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Publications of Nicholas W. Carnes    :chronological  alphabetical  combined  bibtex listing:


  1. Nicholas Carnes, White-collar Government: The Hidden Role of Class in Economic Policy Making (November, 2013), University of Chicago Press .

Chapters in Books

  1. Carnes, N; Lupu, N, What good is a college degree? Education and leader quality reconsidered, Journal of Politics, vol. 78 no. 1 (January, 2016), pp. 35-49, University of Chicago Press [doi]  [abs].

Papers Published

  1. Broockman, DE; Carnes, N; Crowder-Meyer, M; Skovron, C, Why Local Party Leaders Don't Support Nominating Centrists, British Journal of Political Science, vol. 51 no. 2 (April, 2021), pp. 724-749 [doi]  [abs].
  2. Carnes, N; Lupu, N, The white working class and the 2016 election, Perspectives on Politics, vol. 19 no. 1 (March, 2021), pp. 55-72 [doi]  [abs].
  3. Hansen, ER; Carnes, N; Gray, V, What Happens When Insurers Make Insurance Laws? State Legislative Agendas and the Occupational Makeup of Government, State Politics & Policy Quarterly, vol. 19 no. 2 (June, 2019), pp. 155-179 [doi]  [abs].
  4. Carnes, N; Holbein, J, Do public officials exhibit social class biases when they handle casework? Evidence from multiple correspondence experiments., Plos One, vol. 14 no. 3 (January, 2019), pp. e0214244 [doi]  [abs].
  5. Carnes, N, Adam Smith would be spinning in His Grave: Government by the rich in the United States, Forum (Germany), vol. 15 no. 1 (April, 2017), pp. 151-165, WALTER DE GRUYTER GMBH [doi]  [abs].
  6. Carnes, N; Lupu, N, Do voters dislike working-class candidates? Voter biases and the descriptive underrepresentation of the working class, American Political Science Review, vol. 110 no. 4 (November, 2016), pp. 832-844, Cambridge University Press (CUP) [doi]  [abs].
  7. Carnes, N; Hansen, ER, Does paying politicians more promote economic diversity in legislatures?, American Political Science Review, vol. 110 no. 4 (November, 2016), pp. 699-716, Cambridge University Press (CUP) [doi]  [abs].
  8. Carnes, N, White-collar government in the United States, Swiss Political Science Review, vol. 21 no. 2 (June, 2015), pp. 213-221, WILEY [doi] .
  9. Bellemare, MF; Carnes, N, Why do members of congress support agricultural protection?, Food Policy, vol. 50 (January, 2015), pp. 20-34, Elsevier BV [doi]  [abs].
  10. Carnes, N; Lupu, N, Rethinking the comparative perspective on class and representation: Evidence from latin america, American Journal of Political Science, vol. 59 no. 1 (January, 2015), pp. 1-18 [doi]  [abs] [author's comments].
  11. Carnes, N; Sadin, ML, The "mill worker's son" heuristic: How voters perceive politicians from working-class families-And how they really behave in office, Journal of Politics, vol. 77 no. 1 (January, 2015), pp. 285-298, University of Chicago Press [doi]  [abs].
  12. Carnes, N; Lupu, N, Rethinking the comparative perspective on class and representation: Evidence from Latin America, Working Paper of the Helen Kellogg Institute for International Studies, vol. 59 no. 394 (November, 2013), pp. 1-33, WILEY [doi]  [abs].
  13. Arnold, RD; Carnes, N, Holding Mayors Accountable: New York's Executives from Koch to Bloomberg, American Journal of Political Science, vol. 56 no. 4 (October, 2012), pp. 949-963, WILEY [doi]  [abs].
  14. Nicholas Carnes,, Does the Numerical Underrepresentation of the Working Class in Congress Matter?, Legislative Studies Quarterly, vol. 37 no. 1 (January, 2012), pp. 5-34, WILEY [pdf], [doi]  [abs].

Papers Submitted

  1. Marc F. Bellemare and Nicholas Carnes, Why Do Members of Congress Support Agricultural Protection? (2013)  [abs] [author's comments].
  2. Nicholas Carnes, Is Working-class Representation a Threat to Women and Minorities? (2013)  [abs] [author's comments].
  3. Nicholas Carnes, Who Votes for Inequality? (2013)  [abs] [author's comments].
  4. Nicholas Carnes and John Holbein, Don’t Take It Personally: Affluence, Influence, and Prejudice (2013)  [abs] [author's comments].
  5. Nicholas Carnes and Meredith L. Sadin, The Other John Edwards Lie: How Voters Perceive Politicians from Working-class Families--and How They Really Behave in Office (2013)  [abs] [author's comments].
  6. Nicholas Carnes, Why Are There So Few Working-class People in Political Office? Evidence from State Legislatures (2013) .


  1. Nicholas Carnes, We Need Blue-Collar Candidates, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (October 10, 2013), Raleigh News and Observer (October 10, 2013), Contra Costa Times (October 11, 2013), Oakland Tribune (October 11, 2013), Newark Star-Ledger (October 15, 2013), and Detroit Free Press (October 17, 2013) (October, 2013) .
  2. Nicholas Carnes, How Poorer Politicians can Shatter the Cash Ceiling, Bangor Daily News (October 1, 2013) .
  3. Nicholas Carnes and Noam Lupu, Como Afecta el Gobierno de los Privilegiados a la Democracia?, Condistintosacentos (September 15, 2013) .
  4. Nicholas Carnes, A Tax Reform Plan that Rewards the Wealthy and Stalls the State, Raleigh News and Observer (January 25, 2013) .
  5. Nicholas Carnes, Which Millionaire Are You Voting For?, The New York Times Sunday Review (October 13, 2012) .

Book Reviews

  1. Nicholas Carnes, Book Review: The Not-So-Special Interests: Interest Groups, Public Representation, and American Governance, American Review of Politics (Summer, 2013) .


  1. Nicholas Carnes, “normal.survey,” “logit.survey,” “probit.survey,” “gamma.survey,” and “poisson.survey” (survey-weighted regression estimation procedures), Zelig: Everyone’s Statistical Software (Kosuke Imai, Gary King, and Olivia Lau) (2008)  [author's comments].

Published Policy Briefs and Comments

  1. Nicholas Carnes and David Broockman, The Promise of Union Programs that Recruit and Support Workers to Run for Public Office, SSN Basic Facts (August, 2013) .
  2. Nicholas Carnes and Noam Lupu, How Government by the Privileged Distorts Democracies, SSN Key Findings (July, 2013) .
  3. Nicholas Carnes and John Holbein, Are Politicians Prejudiced Against the Poor?, SSN Key Findings (January, 2013) .
  4. Nicholas Carnes, The Cash Ceiling, SSN Forum on Money in Politics (2013) .
  5. Nicholas Carnes, Economic Inequality and White-collar Government, States, Power, and Societies, vol. 17 no. 2 (July, 2012) .
  6. Nicholas Carnes, How Government by the Privileged Distorts Economic Policy, SSN Key Findings (January, 2012) .

Book Chapter

  1. Carnes, N, Who votes for inequality?, in Congress and Policy Making in the 21st Century (February, 2016), pp. 106-134, Cambridge University Press [doi] .

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