Behringer, RP; Daniels, KE; Majmudar, TS; Sperl, M, *Fluctuations, correlations and transitions in granular materials: statistical mechanics for a non-conventional system.*,
Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences, vol. 366 no. 1865
(February, 2008),
pp. 493-504 [17698474], [doi] .
**Abstract:**

*In this work, we first review some general properties of dense granular materials. We are particularly concerned with a statistical description of these materials, and it is in this light that we briefly describe results from four representative studies. These are: experiment 1: determining local force statistics, vector forces, force distributions and correlations for static granular systems; experiment 2: characterizing the jamming transition, for a static two-dimensional system; experiment 3: characterizing plastic failure in dense granular materials; and experiment 4: a dynamical transition where the material 'freezes' in the presence of apparent heating for a sheared and shaken system.*