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Gale A. Boyd, Associate Research Professor of Economics and Social Science Research Institute and Faculty Network Member of The Energy Initiative

Gale A. Boyd

Gale Boyd is an Associate Research Professor in the Social Science Research Institute, Department of Economics, and Network Faculty Member of the Energy Initiative at Duke University. He is the Director of the Triangle Federal Statistical Research Data Center; conducting research using confidential data collected by the U.S. Federal Statistical System for almost 30 years.  Prior to joining Duke University, Gale was an economist at Argonne National Laboratory. His career has been primarily in industrial energy/environmental economics. 

Recent studies include using the non-public Census micro-data and other non-pubic data from industry and trade associations on energy, environmental, and productivity related issues for industrial energy efficiency and related energy/environmental policy research. Recent research includes preparing statistical benchmarks of energy performance in manufacturing plants, or Energy Performance Indicators (EPI), is supported by the EPA ENERGY STAR program and is used by industry for energy management and public recognition from ENERGY STAR.  Studies of the implications and causes of industry energy and total factor productivity distributions on management practices and environmental policy are in progress.

Contact Info:
Office Location:  261 Gross Hall, Box 90989, Durham, NC 27708
Email Address: send me a message


Ph.D.Southern Illinois University1984

Environmental and Resource Economics
Research Interests: Energy & Environment, Production Efficiency, Micro-data, index number decomposition

Current projects: Developing industry specific energy efficiency benchmarking tools for use in the EPA Energy Star voluntary energy efficiency program

Gale Boyd’s research interests pertain to production efficiency, micro-data, index number decomposition, and energy in relation to the environment. His studies have also focused on energy markets, developing industry, voluntary environmental programs, and emissions trading. In his recent studies, he analyzes his subjects through microeconomic modeling and proceeds to develop specific energy efficiency benchmarking tools. He has published his papers in numerous leading academic journals and volumes, from The Energy Journal and the Annual Review of Energy and Resources to the Journal of Economic Literature and the Journal of Industrial Ecology. His writings include such titles as, “Estimating Plant Level Manufacturing Energy Efficiency with Stochastic Frontier Regression,” “Modeling Industrial Energy Consumption,” and “Advances in Energy Forecasting Models based on Engineering-Economics.” Dr. Boyd’s current projects involve the investigation of energy efficiency benchmarking tools for use in the EPA Energy Star voluntary energy efficiency program.

Areas of Interest:

energy markets
emission trading
voluntary environmental programs
climate change


energy • productivity • efficiency • environment • frontier


Working Papers   (More Publications)

  1. Gale Boyd and Charles McClure, Waste, Water, and VOC Benchmarking in North American Automotive Manufacturing (Winter, 2012)
  2. Gale A. Boyd and Gang Zhang, Measuring Improvement in the Energy Performance of the U.S. Cement Industry (November, 2011) (Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions Report NI R 11-10, Duke University Durham, NC.) [available here]  [abs]
  3. Gale Boyd, Tatyana Kuzmenko, Béla Személy, & Gang Zhang, Preliminary Analysis Of The Distributions Of Carbon And Energy Intensity For 27 Energy Intensive Trade Exposed Industrial Sectors (April, 2011) (Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions: Duke Environmental Economics Working Paper Series: EE 11-03.) [paper]  [abs]
  4. G.A. Boyd, Assessing Improvement in the Energy Efficiency of U.S. Auto Assembly Plants (June, 2010) (Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions: Duke Environmental Economics Working Paper Series: EE 10-01.)
Recent Publications   (More Publications)

  1. Boyd, GA; Lee, JM, Measuring plant level energy efficiency and technical change in the U.S. metal-based durable manufacturing sector using stochastic frontier analysis, Energy Economics, vol. 81 (June, 2019), pp. 159-174 [doi]  [abs]
  2. Dalzell, NM; Boyd, GA; Reiter, JP, Creating linked datasets for SME energy-assessment evidence-building: Results from the U.S. Industrial Assessment Center Program, Energy Policy, vol. 111 (December, 2017), pp. 95-101, Elsevier BV [doi]  [abs]
  3. Boyd, GA, Comparing the statistical distributions of energy efficiency in manufacturing: meta-analysis of 24 Case studies to develop industry-specific energy performance indicators (EPI), Energy Efficiency, vol. 10 no. 1 (February, 2017), pp. 217-238, Springer Nature [doi]  [abs]
  4. Boyd, G; Doolin, M; Dutrow, E; Zhang, S, A new benchmark of energy performance for energy management in U.S. and Canadian integrated steel plants, Aistech Iron and Steel Technology Conference Proceedings, vol. 3 (January, 2016), pp. 2835-2848, Association for Iron & Steel Technology  [abs]
  5. G.A. Boyd and Mark Curtis, Evidence of an “Energy-Management Gap” in U.S. Manufacturing: Spillovers from Firm Management Practices to Energy Efficiency, Journal of Economics and Environmental Management (Submitted, May, 2014)  [abs]
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