Endurance training leads to many adaptational changes in several tissues. In skeletal muscle, fatty acid usage is enhanced and mitochondrial content is increased. The exact molecular mechanisms regulating these functional and structural changes remain to be elucidated. Contractile activity-induced metabolic perturbation has repeatedly been shown to be important for the induction of mitochondrial biogenesis. Recent reports suggest that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha)/mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) pathway is involved in exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis. In the present study, nine healthy men performed two 45-min bouts of one-legged knee extension exercise: one bout with restricted blood flow, and the other with nonrestricted blood flow to the working muscle. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle before exercise and at 0, 30, 120, and 360 min after the exercise bout. Biopsies were analyzed for whole muscle, as well as fiber-type specific mRNA expression of myocyte-enriched calcineurin interacting protein (MCIP)-1, PGC-1alpha, and downstream mitochondrial transcription factors. A novel finding was that, in human skeletal muscle, PGC-1alpha mRNA increased more after exercise with restricted blood flow than in the nonrestricted condition. No changes were observed for the mRNA of NRF-1, Tfam, mitochondrial transcription factor B1, and mitochondrial transcription factor B2. Muscle fiber type I and type II did not differ in the basal PGC-1alpha mRNA levels or in the expression increase after ischemic training. Another novel finding was that there was no difference between the restricted and nonrestricted exercise conditions in the increase of MCIP-1 mRNA, a marker for calcineurin activation. This suggests that calcineurin may be activated by exercise in humans and does not exclude that calcineurin could play a role in PGC-1 transcription activation in human skeletal muscle.
Adolescent • Adult • DNA-Binding Proteins • Energy Metabolism • Exertion • Gene Expression Regulation • Humans • Lactic Acid • Male • Mitochondria • Mitochondrial Proteins • Muscle, Skeletal • NF-E2-Related Factor 1 • Nuclear Proteins • Nuclear Respiratory Factor 1 • Nuclear Respiratory Factors • RNA, Messenger • Regional Blood Flow • Trans-Activators • Transcription Factors • analysis • blood • blood supply • genetics • genetics* • physiology • physiology*