Publications [#164710] of Patrick Gallagher

Journal Articles

  1. P. Gallagher, W. Fleeson, R. Hoyle (in press). A Self-regulatory Mechanism for Personality Trait Stability: Contra-trait Effort. Social Psychological and Personality Science.
    (last updated on 2010/10/25)

    Despite the considerable influence of situational factors and the resulting variability in behavior, individuals maintain stable average ways of acting. The purpose of the current research was to investigate one possible explanation for this stability. It was hypothesized that behaviors that are at levels different from the actor’s average trait levels (contra-trait behaviors) demand more effort, or self-control, than do trait-typical behaviors. In Study 1, extraverted participants who acted at contra-trait levels reported their behaviors as more effortful, and this effect grew stronger over time. In addition, in a subsequent activity, observers rated extraverts who had acted contra-trait as behaving more extraverted, suggesting that fatigue from sustaining contra-trait behaviors may result in subsequent behaviors returning to trait-typical levels. In Study 2, participants reported on contextualized behaviors for seven days, and rated contra-trait behaviors as more effortful than trait-typical behaviors. This effect only held among non-habitual behaviors, implicating self-control processes.