Ehsan Samei, Professor of Radiology and Physics  

Ehsan Samei

Office Location: 2424 Erwin Road, Suite 302
Email Address: samei@duke.edu
Web Page: http://www.duke.edu/~samei

Specialties:
Biological physics

Education:
Ph.D., University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, 1997
M.E., University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, 1995

Research Categories: Medical Physics

Research Description: Dr. Samei’s research interests include theoretical and experimental methods in medical image formation, analysis, display, and perception, with particular emphasis on factors, methods, and procedures that impede and improve the radiological detection and diagnosis of early cancer. More specifically, his research in recent years has focused on the four areas discussed below. 1. Correlation and stereo imaging for improved early detection of cancer The early detection of lung cancer has been one of the outstanding challenges in radiographic imaging, the significance of which can be discerned only by considering the fact that lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death in the US, surpassing breast, prostate, colon, and cervical cancers combined. His prior research has shown that interference of the anatomical structure is the dominant factor in the low detection of early lung cancer in radiographic images. Grounded on this basic understanding, Correlation Imaging (CI) aims to develop a more sensitive image acquisition and processing approach that minimizes this influence, and therefore improves the early detection of lung cancer. The NIH awarded Dr. Samei R21 and R01 grants to study the feasibility of this imaging approach. With that funding, chest correlation and stereo imaging was developed from an initial design into a state-of-the-art prototype imaging system (fully developed and integrated at Duke). The prototype equipment is now being used in a clinical trial to assess the clinical utility of this novel imaging technique. As of now, more than 80 patients have been imaged, and the preliminary findings are very encouraging. Furthermore, Dr. Samei significantly contributed to and served as a key investigator on an R01 grant aimed to develop a cone beam CT imaging system (PI: Martin Tornai, PhD) and tomosynthesis (PI: Joseph Lo, PhD) for breast imaging at Duke. Dr. Samei has an active interest in developing other advanced x-ray imaging techniques for the early detection of cancer including limited angle and inverse geometry CT. 2. Objective assessment and impact of display quality on diagnostic accuracy The way in which medical image data are displayed has a direct influence on diagnosis. This dependency is task-specific, and for many tasks in medical imaging, including the early detection and classification of cancer, has not been fully substantiated in quantitative terms. For the last few years, Dr. Samei has led a national task force (AAPM TG18), and served on an ACR and an IEC committee to define standard testing methodologies for medical display devices. His research in this area is currently focused on the influence of display characteristics on the diagnostic interpretation of breast cancer and lung cancer, the fine-tuning of new testing methodologies, and on the influence of ambient light in diagnostic accuracy. These studies are funded by the NIH and the display industry. 3. Objective assessment and clinical relevance of image quality While image quality is a common term in radiology circles, its quantification has proven to be complex, as many factors contribute to the overall degradation of a medical image. Dr. Samei’s research and prior publications have provided a framework for assessing the performance of digital radiography systems, as recently reflected in an international standard on image quality measurements (IEC 62220-1). He is currently pursuing methods to further streamline the assessment methodologies and include other important contributing yet hitherto ignored factors such as scattered radiation. Furthermore, the connection between diagnostic accuracy and the scientific metrics of image quality is not straightforward. Two studies are now in progress to substantiate the relevance of these quantities in radiography (chest and breast) and in computed tomography (pediatric CT). The former investigation, initiated in his laboratory, is supported by a pre-doctoral grant from the DOD. The pediatric CT research initiative, supported by a current industrial grant from GE, aims to investigate strategies to reduce radiation dose in pediatric CT without compromising diagnostic quality. 4. Quantitative imaging By and large, since its inception, radiology as a discipline has been developed as a qualitative discipline in which physicians “interpret” medical images to gain diagnostic insights. However, current, mostly digital, medical images contain a large amount of information, which if effectively harnessed, can be invaluable in the quantification of the disease, in the assessment of the effectiveness of various therapeutic regimens, and in providing tractability of the medical information toward evidenced-based and patient-specific medicine. The main technical obstacle preventing this potential has been the lack of certainty about the extent to which image data can be analyzed quantitatively in light of various sources of variability (eg, case variability, patient positioning, system variability, etc). However, there is little doubt that the future of radiology is quantitative, and additional research is warranted to lead to that transition. Dr. Samei has recently initiated a number of research projects aiming to assess the relative magnitude of the sources of variability in diagnostic radiology, and from that to devise approaches by which robust quantitative data can be extracted from medical images. Initial projects have focused on CT and breast tomosynthesis. Additional projects are planned for digital mammography and digital radiography. He is also fostering additional quantitative imaging projects led by other faculty members in RAI Labs. With the preliminary results of these ongoing initiatives, he aims to lead RAI Labs toward a comprehensive program project on quantitative imaging. 5.Molecular imaging X-ray imaging is now used extensively throughout the world due to its low cost, widespread availability, speed, ease of interpretation, and exquisite representation of anatomy. However, it has to date been limited to structural imaging. But, the underlying processes behind many human diseases occur at the molecular level, suggesting many advantages that the imaging of these molecular and functional processes can provide. In spite of the dominance, cost-effectiveness and maturity of x-ray imaging, almost all molecular imaging investigators have focused their research on non-x-ray based technologies such as MRI, nuclear medicine, and optical imaging techniques. Dr. Samei has recently initiated a few preliminary studies to assess how conventional x-ray imaging can be extended to provide molecular and functional information. The overall goal of his investigation is to develop x-ray-based molecular and functional imaging methods. While maintaining the key advantages of x-ray imaging, the proposed method will provide functional images that have higher spatial and temporal resolution than what is currently possible through more “conventional” functional imaging methods (eg, Nuclear Medicine and fMRI), and that are inherently co-registered to anatomical information. The method employs nano-particle, “smart,” liposomal contrast agents to reveal specific functional and molecular processes and physiological functions within the human body, initially for the purpose of early detection of cancer and cardiovascular disease, the two leading causes of death world-wide. The pursuit of this project is particularly timely in light of recent developments in the fabrication of stable nano-particle liposomes and the development of antibody labeling methods. The application of functional and molecular imaging to x-ray technology has the potential to profoundly impact global clinical practice by spreading the benefits of functional imaging through a more accessible technology, unleashing the power and the promise of molecular imaging for many.

Areas of Interest:
Medical Physics

Representative Publications   (More Publications)

  1. E Samei, N Majdi-Nasab, JT Dobbins 3rd, HP McAdams, Biplane correlation imaging: a feasibility study based on phantom and human data., Journal of digital imaging, vol. 25 no. 1 (February, 2012), pp. 137-47 [doi]  [abs].
  2. B D'Alessandro, M Madsen, E Samei, X Li, J Wooi-Tan, KS Berbaum, K Schartz, R Caldwell, LS Zuckier, Synthetic positron emission tomography-computed tomography images for use in perceptual studies., Seminars in nuclear medicine, vol. 41 no. 6 (November, 2011), pp. 437-48 [doi]  [abs].
  3. CL Wang, YW Chea, DT Boll, E Samei, AM Neville, BM Dale, EM Merkle, Effect of gadolinium chelate contrast agents on diffusion weighted MR imaging of the liver, spleen, pancreas and kidney at 3 T., European journal of radiology, vol. 80 no. 2 (November, 2011), pp. e1-7 [doi]  [abs].
  4. E Samei, RS Saunders, Dual-energy contrast-enhanced breast tomosynthesis: optimization of beam quality for dose and image quality., Physics in medicine and biology, vol. 56 no. 19 (October, 2011), pp. 6359-78 [doi]  [abs].
  5. E Samei, NT Ranger, JT Dobbins, CE Ravin, Effective dose efficiency: an application-specific metric of quality and dose for digital radiography., Physics in medicine and biology, vol. 56 no. 16 (August, 2011), pp. 5099-118 [doi]  [abs].
  6. X Li, E Samei, WP Segars, GM Sturgeon, JG Colsher, DP Frush, Patient-specific radiation dose and cancer risk for pediatric chest CT., Radiology, vol. 259 no. 3 (June, 2011), pp. 862-74 [doi]  [abs].
  7. B Chen, J Shorey, RS Saunders Jr, S Richard, J Thompson, LW Nolte, E Samei, An anthropomorphic breast model for breast imaging simulation and optimization., Academic radiology, vol. 18 no. 5 (May, 2011), pp. 536-46 [doi]  [abs].
  8. X Li, E Samei, HX Barnhart, AM Gaca, CL Hollingsworth, CM Maxfield, CW Carrico, JG Colsher, DP Frush, Lung nodule detection in pediatric chest CT: quantitative relationship between image quality and radiologist performance., Medical physics, vol. 38 no. 5 (May, 2011), pp. 2609-18  [abs].
  9. LJ Webb, E Samei, JY Lo, JA Baker, SV Ghate, C Kim, MS Soo, R Walsh, Comparative performance of multiview stereoscopic and mammographic display modalities for breast lesion detection., Medical physics, vol. 38 no. 4 (April, 2011), pp. 1972-80  [abs].
  10. X Li, E Samei, WP Segars, GM Sturgeon, JG Colsher, G Toncheva, TT Yoshizumi, DP Frush, Patient-specific radiation dose and cancer risk estimation in CT: part II. Application to patients., Medical physics, vol. 38 no. 1 (January, 2011), pp. 408-19  [abs].
  11. X Li, E Samei, WP Segars, GM Sturgeon, JG Colsher, G Toncheva, TT Yoshizumi, DP Frush, Patient-specific radiation dose and cancer risk estimation in CT: part I. development and validation of a Monte Carlo program., Medical physics, vol. 38 no. 1 (January, 2011), pp. 397-407  [abs].
  12. S Kim, H Song, E Samei, FF Yin, TT Yoshizumi, Computed tomography dose index and dose length product for cone-beam CT: Monte Carlo simulations., Journal of applied clinical medical physics / American College of Medical Physics, vol. 12 no. 2 (2011), pp. 3395  [abs].
  13. S Richard, E Samei, Quantitative breast tomosynthesis: from detectability to estimability., Medical physics, vol. 37 no. 12 (December, 2010), pp. 6157-65  [abs].
  14. D Marin, RC Nelson, H Barnhart, ST Schindera, LM Ho, TA Jaffe, TT Yoshizumi, R Youngblood, E Samei, Detection of pancreatic tumors, image quality, and radiation dose during the pancreatic parenchymal phase: effect of a low-tube-voltage, high-tube-current CT technique--preliminary results., Radiology, vol. 256 no. 2 (August, 2010), pp. 450-9 [doi]  [abs].
  15. S Kim, S Yoo, FF Yin, E Samei, T Yoshizumi, Kilovoltage cone-beam CT: comparative dose and image quality evaluations in partial and full-angle scan protocols., Medical physics, vol. 37 no. 7 (July, 2010), pp. 3648-59  [abs].
  16. S Richard, E Samei, Quantitative imaging in breast tomosynthesis and CT: comparison of detection and estimation task performance., Medical physics, vol. 37 no. 6 (June, 2010), pp. 2627-37  [abs].
  17. MS Fleck, E Samei, SR Mitroff, Generalized "satisfaction of search": adverse influences on dual-target search accuracy., Journal of experimental psychology. Applied, vol. 16 no. 1 (March, 2010), pp. 60-71 [doi]  [abs].
  18. NT Ranger, JY Lo, E Samei, A technique optimization protocol and the potential for dose reduction in digital mammography., Medical physics, vol. 37 no. 3 (March, 2010), pp. 962-9  [abs].
  19. CM Shafer, E Samei, JY Lo, The quantitative potential for breast tomosynthesis imaging., Medical physics, vol. 37 no. 3 (March, 2010), pp. 1004-16  [abs].
  20. D Marin, RC Nelson, ST Schindera, S Richard, RS Youngblood, TT Yoshizumi, E Samei, Low-tube-voltage, high-tube-current multidetector abdominal CT: improved image quality and decreased radiation dose with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction algorithm--initial clinical experience., Radiology, vol. 254 no. 1 (January, 2010), pp. 145-53 [doi]  [abs].
  21. AS Chawla, JY Lo, JA Baker, E Samei, Optimized image acquisition for breast tomosynthesis in projection and reconstruction space., Medical physics, vol. 36 no. 11 (November, 2009), pp. 4859-69  [abs].
  22. E Samei, NT Ranger, A MacKenzie, ID Honey, JT Dobbins 3rd, CE Ravin, Effective DQE (eDQE) and speed of digital radiographic systems: an experimental methodology., Medical physics, vol. 36 no. 8 (August, 2009), pp. 3806-17  [abs].
  23. X Li, E Samei, DM DeLong, RP Jones, AM Gaca, CL Hollingsworth, CM Maxfield, JG Colsher, DP Frush, Pediatric MDCT: towards assessing the diagnostic influence of dose reduction on the detection of small lung nodules., Academic radiology, vol. 16 no. 7 (July, 2009), pp. 872-80 [doi]  [abs].
  24. SJ Shepard, J Wang, M Flynn, E Gingold, L Goldman, K Krugh, DL Leong, E Mah, K Ogden, D Peck, E Samei, J Wang, CE Willis, An exposure indicator for digital radiography: AAPM Task Group 116 (executive summary)., Medical physics, vol. 36 no. 7 (July, 2009), pp. 2898-914  [abs].
  25. RS Saunders Jr, E Samei, JY Lo, JA Baker, Can compression be reduced for breast tomosynthesis? Monte carlo study on mass and microcalcification conspicuity in tomosynthesis., Radiology, vol. 251 no. 3 (June, 2009), pp. 673-82 [doi]  [abs].
  26. D Marin, RC Nelson, E Samei, EK Paulson, LM Ho, DT Boll, DM DeLong, TT Yoshizumi, ST Schindera, Hypervascular liver tumors: low tube voltage, high tube current multidetector CT during late hepatic arterial phase for detection--initial clinical experience., Radiology, vol. 251 no. 3 (June, 2009), pp. 771-9 [doi]  [abs].
  27. AS Chawla, RS Saunders, S Singh, JY Lo, E Samei, Towards optimized acquisition scheme for multiprojection correlation imaging of breast cancer., Academic radiology, vol. 16 no. 4 (April, 2009), pp. 456-63 [doi]  [abs].
  28. BJ Pollard, E Samei, AS Chawla, J Baker, S Ghate, C Kim, MS Soo, N Hashimoto, The influence of increased ambient lighting on mass detection in mammograms., Academic radiology, vol. 16 no. 3 (March, 2009), pp. 299-304 [doi]  [abs].
  29. C Castella, MP Eckstein, CK Abbey, K Kinkel, FR Verdun, RS Saunders, E Samei, FO Bochud, Mass detection on mammograms: influence of signal shape uncertainty on human and model observers., Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, image science, and vision, vol. 26 no. 2 (February, 2009), pp. 425-36  [abs].
  30. X Li, E Samei, Comparison of patient size-based methods for estimating quantum noise in CT images of the lung., Medical physics, vol. 36 no. 2 (February, 2009), pp. 541-6  [abs].
  31. X Li, E Samei, DM Delong, RP Jones, AM Gaca, CL Hollingsworth, CM Maxfield, CW Carrico, DP Frush, Three-dimensional simulation of lung nodules for paediatric multidetector array CT., The British journal of radiology, vol. 82 no. 977 (May, 2009), pp. 401-11 [doi]  [abs].
  32. E Samei, RS Saunders, CT Badea, KB Ghaghada, LW Hedlund, Y Qi, H Yuan, RC Bentley, S Mukundan Jr, Micro-CT imaging of breast tumors in rodents using a liposomal, nanoparticle contrast agent., International journal of nanomedicine, vol. 4 (2009), pp. 277-82  [abs].
  33. E Samei, NT Ranger, A MacKenzie, ID Honey, JT Dobbins 3rd, CE Ravin, Detector or system? Extending the concept of detective quantum efficiency to characterize the performance of digital radiographic imaging systems., Radiology, vol. 249 no. 3 (December, 2008), pp. 926-37 [doi]  [abs].
  34. X Li, E Samei, WP Segars, GM Sturgeon, JG Colsher, DP Frush, Patient-specific dose estimation for pediatric chest CT., Medical physics, vol. 35 no. 12 (December, 2008), pp. 5821-8  [abs].
  35. RS Saunders Jr, E Samei, The effect of breast compression on mass conspicuity in digital mammography., Medical physics, vol. 35 no. 10 (October, 2008), pp. 4464-73  [abs].
  36. S Singh, GD Tourassi, JA Baker, E Samei, JY Lo, Automated breast mass detection in 3D reconstructed tomosynthesis volumes: a featureless approach., Medical physics, vol. 35 no. 8 (August, 2008), pp. 3626-36  [abs].
  37. BJ Pollard, AS Chawla, DM Delong, N Hashimoto, E Samei, Object detectability at increased ambient lighting conditions., Medical physics, vol. 35 no. 6 (June, 2008), pp. 2204-13  [abs].
  38. MB Williams, P Raghunathan, MJ More, JA Seibert, A Kwan, JY Lo, E Samei, NT Ranger, LL Fajardo, A McGruder, SM McGruder, AD Maidment, MJ Yaffe, A Bloomquist, GE Mawdsley, Optimization of exposure parameters in full field digital mammography., Medical physics, vol. 35 no. 6 (June, 2008), pp. 2414-23  [abs].
  39. AS Chawla, E Samei, RS Saunders, JY Lo, JA Baker, A mathematical model platform for optimizing a multiprojection breast imaging system., Medical physics, vol. 35 no. 4 (April, 2008), pp. 1337-45  [abs].
  40. E Samei, NT Ranger, DM Delong, A comparative contrast-detail study of five medical displays., Medical physics, vol. 35 no. 4 (April, 2008), pp. 1358-64  [abs].
  41. KA Fetterly, HR Blume, MJ Flynn, E Samei, Introduction to grayscale calibration and related aspects of medical imaging grade liquid crystal displays., Journal of digital imaging, vol. 21 no. 2 (June, 2008), pp. 193-207 [doi]  [abs].
  42. ST Schindera, RC Nelson, S Mukundan Jr, EK Paulson, TA Jaffe, CM Miller, DM DeLong, K Kawaji, TT Yoshizumi, E Samei, Hypervascular liver tumors: low tube voltage, high tube current multi-detector row CT for enhanced detection--phantom study., Radiology, vol. 246 no. 1 (January, 2008), pp. 125-32 [doi]  [abs].
  43. RS Saunders Jr, JA Baker, DM Delong, JP Johnson, E Samei, Does image quality matter? Impact of resolution and noise on mammographic task performance., Medical physics, vol. 34 no. 10 (October, 2007), pp. 3971-81  [abs].
  44. AS Chawla, E Samei, R Saunders, C Abbey, D Delong, Effect of dose reduction on the detection of mammographic lesions: a mathematical observer model analysis., Medical physics, vol. 34 no. 8 (August, 2007), pp. 3385-98  [abs].
  45. NT Ranger, E Samei, JT Dobbins 3rd, CE Ravin, Assessment of detective quantum efficiency: intercomparison of a recently introduced international standard with prior methods., Radiology, vol. 243 no. 3 (June, 2007), pp. 785-95 [doi]  [abs].
  46. E Samei, RS Saunders Jr, JA Baker, DM Delong, Digital mammography: effects of reduced radiation dose on diagnostic performance., Radiology, vol. 243 no. 2 (May, 2007), pp. 396-404 [doi]  [abs].
  47. E Samei, SA Stebbins, JT Dobbins 3rd, HP McAdams, JY Lo, Multiprojection correlation imaging for improved detection of pulmonary nodules., AJR. American journal of roentgenology, vol. 188 no. 5 (May, 2007), pp. 1239-45 [doi]  [abs].
  48. E Samei, A Poolla, MJ Ulissey, JM Lewin, Digital mammography: comparative performance of color LCD and monochrome CRT displays., Academic radiology, vol. 14 no. 5 (May, 2007), pp. 539-46 [doi]  [abs].
  49. CT Badea, LW Hedlund, M De Lin, JS Mackel, E Samei, GA Johnson, Tomographic digital subtraction angiography for lung perfusion estimation in rodents., Medical physics, vol. 34 no. 5 (May, 2007), pp. 1546-55  [abs].
  50. M Ruschin, P Timberg, M Båth, B Hemdal, T Svahn, RS Saunders, E Samei, I Andersson, S Mattsson, DP Chakrabort, A Tingber, Dose dependence of mass and microcalcification detection in digital mammography: free response human observer studies., Medical physics, vol. 34 no. 2 (February, 2007), pp. 400-7  [abs].
  51. AS Chawla, E Samei, Ambient illumination revisited: a new adaptation-based approach for optimizing medical imaging reading environments., Medical physics, vol. 34 no. 1 (January, 2007), pp. 81-90  [abs].
  52. HP McAdams, E Samei, J Dobbins 3rd, GD Tourassi, CE Ravin, Recent advances in chest radiography., Radiology, vol. 241 no. 3 (December, 2006), pp. 663-83 [doi]  [abs].
  53. RS Saunders, E Samei, Improving mammographic decision accuracy by incorporating observer ratings with interpretation time., The British journal of radiology, vol. 79 Spec No 2 (December, 2006), pp. S117-22 [doi]  [abs].
  54. MD Lin, E Samei, CT Badea, TT Yoshizumi, GA Johnson, Optimized radiographic spectra for small animal digital subtraction angiography., Medical physics, vol. 33 no. 11 (November, 2006), pp. 4249-57  [abs].
  55. RS Saunders, E Samei, J Baker, D Delong, MS Soo, R Walsh, E Pisano, CM Kuzmiak, D Pavic, Comparison of LCD and CRT displays based on efficacy for digital mammography., Academic radiology, vol. 13 no. 11 (November, 2006), pp. 1317-26 [doi]  [abs].
  56. A Badano, S Schneider, E Samei, Visual assessment of angular response in medical liquid crystal displays., Journal of digital imaging, vol. 19 no. 3 (September, 2006), pp. 240-8 [doi]  [abs].
  57. E Siegel, E Krupinski, E Samei, M Flynn, K Andriole, B Erickson, J Thomas, A Badano, JA Seibert, ED Pisano, Digital mammography image quality: image display., Journal of the American College of Radiology : JACR, vol. 3 no. 8 (August, 2006), pp. 615-27 [doi]  [abs].
  58. R Saunders, E Samei, J Baker, D Delong, Simulation of mammographic lesions., Academic radiology, vol. 13 no. 7 (July, 2006), pp. 860-70 [doi]  [abs].
  59. G Borasi, E Samei, M Bertolini, A Nitrosi, D Tassoni, Contrast-detail analysis of three flat panel detectors for digital radiography., Medical physics, vol. 33 no. 6 (June, 2006), pp. 1707-19  [abs].
  60. E Samei, NT Ranger, JT Dobbins 3rd, Y Chen, Intercomparison of methods for image quality characterization. I. Modulation transfer function., Medical physics, vol. 33 no. 5 (May, 2006), pp. 1454-65  [abs].
  61. JT Dobbins 3rd, E Samei, NT Ranger, Y Chen, Intercomparison of methods for image quality characterization. II. Noise power spectrum., Medical physics, vol. 33 no. 5 (May, 2006), pp. 1466-75  [abs].
  62. SJ Boyce, E Samei, Imaging properties of digital magnification radiography., Medical physics, vol. 33 no. 4 (April, 2006), pp. 984-96  [abs].
  63. E Samei, SL Wright, Viewing angle performance of medical liquid crystal displays., Medical physics, vol. 33 no. 3 (March, 2006), pp. 645-54  [abs].
  64. CL Hoe, E Samei, DP Frush, DM Delong, Simulation of liver lesions for pediatric CT., Radiology, vol. 238 no. 2 (February, 2006), pp. 699-705 [doi]  [abs].
  65. RS Saunders Jr, E Samei, Resolution and noise measurements of five CRT and LCD medical displays., Medical physics, vol. 33 no. 2 (February, 2006), pp. 308-19  [abs].
  66. RL McKinley, MP Tornai, C Brzymialkiewicz, P Madhav, E Samei, JE Bowsher, Analysis of a novel offset cone-beam computed mammotomography system geometry for accomodating various breast sizes., Physica medica : PM : an international journal devoted to the applications of physics to medicine and biology : official journal of the Italian Association of Biomedical Physics (AIFB), vol. 21 Suppl 1 (2006), pp. 48-55 [doi]  [abs].
  67. E Samei, E Buhr, P Granfors, D Vandenbroucke, X Wang, Comparison of edge analysis techniques for the determination of the MTF of digital radiographic systems., Physics in medicine and biology, vol. 50 no. 15 (August, 2005), pp. 3613-25 [doi]  [abs].
  68. NT Ranger, E Samei, JT Dobbins 3rd, CE Ravin, Measurement of the detective quantum efficiency in digital detectors consistent with the IEC 62220-1 standard: practical considerations regarding the choice of filter material., Medical physics, vol. 32 no. 7 (July, 2005), pp. 2305-11  [abs].
  69. E Samei, JY Lo, TT Yoshizumi, JL Jesneck, JT Dobbins 3rd, CE Floyd Jr, HP McAdams, CE Ravin, Comparative scatter and dose performance of slot-scan and full-field digital chest radiography systems., Radiology, vol. 235 no. 3 (June, 2005), pp. 940-9 [doi]  [abs].
  70. E Samei, A Badano, D Chakraborty, K Compton, C Cornelius, K Corrigan, MJ Flynn, B Hemminger, N Hangiandreou, J Johnson, DM Moxley-Stevens, W Pavlicek, H Roehrig, L Rutz, J Shepard, RA Uzenoff, J Wang, CE Willis, AAPM TG18, Assessment of display performance for medical imaging systems: executive summary of AAPM TG18 report., Medical physics, vol. 32 no. 4 (April, 2005), pp. 1205-25  [abs].
  71. RS Saunders Jr, E Samei, JL Jesneck, JY Lo, Physical characterization of a prototype selenium-based full field digital mammography detector., Medical physics, vol. 32 no. 2 (February, 2005), pp. 588-99  [abs].
  72. E Samei, AAPM/RSNA physics tutorial for residents: technological and psychophysical considerations for digital mammographic displays., Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc, vol. 25 no. 2 (March, 2006), pp. 491-501 [doi]  [abs].
  73. E Samei, JT Dobbins 3rd, JY Lo, MP Tornai, A framework for optimising the radiographic technique in digital X-ray imaging., Radiation protection dosimetry, vol. 114 no. 1-3 (2005), pp. 220-9 [doi]  [abs].
  74. E Samei, A Rowberg, E Avraham, C Cornelius, Toward clinically relevant standardization of image quality., Journal of digital imaging, vol. 17 no. 4 (December, 2004), pp. 271-8 [doi]  [abs].
  75. E Samei, SL Wright, Luminance and contrast performance of liquid crystal displays for mammographic applications., Technology in cancer research & treatment, vol. 3 no. 5 (October, 2004), pp. 429-36  [abs].
  76. E Samei, RS Saunders, JY Lo, JT Dobbins 3rd, JL Jesneck, CE Floyd, CE Ravin, Fundamental imaging characteristics of a slot-scan digital chest radiographic system., Medical physics, vol. 31 no. 9 (September, 2004), pp. 2687-98  [abs].
  77. U Neitzel, S Günther-Kohfahl, G Borasi, E Samei, Determination of the detective quantum efficiency of a digital x-ray detector: comparison of three evaluations using a common image data set., Medical physics, vol. 31 no. 8 (August, 2004), pp. 2205-11  [abs].
  78. H Jung, HJ Kim, WS Kang, SK Yoo, K Fujioka, M Hasegawa, E Samei, Assessment of flat panel LCD primary class display performance based on AAPM TG 18 acceptance protocol., Medical physics, vol. 31 no. 7 (July, 2004), pp. 2155-64  [abs].
  79. RS Saunders Jr, E Samei, C Hoeschen, Impact of resolution and noise characteristics of digital radiographic detectors on the detectability of lung nodules., Medical physics, vol. 31 no. 6 (June, 2004), pp. 1603-13  [abs].
  80. RL McKinley, MP Tornai, E Samei, ML Bradshaw, Simulation study of a quasi-monochromatic beam for x-ray computed mammotomography., Medical physics, vol. 31 no. 4 (April, 2004), pp. 800-13  [abs].
  81. E Samei, JA Seibert, K Andriole, A Badano, J Crawford, B Reiner, MJ Flynn, P Chang, AAPM/RSNA tutorial on equipment selection: PACS equipment overview: general guidelines for purchasing and acceptance testing of PACS equipment., Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc, vol. 24 no. 1 (July, 2004), pp. 313-34 [doi]  [abs].
  82. RS Saunders Jr, E Samei, A method for modifying the image quality parameters of digital radiographic images., Medical physics, vol. 30 no. 11 (November, 2003), pp. 3006-17  [abs].
  83. SR Turner, E Samei, BS Hertzberg, DM DeLong, R Vargas-Voracek, A Singer, CH Maynor, MA Kliewer, Sonography of fetal choroid plexus cysts: detection depends on cyst size and gestational age., Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine, vol. 22 no. 11 (November, 2003), pp. 1219-27  [abs].
  84. E Samei, Image quality in two phosphor-based flat panel digital radiographic detectors., Medical physics, vol. 30 no. 7 (July, 2003), pp. 1747-57  [abs].
  85. E Samei, MJ Flynn, E Peterson, WR Eyler, Subtle lung nodules: influence of local anatomic variations on detection., Radiology, vol. 228 no. 1 (July, 2003), pp. 76-84 [doi]  [abs].
  86. E Samei, MJ Flynn, An experimental comparison of detector performance for direct and indirect digital radiography systems., Medical physics, vol. 30 no. 4 (April, 2003), pp. 608-22  [abs].
  87. E Samei, JG Hill, GD Frey, WM Southgate, E Mah, D Delong, Evaluation of a flat panel digital radiographic system for low-dose portable imaging of neonates., Medical physics, vol. 30 no. 4 (April, 2003), pp. 601-7  [abs].
  88. JT Dobbins 3rd, E Samei, HG Chotas, RJ Warp, AH Baydush, CE Floyd Jr, CE Ravin, Chest radiography: optimization of X-ray spectrum for cesium iodide-amorphous silicon flat-panel detector., Radiology, vol. 226 no. 1 (January, 2003), pp. 221-30  [abs].
  89. E Samei, MJ Flynn, An experimental comparison of detector performance for computed radiography systems., Medical physics, vol. 29 no. 4 (April, 2002), pp. 447-59  [abs].
  90. E Samei, JA Seibert, CE Willis, MJ Flynn, E Mah, KL Junck, Performance evaluation of computed radiography systems., Medical physics, vol. 28 no. 3 (March, 2001), pp. 361-71  [abs].
  91. E Mah, E Samei, DJ Peck, Evaluation of a quality control phantom for digital chest radiography., Journal of applied clinical medical physics / American College of Medical Physics, vol. 2 no. 2 (2001), pp. 90-101 [doi]  [abs].
  92. MT Ryan, KM Spicer, D Frei-Lahr, E Samei, GD Frey, H Hargrove, G Bloodworth, Health physics consequences of out-patient treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with 131I-radiolabeled anti-B1 antibody., Health physics, vol. 79 no. 5 Suppl (November, 2000), pp. S52-5  [abs].
  93. KJ Kearfott, S Han, EC Wagner, E Samei, CK Wang, Numerical simulation of a TLD pulsed laser-heating scheme for determination of shallow dose and deep dose in low-LET radiation fields., Applied radiation and isotopes : including data, instrumentation and methods for use in agriculture, industry and medicine, vol. 52 no. 6 (June, 2000), pp. 1419-29  [abs].
  94. E Samei, MJ Flynn, WR Eyler, Detection of subtle lung nodules: relative influence of quantum and anatomic noise on chest radiographs., Radiology, vol. 213 no. 3 (December, 1999), pp. 727-34  [abs].
  95. MJ Flynn, E Samei, Experimental comparison of noise and resolution for 2k and 4k storage phosphor radiography systems., Medical physics, vol. 26 no. 8 (August, 1999), pp. 1612-23  [abs].
  96. E Samei, MJ Flynn, DA Reimann, A method for measuring the presampled MTF of digital radiographic systems using an edge test device., Medical physics, vol. 25 no. 1 (January, 1998), pp. 102-13  [abs].
  97. GH Beute, MJ Flynn, WR Eyler, E Samei, DL Spizarny, CJ Zylak, Chest radiographic image quality: comparison of asymmetric screen-film, digital storage phosphor, and digital selenium drum systems--preliminary study., Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc, vol. 18 no. 3 (August, 1998), pp. 745-54  [abs].
  98. E Samei, MJ Flynn, WR Eyler, Simulation of subtle lung nodules in projection chest radiography., Radiology, vol. 202 no. 1 (January, 1997), pp. 117-24  [abs].
  99. E Samei, KJ Kearfott, A limited bibliography of the Federal Government-funded human radiation experiments., Health physics, vol. 69 no. 6 (December, 1995), pp. 885-91  [abs].
  100. KJ Kearfott, S Han, KL McMahan, E Samei, Sensitivity of a mixed field dosimetry algorithm to uncertainties in thermoluminescent element readings., Health physics, vol. 68 no. 3 (March, 1995), pp. 340-9  [abs].