- Kunder, C. A. and John, A. L. S. and Li, G. J. and Leong, K. W. and Berwin, B. and Staats, H. F. and Abraham, S. N., Mast cell-derived particles deliver peripheral signals to remote lymph nodes,
Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 206 no. 11
pp. 2455-2467 .
(last updated on 2010/06/11)
During infection, signals from the periphery are known to reach draining lymph nodes (DLNs), but how these molecules, such as inflammatory cytokines, traverse the significant distances involved without dilution or degradation remains unclear. We show that peripheral mast cells, upon activation, release stable submicrometer heparin-based particles containing tumor necrosis factor and other proteins. These complexes enter lymphatic vessels and rapidly traffic to the DLNs. This physiological drug delivery system facilitates communication between peripheral sites of inflammation and remote secondary lymphoid tissues.
tumor-necrosis-factor high endothelial venules tnf-alpha heparan-sulfate growth-factor t-cells degranulation release granules mechanism