Chen, YM; Branca, RT; Warren, WS, *Revisiting the mean-field picture of dipolar effects in solution NMR.*,
Journal of Chemical Physics, vol. 136 no. 20
(May, 2012),
pp. 204509 [22667573], [doi] .
**Abstract:**

*For more than three decades, the classical or mean-field picture describing the distant dipolar field has been almost always simplified to an effective field proportional to the local longitudinal magnetization, differing only by a scale factor of 1.5 for homomolecular (identical resonance frequency) and heteromolecular interactions. We re-examine the underlying assumptions, and show both theoretically and experimentally that the mathematical framework needs to be modified for modern applications such as imaging. We demonstrate new pulse sequences which produce unexpected effects; for example, modulating an arbitrarily small fraction of the magnetization can substantially alter the frequency evolution. Thus, matched gradient pulse pairs (a seemingly innocuous module in thousands of existing pulse sequences) can alter the time evolution in highly unexpected ways, particularly with small flip angle pulses such as those used in hyperpolarized experiments. We also show that specific gradient pulse combinations can retain only dipolar interactions between unlike spins, and the dipolar field can generate a secular Hamiltonian proportional to I(x).*