Chandrasekharan, S; Wiese, U-J, *Meron-Cluster Solution of Fermion Sign Problems*,
Physical Review Letters, vol. 83 no. 16
(1999),
pp. 3116-3119 .
**Abstract:**

*We present a general strategy to solve the notorious fermion sign problem using cluster algorithms. The method applies to various systems in the Hubbard model family as well as to relativistic fermions. Here it is illustrated for nonrelativistic lattice fermions. A configuration of fermion world lines is decomposed into clusters that contribute independently to the fermion permutation sign. A cluster whose flip changes the sign is referred to as a meron. Configurations containing meron clusters contribute 0 to the path integral, while all other configurations contribute 1. The cluster representation describes the partition function as a gas of clusters in the zero-meron sector.*