Papers Published

  1. Tachibana, T. and Williams, B.E. and Glass, J.T., Correlation of the electrical properties of metal contacts on diamond films with the chemical nature of the metal-diamond interface. II. Titanium contacts: a carbide-forming metal, Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter (USA), vol. 45 no. 20 (1992), pp. 11975 - 81 [PhysRevB.45.11975] .
    (last updated on 2012/07/14)

    Abstract:
    For pt.I see ibid. vol.45, no.20, p.11968 (1992). The I-V characteristics of titanium contacts on polycrystalline diamond have been correlated with X-ray-photoelectron-spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger-electron-spectroscopy (AES) characterizations of the interface. As-deposited titanium contacts were rectifying in nature because of minimal interaction between as-deposited titanium and diamond as confirmed via XPS and AES. Once annealed, however, these contacts became Ohmic. The change was related to the formation of a carbide at the interface as observed by XPS. The Schottky-barrier height of the titanium contacts, which was determined by valence-band XPS, decreased from 1.3 to 0.8 eV as a result of the postdeposition annealing. It is believed that the carbide formation at the interface creates a diamond surface layer rich in electrically active defects which lower the barrier height of the metal and increase the leakage current. The interface between titanium and an argon-sputtered diamond surface was also characterized. Titanium formed as-deposited Ohmic contacts on the sputtered surface. A high density of ion-radiation-induced defects and a formation of a carbide during deposition both contributed to the Ohmic-contact formation. These contacts remained Ohmic after postdeposition annealing despite the fact that the annealing did not increase the carbide formed at the interface. It is believed that the carbide formed by the deposition of titanium behaved as a diffusion barrier to prevent the damaged layer from being annealed out into the titanium overlayer. It is concluded that most materials will yield rectifying contacts on a clean diamond surface. Ohmic contacts can be obtained by modifying the interface in some way (i.e., carbide formation, sputtering, etc.)

    Keywords:
    annealing;Auger effect;diamond;elemental semiconductors;leakage currents;ohmic contacts;Schottky effect;semiconductor-metal boundaries;titanium;valence bands;X-ray photoelectron spectra;