Alford, M; Chandrasekharan, S; Cox, J; Wiese, U-J, *Solution of the complex action problem in the Potts model for dense QCD*,
Nuclear Physics B, vol. 602 no. 1-2
(2001),
pp. 61-86 [doi] .
**Abstract:**

*Monte Carlo simulations of lattice QCD at non-zero baryon chemical potential μ suffer from the notorious complex action problem. We consider QCD with static quarks coupled to a large chemical potential. This leaves us with an SU(3) Yang-Mills theory with a complex action containing the Polyakov loop. Close to the deconfinement phase transition the qualitative features of this theory, in particular its Z(3) symmetry properties, are captured by the 3-d 3-state Potts model. We solve the complex action problem in the Potts model by using a cluster algorithm. The improved estimator for the μ-dependent part of the Boltzmann factor is real and positive and is used for importance sampling. We localize the critical endpoint of the first order deconfinement phase transition line and find consistency with universal 3-d Ising behavior. We also calculate the static quark-quark, quark-antiquark, and antiquark-antiquark potentials which show screening as expected for a system with non-zero baryon density.*