- Lind, J.H. and Jones, P.L. and Pearsall, G.W., A positron annihilation lifetime study of isotactic polypropylene,
J. Polym. Sci. A, Polym. Chem. (USA), vol. 24 no. 11
pp. 3033 - 47 .
(last updated on 2007/04/10)
Positron lifetime studies were performed on well-characterized annealed and quenched samples of isotactic polypropylene. The positron experiments were conducted from -20 to 110°C as a function of both heating and cooling. Of the three decaying exponential components resolved from the lifetime spectra, only the long-lifetime ortho-positronium (o-Ps) pickoff component was affected by the changes in temperature. The behavior of both the lifetime and intensity of the o-Ps component was interpreted with the aid of X-ray diffraction, densitometry, and optical microscopy examinations and results from previously reported investigations of the thermal transition behavior of polypropylene. The experiments demonstrate that o-Ps lifetimes were similar for both the annealed and quenched samples, independent of thermal cycling, while the o-Ps component intensity was significantly larger for the quenched material during heating, with both sample types exhibiting a significant hysteresis upon cooling. These results suggest that the mean free-volume cavity size is independent of prior thermal treatment, while the density of free-volume sites is a sensitive function of structure and prior thermal history. The variations of lifetime and of intensity with temperature have provided insight into polypropylene's glass transition phenomena
annealing;polymers;positron annihilation in liquids and solids;quenching (thermal);