OBJECTIVE: The University of Arizona, University of California at San Francisco, City of Hope Medical Center, and University of Wisconsin participated in a Phase I/II protocol to assess the heating ability and the toxicity of interstitial thermoradiotherapy using ferromagnetic implantation. METHODS: Forty-four patients with advanced primary or recurrent extra-cranial solid malignancies were enrolled in this study. Fourteen gauge catheters were implanted into tumors and, once in the department of Radiation Oncology, loaded with ferromagnetic seeds to deliver a 60 min hyperthermia treatment. Multi-point thermometry was continuously used throughout the heating sessions for all patients, sampling the periphery as well as the core of the tumor. After 192Iridium brachytherapy, 18 patients then had an additional treatment. The mean radiation dose while on protocol was 50.0 Gy, with total doses (including prior radiotherapy) ranging from 20.3-151.8 Gy (median = 88.7 Gy). Response and toxicity were assessed by inspection, palpation, and/or radiologic studies. Forty-one patients were evaluable for response, and there were 55 analyzable hyperthermia treatment sessions. RESULTS: The complete response rate was 61% (25/41). The partial response rate was 31.7% and only 7.3% failed to respond. Median duration of local control has not yet been reached. The mean maximum, minimum, and mean time-averaged temperatures for all in-tissue sensors were 43.7 degrees C, 38.7 degrees C, and 41.0 degrees C, respectively. Tumor size was the only factor significantly correlated with temperatures or with complete response rate; larger tumors attained higher temperatures but smaller tumors had a higher response probability. Nineteen patients (43%) experienced toxicities, however there was only a 7% (3/44) rate of serious complications (Grade 3 or 4). Prior treatment with hyperthermia was the only factor significantly correlated with serious toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: These results, a 93% total response with only 7% serious toxicity, are encouraging especially in the context of the patient population treated. Phase II/III studies involving ferromagnetic implantation are warranted.
Adult • Aged • Brachytherapy • Catheters, Indwelling* • Combined Modality Therapy • Feasibility Studies • Female • Follow-Up Studies • Humans • Hyperthermia, Induced • Iridium Radioisotopes • Male • Middle Aged • Neoplasms • Remission Induction • methods* • pathology • radiotherapy • therapeutic use* • therapy*