Abstract:
The theory of compressed sensing suggests that successful inversion of an image of the physical world (broadly defined to include speech signals, radar/sonar returns, vibration records, sensor array snapshot vectors, 2-D images, and so on) for its source modes and amplitudes can be achieved at measurement dimensions far lower than what might be expected from the classical theories of spectrum or modal analysis, provided that the image is sparse in an apriori known basis. For imaging problems in spectrum analysis, and passive and active radar/sonar, this basis is usually taken to be a DFT basis. However, in reality no physical field is sparse in the DFT basis or in any apriori known basis. No matter how finely we grid the parameter space the sources may not lie in the center of the grid cells and consequently there is mismatch between the assumed and the actual bases for sparsity. In this paper, we study the sensitivity of compressed sensing to mismatch between the assumed and the actual sparsity bases. We start by analyzing the effect of basis mismatch on the best k-term approximation error, which is central to providing exact sparse recovery guarantees. We establish achievable bounds for the ℓ1 error of the best k-term approximation and show that these bounds grow linearly with the image (or grid) dimension and the mismatch level between the assumed and actual bases for sparsity. We then derive bounds, with similar growth behavior, for the basis pursuit ℓ1 recovery error, indicating that the sparse recovery may suffer large errors in the presence of basis mismatch. Although, we present our results in the context of basis pursuit, our analysis applies to any sparse recovery principle that relies on the accuracy of best k-term approximations for its performance guarantees. We particularly highlight the problematic nature of basis mismatch in Fourier imaging, where spillage from off-grid DFT components turns a sparse representation into an incompressible one. We substantiate our mathematical analysis by numerical examples that demonstrate a considerable performance degradation for image inversion from compressed sensing measurements in the presence of basis mismatch, for problem sizes common to radar and sonar. © 2011 IEEE.