Rafelski, J; Müller, B; Soff, G; Greiner, W, *Critical discussion of the vacuum polarization measurements in muonic atoms*,
Annals of Physics, vol. 88 no. 2
(1974),
pp. 419-453 .
**Abstract:**

*Recent disagreement between theoretical and experimental values of transition energies for outer states in muonic atoms is discussed in the range of 150-440 keV. A brief review of the present status of calculation of the theoretical contributions is given. A rigorous theoretical framework for the electron-muon system is considered. A set of self-consistent equations is derived. Several mechanisms for the explanation of the discrepancy are discussed. No explanation within the frame of standard quantum electrodynamics is found. © 1974.*