Publications of Justin P. Wright    :chronological  alphabetical  combined listing:

%% Papers Published   
@article{fds348774,
   Author = {Kuppler, J and Albert, CH and Ames, GM and Armbruster, WS and Boenisch,
             G and Boucher, FC and Campbell, DR and Carneiro, LT and Chacón-Madrigal, E and Enquist, BJ and Fonseca, CR and Gómez, JM and Guisan, A and Higuchi, P and Karger, DN and Kattge, J and Kleyer, M and Kraft, NJB and Larue-Kontić, AAC and Lázaro, A and Lechleitner, M and Loughnan, D and Minden, V and Niinemets, Ü and Overbeck, GE and Parachnowitsch, AL and Perfectti, F and Pillar, VD and Schellenberger
             Costa, D and Sletvold, N and Stang, M and Alves-dos-Santos, I and Streit, H and Wright, J and Zych, M and Junker, RR},
   Title = {Global gradients in intraspecific variation in vegetative
             and floral traits are partially associated with climate and
             species richness},
   Journal = {Global Ecology and Biogeography},
   Volume = {29},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {992-1007},
   Year = {2020},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/geb.13077},
   Abstract = {© 2020 The Authors. Global Ecology and Biogeography
             published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd Aim: Intraspecific trait
             variation (ITV) within natural plant communities can be
             large, influencing local ecological processes and dynamics.
             Here, we shed light on how ITV in vegetative and floral
             traits responds to large-scale abiotic and biotic gradients
             (i.e., climate and species richness). Specifically, we
             tested whether associations of ITV with temperature,
             precipitation and species richness were consistent with any
             of four hypotheses relating to stress tolerance and
             competition. Furthermore, we estimated the degree of
             correlation between ITV in vegetative and floral traits and
             how they vary along the gradients. Location: Global. Time
             period: 1975–2016. Major taxa studied: Herbaceous and
             woody plants. Methods: We compiled a dataset of 18,401
             measurements of the absolute extent of ITV (measured as the
             coefficient of variation) in nine vegetative and seven
             floral traits from 2,822 herbaceous and woody species at
             2,372 locations. Results: Large-scale associations between
             ITV and climate were trait specific and more prominent for
             vegetative traits, especially leaf morphology, than for
             floral traits. The ITV showed pronounced associations with
             climate, with lower ITV values in colder areas and higher
             values in drier areas. The associations of ITV with species
             richness were inconsistent across traits. Species-specific
             associations across gradients were often idiosyncratic, and
             covariation in ITV was weaker between vegetative and floral
             traits than within the two trait groups. Main conclusions:
             Our results show that, depending on the traits considered,
             ITV either increased or decreased with climate stress and
             species richness, suggesting that both factors can constrain
             or enhance ITV, which might foster plant-population
             persistence in stressful conditions. Given the
             species-specific responses and covariation in ITV,
             associations can be hard to predict for traits and species
             not yet studied. We conclude that consideration of ITV can
             improve our understanding of how plants cope with stressful
             conditions and environmental change across spatial and
             biological scales.},
   Doi = {10.1111/geb.13077},
   Key = {fds348774}
}

@article{fds349765,
   Author = {Firn, J and McGree, JM and Harvey, E and Flores-Moreno, H and Schütz,
             M and Buckley, YM and Borer, ET and Seabloom, EW and La Pierre and KJ and MacDougall, AM and Prober, SM and Stevens, CJ and Sullivan, LL and Porter, E and Ladouceur, E and Allen, C and Moromizato, KH and Morgan,
             JW and Harpole, WS and Hautier, Y and Eisenhauer, N and Wright, JP and Adler, PB and Arnillas, CA and Bakker, JD and Biederman, L and Broadbent, AAD and Brown, CS and Bugalho, MN and Caldeira, MC and Cleland, EE and Ebeling, A and Fay, PA and Hagenah, N and Kleinhesselink, AR and Mitchell, R and Moore, JL and Nogueira, C and Peri, PL and Roscher, C and Smith, MD and Wragg, PD and Risch,
             AC},
   Title = {Author Correction: Leaf nutrients, not specific leaf area,
             are consistent indicators of elevated nutrient
             inputs.},
   Journal = {Nature Ecology and Evolution},
   Volume = {4},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {886-891},
   Year = {2020},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41559-020-1213-7},
   Abstract = {An amendment to this paper has been published and can be
             accessed via a link at the top of the paper.},
   Doi = {10.1038/s41559-020-1213-7},
   Key = {fds349765}
}

@article{fds349482,
   Author = {Koltz, AM and Wright, JP},
   Title = {Impacts of female body size on cannibalism and juvenile
             abundance in a dominant arctic spider.},
   Journal = {The Journal of Animal Ecology},
   Year = {2020},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.13230},
   Abstract = {Body size influences an individual's physiology and the
             nature of its intra- and interspecific interactions. Changes
             in this key functional trait can therefore have important
             implications for populations as well. For example, among
             invertebrates, there is typically a positive correlation
             between female body size and reproductive output. Increasing
             body size can consequently trigger changes in population
             density, population structure (e.g. adult to juvenile ratio)
             and the strength of intraspecific competition. Body size
             changes have been documented in several species in the
             Arctic, a region that is warming rapidly. In particular,
             wolf spiders, one of the most abundant arctic invertebrate
             predators, are becoming larger and therefore more fecund.
             Whether these changes are affecting their populations and
             role within food webs is currently unclear. We investigated
             the population structure and feeding ecology of the dominant
             wolf spider species Pardosa lapponica at two tundra sites
             where adult spiders naturally differ in mean body size.
             Additionally, we performed a mesocosm experiment to
             investigate how variation in wolf spider density, which is
             likely to change as a function of body size, influences
             feeding ecology and its sensitivity to warming. We found
             that juvenile abundance is negatively associated with female
             size and that wolf spiders occupied higher trophic positions
             where adult females were larger. Because female body size is
             positively related to fecundity in P. lapponica, the
             unexpected finding of fewer juveniles with larger females
             suggests an increase in density-dependent cannibalism as a
             result of increased intraspecific competition for resources.
             Higher rates of density-dependent cannibalism are further
             supported by the results from our mesocosm experiment, in
             which individuals occupied higher trophic positions in plots
             with higher wolf spider densities. We observed no changes in
             wolf spider feeding ecology in association with short-term
             experimental warming. Our results suggest that body size
             variation in wolf spiders is associated with variation in
             intraspecific competition, feeding ecology and population
             structure. Given the widespread distribution of wolf spiders
             in arctic ecosystems, body size shifts in these predators as
             a result of climate change could have implications for lower
             trophic levels and for ecosystem functioning.},
   Doi = {10.1111/1365-2656.13230},
   Key = {fds349482}
}

@article{fds347735,
   Author = {Rocca, JD and Simonin, M and Bernhardt, ES and Washburne, AD and Wright,
             JP},
   Title = {Rare microbial taxa emerge when communities collide:
             freshwater and marine microbiome responses to experimental
             mixing.},
   Journal = {Ecology},
   Volume = {101},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {e02956},
   Year = {2020},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2956},
   Abstract = {Whole microbial communities regularly merge with one
             another, often in tandem with their environments, in a
             process called community coalescence. Such events impose
             substantial changes: abiotic perturbation from environmental
             blending and biotic perturbation of community merging. We
             used an aquatic mixing experiment to unravel the effects of
             these perturbations on the whole microbiome response and on
             the success of individual taxa when distinct freshwater and
             marine communities coalesce. We found that an equal mix of
             freshwater and marine habitats and blended microbiomes
             resulted in strong convergence of the community structure
             toward that of the marine microbiome. The enzymatic
             potential of these blended microbiomes in mixed media also
             converged toward that of the marine, with strong
             correlations between the multivariate response patterns of
             the enzymes and of community structure. Exposing each
             endmember inocula to an axenic equal mix of their freshwater
             and marine source waters led to a 96% loss of taxa from our
             freshwater microbiomes and a 66% loss from our marine
             microbiomes. When both inocula were added together to this
             mixed environment, interactions amongst the communities led
             to a further loss of 29% and 49% of freshwater and marine
             taxa, respectively. Under both the axenic and competitive
             scenarios, the diversity lost was somewhat counterbalanced
             by increased abundance of microbial taxa that were too rare
             to detect in the initial inocula. Our study emphasizes the
             importance of the rare biosphere as a critical component of
             microbial community responses to community
             coalescence.},
   Doi = {10.1002/ecy.2956},
   Key = {fds347735}
}

@article{fds342573,
   Author = {Ury, EA and Anderson, SM and Peet, RK and Bernhardt, ES and Wright,
             JP},
   Title = {Succession, regression and loss: does evidence of saltwater
             exposure explain recent changes in the tree communities of
             North Carolina's Coastal Plain?},
   Journal = {Annals of Botany},
   Volume = {125},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {255-264},
   Year = {2020},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcz039},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Coastal plant communities globally are
             highly vulnerable to future sea-level rise and storm damage,
             but the extent to which these habitats are affected by the
             various environmental perturbations associated with chronic
             salinization remains unclear. In this study, we examine the
             relationship between North Carolina wetland tree community
             composition and basal area change and indicators of
             salinization such as soil salt ion content and elevation.
             METHODS:We surveyed 34 forest plots in forested, freshwater
             wetlands across the Albemarle-Pamlico Peninsula. A subset of
             our study sites had been sampled during the previous decade
             as part of the Carolina Vegetation Survey, enabling us to
             investigate the environmental effects on current community
             structure, and community change over time. KEY
             RESULTS:Multi-variate (ordination) analysis and linear
             regression models of tree community composition revealed
             that elevation and soil salt content were correlated with
             changes in total site tree basal area. Shifts in tree
             community composition were, however, only weakly correlated
             with indicators of salinization, specifically elevation,
             soil sulphate and sodium, but not chloride. While the
             majority of plots experienced gains in basal area over the
             past decade, consistent with secondary succession, sites
             with high soil salt content or low elevation experienced
             basal area (biomass) loss during the same period.
             CONCLUSIONS:The key factors associated with chronic
             saltwater intrusion (soil ion content) likely explain recent
             changes in tree biomass, and potential shifts in community
             composition in low-elevation sites along the North Carolina
             coast. Not only is it probable that other coastal forest
             ecosystems worldwide will experience similar stressors and
             shifts in community biomass and structure as sea levels
             rise, but the ability of these habitats to deliver key
             ecosystem services like carbon sequestration and flood
             defence will be compromised as a result.},
   Doi = {10.1093/aob/mcz039},
   Key = {fds342573}
}

@article{fds348008,
   Author = {Kattge, J and Bönisch, G and Díaz, S and Lavorel, S and Prentice, IC and Leadley, P and Tautenhahn, S and Werner, GDA and Aakala, T and Abedi, M and Acosta, ATR and Adamidis, GC and Adamson, K and Aiba, M and Albert, CH and Alcántara, JM and Alcázar C and C and Aleixo, I and Ali, H and Amiaud, B and Ammer, C and Amoroso, MM and Anand, M and Anderson, C and Anten, N and Antos, J and Apgaua, DMG and Ashman, T-L and Asmara, DH and Asner, GP and Aspinwall, M and Atkin, O and Aubin, I and Baastrup-Spohr, L and Bahalkeh, K and Bahn, M and Baker, T and Baker, WJ and Bakker, JP and Baldocchi, D and Baltzer, J and Banerjee, A and Baranger, A and Barlow,
             J and Barneche, DR and Baruch, Z and Bastianelli, D and Battles, J and Bauerle, W and Bauters, M and Bazzato, E and Beckmann, M and Beeckman,
             H and Beierkuhnlein, C and Bekker, R and Belfry, G and Belluau, M and Beloiu, M and Benavides, R and Benomar, L and Berdugo-Lattke, ML and Berenguer, E and Bergamin, R and Bergmann, J and Bergmann Carlucci,
             M and Berner, L and Bernhardt-Römermann, M and Bigler, C and Bjorkman,
             AD and Blackman, C and Blanco, C and Blonder, B and Blumenthal, D and Bocanegra-González, KT and Boeckx, P and Bohlman, S and Böhning-Gaese, K and Boisvert-Marsh, L and Bond, W and Bond-Lamberty, B and Boom, A and Boonman, CCF and Bordin, K and Boughton, EH and Boukili, V and Bowman, DMJS and Bravo, S and Brendel,
             MR and Broadley, MR and Brown, KA and Bruelheide, H and Brumnich, F and Bruun, HH and Bruy, D and Buchanan, SW and Bucher, SF and Buchmann, N and Buitenwerf, R and Bunker, DE and Bürger, J and Burrascano, S and Burslem, DFRP and Butterfield, BJ and Byun, C and Marques, M and Scalon,
             MC and Caccianiga, M and Cadotte, M and Cailleret, M and Camac, J and Camarero, JJ and Campany, C and Campetella, G and Campos, JA and Cano-Arboleda, L and Canullo, R and Carbognani, M and Carvalho, F and Casanoves, F and Castagneyrol, B and Catford, JA and Cavender-Bares,
             J and Cerabolini, BEL and Cervellini, M and Chacón-Madrigal, E and Chapin, K and Chapin, FS and Chelli, S and Chen, S-C and Chen, A and Cherubini, P and Chianucci, F and Choat, B and Chung, K-S and Chytrý,
             M and Ciccarelli, D and Coll, L and Collins, CG and Conti, L and Coomes, D and Cornelissen, JHC and Cornwell, WK and Corona, P and Coyea, M and Craine,
             J and Craven, D and Cromsigt, JPGM and Csecserits, A and Cufar, K and Cuntz, M and da Silva, AC and Dahlin, KM and Dainese, M and Dalke, I and Dalle Fratte and M and Dang-Le, AT and Danihelka, J and Dannoura, M and Dawson, S and de Beer, AJ and De Frutos and A and De Long, JR and Dechant,
             B and Delagrange, S and Delpierre, N and Derroire, G and Dias, AS and Diaz-Toribio, MH and Dimitrakopoulos, PG and Dobrowolski, M and Doktor, D and Dřevojan, P and Dong, N and Dransfield, J and Dressler,
             S and Duarte, L and Ducouret, E and Dullinger, S and Durka, W and Duursma,
             R and Dymova, O and E-Vojtkó, A and Eckstein, RL and Ejtehadi, H and Elser, J and Emilio, T and Engemann, K and Erfanian, MB and Erfmeier, A and Esquivel-Muelbert, A and Esser, G and Estiarte, M and Domingues, TF and Fagan, WF and Fagúndez, J and Falster, DS and Fan, Y and Fang, J and Farris, E and Fazlioglu, F and Feng, Y and Fernandez-Mendez, F and Ferrara, C and Ferreira, J and Fidelis, A and Finegan, B and Firn, J and Flowers, TJ and Flynn, DFB and Fontana, V and Forey, E and Forgiarini,
             C and François, L and Frangipani, M and Frank, D and Frenette-Dussault,
             C and Freschet, GT and Fry, EL and Fyllas, NM and Mazzochini, GG and Gachet, S and Gallagher, R and Ganade, G and Ganga, F and García-Palacios, P and Gargaglione, V and Garnier, E and Garrido,
             JL and de Gasper, AL and Gea-Izquierdo, G and Gibson, D and Gillison,
             AN and Giroldo, A and Glasenhardt, M-C and Gleason, S and Gliesch, M and Goldberg, E and Göldel, B and Gonzalez-Akre, E and Gonzalez-Andujar,
             JL and González-Melo, A and González-Robles, A and Graae, BJ and Granda, E and Graves, S and Green, WA and Gregor, T and Gross, N and Guerin, GR and Günther, A and Gutiérrez, AG and Haddock, L and Haines,
             A and Hall, J and Hambuckers, A and Han, W and Harrison, SP and Hattingh,
             W and Hawes, JE and He, T and He, P and Heberling, JM and Helm, A and Hempel,
             S and Hentschel, J and Hérault, B and Hereş, A-M and Herz, K and Heuertz,
             M and Hickler, T and Hietz, P and Higuchi, P and Hipp, AL and Hirons, A and Hock, M and Hogan, JA and Holl, K and Honnay, O and Hornstein, D and Hou,
             E and Hough-Snee, N and Hovstad, KA and Ichie, T and Igić, B and Illa, E and Isaac, M and Ishihara, M and Ivanov, L and Ivanova, L and Iversen, CM and Izquierdo, J and Jackson, RB and Jackson, B and Jactel, H and Jagodzinski, AM and Jandt, U and Jansen, S and Jenkins, T and Jentsch,
             A and Jespersen, JRP and Jiang, G-F and Johansen, JL and Johnson, D and Jokela, EJ and Joly, CA and Jordan, GJ and Joseph, GS and Junaedi, D and Junker, RR and Justes, E and Kabzems, R and Kane, J and Kaplan, Z and Kattenborn, T and Kavelenova, L and Kearsley, E and Kempel, A and Kenzo,
             T and Kerkhoff, A and Khalil, MI and Kinlock, NL and Kissling, WD and Kitajima, K and Kitzberger, T and Kjøller, R and Klein, T and Kleyer,
             M and Klimešová, J and Klipel, J and Kloeppel, B and Klotz, S and Knops,
             JMH and Kohyama, T and Koike, F and Kollmann, J and Komac, B and Komatsu,
             K and König, C and Kraft, NJB and Kramer, K and Kreft, H and Kühn, I and Kumarathunge, D and Kuppler, J and Kurokawa, H and Kurosawa, Y and Kuyah, S and Laclau, J-P and Lafleur, B and Lallai, E and Lamb, E and Lamprecht, A and Larkin, DJ and Laughlin, D and Le Bagousse-Pinguet,
             Y and le Maire, G and le Roux, PC and le Roux, E and Lee, T and Lens, F and Lewis, SL and Lhotsky, B and Li, Y and Li, X and Lichstein, JW and Liebergesell, M and Lim, JY and Lin, Y-S and Linares, JC and Liu, C and Liu, D and Liu, U and Livingstone, S and Llusià, J and Lohbeck, M and López-García, Á and Lopez-Gonzalez, G and Lososová, Z and Louault, F and Lukács, BA and Lukeš, P and Luo, Y and Lussu, M and Ma, S and Maciel Rabelo Pereira and C and Mack, M and Maire, V and Mäkelä, A and Mäkinen, H and Malhado, ACM and Mallik, A and Manning, P and Manzoni,
             S and Marchetti, Z and Marchino, L and Marcilio-Silva, V and Marcon, E and Marignani, M and Markesteijn, L and Martin, A and Martínez-Garza, C and Martínez-Vilalta, J and Mašková, T and Mason, K and Mason, N and Massad, TJ and Masse, J and Mayrose, I and McCarthy, J and McCormack,
             ML and McCulloh, K and McFadden, IR and McGill, BJ and McPartland, MY and Medeiros, JS and Medlyn, B and Meerts, P and Mehrabi, Z and Meir, P and Melo, FPL and Mencuccini, M and Meredieu, C and Messier, J and Mészáros, I and Metsaranta, J and Michaletz, ST and Michelaki, C and Migalina, S and Milla, R and Miller, JED and Minden, V and Ming, R and Mokany, K and Moles, AT and Molnár, A and Molofsky, J and Molz, M and Montgomery, RA and Monty, A and Moravcová, L and Moreno-Martínez,
             A and Moretti, M and Mori, AS and Mori, S and Morris, D and Morrison, J and Mucina, L and Mueller, S and Muir, CD and Müller, SC and Munoz, F and Myers-Smith, IH and Myster, RW and Nagano, M and Naidu, S and Narayanan,
             A and Natesan, B and Negoita, L and Nelson, AS and Neuschulz, EL and Ni, J and Niedrist, G and Nieto, J and Niinemets, Ü and Nolan, R and Nottebrock,
             H and Nouvellon, Y and Novakovskiy, A and Nutrient Network, and Nystuen, KO and O'Grady, A and O'Hara, K and O'Reilly-Nugent, A and Oakley, S and Oberhuber, W and Ohtsuka, T and Oliveira, R and Öllerer,
             K and Olson, ME and Onipchenko, V and Onoda, Y and Onstein, RE and Ordonez,
             JC and Osada, N and Ostonen, I and Ottaviani, G and Otto, S and Overbeck,
             GE and Ozinga, WA and Pahl, AT and Paine, CET and Pakeman, RJ and Papageorgiou, AC and Parfionova, E and Pärtel, M and Patacca, M and Paula, S and Paule, J and Pauli, H and Pausas, JG et
             al.},
   Title = {TRY plant trait database - enhanced coverage and open
             access.},
   Journal = {Global Change Biology},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {119-188},
   Year = {2020},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14904},
   Abstract = {Plant traits-the morphological, anatomical, physiological,
             biochemical and phenological characteristics of
             plants-determine how plants respond to environmental
             factors, affect other trophic levels, and influence
             ecosystem properties and their benefits and detriments to
             people. Plant trait data thus represent the basis for a vast
             area of research spanning from evolutionary biology,
             community and functional ecology, to biodiversity
             conservation, ecosystem and landscape management,
             restoration, biogeography and earth system modelling. Since
             its foundation in 2007, the TRY database of plant traits has
             grown continuously. It now provides unprecedented data
             coverage under an open access data policy and is the main
             plant trait database used by the research community
             worldwide. Increasingly, the TRY database also supports new
             frontiers of trait-based plant research, including the
             identification of data gaps and the subsequent mobilization
             or measurement of new data. To support this development, in
             this article we evaluate the extent of the trait data
             compiled in TRY and analyse emerging patterns of data
             coverage and representativeness. Best species coverage is
             achieved for categorical traits-almost complete coverage for
             'plant growth form'. However, most traits relevant for
             ecology and vegetation modelling are characterized by
             continuous intraspecific variation and trait-environmental
             relationships. These traits have to be measured on
             individual plants in their respective environment. Despite
             unprecedented data coverage, we observe a humbling lack of
             completeness and representativeness of these continuous
             traits in many aspects. We, therefore, conclude that
             reducing data gaps and biases in the TRY database remains a
             key challenge and requires a coordinated approach to data
             mobilization and trait measurements. This can only be
             achieved in collaboration with other initiatives.},
   Doi = {10.1111/gcb.14904},
   Key = {fds348008}
}

@article{fds342123,
   Author = {Cleland, EE and Lind, EM and DeCrappeo, NM and DeLorenze, E and Wilkins,
             RA and Adler, PB and Bakker, JD and Brown, CS and Davies, KF and Esch, E and Firn, J and Gressard, S and Gruner, DS and Hagenah, N and Harpole, WS and Hautier, Y and Hobbie, SE and Hofmockel, KS and Kirkman, K and Knops, J and Kopp, CW and La Pierre and KJ and MacDougall, A and McCulley, RL and Melbourne, BA and Moore, JL and Prober, SM and Riggs, C and Risch, AC and Schuetz, M and Stevens, C and Wragg, PD and Wright, J and Borer, ET and Seabloom, EW},
   Title = {Belowground Biomass Response to Nutrient Enrichment Depends
             on Light Limitation Across Globally Distributed
             Grasslands},
   Journal = {Ecosystems},
   Volume = {22},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {1466-1477},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10021-019-00350-4},
   Abstract = {© 2019, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of
             Springer Nature. Anthropogenic activities are increasing
             nutrient inputs to ecosystems worldwide, with consequences
             for global carbon and nutrient cycles. Recent meta-analyses
             show that aboveground primary production is often co-limited
             by multiple nutrients; however, little is known about how
             root production responds to changes in nutrient
             availability. At twenty-nine grassland sites on four
             continents, we quantified shallow root biomass responses to
             nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium plus
             micronutrient enrichment and compared below- and aboveground
             responses. We hypothesized that optimal allocation theory
             would predict context dependence in root biomass responses
             to nutrient enrichment, given variation among sites in the
             resources limiting to plant growth (specifically light
             versus nutrients). Consistent with the predictions of
             optimal allocation theory, the proportion of total biomass
             belowground declined with N or P addition, due to increased
             biomass aboveground (for N and P) and decreased biomass
             belowground (N, particularly in sites with low canopy light
             penetration). Absolute root biomass increased with N
             addition where light was abundant at the soil surface, but
             declined in sites where the grassland canopy intercepted a
             large proportion of incoming light. These results
             demonstrate that belowground responses to changes in
             resource supply can differ strongly from aboveground
             responses, which could significantly modify predictions of
             future rates of nutrient cycling and carbon sequestration.
             Our results also highlight how optimal allocation theory
             developed for individual plants may help predict belowground
             biomass responses to nutrient enrichment at the ecosystem
             scale across wide climatic and environmental
             gradients.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s10021-019-00350-4},
   Key = {fds342123}
}

@article{fds343510,
   Author = {Simonin, M and Voss, KA and Hassett, BA and Rocca, JD and Wang, S-Y and Bier, RL and Violin, CR and Wright, JP and Bernhardt,
             ES},
   Title = {In search of microbial indicator taxa: shifts in stream
             bacterial communities along an urbanization
             gradient.},
   Journal = {Environmental Microbiology},
   Volume = {21},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {3653-3668},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.14694},
   Abstract = {A majority of environmental studies describe microbiomes at
             coarse scales of taxonomic resolution (bacterial community,
             phylum), ignoring key ecological knowledge gained from
             finer-scales and microbial indicator taxa. Here, we
             characterized the distribution of 940 bacterial taxa from 41
             streams along an urbanization gradient (0%-83% developed
             watershed area) in the Raleigh-Durham area of North Carolina
             (USA). Using statistical approaches derived from
             macro-organismal ecology, we found that more bacterial taxa
             were classified as intolerant than as tolerant to increasing
             watershed urbanization (143 vs 48 OTUs), and we identified a
             threshold of 12.1% developed watershed area beyond which the
             majority of intolerant taxa were lost from streams. Two
             bacterial families strongly decreased with urbanization:
             Acidobacteriaceae (Acidobacteria) and Xanthobacteraceae
             (Alphaproteobacteria). Tolerant taxa were broadly
             distributed throughout the bacterial phylogeny, with members
             of the Comamonadaceae family (Betaproteobacteria) presenting
             the highest number of tolerant taxa. Shifts in microbial
             community structure were strongly correlated with a stream
             biotic index, based on macroinvertebrate composition,
             suggesting that microbial assemblages could be used to
             establish biotic criteria for monitoring aquatic ecosystems.
             In addition, our study shows that classic methods in
             community ecology can be applied to microbiome datasets to
             identify reliable microbial indicator taxa and determine the
             environmental constraints on individual taxa distributions
             along environmental gradients.},
   Doi = {10.1111/1462-2920.14694},
   Key = {fds343510}
}

@article{fds348949,
   Author = {Beirne, C and Nuñez, CL and Baldino, M and Kim, S and Knorr, J and Minich,
             T and Jin, L and Xiao, S and Mbamy, W and Obiang, GN and Masseloux, J and Nkoghe, T and Ebanega, MO and Rundel, C and Wright, JP and Poulsen,
             JR},
   Title = {Estimation of gut passage time of wild, free roaming forest
             elephants},
   Journal = {Wildlife Biology},
   Volume = {2019},
   Number = {1},
   Publisher = {Wildlife Biology},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2981/wlb.00543},
   Doi = {10.2981/wlb.00543},
   Key = {fds348949}
}

@article{fds344729,
   Author = {Craig, ME and Flory, SL and Lovko, N and Phillips, RP and Wright,
             JP},
   Title = {Impacts of an invasive grass on soil organic matter pools
             vary across a tree-mycorrhizal gradient},
   Journal = {Biogeochemistry},
   Volume = {144},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {149-164},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10533-019-00577-2},
   Abstract = {Increases in carbon (C) inputs can augment soil organic
             matter (SOM), or reduce SOM by accelerating decomposition.
             Thus, there is a need to understand how and why ecosystems
             differ in their sensitivity to C inputs. Invasive plants
             that invade wide-ranging habitats, accumulate biomass
             rapidly, and contribute copious amounts of C to soil can be
             ideal for addressing this gap. We quantified the effects of
             the invasive C4 grass, Microstegium vimineum, on SOM in
             three temperate forests across plots varying in their
             relative abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) versus
             ectomycorrhizal (ECM) trees. We hypothesized that invasion
             would differentially affect SOM along the mycorrhizal
             gradient owing to recognized patterns in nitrogen
             availability (AM > ECM) and the proportion of unprotected
             SOM (ECM > AM). Across all sites, M. vimineum was associated
             with lower particulate organic matter (POM) in ECM-dominated
             plots, consistent with our hypothesis that invader-derived C
             inputs should stimulate decomposers to acquire nitrogen from
             unprotected SOM in soils with low nitrogen availability.
             However, the pattern of lower POM in the ECM-dominated soils
             was offset by greater mineral-associated organic matter
             (MAOM)—and isotopic data suggest this was largely driven
             by native- rather than invader-derived SOM—implying an
             invasion-associated transfer of native-derived POM into
             MAOM. Our results demonstrate a context-dependent shift in
             the form of SOM in a system with presumably enhanced C
             inputs. This finding suggests a need to look beyond changes
             in total SOM stocks, as intrinsic SOM changes could lead to
             important long-term feedbacks on invasion or priming
             effects.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s10533-019-00577-2},
   Key = {fds344729}
}

@article{fds341432,
   Author = {Firn, J and McGree, JM and Harvey, E and Flores-Moreno, H and Schütz,
             M and Buckley, YM and Borer, ET and Seabloom, EW and La Pierre and KJ and MacDougall, AM and Prober, SM and Stevens, CJ and Sullivan, LL and Porter, E and Ladouceur, E and Allen, C and Moromizato, KH and Morgan,
             JW and Harpole, WS and Hautier, Y and Eisenhauer, N and Wright, JP and Adler, PB and Arnillas, CA and Bakker, JD and Biederman, L and Broadbent, AAD and Brown, CS and Bugalho, MN and Caldeira, MC and Cleland, EE and Ebeling, A and Fay, PA and Hagenah, N and Kleinhesselink, AR and Mitchell, R and Moore, JL and Nogueira, C and Peri, PL and Roscher, C and Smith, MD and Wragg, PD and Risch,
             AC},
   Title = {Leaf nutrients, not specific leaf area, are consistent
             indicators of elevated nutrient inputs.},
   Journal = {Nature Ecology and Evolution},
   Volume = {3},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {400-406},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41559-018-0790-1},
   Abstract = {Leaf traits are frequently measured in ecology to provide a
             'common currency' for predicting how anthropogenic pressures
             impact ecosystem function. Here, we test whether leaf traits
             consistently respond to experimental treatments across 27
             globally distributed grassland sites across 4 continents. We
             find that specific leaf area (leaf area per unit mass)-a
             commonly measured morphological trait inferring shifts
             between plant growth strategies-did not respond to up to
             four years of soil nutrient additions. Leaf nitrogen,
             phosphorus and potassium concentrations increased in
             response to the addition of each respective soil nutrient.
             We found few significant changes in leaf traits when
             vertebrate herbivores were excluded in the short-term. Leaf
             nitrogen and potassium concentrations were positively
             correlated with species turnover, suggesting that
             interspecific trait variation was a significant predictor of
             leaf nitrogen and potassium, but not of leaf phosphorus
             concentration. Climatic conditions and pretreatment soil
             nutrient levels also accounted for significant amounts of
             variation in the leaf traits measured. Overall, we find that
             leaf morphological traits, such as specific leaf area, are
             not appropriate indicators of plant response to
             anthropogenic perturbations in grasslands.},
   Doi = {10.1038/s41559-018-0790-1},
   Key = {fds341432}
}

@article{fds341476,
   Author = {Ficken, CD and Justin P. Wright},
   Title = {Nitrogen uptake and biomass resprouting show contrasting
             relationships with resource acquisitive and conservative
             plant traits},
   Journal = {Journal of Vegetation Science},
   Volume = {30},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {65-74},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvs.12705},
   Abstract = {QUESTIONS: Disturbances can cause fluctuations in resource
             availability that influence plant performance. In systems
             with such dynamics, inter‐specific differences in resource
             capture may promote co‐existence by partitioning
             competition between periods of high or low resource
             availability. Such differences in resource use strategy have
             been described with the Plant Economics Spectrum, which
             hypothesizes that functions related to resource use and
             processing should co‐vary and can be predicted from plant
             traits. In pyrogenic systems, fires are associated with
             short‐term increases in soil nitrogen availability
             (“pulses”), and thus contribute to a fluctuating
             resource supply. In this study, we sought to understand
             whether plants differed in their capacity to capture a
             nitrogen pulse, and to what extent that ability influenced
             biomass recovery. METHODS: In two consecutive greenhouse
             experiments, we tested whether two functions — nitrogen
             assimilation (Experiment 1) and biomass regrowth after
             disturbance (Experiment 2) — co‐varied, and how each
             function corresponded to leaf and root functional traits.
             RESULTS: In Experiment 1, four co‐occurring shrubs
             differed in their temporal patterns of nitrogen uptake, and
             nitrogen uptake was positively correlated with
             resource‐acquisitive leaf traits (leaf percent nitrogen).
             In Experiment 2, the biomass regrowth of a resource
             acquisitive and a resource conservative species was the same
             regardless of competitive environment (i.e., when grown in
             pots of mixed‐species or same‐species pairs). Rather
             than being associated with the capture of new nitrogen,
             biomass resprouting of both species was associated with the
             size of below‐ground resource stores and specific root
             length. CONCLUSIONS: Our work suggests that resource
             acquisition and processing may be decoupled from each other
             after disturbance, and also highlights the need for explicit
             tests of the relationships between root traits and
             above‐ground plant function.},
   Doi = {10.1111/jvs.12705},
   Key = {fds341476}
}

@article{fds339392,
   Author = {Reese, AT and Pereira, FC and Schintlmeister, A and Berry, D and Wagner,
             M and Hale, LP and Wu, A and Jiang, S and Durand, HK and Zhou, X and Premont,
             RT and Diehl, AM and O'Connell, TM and Alberts, SC and Kartzinel, TR and Pringle, RM and Dunn, RR and Wright, JP and David,
             LA},
   Title = {Microbial nitrogen limitation in the mammalian large
             intestine.},
   Journal = {Nature Microbiology},
   Volume = {3},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {1441-1450},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41564-018-0267-7},
   Abstract = {Resource limitation is a fundamental factor governing the
             composition and function of ecological communities. However,
             the role of resource supply in structuring the intestinal
             microbiome has not been established and represents a
             challenge for mammals that rely on microbial symbionts for
             digestion: too little supply might starve the microbiome
             while too much might starve the host. We present evidence
             that microbiota occupy a habitat that is limited in total
             nitrogen supply within the large intestines of 30 mammal
             species. Lowering dietary protein levels in mice reduced
             their faecal concentrations of bacteria. A gradient of
             stoichiometry along the length of the gut was consistent
             with the hypothesis that intestinal nitrogen limitation
             results from host absorption of dietary nutrients. Nitrogen
             availability is also likely to be shaped by host-microbe
             interactions: levels of host-secreted nitrogen were altered
             in germ-free mice and when bacterial loads were reduced via
             experimental antibiotic treatment. Single-cell spectrometry
             revealed that members of the phylum Bacteroidetes consumed
             nitrogen in the large intestine more readily than other
             commensal taxa did. Our findings support a model where
             nitrogen limitation arises from preferential host use of
             dietary nutrients. We speculate that this resource
             limitation could enable hosts to regulate microbial
             communities in the large intestine. Commensal microbiota may
             have adapted to nitrogen-limited settings, suggesting one
             reason why excess dietary protein has been associated with
             degraded gut-microbial ecosystems.},
   Doi = {10.1038/s41564-018-0267-7},
   Key = {fds339392}
}

@article{fds339628,
   Author = {Lee, MR and Flory, SL and Phillips, RP and Wright,
             JP},
   Title = {Site conditions are more important than abundance for
             explaining plant invasion impacts on soil nitrogen
             cycling},
   Journal = {Ecosphere},
   Volume = {9},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {e02454-e02454},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.2454},
   Abstract = {© 2018 The Authors. Invasive plant species can alter
             critical ecosystem processes including nitrogen
             transformations, but it is often difficult to anticipate
             where in an invaded landscape, these effects will occur. Our
             predictive ability lags because we lack a framework for
             understanding the multiple pathways through which
             environmental conditions mediate invader impacts. Here, we
             present a framework using structural equation modeling to
             evaluate the impact of an invasive grass, Microstegium
             vimineum (M.v.), on nitrogen cycling based on a series of
             invaded sites that varied in invader biomass and non-M.v.
             understory biomass, tree basal area, light availability, and
             soil conditions. Unlike previous studies, we did not find an
             overall pattern of elevated nitrate concentrations or higher
             nitrification rates in M.v.-invaded areas. We found that
             reference plot conditions mediated differences in
             mineralization between paired invaded and reference plots at
             each site through indirect (via M.v. biomass), direct, and
             interactive pathways; however, the strongest pathways were
             independent of M.v. biomass. For example, sites with low
             reference soil nitrate and high non-M.v. understory biomass
             tended to have faster mineralization at 5–15 cm in
             invaded plots. These findings suggest that more attention to
             reference conditions is needed to understand the impact of
             invasive species on soil nitrogen cycling and other
             ecosystem processes and that the greatest impacts will not
             necessarily be where the invader is most
             abundant.},
   Doi = {10.1002/ecs2.2454},
   Key = {fds339628}
}

@article{fds337385,
   Author = {Hodapp, D and Borer, ET and Harpole, WS and Lind, EM and Seabloom, EW and Adler, PB and Alberti, J and Arnillas, CA and Bakker, JD and Biederman,
             L and Cadotte, M and Cleland, EE and Collins, S and Fay, PA and Firn, J and Hagenah, N and Hautier, Y and Iribarne, O and Knops, JMH and McCulley,
             RL and MacDougall, A and Moore, JL and Morgan, JW and Mortensen, B and La
             Pierre, KJ and Risch, AC and Schütz, M and Peri, P and Stevens, CJ and Wright, J and Hillebrand, H},
   Title = {Spatial heterogeneity in species composition constrains
             plant community responses to herbivory and
             fertilisation.},
   Journal = {Ecol Lett},
   Volume = {21},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {1364-1371},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ele.13102},
   Abstract = {Environmental change can result in substantial shifts in
             community composition. The associated immigration and
             extinction events are likely constrained by the spatial
             distribution of species. Still, studies on environmental
             change typically quantify biotic responses at single spatial
             (time series within a single plot) or temporal (spatial beta
             diversity at single time points) scales, ignoring their
             potential interdependence. Here, we use data from a global
             network of grassland experiments to determine how turnover
             responses to two major forms of environmental change -
             fertilisation and herbivore loss - are affected by species
             pool size and spatial compositional heterogeneity.
             Fertilisation led to higher rates of local extinction,
             whereas turnover in herbivore exclusion plots was driven by
             species replacement. Overall, sites with more spatially
             heterogeneous composition showed significantly higher rates
             of annual turnover, independent of species pool size and
             treatment. Taking into account spatial biodiversity aspects
             will therefore improve our understanding of consequences of
             global and anthropogenic change on community
             dynamics.},
   Doi = {10.1111/ele.13102},
   Key = {fds337385}
}

@article{fds335284,
   Author = {Hassett, BA and Sudduth, EB and Somers, KA and Urban, DL and Violin, CR and Wang, SY and Wright, JP and Cory, RM and Bernhardt,
             ES},
   Title = {Pulling apart the urbanization axis: patterns of
             physiochemical degradation and biological response across
             stream ecosystems},
   Journal = {Freshwater Science},
   Volume = {37},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {653-672},
   Publisher = {University of Chicago Press},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/699387},
   Abstract = {© 2018 by The Society for Freshwater Science. Watershed
             urbanization introduces a variety of physical, chemical, and
             thermal stressors to receiving streams and leads to
             well-documented declines in the diversity of fish and
             macroinvertebrates. Far less knowledge is available about
             how these urban stressors affect microbial communities and
             microbially mediated ecosystem properties. We examined 67
             chemical, physical, and biological attributes of streams
             draining 47 watersheds in the metropolitan area surrounding
             Raleigh, North Carolina. Watersheds ranged from undeveloped
             to 99.7% developed watershed area. In contrast to prior
             investigators, we found no consistent changes in habitat
             structure, channel dimensions, or bed sediment size
             distributions along the urbanization gradient. Watershed
             urbanization led to large and consistent changes in
             receiving stream chemistry (increases in NO32, bioavailable
             and algal-derived dissolved organic C, and the trace metals
             Pb, Cd, and Zn) and thermal regimes. These chemical and
             thermal changes were not associated with any consistent
             shifts in microbial community structure or taxonomic
             richness, based on terminal-restriction fragment length
             polymorphism and pyrosequencing methods, despite the fact
             that these urban stressors were associated with commonly
             reported declines in macroinvertebrate taxonomic richness
             and altered macroinvertebrate community composition.
             Chemical and thermal changes as a function of % developed
             watershed area also were unrelated to shifts in microbially
             mediated biogeochemical processes (C mineralization,
             denitrification potential, and substrate-induced
             respiration). A broad urbanization gradient sampled in this
             region suggests that stream ecosystem responses to watershed
             urbanization can follow diverse trajectories.},
   Doi = {10.1086/699387},
   Key = {fds335284}
}

@article{fds335283,
   Author = {Koltz, AM and Classen, AT and Wright, JP},
   Title = {Warming reverses top-down effects of predators on
             belowground ecosystem function in Arctic
             tundra.},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the
             United States of America},
   Volume = {115},
   Number = {32},
   Pages = {E7541-E7549},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1808754115},
   Abstract = {Predators can disproportionately impact the structure and
             function of ecosystems relative to their biomass. These
             effects may be exacerbated under warming in ecosystems like
             the Arctic, where the number and diversity of predators are
             low and small shifts in community interactions can alter
             carbon cycle feedbacks. Here, we show that warming alters
             the effects of wolf spiders, a dominant tundra predator, on
             belowground litter decomposition. Specifically, while high
             densities of wolf spiders result in faster litter
             decomposition under ambient temperatures, they result,
             instead, in slower decomposition under warming. Higher
             spider densities are also associated with elevated levels of
             available soil nitrogen, potentially benefiting plant
             production. Changes in decomposition rates under increased
             wolf spider densities are accompanied by trends toward fewer
             fungivorous Collembola under ambient temperatures and more
             Collembola under warming, suggesting that Collembola mediate
             the indirect effects of wolf spiders on decomposition. The
             unexpected reversal of wolf spider effects on Collembola and
             decomposition suggest that in some cases, warming does not
             simply alter the strength of top-down effects but, instead,
             induces a different trophic cascade altogether. Our results
             indicate that climate change-induced effects on predators
             can cascade through other trophic levels, alter critical
             ecosystem functions, and potentially lead to climate
             feedbacks with important global implications. Moreover,
             given the expected increase in wolf spider densities with
             climate change, our findings suggest that the observed
             cascading effects of this common predator on detrital
             processes could potentially buffer concurrent changes in
             decomposition rates.},
   Doi = {10.1073/pnas.1808754115},
   Key = {fds335283}
}

@article{fds335285,
   Author = {Reese, AT and Cho, EH and Klitzman, B and Nichols, SP and Wisniewski,
             NA and Villa, MM and Durand, HK and Jiang, S and Midani, FS and Nimmagadda,
             SN and O'Connell, TM and Wright, JP and Deshusses, MA and David,
             LA},
   Title = {Antibiotic-induced changes in the microbiota disrupt redox
             dynamics in the gut.},
   Journal = {Elife},
   Volume = {7},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.35987},
   Abstract = {How host and microbial factors combine to structure gut
             microbial communities remains incompletely understood. Redox
             potential is an important environmental feature affected by
             both host and microbial actions. We assessed how
             antibiotics, which can impact host and microbial function,
             change redox state and how this contributes to
             post-antibiotic succession. We showed gut redox potential
             increased within hours of an antibiotic dose in mice. Host
             and microbial functioning changed under treatment, but
             shifts in redox potentials could be attributed specifically
             to bacterial suppression in a host-free ex vivo human gut
             microbiota model. Redox dynamics were linked to blooms of
             the bacterial family Enterobacteriaceae. Ecological
             succession to pre-treatment composition was associated with
             recovery of gut redox, but also required dispersal from
             unaffected gut communities. As bacterial competition for
             electron acceptors can be a key ecological factor
             structuring gut communities, these results support the
             potential for manipulating gut microbiota through managing
             bacterial respiration.},
   Doi = {10.7554/eLife.35987},
   Key = {fds335285}
}

@article{fds335286,
   Author = {Fridley, JD and Wright, JP},
   Title = {Temperature accelerates the rate fields become
             forests.},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the
             United States of America},
   Volume = {115},
   Number = {18},
   Pages = {4702-4706},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1716665115},
   Abstract = {Secondary succession, the postdisturbance transition of
             herbaceous to woody-dominated ecosystems, occurs faster at
             lower latitudes with important ramifications for ecosystem
             processes. This pattern could be driven by the direct effect
             of temperature on tree growth; however, an alternative
             mechanism is tree-herb competition, which may be more
             intense in more fertile northern soils. We manipulated soil
             fertility and herbaceous species composition in identical
             experiments at six sites spanning the Eastern United States
             (30-43° N) and monitored the growth and survival of four
             early successional trees. Tree seedling mass 2 years after
             sowing was strongly associated with site differences in mean
             growing season temperature, regardless of species or soil
             treatment. The effect of temperature was twofold: seedlings
             grew faster in response to warmer site temperatures, but
             also due to the reduction of competitive interference from
             the herbaceous community, which was inhibited in warmer
             sites. Our results suggest that increasing temperatures will
             promote a faster transition of fields to forests in
             temperate ecosystems.},
   Doi = {10.1073/pnas.1716665115},
   Key = {fds335286}
}

@article{fds331332,
   Author = {Mitchell, RM and Wright, JP and Ames, GM},
   Title = {Species' traits do not converge on optimum values in
             preferred habitats.},
   Journal = {Oecologia},
   Volume = {186},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {719-729},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00442-017-4041-y},
   Abstract = {Plant trait expression is shaped by filters, which can alter
             trait means and variances, theoretically driving species
             toward an "optimum" trait value for a set of environmental
             conditions. Recent research has highlighted the ubiquity of
             intraspecific variation in functional traits, which can
             cause plants to diverge from a hypothesized "optimum". We
             examined whether species occurring in "core" habitats (where
             they occur frequently, abundantly, and consistently) express
             traits that are nearer to "optimum", as captured by the
             community-weighted mean (CWM). We also asked whether trait
             variance showed signs of environmental filtering. We used
             cluster analysis to group plots based on environmental
             factors along a wet-to-dry ecotone. We used indicator
             species analysis to identify species with strong
             associations within each cluster. Trait means and variances
             were compared, and evidence of variance filtering was tested
             using a null-model approach. Trait means and trait variances
             respond to local-scale environmental filtering and species
             in core habitats were not necessarily nearer to the CWM than
             in other habitats. Intraspecific trait variability shows a
             strong signal of filtering, as variability was reduced for
             nearly all species and all traits compared to estimates of
             variability generated in the absence of environmental
             filtering. Our results provide strong evidence that species
             traits are not necessarily near "optimum" trait values in
             core habitats, and that trait distributions within species
             are strongly shaped by the environment. Future analyses
             should account for this divergence when calculating metrics
             of functional diversity, and extrapolating to ecosystem
             function.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s00442-017-4041-y},
   Key = {fds331332}
}

@article{fds331197,
   Author = {Reese, AT and Lulow, K and David, LA and Wright, JP},
   Title = {Plant community and soil conditions individually affect soil
             microbial community assembly in experimental
             mesocosms.},
   Journal = {Ecology and Evolution},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {1196-1205},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.3734},
   Abstract = {Soils harbor large, diverse microbial communities critical
             for local and global ecosystem functioning that are
             controlled by multiple and poorly understood processes. In
             particular, while there is observational evidence of
             relationships between both biotic and abiotic conditions and
             microbial composition and diversity, there have been few
             experimental tests to determine the relative importance of
             these two sets of factors at local scales. Here, we report
             the results of a fully factorial experiment manipulating
             soil conditions and plant cover on old-field mesocosms
             across a latitudinal gradient. The largest contributor to
             beta diversity was site-to-site variation, but, having
             corrected for that, we observed significant effects of both
             plant and soil treatments on microbial composition. Separate
             phyla were associated with each treatment type, and no
             interactions between soil and plant treatment were observed.
             Individual soil characteristics and biotic parameters were
             also associated with overall beta-diversity patterns and
             phyla abundance. In contrast, soil microbial diversity was
             only associated with site and not experimental treatment.
             Overall, plant community treatment explained more variation
             than soil treatment, a result not previously appreciated
             because it is difficult to dissociate plant community
             composition and soil conditions in observational studies
             across gradients. This work highlights the need for more
             nuanced, multifactorial experiments in microbial ecology and
             in particular indicates a greater focus on relationships
             between plant composition and microbial composition during
             community assembly.},
   Doi = {10.1002/ece3.3734},
   Key = {fds331197}
}

@article{fds339393,
   Author = {Bhattachan, A and Emanuel, RE and Ardón, M and Bernhardt, ES and Anderson, SM and Stillwagon, MG and Ury, EA and BenDor, TK and Wright,
             JP},
   Title = {Evaluating the effects of land-use change and future climate
             change on vulnerability of coastal landscapes to saltwater
             intrusion},
   Journal = {Elem Sci Anth},
   Volume = {6},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {62-62},
   Publisher = {University of California Press},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/elementa.316},
   Abstract = {© 2018 The Author(s). The exposure of freshwater-dependent
             coastal ecosystems to saltwater is a present-day impact of
             climate and land-use changes in many coastal regions, with
             the potential to harm freshwater and terrestrial biota,
             alter biogeochemical cycles and reduce agricultural yields.
             Land-use activities associated with artificial drainage
             infrastructure (canals, ditches, and drains) could
             exacerbate saltwater exposure. However, studies assessing
             the effects of artificial drainage on the vulnerability of
             coastal landscapes to saltwater exposure are lacking. We
             examined the extent to which artificial drainage
             infrastructure has altered the potential for saltwater
             intrusion in the coastal plain of eastern North Carolina.
             Regional spatial analyses demonstrate that artificial
             drainages not only lower the overall elevation in coastal
             landscapes, but they also alter the routing and
             concentration of hydrological flows. Together, these factors
             have the potential to increase the total proportion of the
             landscape vulnerable to saltwater intrusion, not only in
             areas adjacent to drainage infrastructure but also in places
             where no artificial drainages exist due to large scale
             effects of flow rerouting. Among all land cover types in
             eastern North Carolina, wetlands are most vulnerable to
             saltwater exposure. Droughts and coastal storms associated
             with climate change potentially exacerbate vulnerability to
             saltwater facilitated by artificial drainage.},
   Doi = {10.1525/elementa.316},
   Key = {fds339393}
}

@article{fds329086,
   Author = {Lind, EM and La Pierre and KJ and Seabloom, EW and Alberti, J and Iribarne,
             O and Firn, J and Gruner, DS and Kay, AD and Pascal, J and Wright, JP and Yang, L and Borer, ET},
   Title = {Increased grassland arthropod production with mammalian
             herbivory and eutrophication: a test of mediation
             pathways.},
   Journal = {Ecology},
   Volume = {98},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {3022-3033},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2029},
   Abstract = {Increases in nutrient availability and alterations to
             mammalian herbivore communities are a hallmark of the
             Anthropocene, with consequences for the primary producer
             communities in many ecosystems. While progress has advanced
             understanding of plant community responses to these
             perturbations, the consequences for energy flow to higher
             trophic levels in the form of secondary production are less
             well understood. We quantified arthropod biomass after
             manipulating soil nutrient availability and wild mammalian
             herbivory, using identical methods across 13 temperate
             grasslands. Of experimental increases in nitrogen,
             phosphorus, and potassium, only treatments including
             nitrogen resulted in significantly increased arthropod
             biomass. Wild mammalian herbivore removal had a marginal,
             negative effect on arthropod biomass, with no interaction
             with nutrient availability. Path analysis including all
             sites implicated nutrient content of the primary producers
             as a driver of increased arthropod mean size, which we
             confirmed using 10 sites for which we had foliar nutrient
             data. Plant biomass and physical structure mediated the
             increase in arthropod abundance, while the nitrogen
             treatments accounted for additional variation not explained
             by our measured plant variables. The mean size of arthropod
             individuals was 2.5 times more influential on the plot-level
             total arthropod biomass than was the number of individuals.
             The eutrophication of grasslands through human activity,
             especially nitrogen deposition, thus may contribute to
             higher production of arthropod consumers through increases
             in nutrient availability across trophic levels.},
   Doi = {10.1002/ecy.2029},
   Key = {fds329086}
}

@article{fds329085,
   Author = {Strayer, DL and D'Antonio, CM and Essl, F and Fowler, MS and Geist, J and Hilt, S and Jarić, I and Jöhnk, K and Jones, CG and Lambin, X and Latzka,
             AW and Pergl, J and Pyšek, P and Robertson, P and von Schmalensee, M and Stefansson, RA and Wright, J and Jeschke, JM},
   Title = {Boom-bust dynamics in biological invasions: towards an
             improved application of the concept.},
   Journal = {Ecology Letters},
   Volume = {20},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {1337-1350},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ele.12822},
   Abstract = {Boom-bust dynamics - the rise of a population to outbreak
             levels, followed by a dramatic decline - have been
             associated with biological invasions and offered as a reason
             not to manage troublesome invaders. However, boom-bust
             dynamics rarely have been critically defined, analyzed, or
             interpreted. Here, we define boom-bust dynamics and provide
             specific suggestions for improving the application of the
             boom-bust concept. Boom-bust dynamics can arise from many
             causes, some closely associated with invasions, but others
             occurring across a wide range of ecological settings,
             especially when environmental conditions are changing
             rapidly. As a result, it is difficult to infer cause or
             predict future trajectories merely by observing the dynamic.
             We use tests with simulated data to show that a common
             metric for detecting and describing boom-bust dynamics,
             decline from an observed peak to a subsequent trough, tends
             to severely overestimate the frequency and severity of
             busts, and should be used cautiously if at all. We review
             and test other metrics that are better suited to describe
             boom-bust dynamics. Understanding the frequency and
             importance of boom-bust dynamics requires empirical studies
             of large, representative, long-term data sets that use clear
             definitions of boom-bust, appropriate analytical methods,
             and careful interpretations.},
   Doi = {10.1111/ele.12822},
   Key = {fds329085}
}

@article{fds324247,
   Author = {Ames, GM and Wall, WA and Hohmann, MG and Wright,
             JP},
   Title = {Trait space of rare plants in a fire-dependent
             ecosystem.},
   Journal = {Conservation Biology : the Journal of the Society for
             Conservation Biology},
   Volume = {31},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {903-911},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cobi.12867},
   Abstract = {The causes of species rarity are of critical concern because
             of the high extinction risk associated with rarity. Studies
             examining individual rare species have limited generality,
             whereas trait-based approaches offer a means to identify
             functional causes of rarity that can be applied to
             communities with disparate species pools. Differences in
             functional traits between rare and common species may be
             indicative of the functional causes of species rarity and
             may therefore be useful in crafting species conservation
             strategies. However, there is a conspicuous lack of studies
             comparing the functional traits of rare species and
             co-occurring common species. We measured 18 important
             functional traits for 19 rare and 134 common understory
             plant species from North Carolina's Sandhills region and
             compared their trait distributions to determine whether
             there are significant functional differences that may
             explain species rarity. Flowering, fire, and
             tissue-chemistry traits differed significantly between rare
             and common, co-occurring species. Differences in specific
             traits suggest that fire suppression has driven rarity in
             this system and that changes to the timing and severity of
             prescribed fire may improve conservation success. Our method
             provides a useful tool to prioritize conservation efforts in
             other systems based on the likelihood that rare species are
             functionally capable of persisting.},
   Doi = {10.1111/cobi.12867},
   Key = {fds324247}
}

@article{fds326815,
   Author = {Ames, GM and Anderson, SM and Ungberg, EA and Wright,
             JP},
   Title = {Functional traits of the understory plant community of a
             pyrogenic longleaf pine forest across environmental
             gradients.},
   Journal = {Ecology},
   Volume = {98},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {2225},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecy.1886},
   Abstract = {Understanding and predicting the response of plant
             communities to environmental changes and disturbances such
             as fire requires an understanding of the functional traits
             present in the system, including within and across species
             variability, and their dynamics over time. These data are
             difficult to obtain as few studies provide comprehensive
             information for more than a few traits or species, rarely
             cover more than a single growing season, and usually present
             only summary statistics of trait values. As part of a larger
             study seeking to understand the dynamics of plant
             communities in response to different prescribed fire
             regimes, we measured the functional traits of the understory
             plant communities located in over 140 permanent plots
             spanning strong gradients in soil moisture in a pyrogenic
             longleaf pine forest in North Carolina, USA, over a
             four-year period from 2011 and 2014. We present over 120,000
             individual trait measurements from over 130 plant species
             representing 91 genera from 47 families. We include data on
             the following 18 traits: specific leaf area, leaf dry matter
             content, leaf area, leaf length, leaf width, leaf perimeter,
             plant height, leaf nitrogen, leaf carbon, leaf carbon to
             nitrogen ratio, water use efficiency, time to ignition,
             maximum flame height, maximum burn temperature,
             mass-specific burn time, mass-specific smolder time,
             branching architecture, and the ratio of leaf matter
             consumed by fire. We also include information on locations,
             soil moisture, relative elevation, soil bulk density, and
             fire histories for each site.},
   Doi = {10.1002/ecy.1886},
   Key = {fds326815}
}

@article{fds323438,
   Author = {Mitchell, RM and Wright, JP and Ames, GM},
   Title = {Intraspecific variability improves environmental matching,
             but does not increase ecological breadth along a wet-to-dry
             ecotone},
   Journal = {Oikos},
   Volume = {126},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {988-995},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/oik.04001},
   Abstract = {© 2016 The Authors It is widely assumed that higher levels
             of intraspecific variability in one or more traits should
             allow species to persist under a wider range of
             environmental conditions. However, few studies have examined
             whether species that exhibit high variability are found in a
             wider range of environmental conditions, and whether
             variability increases the ability of a species to adapt to
             prevailing ecological gradients. We used four plant
             functional traits, specific leaf area (SLA), leaf dry matter
             content (LDMC), leaf carbon to nitrogen ratio (C:N) and
             maximum plant height in 49 species across a strong
             environmental gradient to answer three questions: 1) is
             there evidence for ‘high-variability’ species (that is,
             species which show high variability in multiple traits,
             simultaneously)? 2) are species with more variable traits
             present across a wider range of environmental conditions
             than less variable species? And 3) whether more variable
             species show better trait–environment matching to the
             prevailing abiotic (soil moisture) gradient at the site? We
             found little evidence for a ‘high-variability’ species.
             Variability was correlated for two leaf traits, SLA and
             LDMC, while variability in leaf traits and plant height were
             not correlated. We found little evidence that more variable
             species were present in more diverse conditions: only
             variation in SLA was correlated with a wider ecological
             niche breadth. For plant traits along the soil-moisture
             gradient, higher variability led to better
             trait–environment matching in half of measured traits.
             Overall, we found little support for the existence of
             ‘high-variability’ species, but that variability in SLA
             is correlated with a wider ecological breadth. We also found
             evidence that variation in traits can improve
             trait–environment matching, a relationship which may
             facilitate our understanding ecological breadth along
             prevailing gradients, and community assembly on the basis of
             traits.},
   Doi = {10.1111/oik.04001},
   Key = {fds323438}
}

@article{fds333186,
   Author = {Funk, JL and Larson, JE and Ames, GM and Butterfield, BJ and Cavender-Bares, J and Firn, J and Laughlin, DC and Sutton-Grier, AE and Williams, L and Wright, J},
   Title = {Revisiting the Holy Grail: using plant functional traits to
             understand ecological processes.},
   Journal = {Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical
             Society},
   Volume = {92},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {1156-1173},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12275},
   Abstract = {One of ecology's grand challenges is developing general
             rules to explain and predict highly complex systems.
             Understanding and predicting ecological processes from
             species' traits has been considered a 'Holy Grail' in
             ecology. Plant functional traits are increasingly being used
             to develop mechanistic models that can predict how
             ecological communities will respond to abiotic and biotic
             perturbations and how species will affect ecosystem function
             and services in a rapidly changing world; however,
             significant challenges remain. In this review, we highlight
             recent work and outstanding questions in three areas: (i)
             selecting relevant traits; (ii) describing intraspecific
             trait variation and incorporating this variation into
             models; and (iii) scaling trait data to community- and
             ecosystem-level processes. Over the past decade, there have
             been significant advances in the characterization of plant
             strategies based on traits and trait relationships, and the
             integration of traits into multivariate indices and models
             of community and ecosystem function. However, the utility of
             trait-based approaches in ecology will benefit from efforts
             that demonstrate how these traits and indices influence
             organismal, community, and ecosystem processes across
             vegetation types, which may be achieved through
             meta-analysis and enhancement of trait databases.
             Additionally, intraspecific trait variation and species
             interactions need to be incorporated into predictive models
             using tools such as Bayesian hierarchical modelling.
             Finally, existing models linking traits to community and
             ecosystem processes need to be empirically tested for their
             applicability to be realized.},
   Doi = {10.1111/brv.12275},
   Key = {fds333186}
}

@article{fds323819,
   Author = {Ficken, CD and Wright, JP},
   Title = {Contributions of microbial activity and ash deposition to
             post-fire nitrogen availability in a pine
             savanna},
   Journal = {Biogeosciences},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {241-255},
   Publisher = {Copernicus GmbH},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-241-2017},
   Abstract = {© 2017 uthor(s) 2017 Many ecosystems experience drastic
             changes to soil nutrient availability associated with fire,
             but the magnitude and duration of these changes are highly
             variable among vegetation and fire types. In pyrogenic pine
             savannas across the southeastern United States, pulses of
             soil inorganic nitrogen (N) occur in tandem with
             ecosystem-scale nutrient losses from prescribed burns.
             Despite the importance of this management tool for restoring
             and maintaining fire-dependent plant communities, the
             contributions of different mechanisms underlying
             fire-associated changes to soil N availability remain
             unclear. Pulses of N availability following fire have been
             hypothesized to occur through (1) changes to microbial
             cycling rates and (2) direct ash deposition. Here, we
             document fire-associated changes to N availability across
             the growing season in a longleaf pine savanna in North
             Carolina. To differentiate between possible mechanisms
             driving soil N pulses, we measured net microbial cycling
             rates and changes to soil δ15N before and after a burn. Our
             findings refute both proposed mechanisms: we found no
             evidence for changes in microbial activity, and limited
             evidence that ash deposition could account for the increase
             in ammonium availability to more than 5-25 times background
             levels. Consequently, we propose a third mechanism to
             explain post-fire patterns of soil N availability, namely
             that (3) changes to plant sink strength may contribute to
             ephemeral increases in soil N availability, and encourage
             future studies to explicitly test this mechanism.},
   Doi = {10.5194/bg-14-241-2017},
   Key = {fds323819}
}

@article{fds329397,
   Author = {Ficken, CD and Wright, JP},
   Title = {Effects of fire frequency on litter decomposition as
             mediated by changes to litter chemistry and soil
             environmental conditions.},
   Journal = {Plos One},
   Volume = {12},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {e0186292},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0186292},
   Abstract = {Litter quality and soil environmental conditions are
             well-studied drivers influencing decomposition rates, but
             the role played by disturbance legacy, such as fire history,
             in mediating these drivers is not well understood. Fire
             history may impact decomposition directly, through changes
             in soil conditions that impact microbial function, or
             indirectly, through shifts in plant community composition
             and litter chemistry. Here, we compared early-stage
             decomposition rates across longleaf pine forest blocks
             managed with varying fire frequencies (annual burns,
             triennial burns, fire-suppression). Using a reciprocal
             transplant design, we examined how litter chemistry and soil
             characteristics independently and jointly influenced litter
             decomposition. We found that both litter chemistry and soil
             environmental conditions influenced decomposition rates, but
             only the former was affected by historical fire frequency.
             Litter from annually burned sites had higher nitrogen
             content than litter from triennially burned and fire
             suppression sites, but this was correlated with only a
             modest increase in decomposition rates. Soil environmental
             conditions had a larger impact on decomposition than litter
             chemistry. Across the landscape, decomposition differed more
             along soil moisture gradients than across fire management
             regimes. These findings suggest that fire frequency has a
             limited effect on litter decomposition in this ecosystem,
             and encourage extending current decomposition frameworks
             into disturbed systems. However, litter from different
             species lost different masses due to fire, suggesting that
             fire may impact decomposition through the preferential
             combustion of some litter types. Overall, our findings also
             emphasize the important role of spatial variability in soil
             environmental conditions, which may be tied to fire
             frequency across large spatial scales, in driving
             decomposition rates in this system.},
   Doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0186292},
   Key = {fds329397}
}

@article{fds321913,
   Author = {Lee, MR and Bernhardt, ES and van Bodegom, PM and Cornelissen, JHC and Kattge, J and Laughlin, DC and Niinemets, Ü and Peñuelas, J and Reich,
             PB and Yguel, B and Wright, JP},
   Title = {Invasive species' leaf traits and dissimilarity from natives
             shape their impact on nitrogen cycling: a
             meta-analysis.},
   Journal = {The New Phytologist},
   Volume = {213},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {128-139},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.14115},
   Abstract = {Many exotic species have little apparent impact on ecosystem
             processes, whereas others have dramatic consequences for
             human and ecosystem health. There is growing evidence that
             invasions foster eutrophication. We need to identify species
             that are harmful and systems that are vulnerable to
             anticipate these consequences. Species' traits may provide
             the necessary insights. We conducted a global meta-analysis
             to determine whether plant leaf and litter functional
             traits, and particularly leaf and litter nitrogen (N)
             content and carbon: nitrogen (C : N) ratio, explain
             variation in invasive species' impacts on soil N cycling.
             Dissimilarity in leaf and litter traits among invaded and
             noninvaded plant communities control the magnitude and
             direction of invasion impacts on N cycling. Invasions that
             caused the greatest increases in soil inorganic N and
             mineralization rates had a much greater litter N content and
             lower litter C : N in the invaded than the reference
             community. Trait dissimilarities were better predictors than
             the trait values of invasive species alone. Quantifying
             baseline community tissue traits, in addition to those of
             the invasive species, is critical to understanding the
             impacts of invasion on soil N cycling.},
   Doi = {10.1111/nph.14115},
   Key = {fds321913}
}

@article{fds323437,
   Author = {Heckman, RW and Wright, JP and Mitchell, CE},
   Title = {Joint effects of nutrient addition and enemy exclusion on
             exotic plant success.},
   Journal = {Ecology},
   Volume = {97},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {3337-3345},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecy.1585},
   Abstract = {Worldwide, ecosystems are increasingly dominated by exotic
             plant species, a shift hypothesized to result from numerous
             ecological factors. Two of these, increased resource
             availability and enemy release, may act in concert to
             increase exotic success in plant communities (Resource-Enemy
             Release Hypothesis, R-ERH). To test this, we manipulated the
             availability of soil nutrients and access of vertebrate
             herbivores, insect herbivores, and fungal pathogens to
             intact grassland communities containing both native and
             exotic species. Our results supported both conditions
             necessary for R-ERH. First, exotics were less damaged than
             natives, experiencing less foliar damage (insect herbivory
             and fungal disease) than native species, particularly in
             communities where soil nutrients were added. Second,
             fertilization increased foliar damage on native species, but
             not exotic species. As well as fulfilling both conditions
             for R-ERH, these results demonstrate the importance of
             considering the effects of resource availability when
             testing for enemy release. When both conditions are
             fulfilled, R-ERH predicts that increasing resource
             availability will increase exotic abundance only in the
             presence of enemies. Our results fully supported this
             prediction for vertebrate herbivores: fertilization
             increased exotic cover only in communities exposed to
             vertebrate herbivores. Additionally, the prediction was
             partially supported for insect herbivores and fungal
             pathogens, excluding these enemies reduced exotic cover as
             predicted, but inconsistent with R-ERH, this effect occurred
             only in unfertilized communities. These results highlight
             the need to consider the influence of multiple enemy guilds
             on community processes like exotic plant invasions.
             Moreover, this study experimentally demonstrates that
             resource availability and natural enemies can jointly
             influence exotic success in plant communities.},
   Doi = {10.1002/ecy.1585},
   Key = {fds323437}
}

@article{fds323439,
   Author = {Heinze, J and Sitte, M and Schindhelm, A and Wright, J and Joshi,
             J},
   Title = {Plant-soil feedbacks: a comparative study on the relative
             importance of soil feedbacks in the greenhouse versus the
             field.},
   Journal = {Oecologia},
   Volume = {181},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {559-569},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00442-016-3591-8},
   Abstract = {Interactions between plants and soil microorganisms
             influence individual plant performance and thus
             plant-community composition. Most studies on such plant-soil
             feedbacks (PSFs) have been performed under controlled
             greenhouse conditions, whereas no study has directly
             compared PSFs under greenhouse and natural field conditions.
             We grew three grass species that differ in local abundance
             in grassland communities simultaneously in the greenhouse
             and field on field-collected soils either previously
             conditioned by these species or by the general grassland
             community. As soils in grasslands are typically conditioned
             by mixes of species through the patchy and heterogeneous
             plant species' distributions, we additionally compared the
             effects of species-specific versus non-specific species
             conditioning on PSFs in natural and greenhouse conditions.
             In almost all comparisons PSFs differed between the
             greenhouse and field. In the greenhouse, plant growth in
             species-specific and non-specific soils resulted in similar
             effects with neutral PSFs for the most abundant species and
             positive PSFs for the less abundant species. In contrast, in
             the field all grass species tested performed best in
             non-specific plots, whereas species-specific PSFs were
             neutral for the most abundant and varied for the less
             abundant species. This indicates a general beneficial effect
             of plant diversity on PSFs in the field. Controlled
             greenhouse conditions might provide valuable insights on the
             nominal effects of soils on plants. However, the PSFs
             observed in greenhouse conditions may not be the determining
             drivers in natural plant communities where their effects may
             be overwhelmed by the diversity of abiotic and biotic above-
             and belowground interactions in the field.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s00442-016-3591-8},
   Key = {fds323439}
}

@article{fds231621,
   Author = {Ames, GM and Anderson, SM and Wright, JP},
   Title = {Multiple environmental drivers structure plant traits at the
             community level in a pyrogenic ecosystem},
   Journal = {Functional Ecology.},
   Volume = {30},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {789-798},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Editor = {Baltzer, J},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0269-8463},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1365-2435.12536},
   Abstract = {© 2016 British Ecological Society. Trait-based approaches
             offer a way to predict changes in community structure along
             environmental gradients using measurable properties of
             individuals. Promoted as being generalizable across systems,
             trait-based approaches benefit from information about the
             environmental drivers of trait variation, how they interact
             and how they change with scale. However, for most diverse,
             natural communities, it is largely unknown whether the
             relationships between leaf-level traits and interacting
             environmental drivers (e.g. fire, water availability) are
             influenced by the scale of trait aggregation. We show that
             landscape-level differences in community composition in a
             diverse, fire-dependent pine savanna are explained by a
             small subset of species groups that are strongly correlated
             with soil moisture and elevation, but are insensitive to the
             time since the last fire. We used a trait-based approach to
             show that significant variation in the community-weighted
             mean (CWM) of specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf dry matter
             content (LDMC), two traits known to drive community
             structure and function, was explained by a small set of
             factors including the time since the last fire, soil
             moisture, precipitation and Shannon diversity. We show that
             statistical inference about the environmental drivers of
             community traits is radically altered when using CWMs
             computed with landscape-level rather than plot-level means,
             even over modest spatial scales. Synthesis: Environmental
             drivers of community composition across the landscape
             differed from those explaining trait composition. CWM traits
             were strongly influenced by interactions between drivers.
             Fire, in particular, strongly mediated the effect of other
             environmental variables on LDMC, showing that strong
             environmental gradients cannot be considered independently
             when assessing their effects on functional traits. The
             importance of environmental variables such as fire was lost
             when using landscape-level trait means, highlighting the
             importance of local trait variation. This suggests caution
             when using traits from distant populations to make
             inferences about local processes, especially across strong
             gradients.},
   Doi = {10.1111/1365-2435.12536},
   Key = {fds231621}
}

@article{fds323440,
   Author = {Wright, JP and Ames, GM and Mitchell, RM},
   Title = {The more things change, the more they stay the same? When is
             trait variability important for stability of ecosystem
             function in a changing environment.},
   Journal = {Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London.
             Series B, Biological Sciences},
   Volume = {371},
   Number = {1694},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2015.0272},
   Abstract = {The importance of intraspecific trait variability for
             community dynamics and ecosystem functioning has been
             underappreciated. There are theoretical reasons for
             predicting that species that differ in intraspecific trait
             variability will also differ in their effects on ecosystem
             functioning, particularly in variable environments. We
             discuss whether species with greater trait variability are
             likely to exhibit greater temporal stability in their
             population dynamics, and under which conditions this might
             lead to stability in ecosystem functioning. Resolving this
             requires us to consider several questions. First, are
             species with high levels of variation for one trait equally
             variable in others? In particular, is variability in
             response and effects traits typically correlated? Second,
             what is the relative contribution of local adaptation and
             phenotypic plasticity to trait variability? If local
             adaptation dominates, then stability in function requires
             one of two conditions: (i) individuals of appropriate
             phenotypes present in the environment at high enough
             frequencies to allow for populations to respond rapidly to
             the changing environment, and (ii) high levels of dispersal
             and gene flow. While we currently lack sufficient
             information on the causes and distribution of variability in
             functional traits, filling in these key data gaps should
             increase our ability to predict how changing biodiversity
             will alter ecosystem functioning.},
   Doi = {10.1098/rstb.2015.0272},
   Key = {fds323440}
}

@article{fds323441,
   Author = {Reese, AT and Ames, GM and Wright, JP},
   Title = {Variation in Plant Response to Herbivory Underscored by
             Functional Traits.},
   Journal = {Plos One},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {e0166714},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0166714},
   Abstract = {The effects of herbivory can shape plant communities and
             evolution. However, the many forms of herbivory costs and
             the wide variation in herbivory pressure, including across
             latitudinal gradients, can make predicting the effects of
             herbivory on different plant species difficult. Functional
             trait approaches may aid in contextualizing and
             standardizing the assessment of herbivory impacts. Here we
             assessed the response of 26 old-field plant species to
             simulated defoliation in a greenhouse setting by measuring
             whole plant and leaf level traits in control and treated
             individuals. Simulated defoliation had no significant
             effects on any plant traits measured. However, the baseline
             leaf level traits of healthy plants consistently predicted
             the log response ratio for these species whole plant
             response to defoliation. The latitudinal mid-point of
             species' distributions was also significantly correlated
             with aboveground biomass and total leaf area responses, with
             plants with a more northern distribution being more
             negatively impacted by treatment. These results indicate
             that even in the absence of significant overall impacts,
             functional traits may aid in predicting variability in plant
             responses to defoliation and in identifying the underlying
             limitations driving those responses.},
   Doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0166714},
   Key = {fds323441}
}

@article{fds231622,
   Author = {Ames, GM and Vineyard, DL and Anderson, SM and Wright,
             JP},
   Title = {Annual growth in longleaf (Pinus palustris) and pond pine
             (P. serotina) in the Sandhills of North Carolina is driven
             by interactions between fire and climate},
   Journal = {Forest Ecology and Management},
   Volume = {340},
   Pages = {1-8},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0378-1127},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2014.12.020},
   Abstract = {© 2015 Elsevier B.V. Understory fires are important for the
             maintenance of pine savanna ecosystems of the southeastern
             U.S., which contain high biodiversity and numerous federally
             endangered species. Prescribed burns are administered to
             maintain the open structure of pine savannas, conserve
             biodiversity, and to reduce wildfire hazard. However,
             relatively little research has examined which factors
             control the effects of prescribed burns on mature trees, and
             how responses might be altered by changing climate. The
             impact of prescribed burning on growth responses is likely
             to vary by tree species and by environmental conditions. To
             test the importance of these factors, tree cores were taken
             from mature Pinus palustris and Pinus serotina individuals
             at multiple locations across Fort Bragg, NC, a military
             preserve with detailed records on prescribed burn history
             dating back to 1991. Individual trees were sampled along the
             hydrologic gradient from xeric uplands to streamside
             wetlands. Annual growth was modeled as a function of species
             identity, hydrologic position, fire history, and climate
             conditions. We determined that prescribed burning produced a
             moderate decline in annual growth indicating that stress
             from prescribed burns outweighs benefits from increased
             water and nutrient availability. We found that the negative
             effects from prescribed burning were diminished or reversed
             during warmer years, and that the model predicts potential
             increases in growth during burn years under anticipated
             climate change scenarios. Surprisingly, there were no
             significant differences in growth rate by species or
             hydrologic position. Together these findings suggest that
             while prescribed burns may have minor, short-term impacts on
             tree growth under most current conditions, these effects are
             small enough that they are unlikely to outweigh the many
             benefits of this management technique for other aspects of
             ecosystem structure.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.foreco.2014.12.020},
   Key = {fds231622}
}

@article{fds323442,
   Author = {Seabloom, EW and Borer, ET and Buckley, YM and Cleland, EE and Davies,
             KF and Firn, J and Harpole, WS and Hautier, Y and Lind, EM and MacDougall,
             AS and Orrock, JL and Prober, SM and Adler, PB and Anderson, TM and Bakker,
             JD and Biederman, LA and Blumenthal, DM and Brown, CS and Brudvig, LA and Cadotte, M and Chu, C and Cottingham, KL and Crawley, MJ and Damschen,
             EI and Dantonio, CM and DeCrappeo, NM and Du, G and Fay, PA and Frater, P and Gruner, DS and Hagenah, N and Hector, A and Hillebrand, H and Hofmockel,
             KS and Humphries, HC and Jin, VL and Kay, A and Kirkman, KP and Klein, JA and Knops, JMH and La Pierre and KJ and Ladwig, L and Lambrinos, JG and Li, Q and Li, W and Marushia, R and McCulley, RL and Melbourne, BA and Mitchell,
             CE and Moore, JL and Morgan, J and Mortensen, B and O'Halloran, LR and Pyke, DA and Risch, AC and Sankaran, M and Schuetz, M and Simonsen, A and Smith, MD and Stevens, CJ and Sullivan, L and Wolkovich, E and Wragg,
             PD and Wright, J and Yang, L},
   Title = {Plant species' origin predicts dominance and response to
             nutrient enrichment and herbivores in global
             grasslands.},
   Journal = {Nature Communications},
   Volume = {6},
   Pages = {7710},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms8710},
   Abstract = {Exotic species dominate many communities; however the
             functional significance of species' biogeographic origin
             remains highly contentious. This debate is fuelled in part
             by the lack of globally replicated, systematic data
             assessing the relationship between species provenance,
             function and response to perturbations. We examined the
             abundance of native and exotic plant species at 64
             grasslands in 13 countries, and at a subset of the sites we
             experimentally tested native and exotic species responses to
             two fundamental drivers of invasion, mineral nutrient
             supplies and vertebrate herbivory. Exotic species are six
             times more likely to dominate communities than native
             species. Furthermore, while experimental nutrient addition
             increases the cover and richness of exotic species,
             nutrients decrease native diversity and cover. Native and
             exotic species also differ in their response to vertebrate
             consumer exclusion. These results suggest that species
             origin has functional significance, and that eutrophication
             will lead to increased exotic dominance in
             grasslands.},
   Doi = {10.1038/ncomms8710},
   Key = {fds323442}
}

@article{fds231624,
   Author = {Borer, ET and Seabloom, EW and Gruner, DS and Harpole, WS and Hillebrand, H and Lind, EM and Adler, PB and Alberti, J and Anderson,
             TM and Bakker, JD and Biederman, L and Blumenthal, D and Brown, CS and Brudvig, LA and Buckley, YM and Cadotte, M and Chu, C and Cleland, EE and Crawley, MJ and Daleo, P and Damschen, EI and Davies, KF and DeCrappeo,
             NM and Du, G and Firn, J and Hautier, Y and Heckman, RW and Hector, A and HilleRisLambers, J and Iribarne, O and Klein, JA and Knops, JMH and La
             Pierre, KJ and Leakey, ADB and Li, W and MacDougall, AS and McCulley,
             RL and Melbourne, BA and Mitchell, CE and Moore, JL and Mortensen, B and O'Halloran, LR and Orrock, JL and Pascual, J and Prober, SM and Pyke,
             DA and Risch, AC and Schuetz, M and Smith, MD and Stevens, CJ and Sullivan,
             LL and Williams, RJ and Wragg, PD and Wright, JP and Yang,
             LH},
   Title = {Herbivores and nutrients control grassland plant diversity
             via light limitation.},
   Journal = {Nature},
   Volume = {508},
   Number = {7497},
   Pages = {517-520},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0028-0836},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature13144},
   Abstract = {Human alterations to nutrient cycles and herbivore
             communities are affecting global biodiversity dramatically.
             Ecological theory predicts these changes should be strongly
             counteractive: nutrient addition drives plant species loss
             through intensified competition for light, whereas
             herbivores prevent competitive exclusion by increasing
             ground-level light, particularly in productive systems. Here
             we use experimental data spanning a globally relevant range
             of conditions to test the hypothesis that herbaceous plant
             species losses caused by eutrophication may be offset by
             increased light availability due to herbivory. This
             experiment, replicated in 40 grasslands on 6 continents,
             demonstrates that nutrients and herbivores can serve as
             counteracting forces to control local plant diversity
             through light limitation, independent of site productivity,
             soil nitrogen, herbivore type and climate. Nutrient addition
             consistently reduced local diversity through light
             limitation, and herbivory rescued diversity at sites where
             it alleviated light limitation. Thus, species loss from
             anthropogenic eutrophication can be ameliorated in
             grasslands where herbivory increases ground-level
             light.},
   Doi = {10.1038/nature13144},
   Key = {fds231624}
}

@article{fds231623,
   Author = {Seabloom, EW and Borer, ET and Buckley, Y and Cleland, EE and Davies, K and Firn, J and Harpole, WS and Hautier, Y and Lind, E and MacDougall, A and Orrock, JL and Prober, SM and Adler, P and Alberti, J and Anderson, TM and Bakker, JD and Biederman, LA and Blumenthal, D and Brown, CS and Brudvig, LA and Caldeira, M and Chu, C and Crawley, MJ and Daleo, P and Damschen, EI and D'Antonio, CM and DeCrappeo, NM and Dickman, CR and Du,
             G and Fay, PA and Frater, P and Gruner, DS and Hagenah, N and Hector, A and Helm, A and Hillebrand, H and Hofmockel, KS and Humphries, HC and Iribarne, O and Jin, VL and Kay, A and Kirkman, KP and Klein, JA and Knops,
             JMH and La Pierre and KJ and Ladwig, LM and Lambrinos, JG and Leakey, ADB and Li, Q and Li, W and McCulley, R and Melbourne, B and Mitchell, CE and Moore, JL and Morgan, J and Mortensen, B and O'Halloran, LR and Pärtel,
             M and Pascual, J and Pyke, DA and Risch, AC and Salguero-Gómez, R and Sankaran, M and Schuetz, M and Simonsen, A and Smith, M and Stevens, C and Sullivan, L and Wardle, GM and Wolkovich, EM and Wragg, PD and Wright,
             J and Yang, L},
   Title = {Predicting invasion in grassland ecosystems: is exotic
             dominance the real embarrassment of richness?},
   Journal = {Global Change Biology},
   Volume = {19},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {3677-3687},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {1354-1013},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12370},
   Abstract = {Invasions have increased the size of regional species pools,
             but are typically assumed to reduce native diversity.
             However, global-scale tests of this assumption have been
             elusive because of the focus on exotic species richness,
             rather than relative abundance. This is problematic because
             low invader richness can indicate invasion resistance by the
             native community or, alternatively, dominance by a single
             exotic species. Here, we used a globally replicated study to
             quantify relationships between exotic richness and abundance
             in grass-dominated ecosystems in 13 countries on six
             continents, ranging from salt marshes to alpine tundra. We
             tested effects of human land use, native community
             diversity, herbivore pressure, and nutrient limitation on
             exotic plant dominance. Despite its widespread use, exotic
             richness was a poor proxy for exotic dominance at low exotic
             richness, because sites that contained few exotic species
             ranged from relatively pristine (low exotic richness and
             cover) to almost completely exotic-dominated ones (low
             exotic richness but high exotic cover). Both exotic cover
             and richness were predicted by native plant diversity
             (native grass richness) and land use (distance to
             cultivation). Although climate was important for predicting
             both exotic cover and richness, climatic factors predicting
             cover (precipitation variability) differed from those
             predicting richness (maximum temperature and mean
             temperature in the wettest quarter). Herbivory and nutrient
             limitation did not predict exotic richness or cover. Exotic
             dominance was greatest in areas with low native grass
             richness at the site- or regional-scale. Although this could
             reflect native grass displacement, a lack of biotic
             resistance is a more likely explanation, given that grasses
             comprise the most aggressive invaders. These findings
             underscore the need to move beyond richness as a surrogate
             for the extent of invasion, because this metric confounds
             monodominance with invasion resistance. Monitoring species'
             relative abundance will more rapidly advance our
             understanding of invasions.},
   Doi = {10.1111/gcb.12370},
   Key = {fds231623}
}

@article{fds231641,
   Author = {Colman, BP and Arnaout, CL and Anciaux, S and Gunsch, CK and Hochella,
             MF and Kim, B and Lowry, GV and McGill, BM and Reinsch, BC and Richardson,
             CJ and Unrine, JM and Wright, JP and Yin, L and Bernhardt,
             ES},
   Title = {Low concentrations of silver nanoparticles in biosolids
             cause adverse ecosystem responses under realistic field
             scenario.},
   Journal = {Plos One},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {e57189},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23468930},
   Abstract = {A large fraction of engineered nanomaterials in consumer and
             commercial products will reach natural ecosystems. To date,
             research on the biological impacts of environmental
             nanomaterial exposures has largely focused on
             high-concentration exposures in mechanistic lab studies with
             single strains of model organisms. These results are
             difficult to extrapolate to ecosystems, where exposures will
             likely be at low-concentrations and which are inhabited by a
             diversity of organisms. Here we show adverse responses of
             plants and microorganisms in a replicated long-term
             terrestrial mesocosm field experiment following a single low
             dose of silver nanoparticles (0.14 mg Ag kg(-1) soil)
             applied via a likely route of exposure, sewage biosolid
             application. While total aboveground plant biomass did not
             differ between treatments receiving biosolids, one plant
             species, Microstegium vimeneum, had 32 % less biomass in the
             Slurry+AgNP treatment relative to the Slurry only treatment.
             Microorganisms were also affected by AgNP treatment, which
             gave a significantly different community composition of
             bacteria in the Slurry+AgNPs as opposed to the Slurry
             treatment one day after addition as analyzed by T-RFLP
             analysis of 16S-rRNA genes. After eight days, N2O flux was
             4.5 fold higher in the Slurry+AgNPs treatment than the
             Slurry treatment. After fifty days, community composition
             and N2O flux of the Slurry+AgNPs treatment converged with
             the Slurry. However, the soil microbial extracellular
             enzymes leucine amino peptidase and phosphatase had 52 and
             27% lower activities, respectively, while microbial biomass
             was 35% lower than the Slurry. We also show that the
             magnitude of these responses was in all cases as large as or
             larger than the positive control, AgNO3, added at 4-fold the
             Ag concentration of the silver nanoparticles.},
   Doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0057189},
   Key = {fds231641}
}

@article{fds231645,
   Author = {Sutton-Grier, AE and Wright, JP and Richardson,
             CJ},
   Title = {Different plant traits affect two pathways of riparian
             nitrogen removal in a restored freshwater
             wetland},
   Journal = {Plant and Soil},
   Volume = {365},
   Number = {1-2},
   Pages = {41-57},
   Publisher = {Springer Nature},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0032-079X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11104-011-1113-3},
   Abstract = {Background & aims: Plants may have dissimilar effects on
             ecosystem processes because they possess different
             attributes. Given increasing biodiversity losses, it is
             important to understand which plant traits are key drivers
             of ecosystem functions. To address this question, we studied
             the response of two ecosystem functions that remove nitrogen
             (N) from wetland soils, the accumulation of N in plant
             biomass and denitrification potential (DNP), to variation in
             plant trait composition. Methods: Our experiment manipulated
             plant composition in a riparian wetland. We determined
             relative importance of plant traits and environmental
             variables as predictors of each ecosystem function. Results:
             We demonstrate that Water Use Efficiency (WUE) had a strong
             negative effect on biomass N. Root porosity and belowground
             biomass were negatively correlated with DNP. Trait
             ordination indicated that WUE was largely orthogonal to
             traits that maximized DNP. Conclusions: These results
             indicate that plant species with different trait values are
             required to maintain multiple ecosystem functions, and
             provide a more mechanistic, trait-based link between the
             recent findings that higher biodiversity is necessary for
             multi-functionality. While we selected plant traits based on
             ecological theory, several of the plant traits were not good
             predictors of each ecosystem function suggesting the
             ecological theory linking traits to function is incomplete
             and requires strengthening. © 2012 Springer
             Science+Business Media B.V.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s11104-011-1113-3},
   Key = {fds231645}
}

@article{fds231625,
   Author = {Wang, S-Y and Bernhardt, ES and Wright, JP},
   Title = {Urban stream denitrifier communities are linked to lower
             functional resistance to multiple stressors associated with
             urbanization},
   Journal = {Hydrobiologia},
   Volume = {726},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {1-11},
   Year = {2013},
   ISSN = {0018-8158},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10750-013-1747-7},
   Abstract = {The microbial communities in urban stream ecosystems are
             subject to complex combinations of stressors. These same
             microbial communities perform the critical ecosystem service
             of removing excess reactive nitrogen. We asked whether the
             denitrifying microbial communities in urban streams differ
             in their functional resistance to common urban stressors
             from communities from nonurban streams. We exposed inocula
             from a highly polluted urban stream and a nearby nonurban
             stream to three different stressors, added alone and in
             combination. Stressors represent the common urban impacts of
             thermal pollution (10°C), trace metal exposure (ionic
             silver (Ag+)), and salinization (addition of NaCl). We used
             reduction in nitrite (NO2-) concentrations under anaerobic
             conditions as a proxy for denitrification potential.
             Nonurban stream denitrifying microbial communities were more
             diverse than their urban counterparts. Denitrification
             potential for both communities was unaffected by exposure to
             any individual stressor. However, denitrification rates by
             the less diverse urban microbial inoculum decreased in
             response to combined heavy metal and salt stress, while
             nonurban communities were unaffected. These findings support
             the hypothesis that higher diversity may confer greater
             functional resistance in response to multiple stressors and
             do not support the idea that stressful conditions select for
             communities that are functionally resilient to multiple
             stressors. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media
             Dordrecht.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s10750-013-1747-7},
   Key = {fds231625}
}

@article{fds231642,
   Author = {Wright, JP and Sutton-Grier, A},
   Title = {Does the leaf economic spectrum hold within local species
             pools across varying environmental conditions?},
   Journal = {Functional Ecology.},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1390-1398},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0269-8463},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1365-2435.12001},
   Abstract = {Understanding patterns of trait variation across
             environmental variability is necessary for development of
             ecological predictions. The leaf economic spectrum (LES) has
             demonstrated global trade-offs in leaf traits, but it is
             unclear whether such patterns are robust in local
             communities exposed to varying environments. We conducted
             separate greenhouse experiments to examine the effects of
             varying water-table depth and nitrogen availability on
             leaf-level trait values among a suite of co-occurring
             wetland species. We then assessed the effects of
             species-specific trait value responses on relationships
             predicted by LES and whether species responded similarly to
             variations in water-table depth and nitrogen availability.
             We found that both water-table depth and nitrogen
             availability had significant species by treatment
             interactions for specific leaf area, leaf nitrogen and
             photosynthetic rates, indicating species-specific responses
             to environmental variability. The responses of individual
             traits to different treatment levels were relatively
             consistent across species, but multivariate responses were
             more variable. We found that apart from significant
             relationships between specific leaf area and photosynthetic
             rate under some treatments, there was little support for the
             relationships predicted by the LES. These results suggest
             that, before trait-based ecology will be able to make
             progress towards using plant traits to predict responses of
             communities and ecosystems to changes in environmental
             drivers, considerable attention needs to be paid to the
             processes that control intraspecific trait variation. ©
             2012 British Ecological Society.},
   Doi = {10.1111/1365-2435.12001},
   Key = {fds231642}
}

@article{fds347323,
   Author = {Lambe, AT and Onasch, TB and Croasdale, DR and Wright, JP and Martin,
             AT and Franklin, JP and Massoli, P and Kroll, JH and Canagaratna, MR and Brune, WH and Worsnop, DR and Davidovits, P},
   Title = {Transitions from functionalization to fragmentation
             reactions of laboratory secondary organic aerosol (SOA)
             generated from the OH oxidation of alkane
             precursors.},
   Journal = {Environmental Science & Technology},
   Volume = {46},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {5430-5437},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es300274t},
   Abstract = {Functionalization (oxygen addition) and fragmentation
             (carbon loss) reactions governing secondary organic aerosol
             (SOA) formation from the OH oxidation of alkane precursors
             were studied in a flow reactor in the absence of NO(x). SOA
             precursors were n-decane (n-C10), n-pentadecane (n-C15),
             n-heptadecane (n-C17), tricyclo[5.2.1.0(2,6)]decane (JP-10),
             and vapors of diesel fuel and Southern Louisiana crude oil.
             Aerosol mass spectra were measured with a high-resolution
             time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer, from which
             normalized SOA yields, hydrogen-to-carbon (H/C) and
             oxygen-to-carbon (O/C) ratios, and C(x)H(y)+, C(x)H(y)O+,
             and C(x)H(y)O(2)+ ion abundances were extracted as a
             function of OH exposure. Normalized SOA yield curves
             exhibited an increase followed by a decrease as a function
             of OH exposure, with maximum yields at O/C ratios ranging
             from 0.29 to 0.74. The decrease in SOA yield correlates with
             an increase in oxygen content and decrease in carbon
             content, consistent with transitions from functionalization
             to fragmentation. For a subset of alkane precursors (n-C10,
             n-C15, and JP-10), maximum SOA yields were estimated to be
             0.39, 0.69, and 1.1. In addition, maximum SOA yields
             correspond with a maximum in the C(x)H(y)O+ relative
             abundance. Measured correlations between OH exposure, O/C
             ratio, and H/C ratio may enable identification of alkane
             precursor contributions to ambient SOA.},
   Doi = {10.1021/es300274t},
   Key = {fds347323}
}

@article{fds304352,
   Author = {Fridley, JD and Wright, JP},
   Title = {Drivers of secondary succession rates across temperate
             latitudes of the Eastern USA: climate, soils, and species
             pools.},
   Journal = {Oecologia},
   Volume = {168},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1069-1077},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0029-8549},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00442-011-2152-4},
   Abstract = {Climate change is widely expected to induce large shifts in
             the geographic distribution of plant communities, but early
             successional ecosystems may be less sensitive to broad-scale
             climatic trends because they are driven by interactions
             between species that are only indirectly related to
             temperature and rainfall. Building on a biogeographic
             analysis of secondary succession rates across the Eastern
             Deciduous Forest (EDF) of North America, we describe an
             experimental study designed to quantify the relative extent
             to which climate, soil properties, and geographic species
             pools drive variation in woody colonization rates of old
             fields across the EDF. Using a network of five sites of
             varying soil fertility spanning a latitudinal gradient from
             central New York to northern Florida, we added seeds of nine
             woody pioneer species to recently tilled old fields and
             monitored first-year growth and survivorship. Results
             suggest seedlings of southern woody pioneer species are
             better able to quickly establish in fields after
             abandonment, regardless of climate regime. Sites of lower
             soil fertility also exhibited faster rates of seedling
             growth, likely due to the slower development of the
             successional herbaceous community. We suggest that climate
             plays a relatively minor role in community dynamics at the
             onset of secondary succession, and that site edaphic
             conditions are a stronger determinant of the rate at which
             ecosystems develop to a woody-dominated state. More
             experimental research is necessary to determine the nature
             of the herbaceous-woody competitive interface and its
             sensitivity to environmental conditions.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s00442-011-2152-4},
   Key = {fds304352}
}

@article{fds231639,
   Author = {Yin, L and Colman, BP and McGill, BM and Wright, JP and Bernhardt,
             ES},
   Title = {Effects of silver nanoparticle exposure on germination and
             early growth of eleven wetland plants.},
   Journal = {Plos One},
   Volume = {7},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {e47674},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1932-6203},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047674},
   Abstract = {The increasing commercial production of engineered
             nanoparticles (ENPs) has led to concerns over the potential
             adverse impacts of these ENPs on biota in natural
             environments. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the
             most widely used ENPs and are expected to enter natural
             ecosystems. Here we examined the effects of AgNPs on
             germination and growth of eleven species of common wetland
             plants. We examined plant responses to AgNP exposure in
             simple pure culture experiments (direct exposure) and for
             seeds planted in homogenized field soils in a greenhouse
             experiment (soil exposure). We compared the effects of two
             AgNPs-20-nm polyvinylpyrrolidine-coated silver nanoparticles
             (PVP-AgNPs) and 6-nm gum arabic coated silver nanoparticles
             (GA-AgNPs)-to the effects of AgNO(3) exposure added at
             equivalent Ag concentrations (1, 10 or 40 mg Ag L(-1)). In
             the direct exposure experiments, PVP-AgNP had no effect on
             germination while 40 mg Ag L(-1) GA-AgNP exposure
             significantly reduced the germination rate of three species
             and enhanced the germination rate of one species. In
             contrast, 40 mg Ag L(-1) AgNO(3) enhanced the germination
             rate of five species. In general root growth was much more
             affected by Ag exposure than was leaf growth. The magnitude
             of inhibition was always greater for GA-AgNPs than for
             AgNO(3) and PVP-AgNPs. In the soil exposure experiment,
             germination effects were less pronounced. The plant growth
             response differed by taxa with Lolium multiflorum growing
             more rapidly under both AgNO(3) and GA-AgNP exposures and
             all other taxa having significantly reduced growth under
             GA-AgNP exposure. AgNO(3) did not reduce the growth of any
             species while PVP-AgNPs significantly inhibited the growth
             of only one species. Our findings suggest important new
             avenues of research for understanding the fate and transport
             of NPs in natural media, the interactions between NPs and
             plants, and indirect and direct effects of NPs in mixed
             plant communities.},
   Doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0047674},
   Key = {fds231639}
}

@article{fds231640,
   Author = {McGill, B and Wright, J},
   Title = {Neighborhood-scale plant trait variability within and
             between species responds to neighbor density and
             identity},
   Journal = {Plant Ecology},
   Year = {2012},
   Key = {fds231640}
}

@article{fds231643,
   Author = {Wang, and S, and Wright, JP and Bernhardt, E},
   Title = {Testing links between bacterial community structure and
             stress resistance},
   Journal = {Ecosphere},
   Year = {2012},
   Key = {fds231643}
}

@article{fds231644,
   Author = {Fridley, J and Wright, J},
   Title = {Climatic versus edaphic drivers of secondary succession
             rates across temperate latitudes of the Eastern
             U.S},
   Journal = {Oecologia},
   Volume = {168},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1069-1077},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {0029-8549},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00442-011-2152-4},
   Abstract = {Climate change is widely expected to induce large shifts in
             the geographic distribution of plant communities, but early
             successional ecosystems may be less sensitive to broad-scale
             climatic trends because they are driven by interactions
             between species that are only indirectly related to
             temperature and rainfall. Building on a biogeographic
             analysis of secondary succession rates across the Eastern
             Deciduous Forest (EDF) of North America, we describe an
             experimental study designed to quantify the relative extent
             to which climate, soil properties, and geographic species
             pools drive variation in woody colonization rates of old
             fields across the EDF. Using a network of five sites of
             varying soil fertility spanning a latitudinal gradient from
             central New York to northern Florida, we added seeds of nine
             woody pioneer species to recently tilled old fields and
             monitored first-year growth and survivorship. Results
             suggest seedlings of southern woody pioneer species are
             better able to quickly establish in fields after
             abandonment, regardless of climate regime. Sites of lower
             soil fertility also exhibited faster rates of seedling
             growth, likely due to the slower development of the
             successional herbaceous community. We suggest that climate
             plays a relatively minor role in community dynamics at the
             onset of secondary succession, and that site edaphic
             conditions are a stronger determinant of the rate at which
             ecosystems develop to a woody-dominated state. More
             experimental research is necessary to determine the nature
             of the herbaceous-woody competitive interface and its
             sensitivity to environmental conditions. © 2011
             Springer-Verlag.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s00442-011-2152-4},
   Key = {fds231644}
}

@article{fds231649,
   Author = {Adler, PB and Seabloom, EW and Borer, ET and Hillebrand, H and Hautier,
             Y and Hector, A and Harpole, WS and O'Halloran, LR and Grace, JB and Anderson, TM and Bakker, JD and Biederman, LA and Brown, CS and Buckley,
             YM and Calabrese, LB and Chu, C-J and Cleland, EE and Collins, SL and Cottingham, KL and Crawley, MJ and Damschen, EI and Davies, KF and DeCrappeo, NM and Fay, PA and Firn, J and Frater, P and Gasarch, EI and Gruner, DS and Hagenah, N and Hille Ris Lambers and J and Humphries, H and Jin, VL and Kay, AD and Kirkman, KP and Klein, JA and Knops, JMH and La
             Pierre, KJ and Lambrinos, JG and Li, W and MacDougall, AS and McCulley,
             RL and Melbourne, BA and Mitchell, CE and Moore, JL and Morgan, JW and Mortensen, B and Orrock, JL and Prober, SM and Pyke, DA and Risch, AC and Schuetz, M and Smith, MD and Stevens, CJ and Sullivan, LL and Wang, G and Wragg, PD and Wright, JP and Yang, LH},
   Title = {Productivity is a poor predictor of plant species
             richness.},
   Journal = {Science (New York, N.Y.)},
   Volume = {333},
   Number = {6050},
   Pages = {1750-1753},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0036-8075},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1204498},
   Abstract = {For more than 30 years, the relationship between net primary
             productivity and species richness has generated intense
             debate in ecology about the processes regulating local
             diversity. The original view, which is still widely
             accepted, holds that the relationship is hump-shaped, with
             richness first rising and then declining with increasing
             productivity. Although recent meta-analyses questioned the
             generality of hump-shaped patterns, these syntheses have
             been criticized for failing to account for methodological
             differences among studies. We addressed such concerns by
             conducting standardized sampling in 48 herbaceous-dominated
             plant communities on five continents. We found no clear
             relationship between productivity and fine-scale
             (meters(-2)) richness within sites, within regions, or
             across the globe. Ecologists should focus on fresh,
             mechanistic approaches to understanding the multivariate
             links between productivity and richness.},
   Doi = {10.1126/science.1204498},
   Key = {fds231649}
}

@article{fds231647,
   Author = {Sutton-Grier, AE and Wright, JP and McGill, BM and Richardson,
             C},
   Title = {Environmental conditions influence the plant functional
             diversity effect on potential denitrification.},
   Journal = {Plos One},
   Volume = {6},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {e16584},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21311768},
   Abstract = {Global biodiversity loss has prompted research on the
             relationship between species diversity and ecosystem
             functioning. Few studies have examined how plant diversity
             impacts belowground processes; even fewer have examined how
             varying resource levels can influence the effect of plant
             diversity on microbial activity. In a field experiment in a
             restored wetland, we examined the role of plant trait
             diversity (or functional diversity, (FD)) and its
             interactions with natural levels of variability of soil
             properties, on a microbial process, denitrification
             potential (DNP). We demonstrated that FD significantly
             affected microbial DNP through its interactions with soil
             conditions; increasing FD led to increased DNP but mainly at
             higher levels of soil resources. Our results suggest that
             the effect of species diversity on ecosystem functioning may
             depend on environmental factors such as resource
             availability. Future biodiversity experiments should examine
             how natural levels of environmental variability impact the
             importance of biodiversity to ecosystem functioning.},
   Doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0016584},
   Key = {fds231647}
}

@article{fds231646,
   Author = {Warren, RJ and Wright, JP and Bradford, MA},
   Title = {The putative niche requirements and landscape dynamics of
             Microstegium vimineum: An invasive Asian
             grass},
   Journal = {Biological Invasions},
   Volume = {13},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {471-483},
   Publisher = {Springer Nature},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1387-3547},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10530-010-9842-4},
   Abstract = {The theoretical foundations of population and community
             ecology stress the importance of identifying crucial niche
             requirements and life history stages of invasive species
             and, in doing so, give insight into research and management.
             We focus on Microstegium vimineum, an invasive grass which
             is causing marked changes in the structure and function of
             US forests. We describe M. vimineum's life history and
             habitat characteristics, infer its niche requirements and
             synthesize this information in the context of population
             dynamics and management. Based on the results synthesized
             here, M. vimineum's crucial niche requirements appear to be
             light (reproductive output), soil moisture (reproductive
             output, seedling recruitment) and aboveground coverage by
             leaf-litter and competing species (seedling recruitment and
             survival). These data suggest a source-sink dynamic might
             allow M. vimineum to disperse and thrive along sunny, and
             sometimes wet, edge habitats and, in turn, these populations
             might act as source populations for adjacent shady forest
             habitats. By evaluating M. vimineum in the context of its
             stage-specific requirements, we highlight potential
             weaknesses in its life history that provide strategies for
             effective management. © 2010 Springer Science+Business
             Media B.V.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s10530-010-9842-4},
   Key = {fds231646}
}

@article{fds231648,
   Author = {Wang, S-Y and Sudduth, EB and Wallenstein, MD and Wright, JP and Bernhardt, ES},
   Title = {Watershed urbanization alters the composition and function
             of stream bacterial communities.},
   Journal = {Plos One},
   Volume = {6},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {e22972},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21857975},
   Abstract = {Watershed urbanization leads to dramatic changes in draining
             streams, with urban streams receiving a high frequency of
             scouring flows, together with the nutrient, contaminant, and
             thermal pollution associated with urbanization. These
             changes are known to cause significant losses of sensitive
             insect and fish species from urban streams, yet little is
             known about how these changes affect the composition and
             function of stream microbial communities. Over the course of
             two years, we repeatedly sampled sediments from eight
             central North Carolina streams affected to varying degrees
             by watershed urbanization. For each stream and sampling
             date, we characterized both overall and denitrifying
             bacterial communities and measured denitrification
             potentials. Denitrification is an ecologically important
             process, mediated by denitrifying bacteria that use nitrate
             and organic carbon as substrates. Differences in overall and
             denitrifying bacterial community composition were strongly
             associated with the gradient in urbanization.
             Denitrification potentials, which varied widely, were not
             significantly associated with substrate supply. By
             incorporating information on the community composition of
             denitrifying bacteria together with substrate supply in a
             linear mixed-effects model, we explained 45% of the
             variation in denitrification potential (p-value<0.001). Our
             results suggest that (1) the composition of stream bacterial
             communities change in response to watershed urbanization and
             (2) such changes may have important consequences for
             critical ecosystem functions such as denitrification.},
   Doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0022972},
   Key = {fds231648}
}

@article{fds231654,
   Author = {Wright, JP and Fridley, JD},
   Title = {Biogeographic synthesis of secondary succession rates in
             eastern North America},
   Journal = {Journal of Biogeography},
   Volume = {37},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {1584-1596},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0305-0270},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2699.2010.02298.x},
   Abstract = {Aim: Mechanistic models of old-field plant succession have
             generally lacked a broader biogeographic context in which
             climate, soils and species pools could play a significant
             role in mediating succession rates. We examine broad-scale
             patterns in old-field succession and introduce a
             hierarchical conceptual model to incorporate potential
             mechanisms operating at multiple spatial scales. Location:
             We reviewed secondary succession studies across the Eastern
             Deciduous Forest (EDF) of North America. Methods: We
             collected data from all published studies that reported the
             time necessary for woody species to reach either 10% or 50%
             cover in old-field systems throughout the EDF. We used
             regression approaches to determine whether rates of
             succession are controlled by climatic and edaphic factors
             that vary at broad spatial scales. Results: We found that
             the rate at which woody species colonize and dominate old
             fields decreases significantly with latitude. Rates of woody
             succession were highly correlated with both annual
             temperature (growing degree-days for years to 10% and 50%
             cover) and measures of soil fertility (cation exchange
             capacity and reported pre-agroindustrial (1930) maize yields
             for years to 10% cover), all of which show a significant
             latitudinal trend across the EDF. Main conclusions: We
             suggest that the driver of this pattern is geographic
             variation in the intensity of competition between herbaceous
             and woody species, which we relate to the effects of (1)
             temperature regime, (2) edaphic factors related to soil
             fertility, and (3) plant traits, which may vary
             latitudinally in response to climate and edaphic factors.
             Although insufficient data exist to evaluate the relative
             importance of these factors, we argue that research in this
             area is necessary to gain an understanding of how future
             landscapes will be affected by global climate and land use
             change. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1365-2699.2010.02298.x},
   Key = {fds231654}
}

@article{fds304351,
   Author = {Bartel, RA and Haddad, NM and Wright, JP},
   Title = {Ecosystem engineers maintain a rare species of butterfly and
             increase plant diversity},
   Journal = {Oikos},
   Volume = {119},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {883-890},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0030-1299},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0706.2009.18080.x},
   Abstract = {We evaluated whether ecosystem engineers can accomplish two
             conservation goals simultaneously: (1) indirectly maintain
             populations of an endangered animal through habitat
             modification and (2) increase riparian plant diversity. We
             tested for effects of a prominent ecosystem engineer, the
             beaver Castor canadensis, on populations of St. Francis'
             satyr butterfly Neonympha mitchellii francisci and plant
             species richness and composition. We performed our test by
             surveying riparian vegetation communities in all stages of
             beaver-influenced wetland succession. We found that beavers
             created wetland habitats that supported plant species not
             found elsewhere in riparian zones and increased plant
             species diversity across the landscape by creating a novel
             combination of patch types. Our results confirmed what
             others have found about engineering effects on plant
             diversity, but these results further demonstrated a case
             where ecosystem engineers indirectly maintain populations of
             rare animals by modifying the composition and diversity of
             plant communities within wetlands. Our research demonstrates
             how an ecosystem engineer can influence habitat availability
             and composition of plant communities important for an
             endangered insect, and maintain overall plant species
             diversity by increasing habitat heterogeneity. © 2009 The
             Authors.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1600-0706.2009.18080.x},
   Key = {fds304351}
}

@article{fds231635,
   Author = {Reinhardt, L and Jerolmack, D and Cardinale, BJ and Vanacker, V and Wright, J},
   Title = {Dynamic interactions of life and its landscape: Feedbacks at
             the interface of geomorphology and ecology},
   Journal = {Earth Surface Processes and Landforms},
   Volume = {35},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {78-101},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0197-9337},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/esp.1912},
   Abstract = {There appears to be no single axis of causality between life
             and its landscape, but rather, each exerts a simultaneous
             influence on the other over a wide range of temporal and
             spatial scales. These influences occur through feedbacks of
             differing strength and importance with co-evolution
             representing the tightest coupling between biological and
             geomorphological systems. The ongoing failure to incorporate
             these dynamic bio-physical interactions with human activity
             in landscape studies limits our ability to predict the
             response of landscapes to human disturbance and climate
             change. This limitation is a direct result of the poor
             communication between the ecological and geomorphological
             communities and consequent paucity of interdisciplinary
             research. Recognition of this failure led to the
             organization of the Meeting of Young Researchers in Earth
             Science (MYRES) III, titled 'Dynamic Interactions of Life
             and its Landscape'. This paper synthesizes and expands upon
             key issues and findings from that meeting, to help chart a
             course for future collaboration among Earth surface
             scientists and ecologists: it represents the consensus view
             of a competitively selected group of 77 early-career
             researchers. Two broad themes that serve to focus and
             motivate future research are identified: (1) co-evolution of
             landforms and biological communities; and (2) humans as
             modifiers of the landscape (through direct and indirect
             actions). Also outlined are the state of the art in
             analytical, experimental and modelling techniques in
             ecological and geomorphological research, and novel new
             research avenues that combine these techniques are
             suggested. It is hoped that this paper will serve as an
             interdisciplinary reference for geomorphologists and
             ecologists looking to learn more about the other field. ©
             2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.},
   Doi = {10.1002/esp.1912},
   Key = {fds231635}
}

@article{fds231651,
   Author = {McGill, BM and Sutton-Grier, AE and Wright, JP},
   Title = {Plant trait diversity buffers variability in denitrification
             potential over changes in season and soil
             conditions},
   Journal = {Plos One},
   Volume = {5},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {e11618},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {1932-6203},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20661464},
   Abstract = {Background: Denitrification is an important ecosystem
             service that removes nitrogen (N) from N-polluted
             watersheds, buffering soil, stream, and river water quality
             from excess N by returning N to the atmosphere before it
             reaches lakes or oceans and leads to eutrophication. The
             denitrification enzyme activity (DEA) assay is widely used
             for measuring denitrification potential. Because DEA is a
             function of enzyme levels in soils, most ecologists studying
             denitrification have assumed that DEA is less sensitive to
             ambient levels of nitrate (NO3-) and soil carbon and thus,
             less variable over time than field measurements. In
             addition, plant diversity has been shown to have strong
             effects on microbial communities and belowground processes
             and could potentially alter the functional capacity of
             denitrifiers. Here, we examined three questions: (1) Does
             DEA vary through the growing season? (2) If so, can we
             predict DEA variability with environmental variables? (3)
             Does plant functional diversity affect DEA variability?
             Methodology/Principal Findings: The study site is a restored
             wetland in North Carolina, US with native wetland herbs
             planted in monocultures or mixes of four or eight species.
             We found that denitrification potentials for soils collected
             in July 2006 were significantly greater than for soils
             collected in May and late August 2006 (p&lt;.0001).
             Similarly, microbial biomass standardized DEA rates were
             significantly greater in July than May and August
             (p&lt;.0001). Of the soil variables measured- soil moisture,
             organic matter, total inorganic nitrogen, and microbial
             biomass-none consistently explained the pattern observed in
             DEA through time. There was no significant relationship
             between DEA and plant species richnesxs or functional
             diversity. However, the seasonal variance in microbial
             biomass standardized DEA rates was significantly inversely
             related to plant species functional diversity (p&lt;.01).
             Conclusions/Significance: These findings suggest that higher
             plant functional diversity may support a more constant level
             of DEA through time, buffering the ecosystem from changes in
             season and soil conditions. © 2010 McGill et
             al.},
   Doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0011618},
   Key = {fds231651}
}

@article{fds231652,
   Author = {Bartel, RA and Haddad, NM and Wright, JP},
   Title = {Ecosystem engineers maintain rare species and increase
             biodiversity},
   Journal = {Oikos},
   Volume = {119},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {883-890},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {0030-1299},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0706.2009.18080.x},
   Abstract = {We evaluated whether ecosystem engineers can accomplish two
             conservation goals simultaneously: (1) indirectly maintain
             populations of an endangered animal through habitat
             modification and (2) increase riparian plant diversity. We
             tested for effects of a prominent ecosystem engineer, the
             beaver Castor canadensis, on populations of St. Francis'
             satyr butterfly Neonympha mitchellii francisci and plant
             species richness and composition. We performed our test by
             surveying riparian vegetation communities in all stages of
             beaver-influenced wetland succession. We found that beavers
             created wetland habitats that supported plant species not
             found elsewhere in riparian zones and increased plant
             species diversity across the landscape by creating a novel
             combination of patch types. Our results confirmed what
             others have found about engineering effects on plant
             diversity, but these results further demonstrated a case
             where ecosystem engineers indirectly maintain populations of
             rare animals by modifying the composition and diversity of
             plant communities within wetlands. Our research demonstrates
             how an ecosystem engineer can influence habitat availability
             and composition of plant communities important for an
             endangered insect, and maintain overall plant species
             diversity by increasing habitat heterogeneity. © 2009 The
             Authors.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1600-0706.2009.18080.x},
   Key = {fds231652}
}

@article{fds231653,
   Author = {Reinhardt, L and Cardinale, B and Earl, S and Vaneker, V and Wright,
             J},
   Title = {Dynamic Interactions of Life and its Landscape: a new
             paradigm to advance contemporary issues},
   Journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research Biogeosciences},
   Volume = {35},
   Pages = {78-101},
   Year = {2010},
   Key = {fds231653}
}

@article{fds231634,
   Author = {Wright, JP},
   Title = {Linking populations to landscapes: richness scenarios
             resulting from changes in the dynamics of an ecosystem
             engineer.},
   Journal = {Ecology},
   Volume = {90},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {3418-3429},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0012-9658},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20120810},
   Abstract = {Predicting the effects of the loss of individual species on
             diversity represents one of the primary challenges facing
             community ecology. One pathway by which organisms of one
             species affect the distribution of species is ecosystem
             engineering. Changes in the dynamics of ecosystem engineers
             that lead to changes in the distribution of the patches of
             altered habitat are likely to lead to changes in diversity.
             I link data on the distribution of plant species found in
             the riparian zone of the Adirondacks (New York, USA) in
             patches modified by beaver and in unmodified forest patches
             to a model connecting the dynamics of ecosystem engineers to
             the dynamics of the patches that they create. These analyses
             demonstrate that changes in key parameters of the model,
             such as decreases in beaver colonization rates and rate of
             patch abandonment, lead to changes in species richness of up
             to 45% at the landscape scale, and that these changes are
             likely to occur over long time scales. This general approach
             of linking the population dynamics or behavior of a single
             species to changes in species richness at the landscape
             scale provides a means for both testing the importance of
             ecosystem engineering in different systems and developing
             scenarios to predict how changes in the dynamics of a single
             species are likely to affect species richness.},
   Doi = {10.1890/08-1885.1},
   Key = {fds231634}
}

@article{fds231619,
   Author = {Jackson, L and Rosenstock, T and Thomas, M and Wright, J and Symstad,
             A},
   Title = {Managed ecosystems: Biodiversity and ecosystem functions in
             landscapes modified by human use},
   Pages = {178-194},
   Booktitle = {Biodiversity, ecosystem functioning and human well-being: An
             ecological and economic perspective},
   Publisher = {Oxford University Press},
   Editor = {Naeem, Bunker and D., Hector and A., M. Loreau and C.
             Perrings.},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199547951.003.0013},
   Abstract = {© Oxford University Press 2009. All rights reserved. This
             chapter examines the effects of management and
             intensification processes on biodiversity in agricultural
             landscapes. It begins with a metaanalysis of studies
             conducted along landscape gradients, then reviews
             relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem function
             within managed ecosystems. Pest control exemplifies the
             complexity of the functions of biodiversity in managed
             ecosystems (e.g., often correlating poorly with species
             richness, involving several trophic levels, and influenced
             by characteristics of the wider landscape). Finally, based
             on these analyses, this chapter describes an
             interdisciplinary context to link research on biodiversity
             and ecosystem function to end-users at different management
             scales that incorporates the influence of social and
             economic factors.},
   Doi = {10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199547951.003.0013},
   Key = {fds231619}
}

@article{fds231620,
   Author = {Wright, J and Symstad, A and Bullock, JM and Engelhardt, K and Jackson,
             L and Bernhardt, E},
   Title = {Restoring biodiversity and ecosystem function: Will an
             integrated approach improve results?},
   Pages = {167-177},
   Booktitle = {Biodiversity, ecosystem functioning and human well-being: An
             ecological and economic perspective},
   Publisher = {Oxford University Press},
   Editor = {S. Naeem and Bunker, D. and Hector, A. and M. Loreau and C.
             Perrings},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199547951.003.0012},
   Abstract = {© Oxford University Press 2009. All rights reserved.
             Ecological restorations often focus on restoring communities
             while ignoring ecosystem functioning, or on ecosystem
             functioning without regard to communities. This chapter
             argues that the biodiversity-ecosystem function (BEF)
             perspective provides an opportunity to integrate these views
             and potentially improve the success of restoration. First,
             the restoration of biodiversity may lead to desired levels
             of ecosystem properties and processes through "classical"
             BEF mechanisms such as complementarity or selection effects.
             Second, BEF theory suggests that biodiversity may enhance
             temporal stability of the provisioning of ecosystem services
             in restored ecosystems. Finally, in restored ecosystems with
             multiple management goals, biodiversity may enhance the
             provisioning of multiple services. Assessing the relative
             benefits of biodiversity for risk management and the
             provisioning of multiple services requires economic as well
             as ecological analyses. Scientists, managers and policy
             makers will need to ask relevant questions and collaborate
             in interpreting results if BEF theory's potential to impact
             restoration is to be realized.},
   Doi = {10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199547951.003.0012},
   Key = {fds231620}
}

@article{fds231656,
   Author = {Srivastava, DS and Cardinale, BJ and Downing, AL and Duffy, JE and Jouseau, C and Sankaran, M and Wright, JP},
   Title = {Diversity has stronger top-down than bottom-up effects on
             decomposition.},
   Journal = {Ecology},
   Volume = {90},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1073-1083},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0012-9658},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/08-0439.1},
   Abstract = {The flow of energy and nutrients between trophic levels is
             affected by both the trophic structure of food webs and the
             diversity of species within trophic levels. However, the
             combined effects of trophic structure and diversity on
             trophic transfer remain largely unknown. Here we ask whether
             changes in consumer diversity have the same effect as
             changes in resource diversity on rates of resource
             consumption. We address this question by focusing on
             consumer-resource dynamics for the ecologically important
             process of decomposition. This study compares the top-down
             effect of consumer (detritivore) diversity on the
             consumption of dead organic matter (decomposition) with the
             bottom-up effect of resource (detrital) diversity, based on
             a compilation of 90 observations reported in 28 studies. We
             did not detect effects of either detrital or consumer
             diversity on measures of detrital standing stock, and
             effects on consumer standing stock were equivocal. However,
             our meta-analysis indicates that reductions in detritivore
             diversity result in significant reductions in the rate of
             decomposition. Detrital diversity has both positive and
             negative effects on decomposition, with no overall trend.
             This difference between top-down and bottom-up effects of
             diversity is robust to different effect size metrics and
             could not be explained by differences in experimental
             systems or designs between detritivore and detrital
             manipulations. Our finding that resource diversity has no
             net effect on consumption in "brown" (detritus-consumer)
             food webs contrasts with previous findings from "green"
             (plant-herbivore) food webs and suggests that effects of
             plant diversity on consumption may fundamentally change
             after plant death.},
   Doi = {10.1890/08-0439.1},
   Key = {fds231656}
}

@article{fds231655,
   Author = {Cardinale, B and Srivastava, D and Duffy, J and Wright, J and Downing,
             A and Sankaran, M and Jouseau, C and Cadotte, M and Carroll, I and Weis, J and Hector, A and Loreau, M},
   Title = {Effects of biodiversity on the functioning of ecosystems: A
             summary of 164 experimental manipulations of species
             richness},
   Journal = {Ecology},
   Volume = {90},
   Pages = {854},
   Year = {2009},
   Key = {fds231655}
}

@article{fds231657,
   Author = {Wright, J},
   Title = {Biodiversity scenarios resulting from changes in the
             population dynamics of an ecosystem engineer, the
             beaver},
   Journal = {Ecology},
   Volume = {90},
   Year = {2009},
   Key = {fds231657}
}

@article{fds231650,
   Author = {Cardinale, BJ and Wright, JP and Cadotte, MW and Carroll, IT and Hector,
             A and Srivastava, DS and Loreau, M and Weis, JJ},
   Title = {Impacts of plant diversity on biomass production increase
             through time because of species complementarity.},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the
             United States of America},
   Volume = {104},
   Number = {46},
   Pages = {18123-18128},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0027-8424},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0709069104},
   Abstract = {Accelerating rates of species extinction have prompted a
             growing number of researchers to manipulate the richness of
             various groups of organisms and examine how this aspect of
             diversity impacts ecological processes that control the
             functioning of ecosystems. We summarize the results of 44
             experiments that have manipulated the richness of plants to
             examine how plant diversity affects the production of
             biomass. We show that mixtures of species produce an average
             of 1.7 times more biomass than species monocultures and are
             more productive than the average monoculture in 79% of all
             experiments. However, in only 12% of all experiments do
             diverse polycultures achieve greater biomass than their
             single most productive species. Previously, a positive net
             effect of diversity that is no greater than the most
             productive species has been interpreted as evidence for
             selection effects, which occur when diversity maximizes the
             chance that highly productive species will be included in
             and ultimately dominate the biomass of polycultures.
             Contrary to this, we show that although productive species
             do indeed contribute to diversity effects, these
             contributions are equaled or exceeded by species
             complementarity, where biomass is augmented by biological
             processes that involve multiple species. Importantly, both
             the net effect of diversity and the probability of
             polycultures being more productive than their most
             productive species increases through time, because the
             magnitude of complementarity increases as experiments are
             run longer. Our results suggest that experiments to date
             have, if anything, underestimated the impacts of species
             extinction on the productivity of ecosystems.},
   Doi = {10.1073/pnas.0709069104},
   Key = {fds231650}
}

@article{fds231633,
   Author = {Wilson, WG and Wright, JP},
   Title = {11 Community responses to environmental change: Results of
             Lotka-Volterra community theory},
   Journal = {Theoretical Ecology Series},
   Volume = {4},
   Number = {C},
   Pages = {211-227},
   Publisher = {Elsevier},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1875-306X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1875-306X(07)80013-X},
   Doi = {10.1016/S1875-306X(07)80013-X},
   Key = {fds231633}
}

@article{fds304350,
   Author = {I. Badano and E and G. Jones and C and A. Cavieres and L and P. Wright,
             J},
   Title = {Assessing impacts of ecosystem engineers on community
             organization: A general approach illustrated by effects of a
             high-Andean cushion plant},
   Journal = {Oikos},
   Volume = {115},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {369-385},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0030-1299},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2006.0030-1299.15132.x},
   Abstract = {Comparative and integrative tools are of fundamental value
             in ecology for understanding outcomes of biological
             processes, and making generalizations and predictions.
             Although ecosystem engineering has been shown to play a
             fundamental role in community organization, there are no
             standardized methods to measure such effects. We present a
             framework and methodology for assessing the impact of
             physical ecosystem engineers on three general features of
             community organization: (1) species richness and
             composition, (2) stability of richness over time, and (3)
             dominance patterns of species assemblages. We then apply the
             framework and methodology to assess the effects of the
             cushion plant Azorella monantha on high-Andean plant
             communities on two mountaintops. Substrate temperatures,
             soil moisture and the availability of mineral nutrient
             resources were compared between A. monantha and surrounding
             open areas to ascertain whether cushions altered abiotic
             environmental conditions, while community analysis assessed
             changes in species richness, composition and abundances at
             patch and landscape levels. Cushions thermally buffered
             temperature extremes and increased soil moisture, but had no
             detectable effect on soil mineral nutrients. Cushion habitat
             was not more species rich than surrounding areas, but
             cushions added new species into the community, altering
             species composition and markedly enhancing landscape-level
             richness. Cushions also showed potential for stabilizing
             species richness over time, and changed patterns of species
             dominance. Findings were consistent across mountaintops. We
             evaluate the general utility of the framework and call for
             its application in other systems as a means to generate
             comparative data sets for assessing the general effects of
             ecosystem engineers on community organization. ©
             OIKOS.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.2006.0030-1299.15132.x},
   Key = {fds304350}
}

@article{fds304349,
   Author = {Cardinale, BJ and Srivastava, DS and Duffy, JE and Wright, JP and Downing, AL and Sankaran, M and Jouseau, C},
   Title = {Effects of biodiversity on the functioning of trophic groups
             and ecosystems.},
   Journal = {Nature},
   Volume = {443},
   Number = {7114},
   Pages = {989-992},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0028-0836},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature05202},
   Abstract = {Over the past decade, accelerating rates of species
             extinction have prompted an increasing number of studies to
             reduce species diversity experimentally and examine how this
             alters the efficiency by which communities capture resources
             and convert those into biomass. So far, the generality of
             patterns and processes observed in individual studies have
             been the subjects of considerable debate. Here we present a
             formal meta-analysis of studies that have experimentally
             manipulated species diversity to examine how it affects the
             functioning of numerous trophic groups in multiple types of
             ecosystem. We show that the average effect of decreasing
             species richness is to decrease the abundance or biomass of
             the focal trophic group, leading to less complete depletion
             of resources used by that group. At the same time, analyses
             reveal that the standing stock of, and resource depletion
             by, the most species-rich polyculture tends to be no
             different from that of the single most productive species
             used in an experiment. Of the known mechanisms that might
             explain these trends, results are most consistent with what
             is called the 'sampling effect', which occurs when diverse
             communities are more likely to contain and become dominated
             by the most productive species. Whether this mechanism is
             widespread in natural communities is currently
             controversial. Patterns we report are remarkably consistent
             for four different trophic groups (producers, herbivores,
             detritivores and predators) and two major ecosystem types
             (aquatic and terrestrial). Collectively, our analyses
             suggest that the average species loss does indeed affect the
             functioning of a wide variety of organisms and ecosystems,
             but the magnitude of these effects is ultimately determined
             by the identity of species that are going
             extinct.},
   Doi = {10.1038/nature05202},
   Key = {fds304349}
}

@article{fds231662,
   Author = {Wright, JP and Jones, CG and Boeken, B and Shachak,
             M},
   Title = {Predictability of ecosystem engineering effects on species
             richness across environmental variability and spatial
             scales},
   Journal = {Journal of Ecology},
   Volume = {94},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {815-824},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0022-0477},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2006.01132.x},
   Abstract = {1 The effect of physical ecosystem engineering -
             structurally mediated modification of the abiotic
             environment by organisms - on species richness and
             composition probably depends on the area of observation and
             environmental context. 2 We develop specific hypotheses to
             evaluate how such effects will vary with spatial scale and
             environmental variability, and test these hypotheses by
             examining the effects of shrub mounds on the diversity of
             annual plant communities in the Negev Desert, Israel. 3 We
             find that previously reported increases in species richness
             at small spatial scales as a result of shrub mounds are
             maintained at large spatial scales because shrub mounds host
             a number of species never found in adjacent crust patches. 4
             We find that the magnitude of this effect is dependent on
             annual precipitation, with shrub mounds having a smaller
             effect in years with higher precipitation. 5 The results
             generally support our hypotheses. Given the ubiquity of
             ecosystem engineering, these results have the potential to
             explain variation in patterns of ecosystem engineer-induced
             diversity across ecosystems and environmental gradients. In
             general, understanding the interactions between resources
             modified by an ecosystem engineer and the availability of
             these resources in unmodified habitats aids prediction of
             the magnitude of the effects of an ecosystem engineer on
             diversity. © 2006 British Ecological Society.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1365-2745.2006.01132.x},
   Key = {fds231662}
}

@article{fds231658,
   Author = {Wright, JP and Jones, CG},
   Title = {The concept of organisms as ecosystem engineers ten years
             on: Progress, limitations, and challenges},
   Journal = {Bioscience},
   Volume = {56},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {203-209},
   Publisher = {Oxford University Press (OUP)},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0006-3568},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1641/0006-3568(2006)056[0203:TCOOAE]2.0.CO;2},
   Abstract = {The modification of the physical environment by organisms is
             a critical interaction in most ecosystems. The concept of
             ecosystem engineering acknowledges . this fact and allows
             ecologists to develop the conceptual tools for uncovering
             general patterns and building broadly applicable models.
             Although the concept has occasioned some controversy during
             its development, it is quickly gaining acceptance among
             ecologists. We outline the nature of some of these
             controversies and describe some of the major insights gained
             by viewing ecological systems through the lens of ecosystem
             engineering. We close by discussing areas of research where
             we believe the concept of organisms as ecosystem engineers
             will be most likely to lead to significant insights into the
             structure and function of ecological systems. © 2006
             American Institute of Biological Sciences.},
   Doi = {10.1641/0006-3568(2006)056[0203:TCOOAE]2.0.CO;2},
   Key = {fds231658}
}

@article{fds231661,
   Author = {Wright, JP and Naeem, S and Hector, A and Lehman, C and Reich, PB and Schmid, B and Tilman, D},
   Title = {Conventional functional classification schemes underestimate
             the relationship with ecosystem functioning.},
   Journal = {Ecology Letters},
   Volume = {9},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {111-120},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {1461-023X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2005.00850.x},
   Keywords = {biodiversity • classification • complementarity
             • ecosystem function • functional
             groups},
   Abstract = {Studies linking the functional diversity of a biota to
             ecosystem functioning typically employ a priori
             classifications of species into hypothetically complementary
             groups. However, multiple alternate classifications exist in
             which the number of functional groups, the number of species
             per functional group, and the grouping of species differ
             from the a priori scheme. Without assessing the relative
             precision, or ability of an a priori scheme to accurately
             predict ecosystem functioning relative to its many
             alternatives, the validity and utility of analyses based on
             a single a priori classification scheme remains unclear. We
             examine the precision of a priori classifications used in 10
             experimental grassland systems in Europe and the United
             States that have found evidence for a significant role of
             functional plant diversity in governing ecosystem function.
             The predictive precision of the a priori classifications
             employed in these studies was seldom significantly higher
             than the precision of random classifications. Post-hoc
             classification schemes that performed well in predicting
             ecosystem function resembled each other more with regard to
             species composition than average classifications, but there
             was still considerable variability in the manner in which
             these classification schemes grouped species. These results
             suggest that we need a more nuanced understanding of how the
             diversity of functional traits of species in an assemblage
             affects ecosystem functioning.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1461-0248.2005.00850.x},
   Key = {fds231661}
}

@article{fds231659,
   Author = {Badano, EI and Jones, CG and Cavieres, LA and Wright,
             JP},
   Title = {Assessing impacts of ecosystem engineers on community
             organization: effects of the high-Andean cushion plant
             Azorella monantha},
   Journal = {Oikos},
   Volume = {115},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {369-385},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {0030-1299},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2006.0030-1299.15132.x},
   Abstract = {Comparative and integrative tools are of fundamental value
             in ecology for understanding outcomes of biological
             processes, and making generalizations and predictions.
             Although ecosystem engineering has been shown to play a
             fundamental role in community organization, there are no
             standardized methods to measure such effects. We present a
             framework and methodology for assessing the impact of
             physical ecosystem engineers on three general features of
             community organization: (1) species richness and
             composition, (2) stability of richness over time, and (3)
             dominance patterns of species assemblages. We then apply the
             framework and methodology to assess the effects of the
             cushion plant Azorella monantha on high-Andean plant
             communities on two mountaintops. Substrate temperatures,
             soil moisture and the availability of mineral nutrient
             resources were compared between A. monantha and surrounding
             open areas to ascertain whether cushions altered abiotic
             environmental conditions, while community analysis assessed
             changes in species richness, composition and abundances at
             patch and landscape levels. Cushions thermally buffered
             temperature extremes and increased soil moisture, but had no
             detectable effect on soil mineral nutrients. Cushion habitat
             was not more species rich than surrounding areas, but
             cushions added new species into the community, altering
             species composition and markedly enhancing landscape-level
             richness. Cushions also showed potential for stabilizing
             species richness over time, and changed patterns of species
             dominance. Findings were consistent across mountaintops. We
             evaluate the general utility of the framework and call for
             its application in other systems as a means to generate
             comparative data sets for assessing the general effects of
             ecosystem engineers on community organization. ©
             OIKOS.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.2006.0030-1299.15132.x},
   Key = {fds231659}
}

@article{fds231660,
   Author = {Cardinale, B and Srivastiva, D and Duffy, E and Wright, J and Downing,
             A and Sankaranan, M and Jouseau, C},
   Title = {Consistent effects of biodiversity on the functioning of
             trophic groups and ecosystems},
   Journal = {Nature},
   Volume = {443},
   Number = {7114},
   Pages = {989-992},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {0028-0836},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature05202},
   Abstract = {Over the past decade, accelerating rates of species
             extinction have prompted an increasing number of studies to
             reduce species diversity experimentally and examine how this
             alters the efficiency by which communities capture resources
             and convert those into biomass. So far, the generality of
             patterns and processes observed in individual studies have
             been the subjects of considerable debate. Here we present a
             formal meta-analysis of studies that have experimentally
             manipulated species diversity to examine how it affects the
             functioning of numerous trophic groups in multiple types of
             ecosystem. We show that the average effect of decreasing
             species richness is to decrease the abundance or biomass of
             the focal trophic group, leading to less complete depletion
             of resources used by that group. At the same time, analyses
             reveal that the standing stock of, and resource depletion
             by, the most species-rich polyculture tends to be no
             different from that of the single most productive species
             used in an experiment. Of the known mechanisms that might
             explain these trends, results are most consistent with what
             is called the 'sampling effect', which occurs when diverse
             communities are more likely to contain and become dominated
             by the most productive species. Whether this mechanism is
             widespread in natural communities is currently
             controversial. Patterns we report are remarkably consistent
             for four different trophic groups (producers, herbivores,
             detritivores and predators) and two major ecosystem types
             (aquatic and terrestrial). Collectively, our analyses
             suggest that the average species loss does indeed affect the
             functioning of a wide variety of organisms and ecosystems,
             but the magnitude of these effects is ultimately determined
             by the identity of species that are going extinct. ©2006
             Nature Publishing Group.},
   Doi = {10.1038/nature05202},
   Key = {fds231660}
}

@article{fds304347,
   Author = {Wright, JP and Gurney, WSC and Jones, CG},
   Title = {Patch dynamics in a landscape modified by ecosystem
             engineers},
   Journal = {Oikos},
   Volume = {105},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {336-348},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0030-1299.2004.12654.x},
   Abstract = {Ecosystem engineers, organisms that modify the environment,
             have the potential to dramatically alter ecosystem structure
             and function at large spatial scales. The degree to which
             ecosystem engineering produces large-scale effects is, in
             part, dependent on the dynamics of the patches that
             engineers create. Here we develop a set of models that links
             the population dynamics of ecosystem engineers to the
             dynamics of the patches that they create. We show that the
             relative abundance of different patch types in an engineered
             landscape is dependent upon the production of successful
             colonists from engineered patches and the rate at which
             critical resources are depleted by engineers and then
             renewed. We also consider the effects of immigration from
             either outside the system or from engineers that are present
             in non-engineered patches, and the effects of engineers that
             can recolonize patches before they are fully recovered on
             the steady state distribution of different patch types. We
             use data collected on the population dynamics of a model
             engineer, the beaver, to estimate the per-patch production
             rate of new colonists, the decay rate of engineered patches,
             and the recovery rate of abandoned patches. We use these
             estimated parameters as a baseline to determine the effects
             of varying parameters on the distribution of different patch
             types. We suggest a number of hypotheses that derive from
             model predictions and that could serve as tests of the
             model.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.0030-1299.2004.12654.x},
   Key = {fds304347}
}

@article{fds231663,
   Author = {Wright, JP and Jones, CG},
   Title = {Predicting effects of ecosystem engineers on patch-scale
             species richness from primary productivity},
   Journal = {Ecology},
   Volume = {85},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {2071-2081},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/02-8018},
   Abstract = {Ecosystem engineering - the physical modification of
             habitats by organisms - can create patches with altered
             species richness relative to adjacent, unmodified patches.
             The effect of ecosystem engineering on patch-scale species
             richness is likely to be difficult to predict from the
             identity of the engineer, the resources altered as a result
             of engineering, or the identities of the affected species.
             Here we develop a simple conceptual model that predicts the
             effects of ecosystem engineers on species richness based on
             how the habitat modifications caused by engineers affect
             primary productivity, assuming a hump-shaped relationship
             between productivity and species richness. We review data
             from 35 studies that contained 60 comparisons of species
             richness on patches that had been modified by ecosystem
             engineers vs. unmodified patches. We found no general
             patterns in whether species richness at the patch scale was
             increased or decreased by ecosystem engineering. However, 14
             of these studies also contained data on primary productivity
             on and off engineered patches, giving 30 cases to: (1) test
             whether the effects of ecosystem engineering on richness
             depend upon the productivity of the ecosystem, and (2)
             examine the effect of the engineer on productivity. Matching
             the predictions of the conceptual model, we found a
             significant negative relationship between productivity and
             the engineering effect on species richness when ecosystem
             engineers increased productivity and a weak positive
             relationship when engineers decreased productivity. We
             compare the conceptual model developed here to models
             predicting the effects of grazing and facilitation on
             species richness. These results, if supported by further
             studies, can contribute to our general understanding of
             ecosystem engineering and have important implications
             regarding the consequences of the loss or introduction of
             ecosystem engineers on species richness and ecosystem
             function across landscapes that vary in productivity.},
   Doi = {10.1890/02-8018},
   Key = {fds231663}
}

@article{fds304348,
   Author = {Wright, JP and Flecker, AS},
   Title = {Deforesting the riverscape: The effects of wood on fish
             diversity in a Venezuelan piedmont stream},
   Journal = {Biological Conservation},
   Volume = {120},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {439-447},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0006-3207},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2004.02.022},
   Abstract = {While deforestation of tropical ecosystems has been shown to
             have significant impacts on terrestrial habitats, its
             effects on aquatic habitats are poorly studied.
             Deforestation dramatically reduces the input of woody debris
             to streams, and given the importance of large woody debris
             to fish communities in temperate streams, this might be one
             mechanism by which logging could affect aquatic ecosystems
             in the tropics. To examine the effects of large woody debris
             on the diverse fish assemblage of a tropical stream, we
             surveyed pools with and without wood at Rio Las Marias,
             Venezuela. Pools containing wood contained greater numbers
             of individuals and more species of fish than pools without
             wood, and the two types of pools differed in their
             composition. To test whether these results were due to the
             presence of woody debris, we conducted an experimental wood
             addition. Pools to which wood was added showed marked
             increases in both fish abundance and species richness
             relative to wood-free pools, and the composition of the fish
             assemblage in experimental pools approached that of pools
             with naturally occurring woody debris. These results
             demonstrate that large woody debris plays a major role in
             structuring fish communities in tropical streams. As a
             consequence, logging practices that reduce the input of
             woody debris to tropical streams or directly remove wood
             from streams could have serious impacts on aquatic habitats,
             affecting both the diverse fish communities and local
             economies dependent on stream fisheries. © 2004 Elsevier
             Ltd. All rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.biocon.2004.02.022},
   Key = {fds304348}
}

@article{fds231667,
   Author = {Wright, JP and Gurney, WSC and Jones, CG},
   Title = {Patch dynamics in an engineered landscape},
   Journal = {Oikos},
   Volume = {105},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {336-348},
   Year = {2004},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0030-1299.2004.12654.x},
   Abstract = {Ecosystem engineers, organisms that modify the environment,
             have the potential to dramatically alter ecosystem structure
             and function at large spatial scales. The degree to which
             ecosystem engineering produces large-scale effects is, in
             part, dependent on the dynamics of the patches that
             engineers create. Here we develop a set of models that links
             the population dynamics of ecosystem engineers to the
             dynamics of the patches that they create. We show that the
             relative abundance of different patch types in an engineered
             landscape is dependent upon the production of successful
             colonists from engineered patches and the rate at which
             critical resources are depleted by engineers and then
             renewed. We also consider the effects of immigration from
             either outside the system or from engineers that are present
             in non-engineered patches, and the effects of engineers that
             can recolonize patches before they are fully recovered on
             the steady state distribution of different patch types. We
             use data collected on the population dynamics of a model
             engineer, the beaver, to estimate the per-patch production
             rate of new colonists, the decay rate of engineered patches,
             and the recovery rate of abandoned patches. We use these
             estimated parameters as a baseline to determine the effects
             of varying parameters on the distribution of different patch
             types. We suggest a number of hypotheses that derive from
             model predictions and that could serve as tests of the
             model.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.0030-1299.2004.12654.x},
   Key = {fds231667}
}

@article{fds231668,
   Author = {Wright, JP and Flecker, AS},
   Title = {The role of large woody debris in maintaining fish diversity
             in a Venezuelan piedmont stream},
   Journal = {Biological Conservation},
   Volume = {120},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {443-451},
   Year = {2004},
   ISSN = {0006-3207},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2004.02.022},
   Abstract = {While deforestation of tropical ecosystems has been shown to
             have significant impacts on terrestrial habitats, its
             effects on aquatic habitats are poorly studied.
             Deforestation dramatically reduces the input of woody debris
             to streams, and given the importance of large woody debris
             to fish communities in temperate streams, this might be one
             mechanism by which logging could affect aquatic ecosystems
             in the tropics. To examine the effects of large woody debris
             on the diverse fish assemblage of a tropical stream, we
             surveyed pools with and without wood at Rio Las Marias,
             Venezuela. Pools containing wood contained greater numbers
             of individuals and more species of fish than pools without
             wood, and the two types of pools differed in their
             composition. To test whether these results were due to the
             presence of woody debris, we conducted an experimental wood
             addition. Pools to which wood was added showed marked
             increases in both fish abundance and species richness
             relative to wood-free pools, and the composition of the fish
             assemblage in experimental pools approached that of pools
             with naturally occurring woody debris. These results
             demonstrate that large woody debris plays a major role in
             structuring fish communities in tropical streams. As a
             consequence, logging practices that reduce the input of
             woody debris to tropical streams or directly remove wood
             from streams could have serious impacts on aquatic habitats,
             affecting both the diverse fish communities and local
             economies dependent on stream fisheries. © 2004 Elsevier
             Ltd. All rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.biocon.2004.02.022},
   Key = {fds231668}
}

@article{fds304346,
   Author = {Naeem, S and Wright, JP},
   Title = {Disentangling biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning:
             Deriving solutions to a seemingly insurmountable
             problem},
   Journal = {Ecology Letters},
   Volume = {6},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {567-579},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1461-0248.2003.00471.x},
   Abstract = {Experimental investigations of the relationship between
             biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF) directly
             manipulate diversity then monitor ecosystem response to the
             manipulation. While these studies have generally confirmed
             the importance of biodiversity to the functioning of
             ecosystems, their broader significance has been difficult to
             interpret. The main reasons for this difficulty concern the
             small scales of the experiment, a bias towards plants and
             grasslands, and most importantly a general lack of clarity
             in terms of what attributes of functional diversity (FD)
             were actually manipulated. We review how functional traits,
             functional groups, and the relationship between functional
             and taxonomic diversity have been used in current BEF
             research. Several points emerged from our review. First, it
             is critical to distinguish between response and effect
             functional traits when quantifying or manipulating FD.
             Second, although it is widely done, using trophic position
             as a functional group designator does not fit the
             effect-response trait division needed in BEF research.
             Third, determining a general relationship between taxonomic
             and FD is neither necessary nor desirable in BEF research.
             Fourth, fundamental principles in community and
             biogeographical ecology that have been largely ignored in
             BEF research could serve to dramatically improve the scope
             and predictive capabilities of BEF research. We suggest that
             distinguishing between functional response traits and
             functional effect traits both in combinatorial manipulations
             of biodiversity and in descriptive studies of BEF could
             markedly improve the power of such studies. We construct a
             possible framework for predictive, broad-scale BEF research
             that requires integrating functional, community,
             biogeographical, and ecosystem ecology with
             taxonomy.},
   Doi = {10.1046/j.1461-0248.2003.00471.x},
   Key = {fds304346}
}

@article{fds231666,
   Author = {Wright, JP and Flecker, AS and Jones, CG},
   Title = {Local vs. landscape controls on plant species richness in
             beaver meadows},
   Journal = {Ecology},
   Volume = {84},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {3162-3173},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/02-0598},
   Abstract = {There is considerable interest in determining whether the
             species richness of communities is determined by forces
             controlling dispersal into patches that operate at the
             landscape scale, or forces controlling persistence that act
             at the local scale. Understanding the relative importance of
             these two classes of factors in controlling within-patch
             species richness is particularly important when patches are
             created via ecosystem engineering. In such cases, factors
             affecting the population dynamics or behavior of a single
             species could indirectly affect species richness if richness
             is controlled primarily by landscape-level factors. We used
             a combination of experimental mesocosms and field
             observations to determine whether species richness in beaver
             wetlands in the Adirondack Mountains (New York) is more
             strongly controlled by the position of the wetland in the
             landscape or by within-wetland hydrology. Drainage rate had
             a significant effect on both richness and composition in
             mesocosms, with well-drained treatments having significantly
             higher richness than poorly drained treatments. Seed
             germinated from the seed bank in sediments collected from
             different ponds showed relatively small differences in
             richness or community composition in mesocosms, suggesting a
             comparatively small effect of dispersal limitation on
             species richness. Experimental results were mirrored in a
             survey of 14 meadows over two years, which indicated that
             variability in water table depth was consistently a
             significant predictor of species richness, while meadow area
             and isolation showed little relation to richness. The survey
             also suggested that the number of years since beaver had
             abandoned a site was a significant predictor of the number
             of species found in beaver meadows. The results indicate
             that species richness in beaver meadows is strongly
             controlled by local factors, but that the population
             dynamics of beaver could also potentially affect species
             richness by altering the age distribution of meadows across
             the landscape.},
   Doi = {10.1890/02-0598},
   Key = {fds231666}
}

@article{fds231664,
   Author = {Naeem, S and Wright, JP},
   Title = {Disentangling biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning:
             deriving solutions to a seemingly insurmountable
             problem},
   Journal = {Ecology Letters},
   Volume = {6},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {569-579},
   Year = {2003},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1461-0248.2003.00471.x},
   Abstract = {Experimental investigations of the relationship between
             biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF) directly
             manipulate diversity then monitor ecosystem response to the
             manipulation. While these studies have generally confirmed
             the importance of biodiversity to the functioning of
             ecosystems, their broader significance has been difficult to
             interpret. The main reasons for this difficulty concern the
             small scales of the experiment, a bias towards plants and
             grasslands, and most importantly a general lack of clarity
             in terms of what attributes of functional diversity (FD)
             were actually manipulated. We review how functional traits,
             functional groups, and the relationship between functional
             and taxonomic diversity have been used in current BEF
             research. Several points emerged from our review. First, it
             is critical to distinguish between response and effect
             functional traits when quantifying or manipulating FD.
             Second, although it is widely done, using trophic position
             as a functional group designator does not fit the
             effect-response trait division needed in BEF research.
             Third, determining a general relationship between taxonomic
             and FD is neither necessary nor desirable in BEF research.
             Fourth, fundamental principles in community and
             biogeographical ecology that have been largely ignored in
             BEF research could serve to dramatically improve the scope
             and predictive capabilities of BEF research. We suggest that
             distinguishing between functional response traits and
             functional effect traits both in combinatorial manipulations
             of biodiversity and in descriptive studies of BEF could
             markedly improve the power of such studies. We construct a
             possible framework for predictive, broad-scale BEF research
             that requires integrating functional, community,
             biogeographical, and ecosystem ecology with
             taxonomy.},
   Doi = {10.1046/j.1461-0248.2003.00471.x},
   Key = {fds231664}
}

@article{fds231665,
   Author = {Wright, JP and Jones, CG and Flecker, AS},
   Title = {An ecosystem engineer, the beaver, increases species
             richness at the landscape scale.},
   Journal = {Oecologia},
   Volume = {132},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {96-101},
   Publisher = {Springer Nature},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00442-002-0929-1},
   Abstract = {Ecosystem engineering - the physical modification of
             habitats by organisms - has been proposed as an important
             mechanism for maintaining high species richness at the
             landscape scale by increasing habitat heterogeneity. Dams
             built by beaver (Castor canadensis) dramatically alter
             riparian landscapes throughout much of North America. In the
             central Adirondacks, New York, USA, ecosystem engineering by
             beaver leads to the formation of extensive wetland habitat
             capable of supporting herbaceous plant species not found
             elsewhere in the riparian zone. We show that by increasing
             habitat heterogeneity, beaver increase the number of species
             of herbaceous plants in the riparian zone by over 33% at a
             scale that encompasses both beaver-modified patches and
             patches with no history of beaver occupation. We suggest
             that ecosystem engineers will increase species richness at
             the landscape scale whenever there are species present in a
             landscape that are restricted to engineered habitats during
             at least some stages of their life cycle.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s00442-002-0929-1},
   Key = {fds231665}
}


%% Papers Accepted   
@article{fds220166,
   Author = {Wang, S.* and J.P. Wright and E. Bernhardt},
   Title = {Microbial diversity is linked to higher functional
             resistance},
   Journal = {Hydrobiologia},
   Year = {2013},
   Key = {fds220166}
}

@article{fds220167,
   Author = {Seabloom, E.* and E.T. Borer and Y. Buckley and W.E. Cleland and K.
             Davies, J. Firn and S. Harpoled and Y. Hautier and E. Lind and A.
             MacDougall , J. L. Orrock and S.M Prober and P. Adler and T. M.
             Anderson and J.D. Bakker and L.A. Biederman and D. Blumenthal and C.S.
             Brown, L. Brudvig and C. Chu and M.J. Crawley and E. Damschen and C.M.
             Dantonio, N.M. DeCrappeo and G. Du and P.A. Fay and P. Frater and D.S.
             Gruner, N. Hagenah and A. Hector and H. Hillebrand and K.S.
             Hofmockel, H. Huphries and V.L. Jin and A. Kay and K.P. Kirkman and J.A.
             Klein, J.M.H. Knops and K.J. La Pierre and J.G. Lambrinos  and A.
             Leakey, Q. Li and W. Li and R. McCulley and B. Melbourne and C.
             Mitchell, J. Moore and J. Morgan and B. Mortensen and D.A. Pyke and A.C.
             Risch, M. Schuetz and M. Smith and C. Stevens and L. Sullivan and E.
             Wolkovich, P.D. Wragg and J. Wright and L. Yang},
   Title = {Biogeography of exotic species dominance in terrestrial,
             herbaceous ecosystems},
   Journal = {Global Change Biology},
   Year = {2013},
   Key = {fds220167}
}


%% Papers Submitted   
@article{fds220169,
   Author = {Ames, G. and J. Wright},
   Title = {Environmental drivers of community composition and trait
             variability depend on the scale of observation},
   Journal = {Functional Ecology},
   Year = {2013},
   Key = {fds220169}
}

@article{fds220171,
   Author = {Ficken, C.D.* and G.M. Ames and S.M. Anderson and J.P.
             Wright},
   Title = {Soil moisture and fire history influence nutrient
             availability and productivity in a longleaf pine
             savannah},
   Journal = {Soil Biology and Biochemistry},
   Year = {2013},
   Key = {fds220171}
}

@article{fds220172,
   Author = {Lee, M.R. and J. Wright},
   Title = {Competitor context, not density, mediates invader’s
             impacts on soil moisture and nitrogen},
   Journal = {Oecologia},
   Year = {2013},
   Key = {fds220172}
}

@article{fds220173,
   Author = {E. Seabloom and E.T.Borer, Y. Buckley and W.E. Cleland and K.Davies, J. Firn and S. Harpole and Y.Hautier, E.Lind and A. MacDougall and J.L.
             Orrock, S.M. Prober and P. Adler and T.M. Anderson and J.D. Bakker and L.A. Biederman and D. Blumenthal and C.S. Brown and L.A. Brudvig and C.
             Chu, M.J. Crawley and E.I. Damschen and C.M. D’Antonio and N.M.
             DeCrappeo, G. Du and P.A. Fay and P. Frater and D.S. Gruner and N.Hagenah, A. Hector and H. Hillebrand and K.S. Hofmockel and H.C.
             Humphries, V.L. Jin and A. Kay and K.P. Kirkman and J.A. Klein and J.M.H. Knops and K.J. LaPierre and J.G. Lambrinos and A.D.B. Leakey and Q. Li and W. Li and R. McCulley and B. Melbourne and C.E. Mitchell and J.L.
             Moore, J. Morgan and B. Mortensen and DA. Pyke and A.C. Risch and M.
             Schuetz, M.Smith and C. Stevens and L.Sullivan, E.Wolkovich and P.D.
             Wragg, J.Wright and L.Yang},
   Title = {The origin of species determines response to nutrient
             additions and dominance in grassland ecosystems},
   Journal = {PNAS},
   Year = {2013},
   Key = {fds220173}
}

@article{fds220174,
   Author = {Vineyard, D.L. and Ames, G.M. and Anderson, S.M. and J.P.
             Wright},
   Title = {Annual growth in a pine savanna is driven by interactions
             between fire and climate.},
   Journal = {Forest Ecology and Research},
   Year = {2013},
   Key = {fds220174}
}


%% Book Chapters   
@misc{fds347404,
   Author = {Anciaux, SK and Colman, BP and Bernhardt, ES and Wright, J and McGill,
             B},
   Title = {Investigation of the bioaccumulation of silver
             nanoparticles},
   Journal = {Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical
             Society},
   Volume = {241},
   Pages = {1 pages},
   Publisher = {AMER CHEMICAL SOC},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds347404}
}

@misc{fds70493,
   Author = {Naeem, S. and R. Colwell and S. Díaz and J. Hughes and C. Jouseau and S.
             Lavorel, P. Morin and O. Petchey and J. Wright},
   Title = {Predicting the ecosystem consequences of biodiversity loss:
             the BioMERGE framework},
   Pages = {113-126},
   Booktitle = {Terrestrial Ecosystems in a Changing World.},
   Publisher = {Springer},
   Editor = {J. Canadell and Pataki, D. and Pitelka, L.},
   Year = {2007},
   Key = {fds70493}
}

@misc{fds70494,
   Author = {Wilson, W.G. and J. Wright},
   Title = {Community Responses to Environmental Change:},
   Pages = {211-228},
   Booktitle = {Ecosystem Engineers: Plants to Protists},
   Publisher = {Elsevier},
   Editor = {Cuddington, K. and J. Byers and A. Hastings and W.
             Wilson},
   Year = {2007},
   Key = {fds70494}
}

@misc{fds347324,
   Author = {Ewing, HA and Hogan, K and Keesing, F and Bugmann, HM and Berkowitz, AR and Gross, LJ and Oris, JT and Wright, JP},
   Title = {The role of modeling in undergraduate education},
   Journal = {Models in Ecosystem Science},
   Pages = {413-427},
   Booktitle = {Models in Ecosystem Science},
   Publisher = {PRINCETON UNIV PRESS},
   Editor = {Canham, CD and Cole, JJ and Lauenroth, WK},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {0-691-09288-5},
   Key = {fds347324}
}


%% Book Reviews   
@article{fds26059,
   Author = {Wright, J.P.},
   Title = {The Beaver: Natural History of a Wetlands
             Engineer},
   Journal = {The Quarterly Review of Biology},
   Volume = {79},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {215},
   Year = {2004},
   Key = {fds26059}
}