Behringer, RP, *Dynamics of granular materials*,
NASA Conference Publication no. 3338
(1996),
pp. 245-250 .
**Abstract:**

*Granular materials exhibit a rich variety of dynamical behavior, much of which is poorly understood. Fractal-like stress chains, convection, a variety of wave dynamics, including waves which resemble capillary waves, 1/f noise, and fractional Brownian motion provide examples. Work beginning at Duke will focus on gravity driven convection, mixing, and gravitational collapse. Although granular materials consist of collections of interacting particles, there are important differences between the dynamics of a collections of grains and the dynamics of a collections of molecules. In particular, the ergodic hypothesis is generally invalid for granular materials, so that ordinary statistical physics does not apply. In the absence of a steady energy input, granular materials undergo a rapid collapse which is strongly influenced by the presence of gravity. Fluctuations on laboratory scales in such quantities as the stress can be very large-as much as an order of magnitude greater than the mean.*