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Publications [#336077] of Richard S. Keefe

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Journal Articles

  1. Yang, Z; Lim, K; Lam, M; Keefe, R; Lee, J (2018). Factor structure of the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) in people at ultra high risk (UHR) for psychosis.. Schizophrenia Research, 201, 85-90. [doi]
    (last updated on 2019/06/17)

    INTRODUCTION: The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), a comprehensive psychopathology assessment scale used in the evaluation of psychopathology in schizophrenia, is also often used in the Ultra-High-Risk (UHR) population. This paper examined the dimensional structure of the PANSS in a UHR sample. METHODS: A total of 168 individuals assessed to be at UHR for psychosis on the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States (CAARMS) were evaluated on the PANSS, Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS), and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of the PANSS was performed to identify the factorial structure. Convergent validity was explored with the CAARMS, CDSS, BAI and BACS. RESULTS: EFA of the PANSS yielded five symptom factors - Positive, Negative, Cognition/Disorganization, Anxiety/Depression, and Hostility. This 5-factor solution showed good convergent validity with the CAARMS composite score, CDSS, BAI, and BACS. Positive, Negative and Anxiety/Depression factors were associated with functioning. CONCLUSION: The reported PANSS factor structure may serve to improve the understanding and measurement of clinical symptom dimensions manifested in people with UHR for future research and clinical setting.

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