Publications [#71100] of Richard B. Fair
- R.B. Fair, A. Khylstov, T.D. Tailor, V. Ivanov, R.D. Evans, V.Srinivasan, V.K. Pamula, M.G. Pollack, P.B. Griffin, J. Zhou, Chemical and Biological Applications of Digital Microfluidic Devices,
IEEE Design and Test of Computers, vol. 25
(last updated on 2007/10/22)
The advent of digital microfluidic lab-on-a-chip (LoC) technology offers a platform for developing diagnostic applications with the advantages of portability, reduction of the volumes of the sample and reagents, faster analysis times, increased automation, low power consumption, compatibility with mass manufacturing, and high throughput. In addition, digital microfluidics is being applied in other areas such as airborne chemical detection, DNA sequencing by synthesis, and tissue engineering. In most diagnostic and chemical detection applications, a key challenge is the preparation of the analyte for presentation to the on-chip detection system. Thus, in diagnostics raw physiological samples must be introduced onto the chip and then further processed by lysing blood cells and extracting DNA. For massively parallel DNA sequencing, sample preparation can be performed off chip, but the synthesis steps must be performed in a sequential on-chip format by automated control of buffers and nucleotides to extend the read lengths of DNA fragments. In airborne particulate sampling applications, the sample collection from an air stream must be integrated into the LoC analytical component, which requires that a collection droplet scan an exposed impacted surface followed by its introduction into a closed analytical section. Finally, in tissue engineering applications, the challenge for LoC technology is to build high resolution (less than 10 µm) 3-D tissue constructs with embedded cells and growth factors by manipulating and maintaining live cells in the chip platform. These applications are discussed and their implementation on digital microfluidics LoC platforms is described. Open design issues for each application are discussed.