It has been observed experimentally that early distal tubular urea flow exceeds urea delivery by the proximal convoluted tubule to the pars recta and loop of Henle. Moreover, the fractional excretion of urea in the urine may exceed values compatible with the reabsorption known to occur in the proximal convoluted tubule in the cortex. A likely explanation for these observations is that urea may be actively secreted into the pars recta, as proposed in a few studies. However, this hypothesis has yet to be demonstrated experimentally. In this study, we used a mathematical model of the renal medulla of the rat kidney to investigate the impacts of active urea secretion in the intrarenal handling of urea and in the urine concentrating ability. The model represents only the outer and inner medullary zones, with the actions taking place in the cortex incorporated via boundary conditions. Blood flow in the model vasculature is divided into plasma and red blood cell compartments. We compared urea flow rates and other related model variables without and with the hypothetical active urea secretion in the pars recta. The simulation suggests that active urea secretion induces a "urea-selective" improvement in urine concentrating ability by enhancing the efficiency of urea excretion without requiring a higher urine flow rate, and with only modest changes in the excretion of other solutes. These results should encourage experimental studies in order to assess the existence of an active urea secretion in the rodent kidney.