical systems, I: linear SSC networks., Bull Math Biol, vol. 69 no. 6 (August, 2007), pp. 1791-1813 [17457656], [doi]  [abs].
  52. Y Suzuki and HF Nijhout, Genetic basis of adaptive evolution of a polyphenism by genetic accommodation., J Evol Biol, vol. 21 no. 1 (January, 2008), pp. 57-66 [18034806], [doi]  [abs].
  53. HF Nijhout and MC Reed, A mathematical model for the regulation of juvenile hormone titers., J Insect Physiol, vol. 54 no. 1 (January, 2008), pp. 255-264 [18022634], [doi]  [abs].
  54. HF Nijhout, MC Reed and CM Ulrich, A day in the life of cell metabolism., Biological Theory (in press) (2007) .
  55. H.F. Nijhout, Stochastic gene expression: dominance, thresholds and boundaries., in Dominance and Haploinsufficiency, edited by Veitia, R.A. (2006), pp. 61-75, Landes Press .
  56. Y Suzuki and HF Nijhout, Evolution of a polyphenism by genetic accommodation., Science, vol. 311 no. 5761 (February, 2006), pp. 650-652 [16456077], [doi]  [abs].
  57. HF Nijhout, MC Reed, SL Lam, B Shane, JF Gregory and CM Ulrich, In silico experimentation with a model of hepatic mitochondrial folate metabolism., Theor Biol Med Model, vol. 3 (2006), pp. 40 [17150100], [doi]  [abs].
  58. HF Nijhout, MC Reed, DF Anderson, JC Mattingly, SJ James and CM Ulrich, Long-range allosteric interactions between the folate and methionine cycles stabilize DNA methylation reaction rate., Epigenetics, vol. 1 no. 2 (April, 2006), pp. 81-87 [17998813]  [abs].
  59. G Davidowitz, DA Roff and HF Nijhout, A physiological perspective on the response of body size and development time to simultaneous directional selection., Integr Comp Biol, vol. 45 no. 3 (June, 2005), pp. 525-531 [21676797], [doi]  [abs].
  60. AL Boyles, AV Billups, KL Deak, DG Siegel, L Mehltretter, SH Slifer, AG Bassuk, JA Kessler, MC Reed, HF Nijhout, TM George, DS Enterline, JR Gilbert, MC Speer and NTD Collaborative Group, Neural tube defects and folate pathway genes: family-based association tests of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions., Environ Health Perspect, vol. 114 no. 10 (October, 2006), pp. 1547-1552 [17035141]  [abs].
  61. B.A.Edgar and H.F. Nijhout, Growth and cell cycle control in Drosophila, in Cell Growth: Control of Cell Size, Cold Spring Harbor Monographs, edited by M.N. Hall, M.Raff and G. Thomas (2004), pp. 23-83, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press .
  62. MC Reed, HF Nijhout, ML Neuhouser, JF Gregory, B Shane, SJ James, A Boynton and CM Ulrich, A mathematical model gives insights into nutritional and genetic aspects of folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism., J Nutr, vol. 136 no. 10 (October, 2006), pp. 2653-2661 [16988141]  [abs].
  63. AS Yang, CH Martin and HF Nijhout, Geographic variation of caste structure among ant populations., Curr Biol, vol. 14 no. 6 (March, 2004), pp. 514-519 [15043818], [doi]  [abs].
  64. CM Ulrich, HF Nijhout and MC Reed, Mathematical modeling: epidemiology meets systems biology., Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, vol. 15 no. 5 (May, 2006), pp. 827-829 [16702357], [doi] .
  65. AP Moczek and HF Nijhout, Trade-offs during the development of primary and secondary sexual traits in a horned beetle., Am Nat, vol. 163 no. 2 (February, 2004), pp. 184-191 [14970921], [doi]  [abs].
  66. RA Veitia and HF Nijhout, The robustness of the transcriptional response to alterations in morphogenetic gradients., Bioessays, vol. 28 no. 3 (March, 2006), pp. 282-289 [16479586], [doi]  [abs].
  67. G Davidowitz, LJ D'Amico and HF Nijhout, The effects of environmental variation on a mechanism that controls insect body size, EVOLUTIONARY ECOLOGY RESEARCH, vol. 6 no. 1 (January, 2004), pp. 49-62 [Gateway.cgi] .
  68. HF Nijhout, G Davidowitz and DA Roff, A quantitative analysis of the mechanism that controls body size in Manduca sexta., J Biol, vol. 5 no. 5 (2006), pp. 16 [16879739], [doi]  [abs].
  69. HF Nijhout, MC Reed, P Budu and CM Ulrich, A mathematical model of the folate cycle: new insights into folate homeostasis., J Biol Chem, vol. 279 no. 53 (December, 2004), pp. 55008-55016 [15496403], [doi]  [abs].
  70. MC Reed, HF Nijhout, R Sparks and CM Ulrich, A mathematical model of the methionine cycle., J Theor Biol, vol. 226 no. 1 (2004), pp. 33-43 [14637052]  [abs].
  71. Nijhout, H.F. and G. Davidowitz., Developmental perspectives on phenotypic plasticity, canalization, and fluctuating asymmetry., in Developmental Instability: Causes and Consequences, edited by M. Polak (2003), pp. 3-13, MIT Press .
  72. HF Nijhout, Polymorphic mimicry in Papilio dardanus: mosaic dominance, big effects, and origins., Evol Dev, vol. 5 no. 6 (November, 2003), pp. 579-592 [14984040]  [abs].
  73. HF Nijhout, PK Maini, A Madzvamuse, AJ Wathen and T Sekimura, Pigmentation pattern formation in butterflies: experiments and models., C R Biol, vol. 326 no. 8 (August, 2003), pp. 717-727 [14608692]  [abs].
  74. DE Wheeler and HF Nijhout, A perspective for understanding the modes of juvenile hormone action as a lipid signaling system., Bioessays, vol. 25 no. 10 (October, 2003), pp. 994-1001 [14505366], [doi]  [abs].
  75. HF Nijhout, On the association between genes and complex traits., J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc, vol. 8 no. 2 (October, 2003), pp. 162-163 [14582665], [doi] .
  76. HF Nijhout, The control of body size in insects., Dev Biol, vol. 261 no. 1 (September, 2003), pp. 1-9 [12941617]  [abs].
  77. HF Nijhout, AM Berg and WT Gibson, A mechanistic study of evolvability using the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade., Evol Dev, vol. 5 no. 3 (May, 2003), pp. 281-294 [12752767]  [abs].
  78. HF Nijhout, The importance of context in genetics, American Scientist, vol. 91 no. 5 (2003), pp. 416-423 [Gateway.cgi], [doi] .
  79. AP Moczek and HF Nijhout, Rapid evolution of a polyphenic threshold., Evol Dev, vol. 5 no. 3 (May, 2003), pp. 259-268 [12752765]  [abs].
  80. HF Nijhout, Development and evolution of adaptive polyphenisms., Evol Dev, vol. 5 no. 1 (January, 2003), pp. 9-18 [12492404]  [abs].
  81. G Davidowitz, LJ D'Amico and HF Nijhout, Critical weight in the development of insect body size., Evol Dev, vol. 5 no. 2 (March, 2003), pp. 188-197 [12622736]  [abs].
  82. HF Nijhout, The control of growth., Development, vol. 130 no. 24 (December, 2003), pp. 5863-5867 [14597569], [doi]  [abs].
  83. HF Nijhout, Gradients, diffusion, and genes in pattern formation, in Origination of Organismal Form, edited by G. Müller and S. Newman,, ORIGINATION OF ORGANISMAL FORM (2003), pp. 165-181, MIT Press [Gateway.cgi] .
  84. PB Koch and HF Nijhout, The role of wing veins in colour pattern development in the butterfly Papilio xuthus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae), European Journal of Entomology, vol. 99 no. 1 (2002), pp. 67-72  [abs].
  85. HF Nijhout, The nature of robustness in development., Bioessays, vol. 24 no. 6 (June, 2002), pp. 553-563 [12111738], [doi]  [abs].
  86. H.F. Nijhout, Genetic regulatory networks., in Encyclopedia of Evolution. (2002), Oxford University Press. .
  87. HF Nijhout and LW Grunert, Bombyxin is a growth factor for wing imaginal disks in Lepidoptera., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol. 99 no. 24 (November, 2002), pp. 15446-15450 [12429853], [doi]  [abs].
  88. Nijhout, H.F. and G. Davidowitz., Developmental perspectives on phenotypic plasticity, canalization, and fluctuating asymmetry., in Developmental Instability: Causes and Consequences, edited by M. Polak (2002), Oxford University Press .
  89. AP Moczek and HF Nijhout, Developmental mechanisms of threshold evolution in a polyphenic beetle., Evol Dev, vol. 4 no. 4 (2002), pp. 252-264 [12168618]  [abs].
  90. H.F. Nijhout, The ontogeny of phenotypes, in Cycles of Contingency, pp.129-140, edited by S oyama, P Griffiths and R Gray (2001), MIT Press .
  91. AP Moczek and HF Nijhout, A method for sexing final instar larvae of the genus Onthophagus Latreille (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), Coleopterists Bulletin, vol. 56 no. 2 (2002), pp. 279-284  [abs].
  92. H.F. Nijhout, Origin of butterfly wing patterns, in The Character Concept in Evolutionary Biology, pp.511-529, edited by GA Wagner (2001), Academic Press .
  93. MA Gilchrist and HF Nijhout, Nonlinear developmental processes as sources of dominance., Genetics, vol. 159 no. 1 (September, 2001), pp. 423-432 [11560916]  [abs].
  94. M Shafiei, AP Moczek and HF Nijhout, Food availability controls the onset of metamorphosis in the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), Physiological Entomology, vol. 26 no. 2 (2001), pp. 173-180 [doi]  [abs].
  95. DJ Emlen and HF Nijhout, Hormonal control of male horn length dimorphism in Onthophagus taurus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae): a second critical period of sensitivity to juvenile hormone., J Insect Physiol, vol. 47 no. 9 (September, 2001), pp. 1045-1054 [11472767]  [abs].
  96. MH Browder, LJ D'Amico and HF Nijhout, The role of low levels of juvenile hormone esterase in the metamorphosis of Manduca sexta, Journal of Insect Science, vol. 1 no. 11 (2001), pp. 1-4 [15455071]  [abs].
  97. AK McDonald and HF Nijhout, The effect of environmental conditions on mating activity of the Buckeye butterfly, Precis coenia, J. Res. Lepidopt., vol. 35 no. 22-28 (2000) .
  98. DJ Emlen and HF Nijhout, The development and evolution of exaggerated morphologies in insects., Annu Rev Entomol, vol. 45 (2000), pp. 661-708 [10761593], [doi]  [abs].
  99. AL Miner, AJ Rosenberg and HF Nijhout, Control of growth and differentiation of the wing imaginal disk of Precis coenia (Lepidoptera : Nymphalidae), JOURNAL OF INSECT PHYSIOLOGY, vol. 46 no. 3 (March, 2000), pp. 251-258 [Gateway.cgi], [doi] .
  100. LJ D'Amico, G Davidowitz and HF Nijhout, The developmental and physiological basis of body size evolution in an insect., Proc Biol Sci, vol. 268 no. 1476 (August, 2001), pp. 1589-1593 [11487406], [doi]  [abs].