H. Frederik Nijhout, John Franklin Crowell Professor  

H. Frederik Nijhout

Fred Nijhout is broadly interested in developmental physiology and in the interactions between development and evolution. He has several lines of research ongoing in his laboratory that on the surface may look independent from one another, but all share a conceptual interest in understanding how complex traits arise through, and are affected by, the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. 1) The control of polyphenic development in insects. This work attempts to understand how the insect developmental hormones, ecdysone and juvenile hormone, act to control alternative developmental pathways within a single individual. His studies and those of his students have dealt with the control of sequential polyphenism in metamorphosis, of alternate polyphenisms in caste determination of social insects and the many seasonal forms of insects. 2) The regulation of organ and body size in insects. Ongoing research deals with the mechanism by which insects asses their body size and stop growing when they have achieved a characteristic size. Other studies deal with the control of growth and size of imaginal disks. This work is revealing that the control of body and organ size does not reside in any specific cellular or molecular mechanism but that it is a systems property in which cellular, physiological and environmental signals all contribute in inextricable ways to produce the final phenotype. 3) The development and evolution of color patterns in Lepidoptera. Ongoing research attempts to elucidate the evolution of mimicry using genetic and genomic approaches. 4) The development, genetics and evolution of complex traits. Complex traits are those whose variation is affected by many genes and environmental factors and whose inheritance does not follow Mendel’s laws. In practice this involves understanding how genetic and developmental networks operate when there is allelic variation in their genes. This work attempts to reconstruct complex traits through mathematical models of the genetic and developmental processes by which they originate, and uses these models to study the effects of mutation and selection. Currently metabolic networks (e.g. folate metabolism) are being used to develop a deeper understanding of the functional relationships between genetic variation and trait variation, and of the mechanisms by which genetic and environmental variables interact to produce phenotypes. More on web page: http://www.biology.duke.edu/nijhout/

Education:
Ph.D., Harvard University, 1974
M.A., Harvard University, 1972
B.S., University of Notre Dame, 1970

Office Location: 322 Bio Sci Bldg, Durham, NC 27708
Office Phone: (919) 684-2793
Email Address: hfn@duke.edu
Web Page: http://www.biology.duke.edu/nijhout/

Specialties:
Developmental Biology
Evolution
Genetics
Organismal Biology and Behavior

Research Categories: Developmental physiology/development and evolution

Research Description: Fred Nijhout is broadly interested in developmental physiology and in the interactions between development and evolution. He has several lines of research ongoing in his laboratory that on the surface may look independent from one another, but all share a conceptual interest in understanding how complex traits arise through, and are affected by, the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. 1) The control of polyphenic development in insects. This work attempts to understand how the insect developmental hormones, ecdysone and juvenile hormone, act to control alternative developmental pathways within a single individual. His studies and those of his students have dealt with the control of sequential polyphenism in metamorphosis, of alternate polyphenisms in caste determination of social insects and the many seasonal forms of insects. 2) The regulation of organ and body size in insects. Ongoing research deals with the mechanism by which insects asses their body size and stop growing when they have achieved a characteristic size. Other studies deal with the control of growth and size of imaginal disks. This work is revealing that the control of body and organ size does not reside in any specific cellular or molecular mechanism but that it is a systems property in which cellular, physiological and environmental signals all contribute in inextricable ways to produce the final phenotype. 3) The development and evolution of color patterns in Lepidoptera. Ongoing research attempts to elucidate the evolution of mimicry using genetic and genomic approaches. 4) The development, genetics and evolution of complex traits. Complex traits are those whose variation is affected by many genes and environmental factors and whose inheritance does not follow Mendel’s laws. In practice this involves understanding how genetic and developmental networks operate when there is allelic variation in their genes. This work attempts to reconstruct complex traits through mathematical models of the genetic and developmental processes by which they originate, and uses these models to study the effects of mutation and selection. Currently metabolic networks (e.g. folate metabolism) are being used to develop a deeper understanding of the functional relationships between genetic variation and trait variation, and of the mechanisms by which genetic and environmental variables interact to produce phenotypes. More on web page: http://www.biology.duke.edu/nijhout/

Representative Publications   (More Publications)   (search)

  1. Nijhout, HF; German, RZ, Developmental causes of allometry: new models and implications for phenotypic plasticity and evolution., Integrative and Comparative Biology (BioOne), vol. 52 no. 1 (July, 2012), pp. 43-52 [22634387], [doi]  [abs].
  2. Ben-Shachar, R; Chen, Y; Luo, S; Hartman, C; Reed, M; Nijhout, HF, The biochemistry of acetaminophen hepatotoxicity and rescue: a mathematical model., Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling, vol. 9 (December, 2012), pp. 55 [23249634], [doi]  [abs].
  3. Duncan, TM; Reed, MC; Nijhout, HF, The relationship between intracellular and plasma levels of folate and metabolites in the methionine cycle: A model, Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, vol. 57 no. 4 (April, 2013), pp. 628-636 [23143835], [doi]  [abs].
  4. Hines, HM; Papa, R; Ruiz, M; Papanicolaou, A; Wang, C; Nijhout, HF; McMillan, WO; Reed, RD, Transcriptome analysis reveals novel patterning and pigmentation genes underlying Heliconius butterfly wing pattern variation., BMC Genomics, vol. 13 (June, 2012), pp. 288 [22747837], [doi]  [abs].
  5. Cho, EH; Nijhout, HF, Development of polyploidy of scale-building cells in the wings of Manduca sexta., Arthropod Structure and Development, vol. 42 no. 1 (January, 2013), pp. 37-46 [23017249], [doi]  [abs].
  6. Davidowitz, G; Nijhout, HF; Roff, DA, Predicting the response to simultaneous selection: genetic architecture and physiological constraints., Evolution, vol. 66 no. 9 (September, 2012), pp. 2916-2928 [22946812], [doi]  [abs].
  7. Callier, V; Nijhout, HF, Supply-side constraints are insufficient to explain the ontogenetic scaling of metabolic rate in the tobacco Hornworm, Manduca sexta., PloS one, vol. 7 no. 9 (September, 2012), pp. e45455 [23029018], [doi]  [abs].
  8. Reed, MC; Nijhout, HF; Best, JA, Mathematical insights into the effects of levodopa., Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, vol. 6 (July, 2012), pp. 21 [22783173], [doi]  [abs].
  9. Padmanabha, H; Correa, F; Legros, M; Nijhout, HF; Lord, C; Lounibos, LP, An eco-physiological model of the impact of temperature on Aedes aegypti life history traits., Journal of Insect Physiology, vol. 58 no. 12 (December, 2012), pp. 1597-1608 [23068992], [doi]  [abs].
  10. Geenen, S; du Preez, FB; Reed, M; Nijhout, HF; Kenna, JG; Wilson, ID; Westerhoff, HV; Snoep, JL, A mathematical modelling approach to assessing the reliability of biomarkers of glutathione metabolism., European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 46 no. 4 (July, 2012), pp. 233-243 [21888969], [doi]  [abs].
  11. Obeid, R; Hartmuth, K; Herrmann, W; Gortner, L; Rohrer, TR; Geisel, J; Reed, MC; Nijhout, HF, Blood biomarkers of methylation in Down syndrome and metabolic simulations using a mathematical model., Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, vol. 56 no. 10 (October, 2012), pp. 1582-1589 [22930479], [doi]  [abs].
  12. Callier, V; Nijhout, HF, Control of body size by oxygen supply reveals size-dependent and size-independent mechanisms of molting and metamorphosis., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA, vol. 108 no. 35 (August, 2011), pp. 14664-14669 [21873228], [doi]  [abs].
  13. Reed, RD; Papa, R; Martin, A; Hines, HM; Counterman, BA; Pardo-Diaz, C; Jiggins, CD; Chamberlain, NL; Kronforst, MR; Chen, R; Halder, G; Nijhout, HF; McMillan, WO, optix drives the repeated convergent evolution of butterfly wing pattern mimicry., Science, vol. 333 no. 6046 (August 30, 2011), pp. 1137-1141 [21778360], [doi]  [abs].
  14. Nijhout, HF, Dependence of morphometric allometries on the growth kinetics of body parts., Journal of Theoretical Biology, vol. 288 (August 15, 2011), pp. 35-43 [21864540], [doi]  [abs].
  15. Lawley, SD; Cinderella, M; Hall, MN; Gamble, MV; Nijhout, HF; Reed, MC, Mathematical model insights into arsenic detoxification., Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling, vol. 8 (August 1, 2011), pp. 31 [21871107], [doi]  [abs].
  16. Moczek, AP; Sultan, S; Foster, S; Ledón-Rettig, C; Dworkin, I; Nijhout, HF; Abouheif, E; Pfennig, DW, The role of developmental plasticity in evolutionary innovation., Proceedings of the Royal Society of London: Biological Sciences, vol. 278 no. 1719 (July, 2011), pp. 2705-2713 [21676977], [doi]  [abs].
  17. Best, J; Nijhout, HF; Reed, M, Bursts and the efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors., Pharmacopsychiatry, vol. 44 Suppl 1 (May, 2011), pp. S76-S83 [21547871], [doi]  [abs].
  18. Neuhouser, ML; Nijhout, HF; Gregory, JF; Reed, MC; James, SJ; Liu, A; Shane, B; Ulrich, CM, Mathematical modeling predicts the effect of folate deficiency and excess on cancer-related biomarkers., Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology, vol. 20 no. 9 (July, 2011), pp. 1912-1917 [21752986], [doi]  [abs].
  19. Nijhout, HF; Grunert, LW, The cellular and physiological mechanism of wing-body scaling in Manduca sexta., Science, vol. 330 no. 6011 (December, 2010), pp. 1693-1695 [21109634], [doi]  [abs].
  20. Tobler, A; Nijhout, HF, Developmental constraints on the evolution of wing-body allometry in Manduca sexta, Evolution & Development, vol. 12 no. 6 (November, 2010), pp. 57-66 [21040425], [doi]  [abs].
  21. Nijhout, HF, Molecular and Physiological Basis of Colour Pattern Formation, Advances in insect physiology, vol. 38 (August, 2010), pp. 219-265 [Gateway.cgi], [doi] .
  22. Best, J; Nijhout, HF; Reed, M, Serotonin synthesis, release and reuptake in terminals: a mathematical model., Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling, vol. 7 (August, 2010), pp. 34 [20723248], [doi]  [abs].
  23. Nijhout, HF, Photoperiodism in Insects: Effects on Morphology, in Photoperiodism: The Biological Calendar, edited by Nelson RJ, Denlinger DL and Somers DE, Photoperiodism: The Biological Calendar (August, 2010), pp. 318-341, Oxford University Press [doi]  [abs].
  24. Reed, MC; Lieb, A; Nijhout, HF, The biological significance of substrate inhibition: a mechanism with diverse functions., Bioessays, vol. 32 no. 5 (May, 2010), pp. 422-429 [20414900], [doi]  [abs].
  25. Tobler, A; Nijhout, HF, A switch in the control of growth of the wing imaginal disks of Manduca sexta, PloS one, vol. 5 no. 5 (May, 2010), pp. e10723 [20502707], [doi]  [abs].
  26. Best, J; Reed, M; Nijhout, HF, Models of dopaminergic and serotonergic signaling., Pharmacopsychiatry, vol. 43 Suppl 1 (May, 2010), pp. S61-S66 [20480448], [doi]  [abs].
  27. Diamond, SE; Hawkins, SD; Nijhout, HF; Kingsolver, JG, Evolutionary divergence of field and laboratory populations of Manduca sexta in response to host-plant quality, Ecological Entomology, vol. 35 no. 2 (April, 2010), pp. 166-174 [doi]  [abs].
  28. Nijhout, HF; Roff, DA; Davidowitz, G, Conflicting processes in the evolution of body size and development time., Philosophical Transactions B, vol. 365 no. 1540 (February, 2010), pp. 567-575 [20083633], [doi]  [abs].
  29. Bowsher, JH; Nijhout, HF, Partial co-option of the appendage patterning pathway in the development of abdominal appendages in the sepsid fly Themira biloba., Development Genes and Evolution, vol. 219 no. 11-12 (January, 2010), pp. 577-587 [20182886], [doi]  [abs].
  30. Thomas, DC; Conti, DV; Baurley, J; Nijhout, F; Reed, M; Ulrich, CM, Use of pathway information in molecular epidemiology., Human genomics, vol. 4 no. 1 (December, 2009), pp. 21-42 [doi]  [abs].
  31. Nijhout, HF; Gregory, JF; Fitzpatrick, C; Cho, E; Lamers, KY; Ulrich, CM; Reed, MC, A mathematical model gives insights into the effects of vitamin B-6 deficiency on 1-carbon and glutathione metabolism., The Journal of nutrition, vol. 139 no. 4 (April, 2009), pp. 784-791 [19244383], [doi]  [abs].
  32. Howell, AS; Savage, NS; Johnson, SA; Bose, I; Wagner, AW; Zyla, TR; Nijhout, HF; Reed, MC; Goryachev, AB; Lew, DJ, Singularity in polarization: rewiring yeast cells to make two buds., Cell, vol. 139 no. 4 (November, 2009), pp. 731-743 [19914166], [doi]  [abs].
  33. Nijhout, HF, Developmental phenotypic landscapes, Evolutionary Biology, vol. 35 no. 2 (June, 2008), pp. 100-103 [doi] .
  34. Nijhout, HF; Suzuki, Y, Environment and genetic accommodation., Biological Theory, vol. 3 no. 1-9 (2009) .
  35. Suzuki Y, Nijhout HF, Genetic basis of adaptive evolution of a polyphenism by genetic accommodation, Journal of Evolutionary Biology, vol. 21 (January, 2008), pp. 57-66 .
  36. Best, JA; Nijhout, HF; Reed, MC, Homeostatic mechanisms in dopamine synthesis and release: a mathematical model., Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling, vol. 6 (September, 2009), pp. 21 [19740446], [doi]  [abs].
  37. Nijhout HF, Reed MC, A mathematical model for the regulation of juvenile hormone titers, J. Insect Physiology, vol. 54 (January, 2008), pp. 255-264 .
  38. Reed, MC; Best, J; Nijhout, HF, Passive and active stabilization of dopamine in the striatum, Bioscience Hypotheses, vol. 2 no. 4 (2009), pp. 240-244 [doi]  [abs].
  39. Leduc, D; Escartin, F; Nijhout, HF; Reed, MC; Liebl, U; Skouloubris, S; Myllykallio, H, Flavin-dependent thymidylate synthase ThyX activity: implications for the folate cycle in bacteria., Journal of bacteriology, vol. 189 no. 23 (December, 2007), pp. 8537-8545 [17890305], [doi]  [abs].
  40. Suzuki, Y; Nijhout, HF, Constraint and developmental dissociation of phenotypic integration in a genetically accommodated trait., Evolution and Development, vol. 10 no. 6 (November, 2008), pp. 690-699 [19021739], [doi]  [abs].
  41. Reed, RD; Chen, P-H; Nijhout, HF, Cryptic variation in butterfly eyespot development: the importance of sample size in gene expression studies, Evolution and Development, vol. 9 no. 1 (2007), pp. 2-9 [Gateway.cgi] .
  42. Nijhout, HF, Size matters (but so does time), and it's OK to be different., Developmental Cell, vol. 15 no. 4 (October, 2008), pp. 491-492 [18854132], [doi]  [abs].
  43. Nijhout, HF; Smith, WA; Schachar, I; Subramanian, S; Tobler, A; Grunert, LW, The control of growth and differentiation of the wing imaginal disks of Manduca sexta., Developmental Biology, vol. 302 no. 2 (February, 2007), pp. 569-576 [17112498], [doi]  [abs].
  44. Nijhout, HF; Reed, M; Ulrich, C, Mathematical models of one-carbon metabolism, Vitamins and Hormones, vol. 79 (September, 2008), pp. 45-82 .
  45. Shingleton, AW; Frankino, WA; Flatt, T; Nijhout, HF; Emlen, DJ, Size and shape: the developmental regulation of static allometry in insects., Bioessays, vol. 29 no. 6 (June, 2007), pp. 536-548 [17508394], [doi]  [abs].
  46. Ulrich, CM; Reed, MC; Nijhout, HF, Modeling folate, one-carbon metabolism, and DNA methylation., Nutrition Reviews, vol. 66 Suppl 1 (August, 2008), pp. S27-S30 [18673484], [doi] .
  47. Brandon, R.N. and Nijhout, H.F., The empirical non-equivalence of genic and genotypic models of selection: A decisive refutation of genic selectionism and pluralistic genic selectionism., Philosophy of Science, vol. 73 (2007), pp. 277-297 .
  48. Ulrich, CM; Neuhouser, M; Liu, AY; Boynton, A; Gregory, JF; Shane, B; James, SJ; Reed, MC; Nijhout, HF, Mathematical modeling of folate metabolism: predicted effects of genetic polymorphisms on mechanisms and biomarkers relevant to carcinogenesis., Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology, vol. 17 no. 7 (July, 2008), pp. 1822-1831 [18628437], [doi]  [abs].
  49. Bowsher, JH; Nijhout, HF, Evolution of novel abdominal appendages in a sepsid fly from histoblasts, not imaginal discs., Evolution and Development, vol. 9 no. 4 (July, 2007), pp. 347-354 [17651359], [doi]  [abs].
  50. Reed, MC; Thomas, RL; Pavisic, J; James, SJ; Ulrich, CM; Nijhout, HF, A mathematical model of glutathione metabolism., Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling, vol. 5 no. 8 (July, 2008), pp. 8 [18442411], [doi]  [abs].
  51. Anderson, DF; Mattingly, JC; Nijhout, HF; Reed, MC, Propagation of fluctuations in biochemical systems, I: Linear SSC networks, Bulletin of Mathematical Biology, vol. 69 no. 6 (August, 2007), pp. 1791-1813 [17457656], [doi]  [abs].
  52. Suzuki, Y; Nijhout, HF, Genetic basis of adaptive evolution of a polyphenism by genetic accommodation., Journal of Evolutionary Biology, vol. 21 no. 1 (January, 2008), pp. 57-66 [18034806], [doi]  [abs].
  53. Nijhout, HF; Reed, MC, A mathematical model for the regulation of juvenile hormone titers., Journal of Insect Physiology, vol. 54 no. 1 (January, 2008), pp. 255-264 [18022634], [doi]  [abs].
  54. Nijhout, HF; Reed, MC; Ulrich, CM, A day in the life of cell metabolism., Biological Theory (in press) (2007) .
  55. H.F. Nijhout, Stochastic gene expression: dominance, thresholds and boundaries., in Dominance and Haploinsufficiency, edited by Veitia, R.A. (2006), pp. 61-75, Landes Press .
  56. Nijhout, HF; Reed, MC; Lam, SL; Shane, B; Gregory, JF; Ulrich, CM, In silico experimentation with a model of hepatic mitochondrial folate metabolism., Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling, vol. 3 (December, 2006), pp. 40 [17150100], [doi]  [abs].
  57. Suzuki, Y; Nijhout, HF, Evolution of a polyphenism by genetic accommodation., Science, vol. 311 no. 5761 (February, 2006), pp. 650-652 [16456077], [doi]  [abs].
  58. Nijhout, HF; Reed, MC; Anderson, DF; Mattingly, JC; James, SJ; Ulrich, CM, Long-range allosteric interactions between the folate and methionine cycles stabilize DNA methylation reaction rate., Epigenetics : official journal of the DNA Methylation Society, vol. 1 no. 2 (April, 2006), pp. 81-87 [17998813]  [abs].
  59. Davidowitz, G; Roff, DA; Nijhout, HF, A physiological perspective on the response of body size and development time to simultaneous directional selection., Integrative and Comparative Biology (BioOne), vol. 45 no. 3 (June, 2005), pp. 525-531 [21676797], [doi]  [abs].
  60. Boyles, AL; Billups, AV; Deak, KL; Siegel, DG; Mehltretter, L; Slifer, SH; Bassuk, AG; Kessler, JA; Reed, MC; Nijhout, HF; George, TM; Enterline, DS; Gilbert, JR; Speer, MC; NTD Collaborative Group, , Neural tube defects and folate pathway genes: family-based association tests of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions., Environmental health perspectives, vol. 114 no. 10 (October, 2006), pp. 1547-1552 [17035141]  [abs].
  61. B.A.Edgar and H.F. Nijhout, Growth and cell cycle control in Drosophila, in Cell Growth: Control of Cell Size, Cold Spring Harbor Monographs, edited by M.N. Hall, M.Raff and G. Thomas (2004), pp. 23-83, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press .
  62. Reed, MC; Nijhout, HF; Neuhouser, ML; Gregory, JF; Shane, B; James, SJ; Boynton, A; Ulrich, CM, A mathematical model gives insights into nutritional and genetic aspects of folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism., The Journal of nutrition, vol. 136 no. 10 (October, 2006), pp. 2653-2661 [16988141]  [abs].
  63. Yang, AS; Martin, CH; Nijhout, HF, Geographic variation of caste structure among ant populations., Current Biology, vol. 14 no. 6 (March, 2004), pp. 514-519 [15043818], [doi]  [abs].
  64. Ulrich, CM; Nijhout, HF; Reed, MC, Mathematical modeling: epidemiology meets systems biology., Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology, vol. 15 no. 5 (May, 2006), pp. 827-829 [16702357], [doi] .
  65. Moczek, AP; Nijhout, HF, Trade-offs during the development of primary and secondary sexual traits in a horned beetle., American Naturalist, vol. 163 no. 2 (February, 2004), pp. 184-191 [14970921], [doi]  [abs].
  66. Veitia, RA; Nijhout, HF, The robustness of the transcriptional response to alterations in morphogenetic gradients., Bioessays, vol. 28 no. 3 (March, 2006), pp. 282-289 [16479586], [doi]  [abs].
  67. Davidowitz, G; D'Amico, LJ; Nijhout, HF, The effects of environmental variation on a mechanism that controls insect body size, Evolutionary ecology research, vol. 6 no. 1 (January, 2004), pp. 49-62 [Gateway.cgi] .
  68. Nijhout, HF; Davidowitz, G; Roff, DA, A quantitative analysis of the mechanism that controls body size in Manduca sexta., Journal of Biology, vol. 5 no. 5 (2006), pp. 16 [16879739], [doi]  [abs].
  69. Nijhout, HF; Reed, MC; Budu, P; Ulrich, CM, A mathematical model of the folate cycle: new insights into folate homeostasis., The Journal of biological chemistry, vol. 279 no. 53 (December, 2004), pp. 55008-55016 [15496403], [doi]  [abs].
  70. Reed, MC; Nijhout, HF; Sparks, R; Ulrich, CM, A mathematical model of the methionine cycle., Journal of Theoretical Biology, vol. 226 no. 1 (2004), pp. 33-43 [14637052]  [abs].
  71. Nijhout, H.F. and G. Davidowitz., Developmental perspectives on phenotypic plasticity, canalization, and fluctuating asymmetry., in Developmental Instability: Causes and Consequences, edited by M. Polak (2003), pp. 3-13, MIT Press .
  72. Nijhout, HF, Polymorphic mimicry in Papilio dardanus: mosaic dominance, big effects, and origins., Evolution and Development, vol. 5 no. 6 (November, 2003), pp. 579-592 [14984040]  [abs].
  73. Nijhout, HF; Maini, PK; Madzvamuse, A; Wathen, AJ; Sekimura, T, Pigmentation pattern formation in butterflies: experiments and models., Comptes Rendus Biologies, vol. 326 no. 8 (August, 2003), pp. 717-727 [14608692]  [abs].
  74. Wheeler, DE; Nijhout, HF, A perspective for understanding the modes of juvenile hormone action as a lipid signaling system., Bioessays, vol. 25 no. 10 (October, 2003), pp. 994-1001 [14505366], [doi]  [abs].
  75. Nijhout, HF, On the association between genes and complex traits., Journal of Investigative Dermatology Symposium Proceedings, vol. 8 no. 2 (October, 2003), pp. 162-163 [14582665], [doi] .
  76. Nijhout, HF, The control of body size in insects., Developmental Biology, vol. 261 no. 1 (September, 2003), pp. 1-9 [12941617]  [abs].
  77. Nijhout, HF; Berg, AM; Gibson, WT, A mechanistic study of evolvability using the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade., Evolution and Development, vol. 5 no. 3 (May, 2003), pp. 281-294 [12752767]  [abs].
  78. Nijhout, HF, The importance of context in genetics - Genetic effects can be altered by their surroundings, and this determines the inheritance of traits such as flower color and the likelihood of cancer, American scientist, vol. 91 no. 5 (2003), pp. 416-423 [Gateway.cgi], [doi] .
  79. Moczek, AP; Nijhout, HF, Rapid evolution of a polyphenic threshold., Evolution and Development, vol. 5 no. 3 (May, 2003), pp. 259-268 [12752765]  [abs].
  80. Nijhout, HF, Development and evolution of adaptive polyphenisms., Evolution and Development, vol. 5 no. 1 (January, 2003), pp. 9-18 [12492404]  [abs].
  81. Davidowitz, G; D'Amico, LJ; Nijhout, HF, Critical weight in the development of insect body size., Evolution and Development, vol. 5 no. 2 (March, 2003), pp. 188-197 [12622736]  [abs].
  82. Nijhout, HF, The control of growth., Development (Cambridge), vol. 130 no. 24 (December, 2003), pp. 5863-5867 [14597569], [doi]  [abs].
  83. Nijhout, HF, Gradients, diffusion, and genes in pattern formation, in Origination of Organismal Form, edited by G. Müller and S. Newman,, ORIGINATION OF ORGANISMAL FORM (2003), pp. 165-181, MIT Press [Gateway.cgi] .
  84. Koch, PB; Nijhout, HF, The role of wing veins in colour pattern development in the butterfly Papilio xuthus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae), European journal of entomology, vol. 99 no. 1 (2002), pp. 67-72  [abs].
  85. Nijhout, HF, The nature of robustness in development., Bioessays, vol. 24 no. 6 (June, 2002), pp. 553-563 [12111738], [doi]  [abs].
  86. H.F. Nijhout, Genetic regulatory networks., in Encyclopedia of Evolution. (2002), Oxford University Press. .
  87. Nijhout, HF; Grunert, LW, Bombyxin is a growth factor for wing imaginal disks in Lepidoptera., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA, vol. 99 no. 24 (November, 2002), pp. 15446-15450 [12429853], [doi]  [abs].
  88. Nijhout, H.F. and G. Davidowitz., Developmental perspectives on phenotypic plasticity, canalization, and fluctuating asymmetry., in Developmental Instability: Causes and Consequences, edited by M. Polak (2002), Oxford University Press .
  89. Moczek, AP; Nijhout, HF, Developmental mechanisms of threshold evolution in a polyphenic beetle., Evolution and Development, vol. 4 no. 4 (2002), pp. 252-264 [12168618]  [abs].
  90. H.F. Nijhout, The ontogeny of phenotypes, in Cycles of Contingency, pp.129-140, edited by S oyama, P Griffiths and R Gray (2001), MIT Press .
  91. Moczek, AP; Nijhout, HF, A method for sexing final instar larvae of the genus Onthophagus Latreille (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), Coleopterists Bulletin, vol. 56 no. 2 (2002), pp. 279-284  [abs].
  92. H.F. Nijhout, Origin of butterfly wing patterns, in The Character Concept in Evolutionary Biology, pp.511-529, edited by GA Wagner (2001), Academic Press .
  93. Gilchrist, MA; Nijhout, HF, Nonlinear developmental processes as sources of dominance., Genetics, vol. 159 no. 1 (September, 2001), pp. 423-432 [11560916]  [abs].
  94. Shafiei, M; Moczek, AP; Nijhout, HF, Food availability controls the onset of metamorphosis in the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), Physiological Entomology, vol. 26 no. 2 (2001), pp. 173-180 [doi]  [abs].
  95. Emlen, DJ; Nijhout, HF, Hormonal control of male horn length dimorphism in Onthophagus taurus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae): a second critical period of sensitivity to juvenile hormone., Journal of Insect Physiology, vol. 47 no. 9 (September, 2001), pp. 1045-1054 [11472767]  [abs].
  96. Browder, MH; D'Amico, LJ; Nijhout, HF, The role of low levels of juvenile hormone esterase in the metamorphosis of Manduca sexta, Journal of Insect Science, vol. 1 no. 11 (2001), pp. 1-4 [15455071]  [abs].
  97. McDonald, AK; Nijhout, HF, The effect of environmental conditions on mating activity of the Buckeye butterfly, Precis coenia, J. Res. Lepidopt., vol. 35 no. 22-28 (2000) .
  98. Emlen, DJ; Nijhout, HF, The development and evolution of exaggerated morphologies in insects., Annual Review of Entomology, vol. 45 (2000), pp. 661-708 [10761593], [doi]  [abs].
  99. Miner, AL; Rosenberg, AJ; Nijhout, HF, Control of growth and differentiation of the wing imaginal disk of Precis coenia (Lepidoptera : Nymphalidae), Journal of Insect Physiology, vol. 46 no. 3 (March, 2000), pp. 251-258 [Gateway.cgi], [doi] .
  100. D'Amico, LJ; Davidowitz, G; Nijhout, HF, The developmental and physiological basis of body size evolution in an insect., Proceedings of the Royal Society of London: Biological Sciences, vol. 268 no. 1476 (August, 2001), pp. 1589-1593 [11487406], [doi]  [abs].