- Buranda, T. and Lopez, G. P. and Keij, J. and Harris, R. and Sklar, L. A., Peptides, antibodies, and. FRET on beads in flow cytometry: A model system using fluoresceinated and biotinylated beta-endorphin,
CYTOMETRY, vol. 37 no. 1
pp. 21--31 .
(last updated on 2010/02/08)
Background: Particulate surfaces such as beds are routinely used as platforms for molecular assembly for fundamental and practical applications in flow cytometry. Molecular assembly is transduced as the direct analysis of fluorescence, or as a result of fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Binding of fluorescent ligands to beads sometimes alters their emission yield relative to the unbound ligands. Characterizing the physical basis of factors that regulate the fluorescence yield of bound fluorophores (on beads) is a necessary step toward their rational use as mediators of numerous fluorescence based applications. Methods: We have examined the binding between two biotinylated and fluoresceinated beta-endorphin peptides and commercial streptavidin beads using flow cytometric analysis. We have analyzed the assembly between a specific monoclonal antibody and an endorphin. peptide in solution using resonance energy transfer and compared the results on beads in flow cytometry using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence. Results;: We have defined conditions for binding biotinylated and fluoresceinated endorphin peptides to beads. These measurements suggest that the peptide structure can influence both the intensity of fluorescence and the mode of peptide binding on the bead surface. We have defined conditions for binding antibody to the bead using biotinylated protein A. We compared and contrasted the interactions between the fluoresceinated endorphin peptide and the rhodamine- labeled antibody. In solution rye measure a K-d of <38 nM by resonance energy transfer and on beads 22 nM. Discussion: Some issues important to the modular assembly of a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) based sensing scheme have been resolved. The affinity of peptides used herein is a function of their solubility in water, and the emission intensity of the bound species depends on the separation distance between the fluorescein and the biotin moiety. This is due to the quasi-specific quenching interaction between the fluorescein and a proximal binding pocket of streptavidin. Detection of antibodies in solution and on beads either by FRET or capture of fluorescent ligands by dark antibodies subsequently enables the determination of K-d values, which indicate agreement between solution and flow cytometric determinations. (C) 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.