Yang, W, *Dynamic linear response of many-electron systems: An integral formulation of density-functional theory*,
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, vol. 38 no. 11
(1988),
pp. 5512-5519 [doi] .
**Abstract:**

*A new approach for the calculation of the linear response of both the ground and thermal-equilibrium states of many-electron systems is proposed via an integral formulation of the density-functional theory. Based on the path-integral representation of the one-particle Greens function, the frequency-dependent linear-response function for the Kohn-Sham noninteracting system is expressed as an explicit functional of the Kohn-Sham local potential, instead of the summation over the single-electron orbitals. Thus the dynamic linear density response can be determined as the solution of self-consistent equations which only need as input the total electron density of the ground or the equilibrium state. Exchange and correlation effects are incorporated. Because orbitals are not employed, the formulation provides the possibility for calculations of linear-response properties, such as dynamic polarizability and photoabsorption cross sections of systems with very many electrons. The present formulation can also be applied to general fermions. © 1988 The American Physical Society.*