Publications [#234281] of Warren S. Warren

Journal Articles
  1. Davis, RM; Zhou, Z; Chung, H; Warren, WS, Multi-spin echo spatial encoding provides three-fold improvement of temperature precision during intermolecular zero quantum thermometry., Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, vol. 75 no. 5 (May, 2016), pp. 1958-1966 [doi] .

    Intermolecular multiple quantum coherences (iMQCs) are a source of MR contrast with applications including temperature imaging, anisotropy mapping, and brown fat imaging. Because all applications are limited by signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), we developed a pulse sequence that detects intermolecular zero quantum coherences with improved SNR.A previously developed pulse sequence that detects iMQCs, HOMOGENIZED with off resonance transfer (HOT), was modified with a multi-spin echo spatial encoding scheme (MSE-HOT). MSE-HOT uses a series of refocusing pulses to generate a stack of images that are averaged in postprocessing for higher SNR. MSE-HOT performance was quantified by measuring its temperature accuracy and precision during hyperthermia of ex vivo red bone marrow samples.MSE-HOT yielded a three-fold improvement in temperature precision relative to previous pulse sequences. Sources of improved precision were 1) echo averaging and 2) suppression of J-coupling in the methylene protons of fat. MSE-HOT measured temperature change with an accuracy of 0.6°C.MSE-HOT improved the temperature accuracy and precision of HOT to a level that is sufficient for hyperthermia of bone marrow.