Lim, MX; BarĂ©s, J; Zheng, H; Behringer, RP, *Force and Mass Dynamics in Non-Newtonian Suspensions.*,
Physical Review Letters, vol. 119 no. 18
(November, 2017),
pp. 184501 [doi] .
**Abstract:**

*Above a certain solid fraction, dense granular suspensions in water exhibit non-Newtonian behavior, including impact-activated solidification. Although it has been suggested that solidification depends on boundary interactions, quantitative experiments on the boundary forces have not been reported. Using high-speed video, tracer particles, and photoelastic boundaries, we determine the impactor kinematics and the magnitude and timings of impactor-driven events in the body and at the boundaries of cornstarch suspensions. We observe mass shocks in the suspension during impact. The shock front dynamics are strongly correlated to those of the intruder. However, the total momentum associated with this shock never approaches the initial impactor momentum. We also observe a faster second front associated with the propagation of pressure to the boundaries of the suspension. The two fronts depend differently on the initial impactor speed v_{0} and the suspension packing fraction. The speed of the pressure wave is at least an order of magnitude smaller than (linear) ultrasound speeds obtained for much higher frequencies, pointing to complex amplitude and frequency response of cornstarch suspensions to compressive strains.*