Wang, D; Ren, J; Dijksman, JA; Zheng, H; Behringer, RP, *Microscopic Origins of Shear Jamming for 2D Frictional Grains.*,
Physical Review Letters, vol. 120 no. 20
(May, 2018),
pp. 208004 [doi] .
**Abstract:**

*Shear jamming (SJ) occurs for frictional granular materials with packing fractions ϕ in ϕ_{S}<ϕ<ϕ_{J}^{0}, when the material is subject to shear strain γ starting from a force-free state. Here, ϕ_{J}^{μ} is the isotropic jamming point for particles with a friction coefficient μ. SJ states have mechanically stable anisotropic force networks, e.g., force chains. Here, we investigate the origins of SJ by considering small-scale structures-trimers and branches-whose response to shear leads to SJ. Trimers are any three grains where the two outer grains contact a center one. Branches occur where three or more quasilinear force chain segments intersect. Certain trimers respond to shear by compressing and bending; bending is a nonlinear symmetry-breaking process that can push particles in the dilation direction faster than the affine dilation. We identify these structures in physical experiments on systems of two-dimensional frictional discs, and verify their role in SJ. Trimer bending and branch creation both increase Z above Z_{iso}≃3 needed for jamming 2D frictional grains, and grow the strong force network, leading to SJ.*