Publications [#174230] of G. Allan Johnson

Papers Published
  1. GA Johnson, VR Gutti, SK Loyalka, KA O'Beirne 2nd, SK Cochran, HM Dale, GR Kracke, Albuterol metered dose inhaler performance under hyperbaric pressures., Undersea & hyperbaric medicine : journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc, vol. 36 no. 1 (April, 2009), pp. 55-63 .

    The weight change per actuation and aerosol particle size and number delivered by albuterol metered dose inhalers (MDIs) were measured in a multiplace hyperbaric chamber at pressures ranging from one atmosphere absolute (1 ATA, 0 feet of seawater, fsw, 101 kPa) to three ATA (66 fsw, 304 kPa). Weight change per actuation by CFC (chlorofluorocarbon) and long canister HFA (hydrofluoroalkane) powered MDIs was 13 +/- 1% and 12 +/- 1% less, respectively, at 3 ATA compared to 1 ATA. However, weight change per actuation by short canister HFA MDIs was not significantly changed with pressure. The geometric mean diameters of nano particles from the CFC and short canister HFA MDIs decreased from 50 nm at 0 fsw to 32 nm at 66 fsw whereas the long canister HFA aerosol diameters were not affected. The numbers of nanometer size particles delivered at 66 fsw were only 4-7% of those delivered at 0 fsw for the CFC and long canister HFA MDIs whereas for the short canister MDIs it was 26%. We conclude that the weight change per actuation of albuterol and the sizes and numbers of aerosol particles emitted from albuterol MDIs actuated in a hyperbaric environment vary by canister type.