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Publications [#250676] of Gary G. Bennett


Journal Articles

  1. Chandler, PD; Scott, JB; Drake, BF; Ng, K; Forman, JP; Chan, AT; Bennett, GG; Hollis, BW; Giovannucci, EL; Emmons, KM; Fuchs, CS (2014). Risk of hypercalcemia in blacks taking hydrochlorothiazide and vitamin D.. The American Journal of Medicine, 127(8), 772-778. [doi]
    (last updated on 2019/05/23)

    Hydrochlorothiazide, an effective antihypertensive medication commonly prescribed to blacks, decreases urinary calcium excretion. Blacks have significantly higher rates of hypertension and lower levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Thus, they are more likely to be exposed to vitamin D supplementation and thiazide diuretics. The risk for hypercalcemia among blacks using vitamin D and hydrochlorothiazide is undefined.We assessed the frequency of hypercalcemia in hydrochlorothiazide users in a post hoc analysis of a randomized, double-blind, dose-finding trial of 328 blacks (median age 51 years) assigned to either placebo, or 1000, 2000, or 4000 international units of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) daily for 3 months during the winter (2007-2010).Of the 328 participants, 84 reported hydrochlorothiazide use and had serum calcium levels assessed. Additionally, a comparison convenience group of 44 enrolled participants who were not taking hydrochlorothiazide had serum calcium measurements at 3 months, but not at baseline. At 3 months, hydrochlorothiazide participants had higher calcium levels (0.2 mg/dL, P <.001) than nonhydrochlorothiazide participants, but only one participant in the hydrochlorothiazide group had hypercalcemia. In contrast, none of the nonhydrochlorothiazide participants had hypercalcemia. In a linear regression model adjusted for age, sex, 25-hydroxyvitamin D at 3 months, and other covariates, only hydrochlorothiazide use (Estimate [SE]: 0.05 [0.01], P = .01) predicted serum calcium at 3 months.In summary, vitamin D3 supplementation up to 4000 IU in hydrochlorothiazide users is associated with an increase in serum calcium but a low frequency of hypercalcemia. These findings suggest that participants of this population can use hydrochlorothiazide with up to 4000 IU of vitamin D3 daily and experience a low frequency of hypercalcemia.

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