- Kimura, S. and Bejan, A., NUMERICAL STUDY OF NATURAL CIRCULATION IN A HORIZONTAL DUCT WITH DIFFERENT END-TEMPERATURES.,
Waerme- und Stoffuebertragung/Thermo- and Fluid Dynamics, vol. 14 no. 4
pp. 269 - 280 .
(last updated on 2007/04/08)
The paper reports a finite difference solution for the natural counterflow generated in a horizontal adiabatic duct with different end-temperatures. Ducts with circular and rectangular cross-section are considered. The natural counterflow is modeled as fully-developed. The numerical results demonstrate that the flow consists of a strong axial counterflow superimposed on four secondary eddies situated in the four quadrants of the cross-section. The paper documents the temperature variation around the wall of a pipe, in a moderate Rayleigh number range not documented previously.