Kondic, L; Behringer, RP, *Elastic energy, fluctuations and temperature for granular materials*,
in Powders and Grains, 2005, edited by R. Garcia-Rojo, and H. J. Herrmann,
Powders and Grains 2005 - Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Micromechanics of Granular Media, vol. 1
(2005),
pp. 397-400, Balkema .
**Abstract:**

*In our recent work (Europhys. Lett. 67,205 (2004)) we have shown that in granular systems characterized by large volume fractions, the elastic energy dominates the kinetic energy, and energy fluctuations are primarily elastic in nature. As a logical consequence of this observation, we have started exploring possible generalizations of the concept of granular temperature to dense, jammed systems where kinetic granular temperature is not expected to be relevant, at least from the energetic point of view. Therefore, we have introduced generalized granular temperature, which turns out to be roughly consistent with a temperature based on the equilibrium statistical mechanics. In this paper, we discuss the influence of various system properties on this new generalized granular temperature. These properties include the shearing rate, as well as the material properties such as stiffness, elasticity and friction. © 2005 Taylor & Francis Group.*