Publications of David R. Smith    :chronological  alphabetical  combined listing:

%% Papers Published   
@article{fds329820,
   Author = {Marks, DL and Yurduseven, O and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Near-field multistatic radar reconstruction with
             stretched-phase Fourier accelerated multistatic
             imaging },
   Journal = {IET Radar, Sonar and Navigation},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {1718-1729},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1049/iet-rsn.2017.0130},
   Doi = {10.1049/iet-rsn.2017.0130},
   Key = {fds329820}
}

@article{fds329821,
   Author = {Fromenteze, T and Yurduseven, O and Boyarsky, M and Gollub, J and Marks,
             DL and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Computational polarimetric microwave imaging},
   Journal = {Optics express},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {22},
   Pages = {27488-27488},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.25.027488},
   Doi = {10.1364/OE.25.027488},
   Key = {fds329821}
}

@article{fds329822,
   Author = {Pulido-Mancera, L and Imani, MF and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Discrete dipole approximation for simulation of unusually
             tapered leaky wave antennas},
   Journal = {IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium
             Digest},
   Pages = {409-412},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {October},
   ISBN = {9781509063604},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MWSYM.2017.8058581},
   Abstract = {© 2017 IEEE. In this paper, Discrete Dipole Approximation
             (DDA) is presented as a simulation tool for predicting the
             electromagnetic properties of one dimensional metasurface
             antennas and slotted waveguide antennas. The proposed method
             is verified by demonstrating excellent agreement between DDA
             predictions and that of a full-wave electromagnetic solver.
             This technique is especially attractive since it allows us
             to simulate and design metasurface antennas with unusual
             tapering and irises with unconventional geometries (e.g.
             metamaterial elements), in order to achieve the desired
             radiation characteristics, such as beamwidth and sidelobe
             level, while maintaining steering capabilities.},
   Doi = {10.1109/MWSYM.2017.8058581},
   Key = {fds329822}
}

@article{fds328720,
   Author = {Sleasman, T and Boyarsky, M and Imani, MF and Fromenteze, T and Gollub,
             JN and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Single-frequency microwave imaging with dynamic metasurface
             apertures},
   Journal = {Journal of the Optical Society of America
             B},
   Volume = {34},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {1713-1713},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAB.34.001713},
   Doi = {10.1364/JOSAB.34.001713},
   Key = {fds328720}
}

@article{fds328104,
   Author = {Yurduseven, O and Marks, DL and Fromenteze, T and Gollub, JN and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Millimeter-wave spotlight imager using dynamic holographic
             metasurface antennas},
   Journal = {Optics express},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {15},
   Pages = {18230-18230},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.25.018230},
   Abstract = {© 2017 Optical Society of America. Computational imaging
             systems leverage generalized measurements to produce
             high-fidelity images, enabling novel and often lower cost
             hardware platforms at the expense of increased processing.
             However, obtaining full resolution images across a large
             field-of-view (FOV) can lead to slow reconstruction times,
             limiting system performance where faster frame rates are
             desired. In many imaging scenarios, the highest resolution
             is needed only in smaller subdomains of interest within a
             scene, suggesting an aperture supporting multiple modalities
             of image capture with different resolutions can provide a
             path to system optimization. We explore this concept in the
             context of millimeter-wave imaging, presenting the design
             and simulation of a single frequency (75 GHz), multistatic,
             holographic spotlight aperture integrated into a K-band
             (17.5–26.5 GHz), frequency-diverse imager. The spotlight
             aperture – synthesized using an array of dynamically
             tuned, holographic, metasurface antennas – illuminates a
             constrained region-of-interest (ROI) identified from a
             low-resolution image, extracting a high-fidelity image of
             the constrained-ROI with a minimum number of measurement
             modes. The designs of both the static, frequency-diverse
             sub-aperture and the integrated dynamic spotlight aperture
             are evaluated using simulation techniques developed for
             large-scale synthetic apertures.},
   Doi = {10.1364/OE.25.018230},
   Key = {fds328104}
}

@article{fds327438,
   Author = {Shin, D and Kim, J and Kim, C and Bae, K and Baek, S and Kang, G and Urzhumov,
             Y and Smith, DR and Kim, K},
   Title = {Scalable variable-index elasto-optic metamaterials for
             macroscopic optical components and devices.},
   Journal = {Nature Communications},
   Volume = {8},
   Pages = {16090},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms16090},
   Abstract = {Optical metamaterials with an artificial subwavelength
             structure offer new approaches to implement advanced optical
             devices. However, some of the biggest challenges associated
             with the development of metamaterials in the visible
             spectrum are the high costs and slow production speeds of
             the nanofabrication processes. Here, we demonstrate a
             macroscale (>35 mm) transformation-optics wave bender
             (293 mm2) and Luneburg lens (855 mm2) in the broadband
             white-light visible wavelength range using the concept of
             elasto-optic metamaterials that combines optics and solid
             mechanics. Our metamaterials consist of mesoscopically
             homogeneous chunks of bulk aerogels with superior, broadband
             optical transparency across the visible spectrum and an
             adjustable, stress-tuneable refractive index ranging from
             1.43 down to nearly the free space index (∼1.074). The
             experimental results show that broadband light can be
             controlled and redirected in a volume of >105λ × 105λ ×
             103λ, which enables natural light to be processed directly
             by metamaterial-based optical devices without any additional
             coupling components.},
   Doi = {10.1038/ncomms16090},
   Key = {fds327438}
}

@article{fds327439,
   Author = {Sleasman, T and Imani, MF and Yurduseven, O and Trofatter, KP and Gowda,
             VR and Marks, DL and Gollub, JN and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Near Field Scan Alignment Procedure for Electrically Large
             Apertures},
   Journal = {IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation},
   Volume = {65},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {3257-3262},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TAP.2017.2691465},
   Doi = {10.1109/TAP.2017.2691465},
   Key = {fds327439}
}

@article{fds326854,
   Author = {Fromenteze, T and Boyarsky, M and Gollub, J and Sleasman, T and Imani,
             M and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Single-frequency near-field MIMO imaging},
   Journal = {2017 11th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation,
             EUCAP 2017},
   Pages = {1415-1418},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {May},
   ISBN = {9788890701870},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.23919/EuCAP.2017.7928576},
   Abstract = {© 2017 Euraap. A near-field radar imaging technique is
             presented based on single-frequency measurements from a
             multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) array. Such arrays are
             able to fully sample the κ-space of a region of interest.
             Advantageously, both range and cross-range information can
             be reconstructed, in contrast to conventional single-input
             multiple-output systems which require wideband frequency
             illumination. A theory of single frequency MIMO imaging is
             developed and studied through numerical modeling and
             experimental validation.},
   Doi = {10.23919/EuCAP.2017.7928576},
   Key = {fds326854}
}

@article{fds326736,
   Author = {Gollub, JN and Yurduseven, O and Imani, MF and Odabasi, H and Sleasman,
             T and Trofatter, KP and Boyarsky, M and Marks, DL and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Computational imaging using frequency-diverse
             metasurfaces},
   Journal = {2017 11th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation,
             EUCAP 2017},
   Pages = {1208-1211},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {May},
   ISBN = {9788890701870},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.23919/EuCAP.2017.7928774},
   Abstract = {© 2017 Euraap. This paper summarizes the recent advances in
             using frequency-diverse metasurfaces for computational
             imaging in the microwave and millimeter wave regimes.
             Frequency-diverse apertures are defined as structures that
             can generate distinct radiation patterns as a function of
             frequency. Such waveforms can multiplex a scene information
             into a set of backscattered measurements, which can be
             decoded using computational algorithms. In this manner,
             these apertures can retrieve a scene's reflectivity map
             using a fast frequency sweep (all-electronic operation),
             circumventing the requirement for a mechanical scan or
             active circuit components. We review recent advances in
             developing these apertures and examine their performance in
             both simulation and experimental settings. Finally, efforts
             to build large apertures, which can image at the diffraction
             limit, are discussed.},
   Doi = {10.23919/EuCAP.2017.7928774},
   Key = {fds326736}
}

@article{fds326737,
   Author = {Yurduseven, O and Fromenteze, T and Gollub, JN and Marks, DL and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Computational frequency-diverse microwave imaging using an
             air-filled cavity-backed antenna},
   Journal = {2017 11th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation,
             EUCAP 2017},
   Pages = {3589-3592},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {May},
   ISBN = {9788890701870},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.23919/EuCAP.2017.7928063},
   Abstract = {© 2017 Euraap. We demonstrate a frequency-diverse imaging
             system using an air-filled cavity-backed antenna as a
             transceiver (cavity-to-cavity system layout) for the K-band
             (17.5-26.5 GHz) frequency regime. Leveraging the
             computational imaging concept, the frequency-diversity
             enables imaging in an all-electronic manner, without the
             need for mechanical raster scanning or active circuit
             components, minimizing the data acquisition time and
             simplifying the system architecture. It is shown that the
             proposed system is capable of reconstructing good fidelity
             images in a sub-second time frame, holding significant
             potential for real-time imaging applications.},
   Doi = {10.23919/EuCAP.2017.7928063},
   Key = {fds326737}
}

@article{fds326738,
   Author = {Yurduseven, O and Gollub, JN and Fromenteze, T and Marks, DL and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Optimization of frequency-diverse antennas for computational
             imaging at microwave frequencies},
   Journal = {2017 11th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation,
             EUCAP 2017},
   Pages = {1410-1414},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {May},
   ISBN = {9788890701870},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.23919/EuCAP.2017.7928064},
   Abstract = {© 2017 Euraap. Frequency-diverse imaging is an
             all-electronic method, capable of sampling the scene to be
             imaged without the need for a mechanical scan or active
             circuit components. In order to optimize the imaging
             characteristics, such as imaging resolution and fidelity of
             the reconstructed images, the antennas used within this
             scheme need to be optimized. It is demonstrated that using a
             Mills-Cross iris distribution, superior sampling of the
             Fourier components (wide support extent and minimum sampling
             redundancy) can be achieved. Using the optimized antennas,
             an experimental imaging system is built, reconstructing a
             good quality image of a cross-shaped target in less than 0.1
             seconds.},
   Doi = {10.23919/EuCAP.2017.7928064},
   Key = {fds326738}
}

@article{fds326627,
   Author = {Degiron, A and Vanwolleghem, M and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Efficient finite element resolution of gyromagnetic and
             gyroelectric nonreciprocal electromagnetic
             problems},
   Journal = {Optics express},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {11088-11088},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.25.011088},
   Doi = {10.1364/OE.25.011088},
   Key = {fds326627}
}

@article{fds326628,
   Author = {Boyarsky, M and Sleasman, T and Pulido-Mancera, L and Fromenteze, T and Pedross-Engel, A and Watts, CM and Imani, MF and Reynolds, MS and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Synthetic aperture radar with dynamic metasurface antennas:
             a conceptual development.},
   Journal = {Journal of the Optical Society of America
             A},
   Volume = {34},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {A22-A36},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/josaa.34.000a22},
   Abstract = {We investigate the application of dynamic metasurface
             antennas (DMAs) to synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems.
             Metasurface antennas can generate a multitude of tailored
             electromagnetic waveforms from a physical platform that is
             low-cost, lightweight, and planar; these characteristics are
             not readily available with traditional SAR technologies,
             such as phased arrays and mechanically steered systems. We
             show that electronically tuned DMAs can generate steerable,
             directive beams for traditional stripmap and spotlight SAR
             imaging modes. This capability eliminates the need for
             mechanical gimbals and phase shifters, simplifying the
             hardware architecture of a SAR system. Additionally, we
             discuss alternative imaging modalities, including enhanced
             resolution stripmap and diverse pattern stripmap, which can
             achieve resolution on par with spotlight, while maintaining
             a large region-of-interest, as possible with stripmap.
             Further consideration is given to strategies for integrating
             metasurfaces with chirped pulse RF sources. DMAs are poised
             to propel SAR systems forward by offering a vast range of
             capabilities from a significantly improved physical
             platform.},
   Doi = {10.1364/josaa.34.000a22},
   Key = {fds326628}
}

@article{fds326240,
   Author = {Marks, DL and Yurduseven, O and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Cavity-backed metasurface antennas and their application to
             frequency diversity imaging.},
   Journal = {Journal of the Optical Society of America
             A},
   Volume = {34},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {472-480},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/josaa.34.000472},
   Abstract = {Frequency diversity antennas with spatially structured
             radiation patterns reduce the reliance on actively switched
             elements for beamforming which become increasingly expensive
             and impractical as frequency increases. As the quality
             factor Q of a frequency diverse antenna increases, the
             antenna samples more spatial structure as the number of
             unique radiated coded spatial patterns correspondingly
             increases. Antennas that combine hollow cavities and
             metamaterial apertures achieve both large fractional
             bandwidth, in excess of 40%, and a high Q of 1600, so that
             each antenna radiates over 640 unique coded patterns. As
             compared to switched active antennas, such a passive antenna
             replaces the 50 antennas and switches that would produce at
             most (50/2)<sup>2</sup>=625 unique patterns. Furthermore,
             the engineered metamaterial apertures enable a radiation
             efficiency exceeding 60% to be achieved in a single desired
             polarization. The theory of cavity-backed metasurface
             antennas is explained, and frequency diverse imaging is
             demonstrated with a pair of these antennas.},
   Doi = {10.1364/josaa.34.000472},
   Key = {fds326240}
}

@article{fds326241,
   Author = {Bowen, PT and Baron, A and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Effective-medium description of a metasurface composed of a
             periodic array of nanoantennas coupled to a metallic
             film},
   Journal = {Physical Review A},
   Volume = {95},
   Number = {3},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.95.033822},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevA.95.033822},
   Key = {fds326241}
}

@article{fds324875,
   Author = {Gollub, JN and Yurduseven, O and Trofatter, KP and Arnitz, D and F
             Imani, M and Sleasman, T and Boyarsky, M and Rose, A and Pedross-Engel,
             A and Odabasi, H and Zvolensky, T and Lipworth, G and Brady, D and Marks,
             DL and Reynolds, MS and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Large Metasurface Aperture for Millimeter Wave Computational
             Imaging at the Human-Scale.},
   Journal = {Scientific Reports},
   Volume = {7},
   Pages = {42650},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep42650},
   Abstract = {We demonstrate a low-profile holographic imaging system at
             millimeter wavelengths based on an aperture composed of
             frequency-diverse metasurfaces. Utilizing measurements of
             spatially-diverse field patterns, diffraction-limited images
             of human-sized subjects are reconstructed. The system is
             driven by a single microwave source swept over a band of
             frequencies (17.5-26.5 GHz) and switched between a
             collection of transmit and receive metasurface panels. High
             fidelity image reconstruction requires a precise model for
             each field pattern generated by the aperture, as well as the
             manner in which the field scatters from objects in the
             scene. This constraint makes scaling of computational
             imaging systems inherently challenging for electrically
             large, coherent apertures. To meet the demanding
             requirements, we introduce computational methods and
             calibration approaches that enable rapid and accurate
             imaging performance.},
   Doi = {10.1038/srep42650},
   Key = {fds324875}
}

@article{fds324876,
   Author = {Watts, CM and Pedross-Engel, A and Smith, DR and Reynolds,
             MS},
   Title = {X-band SAR imaging with a liquid-crystal-based dynamic
             metasurface antenna},
   Journal = {Journal of the Optical Society of America
             B},
   Volume = {34},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {300-300},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAB.34.000300},
   Doi = {10.1364/JOSAB.34.000300},
   Key = {fds324876}
}

@article{fds322740,
   Author = {Stewart, JW and Akselrod, GM and Smith, DR and Mikkelsen,
             MH},
   Title = {Toward Multispectral Imaging with Colloidal Metasurface
             Pixels.},
   Journal = {Advanced Materials},
   Volume = {29},
   Number = {6},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.201602971},
   Abstract = {Multispectral colloidal metasurfaces are fabricated that
             exhibit greater than 85% absorption and ≈100 nm linewidths
             by patterning film-coupled nanocubes in pixels using a
             fusion of bottom-up and top-down fabrication techniques over
             wafer-scale areas. With this technique, the authors realize
             a multispectral pixel array consisting of six resonances
             between 580 and 1125 nm and reconstruct an RGB image with
             9261 color combinations.},
   Doi = {10.1002/adma.201602971},
   Key = {fds322740}
}

@article{fds325393,
   Author = {Nashad, F and Foti, S and Smith, D and Elsdon, M and Yurduseven,
             O},
   Title = {Development of transparent patch antenna element integrated
             with solar cells for Ku-band satellite applications},
   Journal = {2016 Loughborough Antennas and Propagation Conference, LAPC
             2016},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9781509007820},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LAPC.2016.7807579},
   Abstract = {© 2016 IEEE. In this paper, a design of broadband compact
             microstrip meshed patch antenna integrated with solar cells
             for Ku-band satellite applications is presented. A Plexiglas
             transparent substrate is also employed to enable the light
             to pass through with high efficiency to illuminate the solar
             panel cells while the RF performance is maintained with
             minimal degradation. This meshed patch antenna for two-way
             satellite internet and TV applications at remote areas,
             covering the communications frequency range from 11.7GHz to
             12.22GHz (downlink) and 14.0GHz to 14.5GHz (uplink) bands
             allocated by the ITU to the Regions 1 and 2. The effect of
             replacing the solid elements of a microwave suspended patch
             antenna with meshed element is examined. A compact flat
             meshed element is obtained and simulated in CST Microwave
             Studio and achieved the broadband width of 500 MHz in both
             portions and the nominal element gain is 7.47dBi downlink
             and 8.51 dBi uplink, suffering only by 0.23 dBi and 0.14 dBi
             respectively, comparing to the original suspended solid
             patch antenna design. The visible light transmission is
             found at normal incidence and an oblique angle to be
             approximately 87% and 80%, respectively.},
   Doi = {10.1109/LAPC.2016.7807579},
   Key = {fds325393}
}

@article{fds327443,
   Author = {Pulido Mancera and L and Fromenteze, T and Sleasman, T and Boyarsky, M and Imani, MF and Reynolds, MS and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Adapting range migration techniques for imaging with
             metasurface antennas: Analysis and limitations},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical
             Engineering},
   Volume = {10201},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9781510609037},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2262906},
   Abstract = {© 2017 SPIE. Dynamic metasurface antennas are planar
             structures that exhibit remarkable capabilities in
             controlling electromagnetic wave-fronts, advantages which
             are particularly attractive for microwave imaging. These
             antennas exhibit strong frequency dispersion and produce
             diverse radiation patterns. Such behavior presents unique
             challenges for integration with conventional imaging
             algorithms. We analyze an adapted version of the range
             migration algorithm (RMA) for use with dynamic metasurfaces
             in image reconstruction. Focusing on the the proposed
             pre-processing step, that ultimately allows a fast
             processing of the backscattered signal in the spatial
             frequency domain from which the fast Fourier transform can
             efficiently reconstruct the scene. Numerical studies
             illustrate imaging performance using both conventional
             methods and the adapted RMA, demonstrating that the RMA can
             reconstruct images with comparable quality in a fraction of
             the time. In this paper, we demonstrate the capabilities of
             the algorithm as a fast reconstruction tool, and we analyze
             the limitations of the presented technique in terms of image
             quality.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.2262906},
   Key = {fds327443}
}

@article{fds327442,
   Author = {Sleasman, T and Imani, MF and Boyarsky, M and Pulido-Mancera, L and Reynolds, MS and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Reconfigurable metasurface aperture for security screening
             and microwave imaging},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical
             Engineering},
   Volume = {10189},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9781510608795},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2262848},
   Abstract = {© 2017 SPIE. Microwave imaging systems have seen growing
             interest in recent decades for applications ranging from
             security screening to space/earth observation. However,
             hardware architectures commonly used for this purpose have
             not seen drastic changes. With the advent of metamaterials a
             wealth of opportunities have emerged for honing metasurface
             apertures for microwave imaging systems. Recent thrusts have
             introduced dynamic reconfigurability directly into the
             aperture layer, providing powerful capabilities from a
             physical layer with considerable simplicity. The waveforms
             generated from such dynamic metasurfaces make them suitable
             for application in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and, more
             generally, computational imaging. In this paper, we
             investigate a dynamic metasurface aperture capable of
             performing microwave imaging in the K-band (17.5-26.5 GHz).
             The proposed aperture is planar and promises an inexpensive
             fabrication process via printed circuit board techniques.
             These traits are further augmented by the tunability of
             dynamic metasurfaces, which provides the dexterity necessary
             to generate field patterns ranging from a sequence of
             steered beams to a series of uncorrelated radiation
             patterns. Imaging is experimentally demonstrated with a
             voltage-Tunable metasurface aperture. We also demonstrate
             the aperture's utility in real-Time measurements and perform
             volumetric SAR imaging. The capabilities of a prototype are
             detailed and the future prospects of general dynamic
             metasurface apertures are discussed.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.2262848},
   Key = {fds327442}
}

@article{fds327441,
   Author = {Boyarsky, M and Sleasman, T and Pulido-Mancera, L and Imani, MF and Reynolds, MS and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Alternative synthetic aperture radar (SAR) modalities using
             a 1D dynamic metasurface antenna},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical
             Engineering},
   Volume = {10189},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9781510608795},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2262855},
   Abstract = {© 2017 SPIE. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems
             conventionally rely on mechanically-Actuated reflector
             dishes or large phased arrays for generating steerable
             directive beams. While these systems have yielded
             high-resolution images, the hardware suffers from
             considerable weight, high cost, substantial power
             consumption, and moving parts. Since these disadvantages are
             particularly relevant in airborne and spaceborne systems, a
             flat, lightweight, and low-cost solution is a sought-After
             goal. Dynamic metasurface antennas have emerged as a recent
             technology for generating waveforms with desired
             characteristics. Metasurface antennas consist of an
             electrically-large waveguide loaded with numerous
             subwavelength radiators which selectively leak energy from a
             guided wave into free space to form various radiation
             patterns. By tuning each radiating element, we can modulate
             the aperture's overall radiation pattern to generate steered
             directive beams, without moving parts or phase shifters.
             Furthermore, by using established manufacturing methods,
             these apertures can be made to be lightweight, low-cost, and
             planar, while maintaining high performance. In addition to
             their hardware benefits, dynamic metasurfaces can leverage
             their dexterity and high switching speeds to enable
             alternative SAR modalities for improved performance. In this
             work, we briefly discuss how dynamic met asurfaces can
             conduct existing SAR modalities with similar performance as
             conventional systems from a significantly simpler hardware
             platform. We will also describe two additional modalities
             which may achieve improved performance as compared to
             traditional modalities. These modalities, enhanced
             resolution stripmap and diverse pattern stripmap, offer the
             ability to circumvent the trade-off between resolution and
             region-of-interest size that exists within stripmap and
             spotlight. Imaging results with a simulated dynamic
             metasurface verify the benefits of these modalities and a
             discussion of implementation considerations and noise
             effects is also included. Ultimately, the hardware gains
             coupled with the additional modalities well-suited to
             dynamic metasurface antennas has poised them to propel the
             SAR field forward and open the door to exciting
             opportunities.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.2262855},
   Key = {fds327441}
}

@article{fds327440,
   Author = {Smith, DR and Reynolds, MS and Gollub, JN and Marks, DL and Imani, MF and Yurduseven, O and Arnitz, D and Pedross-Engel, A and Sleasman, T and Trofatter, P and Boyarsky, M and Rose, A and Odabasi, H and Lipworth,
             G},
   Title = {Security screening via computational imaging using
             frequency-diverse metasurface apertures},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical
             Engineering},
   Volume = {10189},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9781510608795},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2262899},
   Abstract = {© 2017 SPIE. Computational imaging is a proven strategy for
             obtaining high-quality images with fast acquisition rates
             and simpler hardware. Metasurfaces provide exquisite control
             over electromagnetic fields, enabling the radiated field to
             be molded into unique patterns. The fusion of these two
             concepts can bring about revolutionary advances in the
             design of imaging systems for security screening. In the
             context of computational imaging, each field pattern serves
             as a single measurement of a scene; imaging a scene can then
             be interpreted as estimating the reflectivity distribution
             of a target from a set of measurements. As with any
             computational imaging system, the key challenge is to arrive
             at a minimal set of measurements from which a
             diffraction-limited image can be resolved. Here, we show
             that the information content of a frequency-diverse
             metasurface aperture can be maximized by design, and used to
             construct a complete millimeter-wave imaging system spanning
             a 2 m by 2 m area, consisting of 96 metasurfaces, capable of
             producing diffraction-limited images of human-scale targets.
             The metasurfacebased frequency-diverse system presented in
             this work represents an inexpensive, but tremendously
             flexible alternative to traditional hardware paradigms,
             offering the possibility of low-cost, real-Time, and
             ubiquitous screening platforms.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.2262899},
   Key = {fds327440}
}

@article{fds326739,
   Author = {Stewart, JW and Akselrod, GM and Smith, DR and Mikkelsen,
             MH},
   Title = {Multispectral metasurface absorbers for optoelectronic
             devices},
   Journal = {Optics InfoBase Conference Papers},
   Volume = {Part F41-CLEO_SI 2017},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9781943580279},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/CLEO_SI.2017.SM3N.4},
   Abstract = {© 2017 OSA. We demonstrate multispectral metasurfaces over
             wafer-scale areas exhibiting greater than 85 percent
             absorption, ~100 nm linewidths from 580-1125 nm by
             patterning plasmonic resonators in micron-scale pixels using
             a fusion of bottom-up and top-down fabrication
             techniques.},
   Doi = {10.1364/CLEO_SI.2017.SM3N.4},
   Key = {fds326739}
}

@article{fds328955,
   Author = {Sharma, A and Pedross-Engel, A and Arnitz, D and Watts, CM and Smith,
             DR and Reynolds, MS},
   Title = {A K-Band Backscatter Fiducial for Continuous Calibration in
             Coherent Millimeter-Wave Imaging},
   Journal = {IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and
             Techniques},
   Pages = {1-8},
   Year = {2017},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TMTT.2017.2723889},
   Doi = {10.1109/TMTT.2017.2723889},
   Key = {fds328955}
}

@article{fds328956,
   Author = {Yurduseven, O and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Dual-Polarization Printed Holographic Multibeam Metasurface
             Antenna},
   Journal = {IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters},
   Volume = {16},
   Pages = {2738-2741},
   Year = {2017},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LAWP.2017.2743710},
   Doi = {10.1109/LAWP.2017.2743710},
   Key = {fds328956}
}

@article{fds328954,
   Author = {Zvolensky, T and Gollub, JN and Marks, DL and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Design and Analysis of a W-Band Metasurface-Based
             Computational Imaging System},
   Journal = {IEEE Access},
   Volume = {5},
   Pages = {9911-9918},
   Year = {2017},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2017.2703860},
   Doi = {10.1109/ACCESS.2017.2703860},
   Key = {fds328954}
}

@article{fds329140,
   Author = {Yurduseven, O and Marks, DL and Gollub, JN and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Design and Analysis of a Reconfigurable Holographic
             Metasurface Aperture for Dynamic Focusing in the Fresnel
             Zone},
   Journal = {IEEE Access},
   Volume = {5},
   Pages = {15055-15065},
   Year = {2017},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2017.2712659},
   Doi = {10.1109/ACCESS.2017.2712659},
   Key = {fds329140}
}

@article{fds329141,
   Author = {Yurduseven, O and Fromenteze, T and Marks, DL and Gollub, JN and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Frequency-Diverse Computational Microwave Phaseless
             Imaging},
   Journal = {IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters},
   Pages = {1-1},
   Year = {2017},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LAWP.2017.2748139},
   Doi = {10.1109/LAWP.2017.2748139},
   Key = {fds329141}
}

@article{fds329404,
   Author = {Sleasman, T and Boyarsky, M and Pulido-Mancera, L and Fromenteze, T and Imani, MF and Reynolds, MS and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Experimental Synthetic Aperture Radar with Dynamic
             Metasurfaces},
   Journal = {IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation},
   Pages = {1-1},
   Year = {2017},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TAP.2017.2758797},
   Abstract = {IEEE We investigate the use of a dynamic metasurface as the
             transmitting antenna for a synthetic aperture radar (SAR)
             imaging system. The dynamic metasurface consists of a
             one-dimensional microstrip waveguide with complementary
             electric resonator (cELC) elements patterned into the upper
             conductor. Integrated into each of the cELCs are two diodes
             that can be used to shift each cELC resonance out of band
             with an applied voltage. The aperture is designed to operate
             at K band frequencies (17.5 to 20.3 GHz). We experimentally
             demonstrate imaging with a fabricated metasurface aperture
             using well-known SAR modalities, showing image quality
             comparable to traditional antennas. The agility of this
             aperture allows it to operate in spotlight and stripmap SAR
             modes, as well as in a third modality inspired by
             computational imaging strategies. We describe the dynamic
             metasurface antenna & #x2019;s operation in detail,
             demonstrate high-quality imaging in both 2D and 3D, and
             examine various trade-offs governing the integration of
             dynamic metasurfaces in future SAR imaging
             platforms.},
   Doi = {10.1109/TAP.2017.2758797},
   Key = {fds329404}
}

@article{fds326242,
   Author = {Zhu, R and Lipworth, G and Zvolensky, T and Smith, DR and Marks,
             DL},
   Title = {Versatile Manufacturing of Split-Block Microwave Devices
             Using Rapid Prototyping and Electroplating},
   Journal = {IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters},
   Volume = {16},
   Pages = {157-160},
   Year = {2017},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LAWP.2016.2563398},
   Doi = {10.1109/LAWP.2016.2563398},
   Key = {fds326242}
}

@article{fds325783,
   Author = {Marks, DL and Yurduseven, O and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Fourier Accelerated Multistatic Imaging: A Fast
             Reconstruction Algorithm for Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output
             Radar Imaging},
   Journal = {IEEE Access},
   Volume = {5},
   Pages = {1796-1809},
   Year = {2017},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2017.2661068},
   Doi = {10.1109/ACCESS.2017.2661068},
   Key = {fds325783}
}

@article{fds322741,
   Author = {Moradi, A and Akhlaghi, EA and Hajizedeh, F and Reihani,
             SNS},
   Title = {Digital holography based submicron thermometry},
   Journal = {Optics express},
   Volume = {24},
   Number = {25},
   Pages = {28678-28678},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.24.028678},
   Doi = {10.1364/OE.24.028678},
   Key = {fds322741}
}

@article{fds322742,
   Author = {Zecca, R and Bowen, PT and Smith, DR and Larouche,
             S},
   Title = {Transformation-optics simulation method for stimulated
             Brillouin scattering},
   Journal = {Physical Review A},
   Volume = {94},
   Number = {6},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.94.063818},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevA.94.063818},
   Key = {fds322742}
}

@article{fds320767,
   Author = {Sleasman, T and Imani, MF and Gollub, JN and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Microwave Imaging Using a Disordered Cavity with a
             Dynamically Tunable Impedance Surface},
   Journal = {Physical review applied},
   Volume = {6},
   Number = {5},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevApplied.6.054019},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevApplied.6.054019},
   Key = {fds320767}
}

@article{fds320768,
   Author = {Yurduseven, O and Gollub, JN and Marks, DL and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Field repeatability in frequency diverse
             imaging},
   Journal = {2016 IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International
             Symposium, APSURSI 2016 - Proceedings},
   Pages = {853-854},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {October},
   ISBN = {9781509028863},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/APS.2016.7696135},
   Abstract = {© 2016 IEEE. We consider multi-static imaging systems
             composed of frequency-diverse transmitting antenna arrays
             (or apertures). In these frequency diverse imaging
             modalities, accurate near-field characterization of the
             antennas is vital to achieving imaging. It is shown that
             considerable simplification in system characterization can
             be achieved without compromising the image quality when
             planar cavity antennas are used, because their radiation
             characteristics can be manufacture repeatable. In contrast,
             it is also demonstrated that the increased complexity of
             antennas utilizing sub-wavelength elements significantly
             reduces fabrication tolerances, making it necessary to
             characterize the metamaterial apertures individually.},
   Doi = {10.1109/APS.2016.7696135},
   Key = {fds320768}
}

@article{fds320769,
   Author = {Yurduseven, O and Gollub, JN and Marks, DL and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Metallization of a 3D printed cavitiy for
             imaging},
   Journal = {2016 IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International
             Symposium, APSURSI 2016 - Proceedings},
   Pages = {855-856},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {October},
   ISBN = {9781509028863},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/APS.2016.7696136},
   Abstract = {© 2016 IEEE. In this paper, we propose a metallized 3D
             printed cavity for K-band imaging and investigate the effect
             of metallization type on mode diversity and image
             reconstruction. The 3D printed cavity acts as a
             frequency-diverse aperture and is capable of imaging objects
             in an all-electronic manner utilizing computational imaging
             techniques. We demonstrate that metallization material
             choice can increase the mode diversity by 90.8%,
             significantly improving imaging.},
   Doi = {10.1109/APS.2016.7696136},
   Key = {fds320769}
}

@article{fds320770,
   Author = {Sleasman, T and Imani, MF and Gollub, JN and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Toward a tunable mode-mixing cavity for computational
             imaging},
   Journal = {2016 IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International
             Symposium, APSURSI 2016 - Proceedings},
   Pages = {1901-1902},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {October},
   ISBN = {9781509028863},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/APS.2016.7696657},
   Abstract = {© 2016 IEEE. A mode-mixing cavity, consisting of an
             electrically-large rectangular cavity with one deformed
             corner, supports distinct modes as a function of driving
             frequency. Perforating one side of this cavity, the modes
             formed within can be projected into an imaging domain,
             multiplexing the scene's spatial content into backscattered
             signals that is post-processed to obtain high-quality
             images. While this device has shown great promise as a
             platform for computational imaging at microwave frequencies,
             its premise necessitates a large bandwidth, a requirement
             that complicates circuit design and may not be readily
             available. In this presentation, we propose and report
             preliminary experimental results for a cavity containing a
             tunable artificial impedance surface in one of its walls. By
             varying the electromagnetic response of the cavity's
             boundary the field distribution within the cavity can be
             altered, thus generating distinct radiation patterns without
             a large bandwidth.},
   Doi = {10.1109/APS.2016.7696657},
   Key = {fds320770}
}

@article{fds319556,
   Author = {F. Imani and M and Sleasman, T and Gollub, JN and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Analytical modeling of printed metasurface cavities for
             computational imaging},
   Journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
   Volume = {120},
   Number = {14},
   Pages = {144903-144903},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4964336},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.4964336},
   Key = {fds319556}
}

@article{fds319557,
   Author = {Pulido-Mancera, L and Fromenteze, T and Sleasman, T and Boyarsky, M and Imani, MF and Reynolds, M and Smith, D},
   Title = {Application of range migration algorithms to imaging with a
             dynamic metasurface antenna},
   Journal = {Journal of the Optical Society of America
             B},
   Volume = {33},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {2082-2082},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAB.33.002082},
   Doi = {10.1364/JOSAB.33.002082},
   Key = {fds319557}
}

@article{fds319558,
   Author = {Gowda, VR and Gollub, JN and Yurduseven, O and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Multistatic microwave imaging with arrays of planar
             cavities},
   Journal = {IET Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {1174-1181},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1049/iet-map.2015.0836},
   Doi = {10.1049/iet-map.2015.0836},
   Key = {fds319558}
}

@article{fds319559,
   Author = {Lipworth, G and Caira, NW and Larouche, S and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Phase and magnitude constrained metasurface holography at
             W-band frequencies.},
   Journal = {Optics express},
   Volume = {24},
   Number = {17},
   Pages = {19372-19387},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/oe.24.019372},
   Abstract = {Holographic optics are an essential tool for the control of
             light, generating highly complex and tailored light field
             distributions that can represent physical objects or
             abstract information. Conceptually, a hologram is a region
             of space in which an arbitrary phase shift and amplitude
             variation are added to an incident reference wave at every
             spatial location, such that the reference wave will produce
             a desired field distribution as it scatters from the medium.
             Practical holograms are composed of materials, however,
             which have limited properties that constrain the possible
             field distributions. Here, we show it is possible to produce
             a hologram with continuous phase distribution and a
             non-uniform amplitude variation at every point by leveraging
             resonant metamaterial elements and constraining the
             hologram's pixels to match the elements' resonant behavior.
             We demonstrate the viability of the resonant metamaterial
             approach with a single layer, co-polarized holographic
             metasurface that produces an image at millimeter wavelengths
             (92.5 GHz) despite the elements' limited phase range and
             coupled amplitude dependency.},
   Doi = {10.1364/oe.24.019372},
   Key = {fds319559}
}

@article{fds319560,
   Author = {Fromenteze, T and Liu, X and Boyarsky, M and Gollub, J and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Phaseless computational imaging with a radiating
             metasurface.},
   Journal = {Optics express},
   Volume = {24},
   Number = {15},
   Pages = {16760-16776},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/oe.24.016760},
   Abstract = {Computational imaging modalities support a simplification of
             the active architectures required in an imaging system and
             these approaches have been validated across the
             electromagnetic spectrum. Recent implementations have
             utilized pseudo-orthogonal radiation patterns to illuminate
             an object of interest-notably, frequency-diverse
             metasurfaces have been exploited as fast and low-cost
             alternative to conventional coherent imaging systems.
             However, accurately measuring the complex-valued signals in
             the frequency domain can be burdensome, particularly for
             sub-centimeter wavelengths. Here, computational imaging is
             studied under the relaxed constraint of intensity-only
             measurements. A novel 3D imaging system is conceived based
             on 'phaseless' and compressed measurements, with benefits
             from recent advances in the field of phase retrieval. In
             this paper, the methodology associated with this novel
             principle is described, studied, and experimentally
             demonstrated in the microwave range. A comparison of the
             estimated images from both complex valued and phaseless
             measurements are presented, verifying the fidelity of
             phaseless computational imaging.},
   Doi = {10.1364/oe.24.016760},
   Key = {fds319560}
}

@article{fds319562,
   Author = {Bowen, PT and Baron, A and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Theory of patch-antenna metamaterial perfect
             absorbers},
   Journal = {Physical Review A},
   Volume = {93},
   Number = {6},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.93.063849},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevA.93.063849},
   Key = {fds319562}
}

@article{fds319561,
   Author = {Sleasman, T and Boyarsky, M and Imani, MF and Gollub, JN and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Design considerations for a dynamic metamaterial aperture
             for computational imaging at microwave frequencies},
   Journal = {Journal of the Optical Society of America
             B},
   Volume = {33},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1098-1098},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAB.33.001098},
   Doi = {10.1364/JOSAB.33.001098},
   Key = {fds319561}
}

@article{fds315031,
   Author = {Yurduseven, O and Gowda, VR and Gollub, JN and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Printed Aperiodic Cavity for Computational and Microwave
             Imaging},
   Journal = {IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {367-369},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {1531-1309},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LMWC.2016.2548443},
   Doi = {10.1109/LMWC.2016.2548443},
   Key = {fds315031}
}

@article{fds316894,
   Author = {Marks, DL and Gollub, J and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Spatially resolving antenna arrays using frequency
             diversity.},
   Journal = {Journal of the Optical Society of America
             A},
   Volume = {33},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {899-912},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {1084-7529},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/josaa.33.000899},
   Abstract = {Radio imaging devices and synthetic aperture radar typically
             use either mechanical scanning or phased arrays to
             illuminate a target with spatially varying radiation
             patterns. Mechanical scanning is unsuitable for many
             high-speed imaging applications, and phased arrays contain
             many active components and are technologically and cost
             prohibitive at millimeter and terahertz frequencies. We show
             that antennas deliberately designed to produce many
             different radiation patterns as the frequency is varied can
             reduce the number of active components necessary while still
             capturing high-quality images. This approach, called
             frequency-diversity imaging, can capture an entire
             two-dimensional image using only a single transmit and
             receive antenna with broadband illumination. We provide
             simple principles that ascertain whether a design is likely
             to achieve particular resolution specifications, and
             illustrate these principles with simulations.},
   Doi = {10.1364/josaa.33.000899},
   Key = {fds316894}
}

@article{fds315572,
   Author = {Yurduseven, O and Gollub, JN and Marks, DL and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Frequency-diverse microwave imaging using planar Mills-Cross
             cavity apertures.},
   Journal = {Optics express},
   Volume = {24},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {8907-8925},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/oe.24.008907},
   Abstract = {We demonstrate a frequency diverse, multistatic microwave
             imaging system based on a set of transmit and receive,
             radiating, planar cavity apertures. The cavities consist of
             double-sided, copper-clad circuit boards, with a series of
             circular radiating irises patterned into the upper
             conducting plate. The iris arrangement is such that for any
             given transmitting and receiving aperture pair, a
             Mills-Cross pattern is formed from the overlapped patterns.
             The Mills-Cross distribution provides optimum coverage of
             the imaging scene in the spatial Fourier domain (k-space).
             The Mills-Cross configuration of the apertures produces
             measurement modes that are diverse and consistent with the
             computational imaging approach used for frequency-diverse
             apertures, yet significantly minimizes the redundancy of
             information received from the scene. We present a detailed
             analysis of the Mills-Cross aperture design, with numerical
             simulations that predict the performance of the apertures as
             part of an imaging system. Images reconstructed using
             fabricated apertures are presented, confirming the
             anticipated performance.},
   Doi = {10.1364/oe.24.008907},
   Key = {fds315572}
}

@article{fds330365,
   Author = {Dechaux, M and Tichit, P-H and Ciracì, C and Benedicto, J and Pollès,
             R and Centeno, E and Smith, DR and Moreau, A},
   Title = {Influence of spatial dispersion in metals on the optical
             response of deeply subwavelength slit arrays},
   Journal = {Physical Review B},
   Volume = {93},
   Number = {4},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.93.045413},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.93.045413},
   Key = {fds330365}
}

@article{fds319563,
   Author = {Yurduseven, O and Gollub, JN and Rose, A and Marks, DL and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Design and Simulation of a Frequency-Diverse Aperture for
             Imaging of Human-Scale Targets},
   Journal = {IEEE Access},
   Volume = {4},
   Number = {99},
   Pages = {5436-5451},
   Year = {2016},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2016.2604823},
   Abstract = {© 2013 IEEE.We present the design and simulation of a
             frequency-diverse aperture for imaging of human-size targets
             at microwave wavelengths. Predominantly relying on a
             frequency sweep to produce diverse radiation patterns, the
             frequency-diverse aperture provides a path to all-electronic
             operation, sampling a scene without the requirement for
             mechanical scanning or expensive active components. Similar
             to other computational imaging schemes, the frequency
             diverse aperture removes many hardware constraints by
             placing an increased burden on processing and analysis.
             While proof-of-concept simulations of scaled-down versions
             of the frequency-diverse imager and simple targets can be
             performed with relative ease, the end-to-end modeling of a
             full-size aperture capable of fully resolving human-size
             targets presents many challenges, particularly if parametric
             studies need to be performed during a design or optimization
             phase. Here we show that an in-house developed simulation
             code can be adapted and parallelized for the rapid design
             and optimization of a full-size, frequency-diverse aperture.
             Using files of human models in stereolithography (STL)
             format, the software can model the entire imaging scenario
             in seconds, including mode generation and propagation,
             scattering from the human model, and measured backscatter.
             We illustrate the performance of several frequency-diverse
             aperture designs using images of human-scale targets
             reconstructed with various algorithms, and compare with a
             conventional synthetic aperture radar (SAR) approach. We
             demonstrate the potential of one aperture for threat object
             detection in security-screening applications.},
   Doi = {10.1109/ACCESS.2016.2604823},
   Key = {fds319563}
}

@article{fds319564,
   Author = {Yurduseven, O and Gollub, JN and Trofatter, KP and Marks, DL and Rose,
             A and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Software Calibration of a Frequency-Diverse, Multistatic,
             Computational Imaging System},
   Journal = {IEEE Access},
   Volume = {4},
   Pages = {2488-2497},
   Year = {2016},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2016.2570678},
   Doi = {10.1109/ACCESS.2016.2570678},
   Key = {fds319564}
}

@article{fds322743,
   Author = {Gowda, VR and Yurduseven, O and Lipworth, G and Zupan, T and Reynolds,
             MS and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Wireless Power Transfer in the Radiative Near
             Field},
   Journal = {IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters},
   Volume = {15},
   Pages = {1865-1868},
   Year = {2016},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LAWP.2016.2542138},
   Doi = {10.1109/LAWP.2016.2542138},
   Key = {fds322743}
}

@article{fds320771,
   Author = {Pulido-Mancera, LM and Zvolensky, T and Imani, MF and Bowen, PT and Valayil, M and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Discrete Dipole Approximation Applied to Highly Directive
             Slotted Waveguide Antennas},
   Journal = {IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters},
   Volume = {15},
   Pages = {1823-1826},
   Year = {2016},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LAWP.2016.2538202},
   Doi = {10.1109/LAWP.2016.2538202},
   Key = {fds320771}
}

@article{fds320772,
   Author = {Odabasi, H and Imani, MF and Lipworth, G and Gollub, J and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {INVESTIGATION OF ALIGNMENT ERRORS ON MULTI-STATIC MICROWAVE
             IMAGING BASED ON FREQUENCY-DIVERSE METAMATERIAL
             APERTURES},
   Journal = {Progress in Electromagnetics Research B},
   Volume = {70},
   Pages = {101-112},
   Year = {2016},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2528/PIERB16052801},
   Doi = {10.2528/PIERB16052801},
   Key = {fds320772}
}

@article{fds305680,
   Author = {Bowen, PT and Smith, DR and Urzhumov, YA},
   Title = {Wake control with permeable multilayer structures: The
             spherical symmetry case.},
   Journal = {Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter
             Physics},
   Volume = {92},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {063030},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {1539-3755},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/physreve.92.063030},
   Abstract = {We explore the possibility of controlling the wake and drag
             of a spherical object independently of each other, using
             radial distributions of permeability in the Brinkman-Stokes
             formalism. By discretizing a graded-permeability shell into
             discrete, macroscopically homogeneous layers, we are able to
             sample the entire functional space of spherically-symmetric
             permeabilities and observe quick convergence to a certain
             manifold in the wake-drag coordinates. Monte Carlo samplings
             with 10^{4}-10^{5} points have become possible thanks to our
             new algorithm, which is based on exact analytical solutions
             for the Stokes flow through an arbitrary multilayer porous
             sphere. The algorithm is not restricted to the
             Brinkman-Stokes equation and can be modified to account for
             other types of scattering problems for spherically-symmetric
             systems with arbitrary radial complexity. Our main practical
             finding for Stokes flow is that it is possible to reduce a
             certain measure of wake of a spherical object without any
             energy penalty and without active (power-consuming) force
             generation.},
   Doi = {10.1103/physreve.92.063030},
   Key = {fds305680}
}

@article{fds315030,
   Author = {Fromenteze, T and Kpre, EL and Decroze, C and Carsenat, D and Yurduseven, O and Imani, M and Gollub, J and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Unification of compressed imaging techniques in the
             microwave range and deconvolution strategy},
   Journal = {2015 European Radar Conference, EuRAD 2015 -
             Proceedings},
   Pages = {161-164},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {December},
   ISBN = {9782874870415},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/EuRAD.2015.7346262},
   Abstract = {© 2015 EuMA. In recent years, several techniques of imaging
             have emerged based on compressive sensing. Thus, using
             passive devices able to code and sum the information
             measured on a radiating aperture, complex UWB beamforming
             hardwares can be replaced by inverse problems to solve using
             deconvolution techniques. Two similar compressive techniques
             have been developed independently, based on a passive
             multiplexer and on a metamaterial aperture. This paper
             proposes an unification of these approaches, using a common
             mathematical formulation and comparing the deconvolution
             strategy adopted by each research team.},
   Doi = {10.1109/EuRAD.2015.7346262},
   Key = {fds315030}
}

@article{fds300151,
   Author = {Akselrod, GM and Huang, J and Hoang, TB and Bowen, PT and Su, L and Smith,
             DR and Mikkelsen, MH},
   Title = {Large-Area Metasurface Perfect Absorbers from Visible to
             Near-Infrared.},
   Journal = {Advanced Materials},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {48},
   Pages = {8028-8034},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0935-9648},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.201503281},
   Abstract = {An absorptive metasurface based on film-coupled colloidal
             silver nanocubes is demonstrated. The metasurfaces are
             fabricated using simple dip-coating methods and can be
             deposited over large areas and on arbitrarily shaped
             objects. The surfaces show nearly complete absorption, good
             off-angle performance, and the resonance can be tuned from
             the visible to the near-infrared.},
   Doi = {10.1002/adma.201503281},
   Key = {fds300151}
}

@article{fds312160,
   Author = {Huang, Z and Baron, A and Larouche, S and Argyropoulos, C and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Optical bistability with film-coupled metasurfaces.},
   Journal = {Optics Letters},
   Volume = {40},
   Number = {23},
   Pages = {5638-5641},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0146-9592},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/ol.40.005638},
   Abstract = {Metasurfaces comprising arrays of film-coupled, nanopatch
             antennas are a promising platform for low-energy,
             all-optical switches. The large field enhancements that can
             be achieved in the dielectric spacer region between the
             nanopatch and the metallic substrate can substantially
             enhance optical nonlinear processes. Here we consider a
             dielectric material that exhibits an optical Kerr effect as
             the spacer layer and numerically calculate the optical
             bistability of a metasurface using the finite element method
             (FEM). We expect the proposed method to be highly accurate
             compared with other numerical approaches, such as those
             based on graphical post-processing techniques, because it
             self-consistently solves for both the spatial field
             distribution and the intensity-dependent refractive index
             distribution of the spacer layer. This method offers an
             alternative approach to finite-difference time-domain (FDTD)
             modeling. We use this numerical tool to design a metasurface
             optical switch and our optimized design exhibits
             exceptionally low switching intensity of 33  kW/cm2,
             corresponding to switching energy on the order of tens of
             attojoules per resonator, a value much smaller than those
             found for most devices reported in the literature. We
             propose our method as a tool for designing all-optical
             switches and modulators.},
   Doi = {10.1364/ol.40.005638},
   Key = {fds312160}
}

@article{fds293133,
   Author = {Sleasman, T and F. Imani and M and Gollub, JN and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Dynamic metamaterial aperture for microwave
             imaging},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {107},
   Number = {20},
   Pages = {204104-204104},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4935941},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.4935941},
   Key = {fds293133}
}

@article{fds293134,
   Author = {Chandrasekar, R and Emani, NK and Lagutchev, A and Shalaev, VM and Ciracì, C and Smith, DR and Kildishev, AV},
   Title = {Second harmonic generation with plasmonic metasurfaces:
             direct comparison of electric and magnetic
             resonances},
   Journal = {Optical Materials Express},
   Volume = {5},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {2682-2682},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OME.5.002682},
   Doi = {10.1364/OME.5.002682},
   Key = {fds293134}
}

@article{fds315573,
   Author = {Lipworth, G and Rose, A and Yurduseven, O and Gowda, VR and Imani, MF and Odabasi, H and Trofatter, P and Gollub, J and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Comprehensive simulation platform for a metamaterial imaging
             system.},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {54},
   Number = {31},
   Pages = {9343-9353},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0003-6935},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/ao.54.009343},
   Abstract = {Recently, a frequency-diverse, metamaterial-based aperture
             has been introduced in the context of microwave and
             millimeter wave imaging. The generic form of the aperture is
             that of a parallel plate waveguide, in which complementary
             metamaterial elements patterned into the upper plate couple
             energy from the waveguide mode to the scene. To reliably
             predict the imaging performance of such an aperture prior to
             fabrication and experiments, it is necessary to have an
             accurate forward model that predicts radiation from the
             aperture, a model for scattering from an arbitrary target in
             the scene, and a set of image reconstruction approaches that
             allow scene estimation from an arbitrary set of
             measurements. Here, we introduce a forward model in which
             the metamaterial elements are approximated as polarizable
             magnetic dipoles, excited by the fields propagating within
             the waveguide. The dipoles used in the model can have
             arbitrarily assigned polarizability characteristics.
             Alternatively, fields measured from actual metamaterial
             samples can be decomposed into a set of effective dipole
             radiators, allowing the performance of actual samples to be
             quantitatively modeled and compared with simulated
             apertures. To confirm the validity of our model, we simulate
             measurements and scene reconstructions with a virtual
             multiaperture imaging system operating in the K-band
             spectrum (18-26.5 GHz) and compare its performance with an
             experimental system.},
   Doi = {10.1364/ao.54.009343},
   Key = {fds315573}
}

@article{fds269549,
   Author = {Benedicto, J and Pollès, R and Ciracì, C and Centeno, E and Smith, DR and Moreau, A},
   Title = {Numerical tool to take nonlocal effects into account in
             metallo-dielectric multilayers.},
   Journal = {Journal of the Optical Society of America
             A},
   Volume = {32},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {1581-1588},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {1084-7529},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/josaa.32.001581},
   Abstract = {We provide a numerical tool to quantitatively study the
             impact of nonlocality arising from free electrons in metals
             on the optical properties of metallo-dielectric multilayers.
             We found that scattering matrices are particularly well
             suited to take into account the electron response through
             the application of the hydrodynamic model. Though effects
             due to nonlocality are, in general, quite small, they,
             nevertheless, can be important for very thin (typically
             below 10 nm) metallic layers, as in those used in
             structures characterized by exotic dispersion curves. Such
             structures include those with a negative refractive index,
             hyperbolic metamaterials, and near-zero index materials.
             Higher wave vectors mean larger nonlocal effects, so that it
             is not surprising that subwavelength imaging capabilities of
             hyperbolic metamaterials are found to be sensitive to
             nonlocal effects. We find in all cases that the inclusion of
             nonlocal effects leads to at least a 5% higher transmission
             through the considered structure.},
   Doi = {10.1364/josaa.32.001581},
   Key = {fds269549}
}

@article{fds305681,
   Author = {Liu, X and Larouche, S and Bowen, P and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Clarifying the origin of third-harmonic generation from
             film-coupled nanostripes.},
   Journal = {Optics express},
   Volume = {23},
   Number = {15},
   Pages = {19565-19574},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/oe.23.019565},
   Abstract = {The resonance associated with plasmonic nanostructures
             strongly enhances local optical fields, and can thus
             dramatically enhance the nonlinear response of the composite
             structure. However, the origin of the nonlinear signal
             generated from hybrid nanostructures consisting of both
             metallic and dielectric components can be ambiguous when all
             constituents possess nonlinearities. In this paper, we
             introduce a method for specifically identifying the third
             harmonic generation (THG) originating from different
             nonlinear sources in a film-coupled nanostripe. The
             nanostripe consists of a metallic patch separated from a
             metallic film by a dielectric spacer. By considering the THG
             from each nonlinear source separately, we show that the
             near- and far-field behaviors of the THG generated within
             the various constituents of the nanostripe are
             distinguishable due to fundamental differences in the THG
             radiation properties. The THG signal from the metal is shown
             to be suppressed by the structure itself, while the THG
             signal from the spacer is enhanced by the gap plasmon modes
             supported by the structure. The total THG signal is found to
             be the sum of all nonlinear sources, with the far-field
             radiation pattern determined by the ratio between the
             third-order susceptibilities of the dielectric and the
             metal.},
   Doi = {10.1364/oe.23.019565},
   Key = {fds305681}
}

@article{fds269553,
   Author = {Fromenteze, T and Yurduseven, O and Imani, MF and Gollub, J and Decroze,
             C and Carsenat, D and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Computational imaging using a mode-mixing cavity at
             microwave frequencies},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {106},
   Number = {19},
   Pages = {194104-194104},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4921081},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.4921081},
   Key = {fds269553}
}

@article{fds269556,
   Author = {Akselrod, GM and Ming, T and Argyropoulos, C and Hoang, TB and Lin, Y and Ling, X and Smith, DR and Kong, J and Mikkelsen, MH},
   Title = {Leveraging Nanocavity Harmonics for Control of Optical
             Processes in 2D Semiconductors.},
   Journal = {Nano Letters},
   Volume = {15},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {3578-3584},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {1530-6984},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b01062},
   Abstract = {Optical cavities with multiple tunable resonances have the
             potential to provide unique electromagnetic environments at
             two or more distinct wavelengths--critical for control of
             optical processes such as nonlinear generation, entangled
             photon generation, or photoluminescence (PL) enhancement.
             Here, we show a plasmonic nanocavity based on a nanopatch
             antenna design that has two tunable resonant modes in the
             visible spectrum separated by 350 nm and with line widths of
             ∼60 nm. The importance of utilizing two resonances
             simultaneously is demonstrated by integrating monolayer
             MoS2, a two-dimensional semiconductor, into the colloidally
             synthesized nanocavities. We observe a 2000-fold enhancement
             in the PL intensity of MoS2--which has intrinsically low
             absorption and small quantum yield--at room temperature,
             enabled by the combination of tailored absorption
             enhancement at the first harmonic and PL quantum-yield
             enhancement at the fundamental resonance.},
   Doi = {10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b01062},
   Key = {fds269556}
}

@article{fds269554,
   Author = {Baron, A and Hoang, TB and Fang, C and Mikkelsen, MH and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Ultrafast self-action of surface-plasmon polaritons at an
             air/metal interface},
   Journal = {Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials
             Physics},
   Volume = {91},
   Number = {19},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {1098-0121},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.91.195412},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.91.195412},
   Key = {fds269554}
}

@article{fds269555,
   Author = {Ciracì, C and Scalora, M and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Third-harmonic generation in the presence of classical
             nonlocal effects in gap-plasmon nanostructures},
   Journal = {Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials
             Physics},
   Volume = {91},
   Number = {20},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {1098-0121},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.91.205403},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.91.205403},
   Key = {fds269555}
}

@article{fds269539,
   Author = {Baron, A and Hoang, TB and Fang, C and Larouche, S and Gauthier, DJ and Mikkelsen, MH and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Nonlinear Metal/Dielectric Plasmonic Interfaces},
   Journal = {Nonlinear Optics, NLO 2015},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9781557520012},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/NLO.2015.NTu2B.2},
   Abstract = {© 2015 OSA. We investigate theoretically and experimentally
             the optical nonlinearity of metal/dielectric interfaces,
             which provides a metric that predicts the scaling of
             self-action as well as a means to measure χ (3) of gold
             using surface plasmon polaritons.},
   Doi = {10.1364/NLO.2015.NTu2B.2},
   Key = {fds269539}
}

@article{fds269544,
   Author = {Baron, A and Hoang, TB and Fang, C and Mikkelsen, MH and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Large and ultrafast nonlinear absorption of an air/gold
             plasmonic waveguide},
   Journal = {CLEO: QELS - Fundamental Science, CLEO_QELS
             2015},
   Pages = {1551p},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9781557529688},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/CLEO_QELS.2015.FM3E.4},
   Abstract = {We investigate theoretically and experimentally the
             nonlinear propagation of surface plasmons on an air/gold
             interface which reveals large and ultrafast (~100 fs)
             self-induced absorption. The experiment enables a direct
             measurement of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility. ©
             OSA 2015.},
   Doi = {10.1364/CLEO_QELS.2015.FM3E.4},
   Key = {fds269544}
}

@article{fds269545,
   Author = {Chandrasekar, R and Emani, NK and Lagutchev, A and Shalaev, VM and Ciraci, C and Smith, DR and Kildishev, AV},
   Title = {Studying the interplay of electric and magnetic resonance-
             enhanced second harmonic generation: Theory and
             experiments},
   Journal = {CLEO: QELS - Fundamental Science, CLEO_QELS
             2015},
   Pages = {1551p},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9781557529688},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/CLEO_QELS.2015.FW3D.2},
   Abstract = {We present an experimental study of a metasurface, which
             exhibits electric and magnetic resonances, in order to
             understand their independent contributions to
             second-harmonic generation. A hydrodynamic model framework
             is used to match experimental results. © OSA
             2015.},
   Doi = {10.1364/CLEO_QELS.2015.FW3D.2},
   Key = {fds269545}
}

@article{fds269546,
   Author = {Bowen, PT and Baron, A and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Analytic modeling of metmaterial absorbers},
   Journal = {CLEO: QELS - Fundamental Science, CLEO_QELS
             2015},
   Pages = {1551p},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9781557529688},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/CLEO_QELS.2015.FW4C.5},
   Abstract = {We present a fully analytical model that describes ideal
             absorbing metasurfaces composed of film-coupled optical
             nanoantennas. The model predicts the spectrum and the
             angular dependence of the absorption and is compared to
             full-wave numerical simulations. © 2014 Optical Society of
             America.},
   Doi = {10.1364/CLEO_QELS.2015.FW4C.5},
   Key = {fds269546}
}

@article{fds269547,
   Author = {Akselrod, GM and Argyropoulos, C and Hoang, TB and Ciracì, C and Fang,
             C and Huang, J and Smith, DR and Mikkelsen, MH},
   Title = {Plasmonic nanopatch antennas for large purcell
             enhancement},
   Journal = {CLEO: QELS - Fundamental Science, CLEO_QELS
             2015},
   Pages = {1551p},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9781557529688},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/CLEO_QELS.2015.FW1E.2},
   Abstract = {We demonstrate Purcell enhancements of ~1000 from
             fluorescent molecules embedded in a plasmonic antenna with
             sub-10 nm gap between metals. Simulations and experiments
             reveal the high radiative efficiency and directionality of
             the antenna. © OSA 2015.},
   Doi = {10.1364/CLEO_QELS.2015.FW1E.2},
   Key = {fds269547}
}

@article{fds269552,
   Author = {Baron, A and Larouche, S and Gauthier, DJ and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Scaling of the nonlinear response of metal/dielectric
             plasmonic waveguides},
   Journal = {CLEO: QELS - Fundamental Science, CLEO_QELS
             2015},
   Pages = {1551p},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9781557529688},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/CLEO_QELS.2015.FM3E.7},
   Abstract = {The scaling of the nonlinear response of a single-interface
             plasmonic waveguide is studied, where both the metal and
             dielectric display nonlinearity. We introduce a
             figure-of-merit that guides metal/dielectric nanophotonic
             device design for specific applications. © OSA
             2015.},
   Doi = {10.1364/CLEO_QELS.2015.FM3E.7},
   Key = {fds269552}
}

@article{fds315571,
   Author = {Marks, DL and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Metamaterial resonators for dynamic spatial millimeter-wave
             modulators},
   Journal = {Proceedings of Frontiers in Optics 2015, FIO
             2015},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9781943580033},
   Abstract = {© OSA 2015. Many phase spatial modulators exist at optical
             frequencies such as liquid crystal cells. We present an
             alternative for millimeter-waves based on metamaterial
             resonators that produces strong phase modulation from a
             small tuning range.},
   Key = {fds315571}
}

@article{fds269550,
   Author = {Hoang, TB and Akselrod, GM and Argyropoulos, C and Huang, J and Smith,
             DR and Mikkelsen, MH},
   Title = {Ultrafast spontaneous emission source using plasmonic
             nanoantennas.},
   Journal = {Nature Communications},
   Volume = {6},
   Pages = {7788},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms8788},
   Abstract = {Typical emitters such as molecules, quantum dots and
             semiconductor quantum wells have slow spontaneous emission
             with lifetimes of 1-10 ns, creating a mismatch with
             high-speed nanoscale optoelectronic devices such as
             light-emitting diodes, single-photon sources and lasers.
             Here we experimentally demonstrate an ultrafast (<11 ps)
             yet efficient source of spontaneous emission, corresponding
             to an emission rate exceeding 90 GHz, using a hybrid
             structure of single plasmonic nanopatch antennas coupled to
             colloidal quantum dots. The antennas consist of silver
             nanocubes coupled to a gold film separated by a thin polymer
             spacer layer and colloidal core-shell quantum dots, a stable
             and technologically relevant emitter. We show an increase in
             the spontaneous emission rate of a factor of 880 and
             simultaneously a 2,300-fold enhancement in the total
             fluorescence intensity, which indicates a high radiative
             quantum efficiency of ∼50%. The nanopatch antenna geometry
             can be tuned from the visible to the near infrared,
             providing a promising approach for nanophotonics based on
             ultrafast spontaneous emission.},
   Doi = {10.1038/ncomms8788},
   Key = {fds269550}
}

@article{fds269551,
   Author = {Lipworth, G and Ensworth, J and Seetharam, K and Lee, JS and Schmalenberg, P and Nomura, T and Reynolds, MS and Smith, DR and Urzhumov, Y},
   Title = {Quasi-Static Magnetic Field Shielding Using Longitudinal
             Mu-Near-Zero Metamaterials.},
   Journal = {Scientific Reports},
   Volume = {5},
   Pages = {12764},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep12764},
   Abstract = {The control of quasi-static magnetic fields is of
             considerable interest in applications including the
             reduction of electromagnetic interference (EMI), wireless
             power transfer (WPT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
             The shielding of static or quasi-static magnetic fields is
             typically accomplished through the use of inherently
             magnetic materials with large magnetic permeability, such as
             ferrites, used sometimes in combination with metallic sheets
             and/or active field cancellation. Ferrite materials,
             however, can be expensive, heavy and brittle. Inspired by
             recent demonstrations of epsilon-, mu- and index-near-zero
             metamaterials, here we show how a longitudinal mu-near-zero
             (LMNZ) layer can serve as a strong frequency-selective
             reflector of magnetic fields when operating in the
             near-field region of dipole-like sources. Experimental
             measurements with a fabricated LMNZ sheet constructed from
             an artificial magnetic conductor - formed from non-magnetic,
             conducting, metamaterial elements - confirm that the
             artificial structure provides significantly improved
             shielding as compared with a commercially available ferrite
             of the same size. Furthermore, we design a structure to
             shield simultaneously at the fundamental and first harmonic
             frequencies. Such frequency-selective behavior can be
             potentially useful for shielding electromagnetic sources
             that may also generate higher order harmonics, while leaving
             the transmission of other frequencies unaffected.},
   Doi = {10.1038/srep12764},
   Key = {fds269551}
}

@article{fds269558,
   Author = {Baron, A and Larouche, S and Gauthier, DJ and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Scaling of the nonlinear response of the surface plasmon
             polariton at a metal/dielectric interface},
   Journal = {Journal of the Optical Society of America
             B},
   Volume = {32},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {9-9},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0740-3224},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAB.32.000009},
   Doi = {10.1364/JOSAB.32.000009},
   Key = {fds269558}
}

@article{fds269559,
   Author = {Larouche, S and Rose, A and Smith, DR},
   Title = {A constitutive description of nonlinear metamaterials
             through electric, magnetic, and magnetoelectric
             nonlinearities},
   Journal = {Springer Series in Materials Science},
   Volume = {200},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0933-033X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-08386-5_1},
   Abstract = {© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.
             Nonlinear metamaterials provide a host of interesting
             phenomena which, like for their linear counterpart, can be
             described using homogenized, effective properties. Following
             the convention used in nonlinear optics, the response of
             nonlinear metamaterials can be expressed as a power series
             of the incident fields. However, contrarily to most
             materials used in nonlinear optics that only possess an
             electric nonlinear response, nonlinear metamaterials often
             showelectric, magnetic, and magnetoelectric nonlinear
             responses within a single unit cell. In this chapter, we
             present two complementary approaches to determine all the
             effective nonlinear susceptibilities of nonlinear
             metamaterials. First we present a coupled-mode theory that
             provides insight into the origin of the various nonlinear
             susceptibilities that arise in nonlinear metamaterials
             according to the symmetry of the unit cell. This approach
             also leads to a description of the effect of the finite size
             of the unit cells, often called spatial dispersion. Second,
             we present a retrieval approach based on transfer matrices
             that can be used to determine the effective nonlinear
             susceptibilities from either simulated or experimental
             results. We finally demonstrate how to use this approach by
             applying it to the case of dual-gap varactor-loaded split
             ring resonators.},
   Doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-08386-5_1},
   Key = {fds269559}
}

@article{fds269561,
   Author = {Chen, X and Ciracì, C and Smith, DR and Oh, S-H},
   Title = {Nanogap-enhanced infrared spectroscopy with
             template-stripped wafer-scale arrays of buried plasmonic
             cavities.},
   Journal = {Nano Letters},
   Volume = {15},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {107-113},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1530-6984},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/nl503126s},
   Abstract = {We have combined atomic layer lithography and template
             stripping to produce a new class of substrates for
             surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) spectroscopy.
             Our structure consists of a buried and U-shaped
             metal-insulator-metal waveguide whose folded vertical arms
             efficiently couple normally incident light. The insulator is
             formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al2O3 and
             precisely defines the gap size. The buried nanocavities are
             protected from contamination by a silicon template until
             ready for use and exposed by template stripping on demand.
             The exposed nanocavity generates strong infrared resonances,
             tightly confines infrared radiation into a gap that is as
             small as 3 nm (λ/3300), and creates a dense array of
             millimeter-long hotspots. After partial removal of the
             insulators, the gaps are backfilled with benzenethiol
             molecules, generating distinct Fano resonances due to strong
             coupling with gap plasmons, and a SEIRA enhancement factor
             of 10(5) is observed for a 3 nm gap. Because of the
             wafer-scale manufacturability, single-digit-nanometer
             control of the gap size via ALD, and long-term storage
             enabled by template stripping, our buried plasmonic
             nanocavity substrates will benefit broad applications in
             sensing and spectroscopy.},
   Doi = {10.1021/nl503126s},
   Key = {fds269561}
}

@article{fds269560,
   Author = {Yurduseven, O and Imani, MF and Odabasi, H and Gollub, J and Lipworth,
             G and Rose, A and Smith, DR},
   Title = {RESOLUTION OF THE FREQUENCY DIVERSE METAMATERIAL APERTURE
             IMAGER},
   Journal = {Progress in Electromagnetics Research (PIER)},
   Volume = {150},
   Pages = {97-107},
   Year = {2015},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2528/PIER14113002},
   Doi = {10.2528/PIER14113002},
   Key = {fds269560}
}

@article{fds269557,
   Author = {Lassiter, JB and Chen, X and Liu, X and Ciracì, C and Hoang, TB and Larouche, S and Oh, S-H and Mikkelsen, MH and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Third-Harmonic Generation Enhancement by Film-Coupled
             Plasmonic Stripe Resonators},
   Journal = {ACS Photonics},
   Volume = {1},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {1212-1217},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {2330-4022},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ph500276v},
   Doi = {10.1021/ph500276v},
   Key = {fds269557}
}

@article{fds269564,
   Author = {Ciracì, C and Rose, A and Argyropoulos, C and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Numerical studies of the modification of photodynamic
             processes by film-coupled plasmonic nanoparticles},
   Journal = {Journal of the Optical Society of America
             B},
   Volume = {31},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {2601-2601},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0740-3224},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAB.31.002601},
   Doi = {10.1364/JOSAB.31.002601},
   Key = {fds269564}
}

@article{fds269565,
   Author = {Bowen, PT and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Coupled-mode theory for film-coupled plasmonic
             nanocubes},
   Journal = {Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials
             Physics},
   Volume = {90},
   Number = {19},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {1098-0121},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.90.195402},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.90.195402},
   Key = {fds269565}
}

@article{fds269562,
   Author = {Chandrasekar, R and Emani, NK and Lagutchev, A and Shalaev, VM and Kildishev, AV and Ciraci, C and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Second harmonic generation by metamagnetics: Interplay of
             electric and magnetic resonances},
   Journal = {Frontiers in Optics, FiO 2014},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {October},
   ISBN = {1557522863},
   Abstract = {© OSA 2014. We present the first experimental study of the
             interplay of electric and magnetic resonances in a
             metamaterial to measure their independent contributions to
             second-harmonic generation. Experiments indicate evident
             contribution to SHG from fundamental magnetic
             field.},
   Key = {fds269562}
}

@article{fds269563,
   Author = {Mikkelsen, MH and Rose, A and Hoang, TB and McGuire, F and Mock, JJ and Ciracì, C and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Giant fluorescence enhancement of molecules coupled to
             plasmonic nanoscale patch antennas},
   Journal = {Frontiers in Optics, FiO 2014},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {October},
   ISBN = {1557522863},
   Abstract = {© OSA 2014. We demonstrate a colloidally synthesized and
             tunable plasmonic platform for giant fluorescence
             enhancement and increased spontaneous emission rate of
             embedded fluorophores. A transition between fluorescence
             enhancement and quenching is revealed depending on the
             plasmonic resonance.},
   Key = {fds269563}
}

@article{fds269568,
   Author = {Akselrod, GM and Argyropoulos, C and Hoang, TB and Ciracì, C and Fang,
             C and Huang, J and Smith, DR and Mikkelsen, MH},
   Title = {Probing the mechanisms of large Purcell enhancement in
             plasmonic nanoantennas},
   Journal = {Nature Photonics},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {835-840},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {1749-4885},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2014.228},
   Doi = {10.1038/nphoton.2014.228},
   Key = {fds269568}
}

@article{fds269567,
   Author = {Hill, RT and Kozek, KM and Hucknall, A and Smith, DR and Chilkoti,
             A},
   Title = {Nanoparticle-Film Plasmon Ruler Interrogated with
             Transmission Visible Spectroscopy.},
   Journal = {ACS Photonics},
   Volume = {1},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {974-984},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ph500190q},
   Abstract = {The widespread use of plasmonic nanorulers (PNRs) in sensing
             platforms has been plagued by technical challenges
             associated with the development of methods to fabricate
             precisely controlled nanostructures with high yield and
             characterize them with high throughput. We have previously
             shown that creating PNRs in a nanoparticle-film (NP-film)
             format enables the fabrication of an extremely large
             population of uniform PNRs with 100% yield using a
             self-assembly approach, which facilitates high-throughput
             PNR characterization using ensemble spectroscopic
             measurements and eliminates the need for expensive
             microscopy systems required by many other PNR platforms. We
             expand upon this prior work herein, showing that the NP-film
             PNR can be made compatible with aqueous sensing studies by
             adapting it for use in a transmission localized surface
             plasmon resonance spectroscopy format, where the coupled
             NP-film resonance responsible for the PNR signal is directly
             probed using an extinction measurement from a standard
             spectrophotometer. We designed slide holders that fit inside
             standard spectrophotometer cuvettes and position NP-film
             samples so that the coupled NP-film resonance can be
             detected in a collinear optical configuration. Once the
             NP-film PNR samples are cuvette-compatible, it is
             straightforward to calibrate the PNR in aqueous solution and
             use it to characterize dynamic, angstrom-scale distance
             changes resulting from pH-induced swelling of
             polyelectrolyte (PE) spacer layers as thin as 1 PE layer and
             also of a self-assembled monolayer of an amine-terminated
             alkanethiol. This development is an important step toward
             making PNR sensors more user-friendly and encouraging their
             widespread use in various sensing schemes.},
   Doi = {10.1021/ph500190q},
   Key = {fds269567}
}

@article{fds269569,
   Author = {Hunt, J and Gollub, J and Driscoll, T and Lipworth, G and Mrozack, A and Reynolds, MS and Brady, DJ and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Metamaterial microwave holographic imaging
             system.},
   Journal = {Journal of the Optical Society of America
             A},
   Volume = {31},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {2109-2119},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {1084-7529},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/josaa.31.002109},
   Abstract = {We demonstrate a microwave imaging system that combines
             advances in metamaterial aperture design with emerging
             computational imaging techniques. The flexibility inherent
             to guided-wave, complementary metamaterials enables the
             design of a planar antenna that illuminates a scene with
             dramatically varying radiation patterns as a function of
             frequency. As frequency is swept over the K-band
             (17.5-26.5 GHz), a sequence of pseudorandom radiation
             patterns interrogates a scene. Measurements of the return
             signal versus frequency are then acquired and the scene is
             reconstructed using computational imaging methods. The
             low-cost, frequency-diverse static aperture allows
             three-dimensional images to be formed without mechanical
             scanning or dynamic beam-forming elements. The metamaterial
             aperture is complementary to a variety of computational
             imaging schemes, and can be used in conjunction with other
             sensors to form a multifunctional imaging platform. We
             illustrate the potential of multisensor fusion by
             integrating an infrared structured-light and optical image
             sensor to accelerate the microwave scene reconstruction and
             to provide a simultaneous visualization of the
             scene.},
   Doi = {10.1364/josaa.31.002109},
   Key = {fds269569}
}

@article{fds269579,
   Author = {Rose, A and Hoang, TB and McGuire, F and Mock, JJ and Ciracì, C and Smith,
             DR and Mikkelsen, MH},
   Title = {Control of radiative processes using tunable plasmonic
             nanopatch antennas.},
   Journal = {Nano Letters},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {4797-4802},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {1530-6984},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/9254 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {The radiative processes associated with fluorophores and
             other radiating systems can be profoundly modified by their
             interaction with nanoplasmonic structures. Extreme
             electromagnetic environments can be created in plasmonic
             nanostructures or nanocavities, such as within the nanoscale
             gap region between two plasmonic nanoparticles, where the
             illuminating optical fields and the density of radiating
             modes are dramatically enhanced relative to vacuum.
             Unraveling the various mechanisms present in such coupled
             systems, and their impact on spontaneous emission and other
             radiative phenomena, however, requires a suitably reliable
             and precise means of tuning the plasmon resonance of the
             nanostructure while simultaneously preserving the
             electromagnetic characteristics of the enhancement region.
             Here, we achieve this control using a plasmonic platform
             consisting of colloidally synthesized nanocubes
             electromagnetically coupled to a metallic film. Each
             nanocube resembles a nanoscale patch antenna (or nanopatch)
             whose plasmon resonance can be changed independent of its
             local field enhancement. By varying the size of the
             nanopatch, we tune the plasmonic resonance by ∼ 200 nm,
             encompassing the excitation, absorption, and emission
             spectra corresponding to Cy5 fluorophores embedded within
             the gap region between nanopatch and film. By sweeping the
             plasmon resonance but keeping the field enhancements roughly
             fixed, we demonstrate fluorescence enhancements exceeding a
             factor of 30,000 with detector-limited enhancements of the
             spontaneous emission rate by a factor of 74. The experiments
             are supported by finite-element simulations that reveal
             design rules for optimized fluorescence enhancement or large
             Purcell factors.},
   Doi = {10.1021/nl501976f},
   Key = {fds269579}
}

@article{fds269571,
   Author = {Landy, N and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Two-dimensional metamaterial device design in the discrete
             dipole approximation},
   Journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
   Volume = {116},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {044906-044906},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0021-8979},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4891295},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.4891295},
   Key = {fds269571}
}

@article{fds269573,
   Author = {Goldflam, MD and Liu, MK and Chapler, BC and Stinson, HT and Sternbach,
             AJ and McLeod, AS and Zhang, JD and Geng, K and Royal, M and Kim, B-J and Averitt, RD and Jokerst, NM and Smith, DR and Kim, H-T and Basov,
             DN},
   Title = {Voltage switching of a VO 2 memory metasurface using ionic
             gel},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {105},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {041117-041117},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4891765},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.4891765},
   Key = {fds269573}
}

@article{fds326629,
   Author = {Baron, A and Hoang, TB and Fang, C and Mikkelsen, MH and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Ultrafast self-action in an air/gold plasmonic
             waveguide},
   Journal = {Optics InfoBase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {July},
   ISBN = {9781467374750},
   Key = {fds326629}
}

@article{fds326630,
   Author = {Ciracì, C and Scalora, M and Smith, D},
   Title = {Impact of nonlocal free-electron optical response on
             third-harmonic generation in plasmonic nanostructures},
   Journal = {Optics InfoBase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {July},
   ISBN = {9781467374750},
   Key = {fds326630}
}

@article{fds326631,
   Author = {Bowen, PT and Baron, A and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Analysis and modeling of metamaterial absorbers},
   Journal = {Optics InfoBase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {July},
   ISBN = {9781467374750},
   Key = {fds326631}
}

@article{fds326243,
   Author = {Baron, A and Hoang, TB and Fang, C and Mikkelsen, MH and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Ultrafast self-action in an air/gold plasmonic
             waveguide},
   Journal = {Optics InfoBase Conference Papers},
   Volume = {Part F3-EQEC 2015},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {July},
   ISBN = {9781467374750},
   Key = {fds326243}
}

@article{fds326244,
   Author = {Ciracì, C and Scalora, M and Smith, D},
   Title = {Impact of nonlocal free-electron optical response on
             third-harmonic generation in plasmonic nanostructures},
   Journal = {Optics InfoBase Conference Papers},
   Volume = {Part F4-CLEO 2015},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {July},
   ISBN = {9781467374750},
   Key = {fds326244}
}

@article{fds326245,
   Author = {Bowen, PT and Baron, A and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Analysis and modeling of metamaterial absorbers},
   Journal = {Optics InfoBase Conference Papers},
   Volume = {Part F3-EQEC 2015},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {July},
   ISBN = {9781467374750},
   Key = {fds326245}
}

@article{fds269548,
   Author = {Landy, N and Urzhumov, Y and Smith, DR and Landy, N and Urzhumov, Y and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Quasi-conformal approaches for two and three-dimensional
             transformation optical mediaQuasi-conformal approaches for
             two and three-dimensional transformation optical
             media},
   Volume = {9781447149965},
   Pages = {1-32},
   Booktitle = {Transformation Electromagnetics and Metamaterials:
             Fundamental Principles and Applications},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {July},
   ISBN = {9781447149965},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4471-4996-5_1},
   Abstract = {© 2014 Springer-Verlag London. All rights are reserved.
             Transformation optical design is generally complicated by
             the requirement for highly anisotropic and inhomogeneous
             constituent materials. Quasi-conformal mappings have
             appeared as an attractive subset of the general
             transformation optics method because they only require
             isotropic, dielectric-only materials. In this chapter, we
             examine the quasi-conformal method as it applies to
             transformation optics and show that while it does
             significantly ease the burden of material design and
             fabrication, it may also create severely aberrant behavior
             unless caution is taken. We also show how to extend the
             method to three dimensions, and examine the performance of
             an optic designed with the quasi-conformal
             method.},
   Doi = {10.1007/978-1-4471-4996-5_1},
   Key = {fds269548}
}

@article{fds269577,
   Author = {Smith, DR},
   Title = {Metamaterials. A cloaking coating for murky
             media.},
   Journal = {Science},
   Volume = {345},
   Number = {6195},
   Pages = {384-385},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0036-8075},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1256753},
   Doi = {10.1126/science.1256753},
   Key = {fds269577}
}

@article{fds269580,
   Author = {Watts, CM and Shrekenhamer, D and Montoya, J and Lipworth, G and Hunt,
             J and Sleasman, T and Krishna, S and Smith, DR and Padilla,
             WJ},
   Title = {Terahertz compressive imaging with metamaterial spatial
             light modulators},
   Journal = {Nature Photonics},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {605-609},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {1749-4885},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2014.139},
   Doi = {10.1038/nphoton.2014.139},
   Key = {fds269580}
}

@article{fds269582,
   Author = {Degiron, A and Smith, DR},
   Title = {One-way glass for microwaves using nonreciprocal
             metamaterials},
   Journal = {Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter
             Physics},
   Volume = {89},
   Number = {5},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {1539-3755},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.89.053203},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.89.053203},
   Key = {fds269582}
}

@article{fds269593,
   Author = {Argyropoulos, C and Ciracì, C and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Enhanced optical bistability with film-coupled plasmonic
             nanocubes},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {104},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {063108-063108},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4866048},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.4866048},
   Key = {fds269593}
}

@article{fds269616,
   Author = {Ciracì, C and Chen, X and Mock, JJ and McGuire, F and Liu, X and Oh, S-H and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Film-coupled nanoparticles by atomic layer deposition:
             Comparison with organic spacing layers},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {104},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {023109-023109},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4861849},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.4861849},
   Key = {fds269616}
}

@article{fds269619,
   Author = {Lipworth, G and Ensworth, J and Seetharam, K and Huang, D and Lee, JS and Schmalenberg, P and Nomura, T and Reynolds, MS and Smith, DR and Urzhumov, Y},
   Title = {Magnetic metamaterial superlens for increased range wireless
             power transfer.},
   Journal = {Scientific Reports},
   Volume = {4},
   Pages = {3642},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24407490},
   Abstract = {The ability to wirelessly power electrical devices is
             becoming of greater urgency as a component of energy
             conservation and sustainability efforts. Due to health and
             safety concerns, most wireless power transfer (WPT) schemes
             utilize very low frequency, quasi-static, magnetic fields;
             power transfer occurs via magneto-inductive (MI) coupling
             between conducting loops serving as transmitter and
             receiver. At the "long range" regime - referring to
             distances larger than the diameter of the largest loop - WPT
             efficiency in free space falls off as (1/d)(6); power loss
             quickly approaches 100% and limits practical implementations
             of WPT to relatively tight distances between power source
             and device. A "superlens", however, can concentrate the
             magnetic near fields of a source. Here, we demonstrate the
             impact of a magnetic metamaterial (MM) superlens on
             long-range near-field WPT, quantitatively confirming in
             simulation and measurement at 13-16 MHz the conditions under
             which the superlens can enhance power transfer efficiency
             compared to the lens-less free-space system.},
   Doi = {10.1038/srep03642},
   Key = {fds269619}
}

@article{fds269543,
   Author = {Mikkelsen, MH and Rose, A and Hoang, TB and McGuire, F and Mock, JJ and Ciracì, C and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Tunable plasmonic platform for giant fluorescence
             enhancement},
   Journal = {Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe - Technical
             Digest},
   Volume = {2014-January},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {© 2014 Optical Society of America. We demonstrate a
             colloidally synthesized plasmonic platform for giant
             fluorescence enhancement and increased spontaneous emission
             rate of embedded fluorophores. A transition between
             fluorescence enhancement and quenching is revealed depending
             on the plasmonic resonance.},
   Key = {fds269543}
}

@article{fds269566,
   Author = {Ebadi, S and Landy, N and Perque, M and Driscoll, T and Smith,
             D},
   Title = {Wideband coaxial to substrate-integrated waveguide
             transition in a multilayer reconfigurable antenna
             configuration},
   Journal = {International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation
             (APSURSI)},
   Pages = {454-455},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1522-3965},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/APS.2014.6904558},
   Abstract = {© 2014 IEEE. A low-profile, wideband transition between a
             coaxial waveguide and a substrate integrated waveguide (SIW)
             is presented in this paper. The transition is designed for a
             reconfigurable metamaterial antenna realized in multilayer
             Printed Circuit Board at X-band. The transition achieves S11
             below -15dB across a bandwidth of 19%, making it attractive
             for many practical applications. Full wave simulation
             results will be presented along with subtle details of the
             fabrication such as effects of prepreg layers.},
   Doi = {10.1109/APS.2014.6904558},
   Key = {fds269566}
}

@article{fds269570,
   Author = {Machado, M and Ebadi, S and Driscoll, T and Smith,
             D},
   Title = {Experimental improvement of birefringence and response time
             in Liquid Crystals using surface preparation of polyimide at
             20GHz},
   Journal = {IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium
             Digest},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0149-645X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MWSYM.2014.6848609},
   Abstract = {This paper presents an experimental study analyzing the
             effects of surface treated Polyimide (PI) on dielectric
             anisotropy and response time of Liquid Crystal (LC) in an
             In-Plane Switching (IPS) cell design. A Co-Planar Waveguide
             (CPW) transmission line is used as an in-plane interrogation
             architecture, with a layer of LC enclosed on top of the CPW.
             By applying different surface preparations of PI, we are
             able to derive an optimum condition to maximize
             birefringence and minimize response times at 20GHz. Measured
             phase change is increased from 28 deg to 72 deg for the same
             length of the CPW line. At the same time, measurement
             results show that fall time is decreased from 9.32s down to
             4.1s. These improvements will facilitate realization of LC
             in microwave devices in need of fast and tunable materials.
             © 2014 IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/MWSYM.2014.6848609},
   Key = {fds269570}
}

@article{fds269572,
   Author = {Watts, CM and Shrekenhamer, D and Montoya, J and Lipworth, G and Hunt,
             J and Sleasman, T and Krishna, S and Smith, DR and Padilla,
             WJ},
   Title = {Terahertz compressive imaging with metamaterial spatial
             light modulators},
   Journal = {Nature Photonics},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {605-609},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1749-4885},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2014.139},
   Abstract = {Imaging at long wavelengths, for example at terahertz and
             millimetre-wave frequencies, is a highly sought-after goal
             of researchers because of the great potential for
             applications ranging from security screening and skin cancer
             detection to all-weather navigation and biodetection. Here,
             we design, fabricate and demonstrate active metamaterials
             that function as real-time tunable, spectrally sensitive
             spatial masks for terahertz imaging with only a single-pixel
             detector. A modulation technique permits imaging with
             negative mask values, which is typically difficult to
             achieve with intensity-based components. We demonstrate
             compressive techniques allowing the acquisition of
             high-frame-rate, high-fidelity images. Our system is all
             solid-state with no moving parts, yields improved
             signal-to-noise ratios over standard raster-scanning
             techniques, and uses a source orders of magnitude lower in
             power than conventional set-ups. The demonstrated imaging
             system establishes a new path for terahertz imaging that is
             distinct from existing focal-plane-array-based cameras. ©
             2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights
             reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1038/nphoton.2014.139},
   Key = {fds269572}
}

@article{fds269581,
   Author = {Watts, CM and Shrekenhamer, D and Montoya, J and Lipworth, G and Hunt,
             J and Sleasman, T and Krishna, S and Smith, DR and Padilla,
             WJ},
   Title = {Coded and compressive THz imaging with metamaterials},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical
             Engineering},
   Volume = {8985},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2058082},
   Abstract = {Imaging in long wavelength regimes holds huge potential in
             many fields, from security to skin cancer detection.
             However, it is often difficult to image at these frequencies
             - the so called 'THz gap 1 ' is no exception. Current
             techniques generally involve mechanically raster scanning a
             single detector to gain spatial information 2 , or
             utilization of a THz focal plane array (FPA) 3 . However,
             raster scanning results in slow image acquisition times and
             FPAs are relatively insensitive to THz radiation, requiring
             the use of high powered sources. In a different approach, a
             single pixel detector can be used in which radiation from an
             object is spatially modulated with a coded aperture to gain
             spatial information. This multiplexing technique has not
             fully taken off in the THz regime due to the lack of
             efficient coded apertures, or spatial light modulators
             (SLMs), that operate in this regime. Here we present the
             implementation of a single pixel THz camera using an active
             SLM. We use metamaterials to create an electronically
             controllable SLM, permitting the acquisition of
             high-fidelity THz images. We gain a signal-to-noise
             advantage over raster scanning schemes through a
             multiplexing technique 4 . We also use a source that is
             orders of magnitude lower in power than most THz FPA
             implementations 3,5 . We are able to utilize compressive
             sensing algorithms to reduce the number of measurements
             needed to reconstruct an image, and hence increase our frame
             rate to 1 Hz. This first generation device represents a
             significant step towards the realization of a single pixel
             THz camera.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.2058082},
   Key = {fds269581}
}

@article{fds269618,
   Author = {Shin, D and Urzhumov, Y and Lim, D and Kim, K and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {A versatile smart transformation optics device with auxetic
             elasto-electromagnetic metamaterials.},
   Journal = {Scientific Reports},
   Volume = {4},
   Pages = {4084},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep04084},
   Abstract = {Synergistic integration of electromagnetic (EM) and
             mechanical properties of metamaterials, a concept known as
             smart metamaterials, promises new applications across the
             spectrum, from flexible waveguides to shape-conforming
             cloaks. These applications became possible thanks to smart
             transformation optics (STO), a design methodology that
             utilizes coordinate transformations to control both EM wave
             propagation and mechanical deformation of the device. Here,
             we demonstrate several STO devices based on extremely
             auxetic (Poisson ratio -1) elasto-electromagnetic
             metamaterials, both of which exhibit enormous flexibility
             and sustain efficient operation upon a wide range of
             deformations. Spatial maps of microwave electric fields
             across these devices confirm our ability to deform carpet
             cloaks, bent waveguides, and potentially other
             quasi-conformal TO-based devices operating at 7 ~ 8 GHz.
             These devices are each fabricated from a single sheet of
             initially uniform (double-periodic) square-lattice
             metamaterial, which acquires the necessary distribution of
             effective permittivity entirely from the mechanical
             deformation of its boundary. By integrating transformation
             optics and continuum mechanics theory, we provide analytical
             derivations for the design of STO devices. Additionally, we
             clarify an important point relating to two-dimensional STO
             devices: the difference between plane stress and plane
             strain assumptions, which lead to elastic metamaterials with
             Poisson ratio -1 and -∞, respectively.},
   Doi = {10.1038/srep04084},
   Key = {fds269618}
}

@article{fds269540,
   Author = {Hunt, J and Gollub, J and Driscoll, T and Lipworth, G and Mrozack, A and Reynolds, MS and Brady, DJ and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Metamaterial microwave holographic imaging
             system},
   Journal = {Journal of the Optical Society of America
             A},
   Volume = {31},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {2109-2119},
   Year = {2014},
   ISSN = {1084-7529},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.31.002109},
   Abstract = {© 2014 Optical Society of America.We demonstrate a
             microwave imaging system that combines advances in
             metamaterial aperture design with emerging computational
             imaging techniques. The flexibility inherent to guided-wave,
             complementary metamaterials enables the design of a planar
             antenna that illuminates a scene with dramatically varying
             radiation patterns as a function of frequency. As frequency
             is swept over the K-band (17.5-26.5 GHz), a sequence of
             pseudorandom radiation patterns interrogates a scene.
             Measurements of the return signal versus frequency are then
             acquired and the scene is reconstructed using computational
             imaging methods. The low-cost, frequency-diverse static
             aperture allows three-dimensional images to be formed
             without mechanical scanning or dynamic beam-forming
             elements. The metamaterial aperture is complementary to a
             variety of computational imaging schemes, and can be used in
             conjunction with other sensors to form a multifunctional
             imaging platform. We illustrate the potential of multisensor
             fusion by integrating an infrared structured-light and
             optical image sensor to accelerate the microwave scene
             reconstruction and to provide a simultaneous visualization
             of the scene.},
   Doi = {10.1364/JOSAA.31.002109},
   Key = {fds269540}
}

@article{fds269621,
   Author = {Poutrina, E and Rose, A and Brown, D and Urbas, A and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Forward and backward unidirectional scattering from
             plasmonic coupled wires},
   Journal = {Optics express},
   Volume = {21},
   Number = {25},
   Pages = {31138-31154},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.031138},
   Abstract = {We analyze the resonant electromagnetic response of
             subwavelength plasmonic dimers formed by two silver strips
             separated by a thin dielectric spacer and embedded in a
             uniform dielectric media. We demonstrate that the
             off-resonant electric and resonant, geometric
             shape-leveraged, magnetic polarizabilities of the dimer
             element can be designed to have close absolute values in a
             certain spectral range, resulting in a predominantly
             unidirectional scattering of the incident field due to
             pronounced magneto-electric interference. Switching between
             forward and backward directionality can be achieved with a
             single element by changing the excitation wavelength, with
             the scattering direction defined by the relative phases of
             the polarizabilities. We extend the analysis to some
             periodic configurations, including the specific case of a
             perforated metal film, and discuss the differences between
             the observed unidirectional scattering and the extraordinary
             transmission effect. The unidirectional response can be
             preserved and enhanced with periodic arrays of dimers and
             can find applications in nanoantenna devices, integrated
             optic circuits, sensors with nanoparticles, photovoltaic
             systems, or perfect absorbers; while the option of switching
             between forward and backward unidirectional scattering may
             create interesting possibilities for manipulating optical
             pressure forces. © 2013 Optical Society of
             America.},
   Doi = {10.1364/OE.21.031138},
   Key = {fds269621}
}

@article{fds269617,
   Author = {Lipworth, G and Hunt, J and Mrozack, A and Brady, D and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Simulations of 2D metamaterial apertures for coherent
             computational imaging},
   Journal = {2013 IEEE International Conference on Microwaves,
             Communications, Antennas and Electronic Systems, COMCAS
             2013},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {December},
   ISBN = {9781467357562},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/COMCAS.2013.6685286},
   Abstract = {A metamaterial aperture operating as a leaky waveguide with
             resonating metamaterial irises can sweep its operation
             frequency to modify its complex field pattern with no moving
             parts. By randomly distributing the metamaterials' resonance
             frequencies, we show the aperture can generate random
             illumination patterns well suited for compressive sensing.
             In this way the aperture utilizes the physical layer to
             avoid redundant measurements in the image reconstruction
             process. © 2013 IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/COMCAS.2013.6685286},
   Key = {fds269617}
}

@article{fds269590,
   Author = {Rose, A and Huang, D and Larouche, S and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Effective nonlinearities in metamaterials},
   Journal = {Optics InfoBase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {Clever structuring of dielectric and metallic composites can
             lead to effective electric, magnetic and anisotropic
             responses. When hybridized with nonlinear components, such
             'metamaterials' can support a wide range of nonlinear
             properties characterized by effective nonlinear
             susceptibilities. © 2013 Optical Society of
             America.},
   Key = {fds269590}
}

@article{fds269592,
   Author = {Ebadi, S and Driscoll, T and Smith, D},
   Title = {Visual illustrations of microwave holographic beamforming
             using a modulated surface-impedance metamaterial},
   Journal = {International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation
             (APSURSI)},
   Pages = {2343-2344},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {1522-3965},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/APS.2013.6711830},
   Abstract = {We demonstrate the use of a metamaterial to transition
             between a guided surface mode and a designed radiative
             aperture distribution. Plots of the field distribution at
             incremental distances removed from the aperture plane
             illustrate the transformation from the reference mode to the
             designed radiative aperture field - in this case a localized
             plane-wave mode which produces a pencil beam at one angle.
             © 2013 IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/APS.2013.6711830},
   Key = {fds269592}
}

@article{fds269610,
   Author = {Shin, D and Urzhumov, Y and Jung, Y and Kim, K and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Adjustable metamaterial cloaking using an elastic
             crystal},
   Journal = {Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference Proceedings,
             APMC},
   Pages = {331-332},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/APMC.2013.6695136},
   Abstract = {We introduce a microwave cloak composed of smart
             metamaterials whose electromagnetic properties can be
             effectively changed by mechanical deformation. Against
             mechanical deformations, our smart metamaterials self-adjust
             own flexible elasto-electromagnetic crystal structure for
             obeying transformation optics rules. With this idea, we
             built microwave cloak made of flexible silicone rubber tube
             array and experimentally demonstrated self-adjustable carpet
             cloak in broadband ranges (8-12GHz) with variable
             deformations. © 2013 IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/APMC.2013.6695136},
   Key = {fds269610}
}

@article{fds269615,
   Author = {Mrozack, A and Krishnamurthy, K and Lipworth, G and Smith, DR and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Imaging of diffuse objects with dispersive
             imagers},
   Journal = {International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and
             Terahertz Waves},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {2162-2027},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IRMMW-THz.2013.6665888},
   Abstract = {Dispersive imagers measure multiple speckle realizations of
             the object to be estimated. This poses a challenge for
             coherent imaging as classically objects are backpropagated
             and then despeckled. We present initial findings on an
             intensity based method for estimating the scattering
             density. © 2013 IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/IRMMW-THz.2013.6665888},
   Key = {fds269615}
}

@article{fds269622,
   Author = {Rose, A and Powell, DA and Shadrivov, IV and Smith, DR and Kivshar,
             YS},
   Title = {Circular dichroism of four-wave mixing in nonlinear
             metamaterials},
   Journal = {Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials
             Physics},
   Volume = {88},
   Number = {19},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {1098-0121},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.88.195148},
   Abstract = {Metamaterial engineering offers a route to combine unusual
             and interesting optical phenomena in ways that are rare or
             nonexistent in nature. As an exploration of this wide
             parameter space, we experimentally demonstrate strong
             cross-phase modulation and four-wave mixing in a chiral
             metamaterial, highlighting the interplay of nonlinearity and
             circular dichroism. Furthermore, we show that the magnitude
             of the nonlinear parametric interaction follows certain
             selection rules regarding the circular polarizations of the
             various interacting waves. Using a coupled-mode analysis and
             finite element simulations, we relate these selection rules
             to the metamaterial's internal symmetries as well as its
             circular dichroism in the linear regime. © 2013 American
             Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.88.195148},
   Key = {fds269622}
}

@article{fds269624,
   Author = {Tsai, YJ and Tyler, T and Larouche, S and Llopis, A and Royal, M and Jokerst, NM and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Metamaterial polarization multiplexed gratings},
   Journal = {CLEO: QELS_Fundamental Science, CLEO:QELS FS
             2013},
   Pages = {QM4A.1},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {November},
   Abstract = {We demonstrate a metamaterial grating that has two
             diffraction periods for two orthogonal linear polarization
             states of illuminations. The proposed method will be useful
             in free space optical communications and novel optical
             imaging systems. © OSA 2013.},
   Key = {fds269624}
}

@article{fds269623,
   Author = {Tsai, Y-J and Larouche, S and Tyler, T and Llopis, A and Royal, M and Jokerst, NM and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Arbitrary birefringent metamaterials for holographic optics
             at λ = 1.55 μm.},
   Journal = {Optics express},
   Volume = {21},
   Number = {22},
   Pages = {26620-26630},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24216883},
   Abstract = {This paper presents an optical element capable of
             multiplexing two diffraction patterns for two orthogonal
             linear polarizations, based on the use of non-resonant
             metamaterial cross elements. The metamaterial cross elements
             provide unique building blocks for engineering arbitrary
             birefringence. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, we
             present the design and experimental characterization of a
             polarization multiplexed blazed diffraction grating and a
             polarization multiplexed computer-generated hologram, for
             the telecommunication wavelength of λ = 1.55 μm. A
             quantitative study of the polarization multiplexed grating
             reveals that this approach yields a very large polarization
             contrast ratio. The results show that metamaterials can form
             the basis for a versatile and compact platform useful in the
             design of multi-functional photonic devices.},
   Doi = {10.1364/oe.21.026620},
   Key = {fds269623}
}

@article{fds269620,
   Author = {Landy, N and Hunt, J and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Homogenization analysis of complementary waveguide
             metamaterials},
   Journal = {Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and
             Applications},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {453-467},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {1569-4410},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.photonics.2013.07.004},
   Abstract = {We analyze the properties of complementary metamaterials as
             effective inclusions patterned into the conducting walls of
             metal waveguide structures. We show that guided wave
             metamaterials can be homogenized using the same retrieval
             techniques used for volumetric metamaterials, leading to a
             description in which a given complementary element is
             conceptually replaced by a block of material within the
             waveguide whose effective permittivity and permeability
             result in equivalent scattering characteristics. The use of
             effective constitutive parameters for waveguide materials
             provides an alternative point-of-view for the design of
             waveguide and microstrip based components, including planar
             lenses and filters, as well as devices with derived from a
             bulk material response. In addition to imparting effective
             constitutive properties to the waveguide, complementary
             metamaterials also couple energy from waveguide modes into
             radiation. Thus, complementary waveguide metamaterials can
             be used to modify and optimize a variety of antenna
             structures. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.photonics.2013.07.004},
   Key = {fds269620}
}

@article{fds269626,
   Author = {Liu, X and Rose, A and Poutrina, E and Ciraci, C and Larouche, S and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Surfaces, films, and multilayers for compact nonlinear
             plasmonics},
   Journal = {Journal of the Optical Society of America
             B},
   Volume = {30},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {2999-3010},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0740-3224},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000326580500031&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1364/JOSAB.30.002999},
   Key = {fds269626}
}

@article{fds269625,
   Author = {Ciraci, C and Lassiter, JB and Moreau, A and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Quasi-analytic study of scattering from optical plasmonic
             patch antennas},
   Journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
   Volume = {114},
   Number = {16},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0021-8979},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000326639200008&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.4827185},
   Key = {fds269625}
}

@article{fds269629,
   Author = {Ciracì, C and Urzhumov, Y and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Effects of classical nonlocality on the optical response of
             three-dimensional plasmonic nanodimers},
   Journal = {Journal of the Optical Society of America
             B},
   Volume = {30},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {2731-2736},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0740-3224},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAB.30.002731},
   Abstract = {We examine the optical scattering from a variety of axially
             symmetric plasmonic nanoparticle dimers separated by
             nanoscale gaps, quantifying the role of classical
             nonlocality on their optical properties. Due to the
             rotational symmetry of the analyzed structures, a high
             degree of accuracy is achieved using a computational
             approach termed 2.5D modeling, in which a small number of
             simulations on a two-dimensional domain can replace a
             memory- and time-intensive simulation on a three-dimensional
             domain. We find that scattered light from dimers consisting
             of nanoparticles with flat surfaces, such as nanodisks,
             exhibits pronounced spectral shifts due to the nonlocality
             of the electron fluid; these significant shifts persist even
             at relatively large ( > 1 nm) gap dimensions, where quantum
             tunneling effects are believed to be negligible. The 2.5D
             modeling technique accurately incorporates all responses due
             to any nonaxially symmetric eigenmodes of the system, such
             as dipolar and quadrupolar modes, thereby providing a
             complete characterization of the system for any excitation.
             © 2013 Optical Society of America.},
   Doi = {10.1364/JOSAB.30.002731},
   Key = {fds269629}
}

@article{fds269632,
   Author = {Lipworth, G and Mrozack, A and Hunt, J and Marks, DL and Driscoll, T and Brady, D and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Metamaterial apertures for coherent computational imaging on
             the physical layer},
   Journal = {Journal of the Optical Society of America
             A},
   Volume = {30},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {1603-1612},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {1084-7529},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000322591800017&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1364/JOSAA.30.001603},
   Key = {fds269632}
}

@article{fds269631,
   Author = {Rose, A and Latterman, R and Smith, DR and Sullivan,
             P},
   Title = {Lower poling thresholds and enhanced Pockels coefficients in
             nanoparticle-polymer composites},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {103},
   Number = {3},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000322146300002&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.4813751},
   Key = {fds269631}
}

@article{fds269634,
   Author = {Urzhumov, Y and Ciraci, C and Smith, DR},
   Title = {NANOPHOTONICS Optical time reversal with
             graphene},
   Journal = {Nature Physics},
   Volume = {9},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {393-394},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {1745-2473},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000321113200009&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1038/nphys2644},
   Key = {fds269634}
}

@article{fds269647,
   Author = {Ciraci, C and Urzhumov, Y and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Far-field analysis of axially symmetric three-dimensional
             directional cloaks},
   Journal = {Optics express},
   Volume = {21},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {9397-9406},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {1094-4087},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000318151600021&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Abstract = {Axisymmetric radiating and scattering structures whose
             rotational invariance is broken by non-axisymmetric
             excitations present an important class of problems in
             electromagnetics. For such problems, a cylindrical wave
             decomposition formalism can be used to efficiently obtain
             numerical solutions to the full-wave frequency-domain
             problem. Often, the far-field, or Fraunhofer region is of
             particular interest in scattering cross-section and
             radiation pattern calculations; yet, it is usually
             impractical to compute full-wave solutions for this region.
             Here, we propose a generalization of the Stratton-Chu
             far-field integral adapted for 2.5D formalism. The
             integration over a closed, axially symmetric surface is
             analytically reduced to a line integral on a meridional
             plane. We benchmark this computational technique by
             comparing it with analytical Mie solutions for a plasmonic
             nanoparticle, and apply it to the design of a
             three-dimensional polarization-insensitive
             cloak.},
   Doi = {10.1364/OE.21.009397},
   Key = {fds269647}
}

@article{fds269649,
   Author = {Ciracì, C and Pendry, JB and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Hydrodynamic model for plasmonics: a macroscopic approach to
             a microscopic problem.},
   Journal = {Chemphyschem},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1109-1116},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23512885},
   Abstract = {In this concept, we present the basic assumptions and
             techniques underlying the hydrodynamic model of electron
             response in metals and demonstrate that the model can be
             easily incorporated into computational models. We discuss
             the role of the additional boundary conditions that arise
             due to nonlocal terms in the modified equation of motion and
             the ultimate impact on nanoplasmonic systems. The
             hydrodynamic model captures much of the microscopic dynamics
             relating to the fundamental quantum mechanical nature of the
             electrons and reveals intrinsic limitations to the
             confinement and enhancement of light around nanoscale
             features. The presence of such limits is investigated
             numerically for different configurations of plasmonic
             nanostructures.},
   Doi = {10.1002/cphc.201200992},
   Key = {fds269649}
}

@article{fds269650,
   Author = {Rose, A and Huang, D and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Nonlinear interference and unidirectional wave mixing in
             metamaterials.},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {110},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {063901},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23432242},
   Abstract = {When both electric and magnetic mechanisms contribute to a
             particular nonlinear optical process, there exists the
             possibility for nonlinear interference, often characterized
             by constructive or destructive interference in the radiation
             pattern of harmonics and mix waves. However, observation of
             a significant effect from nonlinear interference requires
             careful balancing of the various contributions. For this
             purpose, we propose an artificial metamaterial, using the
             formalism of nonlinear magnetoelectric coupling to
             simultaneously engineer the nonlinear polarization and
             magnetization. We confirm our predictions of nonlinear
             interference with both simulations and experiment,
             demonstrating unidirectional wave mixing in two microwave
             metamaterials. Our results point toward an ever wider range
             of nonlinear properties, in which nonlinear interference is
             just one of many potential applications.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.063901},
   Key = {fds269650}
}

@article{fds269652,
   Author = {Hunt, J and Driscoll, T and Mrozack, A and Lipworth, G and Reynolds, M and Brady, D and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Metamaterial apertures for computational
             imaging.},
   Journal = {Science},
   Volume = {339},
   Number = {6117},
   Pages = {310-313},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23329043},
   Abstract = {By leveraging metamaterials and compressive imaging, a
             low-profile aperture capable of microwave imaging without
             lenses, moving parts, or phase shifters is demonstrated.
             This designer aperture allows image compression to be
             performed on the physical hardware layer rather than in the
             postprocessing stage, thus averting the detector, storage,
             and transmission costs associated with full
             diffraction-limited sampling of a scene. A guided-wave
             metamaterial aperture is used to perform compressive image
             reconstruction at 10 frames per second of two-dimensional
             (range and angle) sparse still and video scenes at K-band
             (18 to 26 gigahertz) frequencies, using frequency diversity
             to avoid mechanical scanning. Image acquisition is
             accomplished with a 40:1 compression ratio.},
   Doi = {10.1126/science.1230054},
   Key = {fds269652}
}

@article{fds269651,
   Author = {Moreau, A and Ciraci, C and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Impact of nonlocal response on metallodielectric multilayers
             and optical patch antennas},
   Journal = {Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials
             Physics},
   Volume = {87},
   Number = {4},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1098-0121},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000312999800008&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.87.045401},
   Key = {fds269651}
}

@article{fds269578,
   Author = {Tsai, YJ and Tyler, T and Larouche, S and Llopis, A and Royal, M and Jokerst, NM and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Metamaterial polarization multiplexed gratings},
   Journal = {2013 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO
             2013},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {We demonstrate a metamaterial grating that has two
             diffraction periods for two orthogonal linear polarization
             states of illuminations. The proposed method will be useful
             in free space optical communications and novel optical
             imaging systems. © 2013 The Optical Society.},
   Key = {fds269578}
}

@article{fds269583,
   Author = {Driscoll, T and Urzhumov, Y and Landy, N and Basov, D and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Dielectric metamaterials and composites in the age of 3D
             printing, and directional cloaking},
   Journal = {2013 7th International Congress on Advanced Electromagnetic
             Materials in Microwaves and Optics, METAMATERIALS
             2013},
   Pages = {361-363},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MetaMaterials.2013.6809053},
   Abstract = {The rapid evolution of additive manufacturing techniques has
             the potential to revolutionize a wide range of
             fabrication-limited fields. In this article, we apply
             plastic additive manufacturing to the creation of
             radio-frequency electromagnetic devices, demonstrating a
             metamaterial-like unidirectional cloak. Enabling this
             all-dielectric cloak is a computational boundary-optimization
             design approach significantly different from traditional
             metamaterial design techniques. For a subset of
             applications, the new all-dielectric cloak proves to work as
             well as well as previous metal-inclusive designs. © 2013
             IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/MetaMaterials.2013.6809053},
   Key = {fds269583}
}

@article{fds269774,
   Author = {Landy, N and Smith, DR},
   Title = {A full-parameter unidirectional metamaterial cloak for
             microwaves.},
   Journal = {Nature Materials},
   Volume = {12},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {25-28},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1476-1122},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23142840},
   Abstract = {Invisibility is a notion that has long captivated the
             popular imagination. However, in 2006, invisibility became a
             practical matter for the scientific community as well, with
             the suggestion that artificially structured metamaterials
             could enable a new electromagnetic design paradigm, now
             termed transformation optics. Since the advent of
             transformation optics and subsequent initial demonstration
             of the microwave cloak, the field has grown rapidly.
             However, the complexity of the transformation optics
             material prescription has continually forced researchers to
             make simplifying approximations to achieve even a subset of
             the desired functionality. These approximations place
             profound limitations on the performance of transformation
             optics devices in general, and cloaks especially. Here, we
             design and experimentally characterize a two-dimensional,
             unidirectional cloak that makes no approximations to the
             underlying transformation optics formulation, yet is capable
             of reducing the scattering of an object ten wavelengths in
             size. We demonstrate that this approximation-free design
             regains the performance characteristics promised by
             transformation optics.},
   Doi = {10.1038/nmat3476},
   Key = {fds269774}
}

@article{fds269627,
   Author = {Lassiter, JB and McGuire, F and Mock, JJ and Ciracì, C and Hill, RT and Wiley, BJ and Chilkoti, A and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Plasmonic waveguide modes of film-coupled metallic
             nanocubes.},
   Journal = {Nano Letters},
   Volume = {13},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {5866-5872},
   Year = {2013},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24199752},
   Abstract = {A metallic nanoparticle positioned over a metal film offers
             great advantages as a highly controllable system relevant
             for probing field-enhancement and other plasmonic effects.
             Because the size and shape of the gap between the
             nanoparticle and film can be controlled to subnanometer
             precision using relatively simple, bottom-up fabrication
             approaches, the film-coupled nanoparticle geometry has
             recently been applied to enhancing optical fields, accessing
             the quantum regime of plasmonics, and the design of surfaces
             with controlled reflectance. In the present work, we examine
             the plasmon modes associated with a silver nanocube
             positioned above a silver or gold film, separated by an
             organic, dielectric spacer layer. The film-coupled nanocube
             is of particular interest due to the formation of waveguide
             cavity-like modes between the nanocube and film. These modes
             impart distinctive scattering characteristics to the system
             that can be used in the creation of controlled reflectance
             surfaces and other applications. We perform both
             experimental spectroscopy and numerical simulations of
             individual nanocubes positioned over a metal film, finding
             excellent agreement between experiment and simulation. The
             waveguide mode description serves as a starting point to
             explain the optical properties observed.},
   Doi = {10.1021/nl402660s},
   Key = {fds269627}
}

@article{fds269630,
   Author = {Grajower, M and Lerman, GM and Goykhman, I and Desiatov, B and Yanai, A and Smith, DR and Levy, U},
   Title = {Subwavelength plasmonics for graded-index optics on a
             chip},
   Journal = {Optics Letters},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {18},
   Pages = {3492-3495},
   Year = {2013},
   ISSN = {0146-9592},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.38.003492},
   Abstract = {Planar plasmonic devices are becoming attractive for myriad
             applications, owing to their potential compatibility with
             standard microelectronics technology and the capability for
             densely integrating a large variety of plasmonic devices on
             a chip. Mitigating the challenges of using plasmonics in
             on-chip configurations requires precise control over the
             properties of plasmonic modes, in particular their shape and
             size. Here we achieve this goal by demonstrating a planar
             plasmonic graded-index lens focusing surface plasmons
             propagating along the device. The plasmonic mode is
             manipulated by carving subwavelength features into a
             dielectric layer positioned on top of a uniform metal film,
             allowing the local effective index of the plasmonic mode to
             be controlled using a single binary lithographic step.
             Focusing and divergence of surface plasmons is demonstrated
             experimentally. The demonstrated approach can be used for
             manipulating the propagation of surface plasmons, e.g., for
             beam steering, splitting, cloaking, mode matching, and beam
             shaping applications. © 2013 Optical Society of
             America.},
   Doi = {10.1364/OL.38.003492},
   Key = {fds269630}
}

@article{fds269633,
   Author = {Landy, N and Hunt, J and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Homogenization analysis of complementary waveguide
             metamaterials},
   Journal = {Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and
             Applications},
   Year = {2013},
   ISSN = {1569-4410},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.photonics.2013.07.004},
   Abstract = {We analyze the properties of complementary metamaterials as
             effective inclusions patterned into the conducting walls of
             metal waveguide structures. We show that guided wave
             metamaterials can be homogenized using the same retrieval
             techniques used for volumetric metamaterials, leading to a
             description in which a given complementary element is
             conceptually replaced by a block of material within the
             waveguide whose effective permittivity and permeability
             result in equivalent scattering characteristics. The use of
             effective constitutive parameters for waveguide materials
             provides an alternative point-of-view for the design of
             waveguide and microstrip based components, including planar
             lenses and filters, as well as devices with derived from a
             bulk material response. In addition to imparting effective
             constitutive properties to the waveguide, complementary
             metamaterials also couple energy from waveguide modes into
             radiation. Thus, complementary waveguide metamaterials can
             be used to modify and optimize a variety of antenna
             structures. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights
             reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.photonics.2013.07.004},
   Key = {fds269633}
}

@article{fds269635,
   Author = {Goldflam, MD and Driscoll, T and Barnas, D and Khatib, O and Royal, M and Jokerst, NM and Smith, DR and Kim, B-J and Seo, G and Kim, H-T and Basov,
             DN},
   Title = {Two-dimensional reconfigurable gradient index memory
             metasurface},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {102},
   Number = {22},
   Year = {2013},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4809534},
   Abstract = {Creation and control of spatial gradients in electromagnetic
             properties is a central theme underlying optical device
             design. In this work, we demonstrate that through
             modification of the spatial and temporal distribution of
             current, we can obtain increased control over the shape of
             these gradients. We are able to write spatially sharp
             gradients with ∼50% change in the index of refraction over
             length scales of only a few wavelengths as observed through
             diffraction limited terahertz spectroscopy. Furthermore, we
             assess the potentials for such gradients for beam-steering
             applications. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.4809534},
   Key = {fds269635}
}

@article{fds269636,
   Author = {Urzhumov, Y and Landy, N and Driscoll, T and Basov, D and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Thin low-loss dielectric coatings for free-space
             cloaking},
   Journal = {Optics Letters},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {1606-1608},
   Year = {2013},
   ISSN = {0146-9592},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.38.001606},
   Abstract = {We report stereolithographic polymer-based fabrication and
             experimental operation of a microwave X-band cloaking
             device. The device is a relatively thin (about one
             wavelength thick) shell of an air-dielectric composite, in
             which the dielectric component has negligible loss and
             dispersion. In a finite band (9.7-10.1 GHz), the shell
             eliminates the shadow and strongly suppresses scattering
             from a conducting cylinder of six-wavelength diameter for
             TE-polarized free-space plane waves. The device does not
             require an immersion liquid or conducting ground planes for
             its operation. The dielectric constant of the polymer is low
             enough (ε = 2.45) to suggest that this cloaking technique
             would be suitable for higher frequency radiation, including
             visible light. © 2013 Optical Society of
             America.},
   Doi = {10.1364/OL.38.001606},
   Key = {fds269636}
}

@article{fds269808,
   Author = {Moreau, A and Ciracì, C and Mock, JJ and Hill, RT and Wang, Q and Wiley,
             BJ and Chilkoti, A and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Controlled-reflectance surfaces with film-coupled colloidal
             nanoantennas.},
   Journal = {Nature},
   Volume = {492},
   Number = {7427},
   Pages = {86-89},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23222613},
   Abstract = {Efficient and tunable absorption is essential for a variety
             of applications, such as designing controlled-emissivity
             surfaces for thermophotovoltaic devices, tailoring an
             infrared spectrum for controlled thermal dissipation and
             producing detector elements for imaging. Metamaterials based
             on metallic elements are particularly efficient as absorbing
             media, because both the electrical and the magnetic
             properties of a metamaterial can be tuned by structured
             design. So far, metamaterial absorbers in the infrared or
             visible range have been fabricated using lithographically
             patterned metallic structures, making them inherently
             difficult to produce over large areas and hence reducing
             their applicability. Here we demonstrate a simple method to
             create a metamaterial absorber by randomly adsorbing
             chemically synthesized silver nanocubes onto a
             nanoscale-thick polymer spacer layer on a gold film, making
             no effort to control the spatial arrangement of the cubes on
             the film. We show that the film-coupled nanocubes provide a
             reflectance spectrum that can be tailored by varying the
             geometry (the size of the cubes and/or the thickness of the
             spacer). Each nanocube is the optical analogue of a grounded
             patch antenna, with a nearly identical local field structure
             that is modified by the plasmonic response of the metal's
             dielectric function, and with an anomalously large
             absorption efficiency that can be partly attributed to an
             interferometric effect. The absorptivity of large surface
             areas can be controlled using this method, at scales out of
             reach of lithographic approaches (such as electron-beam
             lithography) that are otherwise required to manipulate
             matter on the nanoscale.},
   Doi = {10.1038/nature11615},
   Key = {fds269808}
}

@article{fds269608,
   Author = {Smith, DR},
   Title = {Defining new optics with metamaterials},
   Journal = {Optics InfoBase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {Metamaterials provide resources for the development of
             unconventional optical devices and the improvement of
             conventional ones. We review the methods of analyzing,
             constructing and characterizing metamaterials, and discuss
             their extension to infrared and visible wavelengths. © OSA
             2012.},
   Key = {fds269608}
}

@article{fds269609,
   Author = {Grajower, M and Lerman, G and Goykhman, I and Desiatov, B and Yanai, A and Smith, DR and Levy, U},
   Title = {Plasmonic graded-index planar lens based on subwavelength
             features in the effective index regime},
   Journal = {Optics InfoBase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {We experimentally demonstrate the planar focusing of Surface
             Plasmon Polaritons using space variant PMMA subwavelength
             features on top of a metallic film. Focusing is obtained by
             creating an effective graded refractive index profile. ©
             OSA 2012.},
   Key = {fds269609}
}

@article{fds269614,
   Author = {Larouche, S and Tsai, YJ and Tyler, T and Jokerst, NM and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Infrared metamaterial hologram},
   Journal = {Optics InfoBase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {We designed, fabricated, and characterized an infrared
             metamaterial hologram. The hologram correctly reproduces the
             design image. This work demonstrates that metamate-rials can
             be used to fabricate devices with arbitrary 2D refractive
             index profiles. © 2011 Optical Society of
             America.},
   Key = {fds269614}
}

@article{fds269771,
   Author = {Nguyen, V and Larouche, S and Landy, N and Lee, JS and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Quantitative comparison of gradient index and refractive
             lenses.},
   Journal = {Journal of the Optical Society of America
             A},
   Volume = {29},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {2479-2497},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23201812},
   Abstract = {We analyze the Seidel wavefront aberrations and spot sizes
             of gradient index (GRIN) singlet lenses with Δn≈1. We
             consider and compare curved and planar GRIN lenses with
             F-numbers of 5 and 1 against equivalent refractive lenses.
             We find that the planar GRIN lenses generally have larger
             spot sizes compared to their refractive lens equivalents at
             wide angles. This appears to be due to an inability to
             correct for coma by adjusting the refractive index gradient
             alone. We can correct for the coma by bending the GRIN lens.
             This results in a singlet lens with performance close to but
             not exceeding that of the equivalent refractive lens. We
             also examine the impact of anisotropy on the planar GRIN
             lenses. We find that fabricating the planar GRIN lenses from
             a uniaxial medium has the potential to improve the
             performance of the lenses.},
   Doi = {10.1364/josaa.29.002479},
   Key = {fds269771}
}

@article{fds269772,
   Author = {Urzhumov, Y and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Low-loss directional cloaks without superluminal velocity or
             magnetic response.},
   Journal = {Optics Letters},
   Volume = {37},
   Number = {21},
   Pages = {4471-4473},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23114333},
   Abstract = {The possibility of making an optically large (many
             wavelengths in diameter) object appear invisible has been a
             subject of many recent studies. Exact invisibility scenarios
             for large (relative to the wavelength) objects involve
             (meta)materials with superluminal phase velocity [refractive
             index (RI) less than unity] and/or magnetic response. We
             introduce a new approximation applicable to certain device
             geometries in the eikonal limit: piecewise-uniform scaling
             of the RI. This transformation preserves the ray
             trajectories but leads to a uniform phase delay. We show how
             to take advantage of phase delays to achieve a limited
             (directional and wavelength-dependent) form of invisibility
             that does not require loss-ridden (meta)materials with
             superluminal phase velocities.},
   Key = {fds269772}
}

@article{fds269807,
   Author = {Hill, RT and Mock, JJ and Hucknall, A and Wolter, SD and Jokerst, NM and Smith, DR and Chilkoti, A},
   Title = {Plasmon ruler with angstrom length resolution.},
   Journal = {ACS Nano},
   Volume = {6},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {9237-9246},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22966857},
   Abstract = {We demonstrate a plasmon nanoruler using a coupled film
             nanoparticle (film-NP) format that is well-suited for
             investigating the sensitivity extremes of plasmonic
             coupling. Because it is relatively straightforward to
             functionalize bulk surface plasmon supporting films, such as
             gold, we are able to precisely control plasmonic gap
             dimensions by creating ultrathin molecular spacer layers on
             the gold films, on top of which we immobilize plasmon
             resonant nanoparticles (NPs). Each immobilized NP becomes
             coupled to the underlying film and functions as a plasmon
             nanoruler, exhibiting a distance-dependent resonance red
             shift in its peak plasmon wavelength as it approaches the
             film. Due to the uniformity of response from the film-NPs to
             separation distance, we are able to use extinction and
             scattering measurements from ensembles of film-NPs to
             characterize the coupling effect over a series of very short
             separation distances-ranging from 5 to 20 Å-and combine
             these measurements with similar data from larger separation
             distances extending out to 27 nm. We find that the film-NP
             plasmon nanoruler is extremely sensitive at very short
             film-NP separation distances, yielding spectral shifts as
             large as 5 nm for every 1 Å change in separation distance.
             The film-NP coupling at extremely small spacings is so
             uniform and reliable that we are able to usefully probe gap
             dimensions where the classical Drude model of the conducting
             electrons in the metals is no longer descriptive; for gap
             sizes smaller than a few nanometers, either quantum or
             semiclassical models of the carrier response must be
             employed to predict the observed wavelength shifts. We find
             that, despite the limitations, large field enhancements and
             extreme sensitivity persist down to even the smallest gap
             sizes.},
   Doi = {10.1021/nn3035809},
   Key = {fds269807}
}

@article{fds269806,
   Author = {Ciracì, C and Hill, RT and Mock, JJ and Urzhumov, Y and Fernández-Domínguez, AI and Maier, SA and Pendry, JB and Chilkoti,
             A and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Probing the ultimate limits of plasmonic
             enhancement.},
   Journal = {Science},
   Volume = {337},
   Number = {6098},
   Pages = {1072-1074},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22936772},
   Abstract = {Metals support surface plasmons at optical wavelengths and
             have the ability to localize light to subwavelength regions.
             The field enhancements that occur in these regions set the
             ultimate limitations on a wide range of nonlinear and
             quantum optical phenomena. We found that the dominant
             limiting factor is not the resistive loss of the metal, but
             rather the intrinsic nonlocality of its dielectric response.
             A semiclassical model of the electronic response of a metal
             places strict bounds on the ultimate field enhancement. To
             demonstrate the accuracy of this model, we studied optical
             scattering from gold nanoparticles spaced a few angstroms
             from a gold film. The bounds derived from the models and
             experiments impose limitations on all nanophotonic
             systems.},
   Doi = {10.1126/science.1224823},
   Key = {fds269806}
}

@article{fds269765,
   Author = {Larouche, S and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Reconciliation of generalized refraction with diffraction
             theory.},
   Journal = {Optics Letters},
   Volume = {37},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {2391-2393},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22739918},
   Abstract = {When an electromagnetic wave is obliquely incident on the
             interface between two homogeneous media with different
             refractive indices, the requirement of phase continuity
             across the interface generally leads to a shift in the
             trajectory of the wave. When a linearly position-dependent
             phase shift is imposed at the interface, the resulting
             refraction may be described using a generalized version of
             Snell's law. In this Letter, we establish a formal
             equivalence between generalized refraction and blazed
             diffraction gratings, further discussing the relative merits
             of the two approaches.},
   Doi = {10.1364/ol.37.002391},
   Key = {fds269765}
}

@article{fds269764,
   Author = {Driscoll, T and Lipworth, G and Hunt, J and Landy, N and Kundtz, N and Basov, DN and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Performance of a three dimensional transformation-optical-flattened
             Lüneburg lens.},
   Journal = {Optics express},
   Volume = {20},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {13262-13273},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22714354},
   Abstract = {We demonstrate both the beam-forming and imaging
             capabilities of an X-band (8-12 GHz) operational Lüneburg
             lens, one side of which has been flattened via a coordinate
             transformation optimized using quasi-conformal
             transformation optics (QCTO) procedures. Our experimental
             investigation includes benchmark performance comparisons
             between the QCTO Lüneburg lens and a commensurate
             conventional Lüneburg lens. The QCTO Lüneburg lens is made
             from a metamaterial comprised of inexpensive plastic and
             fiberglass, and manufactured using fast and versatile
             numerically controlled water-jet machining. Looking forward
             towards the future and advanced TO designs, we discuss
             inevitable design trade-offs between affordable scalable
             manufacturing and rigorous adherence to the full TO
             solution, as well as possible paths to mitigate performance
             degradation in realizable designs.},
   Key = {fds269764}
}

@article{fds269790,
   Author = {Poutrina, E and Ciracì, C and Gauthier, DJ and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Enhancing four-wave-mixing processes by nanowire arrays
             coupled to a gold film.},
   Journal = {Optics express},
   Volume = {20},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {11005-11013},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22565723},
   Abstract = {We consider the process of four-wave mixing in an array of
             gold nanowires strongly coupled to a gold film. Using
             full-wave simulations, we perform a quantitative comparison
             of the four-wave mixing efficiency associated with a bare
             film and films with nanowire arrays. We find that the
             strongly localized surface plasmon resonances of the coupled
             nanowires provide an additional local field enhancement
             that, along with the delocalized surface plasmon of the
             film, produces an overall four-wave mixing efficiency
             enhancement of up to six orders of magnitude over that of
             the bare film. The enhancement occurs over a wide range of
             excitation angles. The film-coupled nanowire array is easily
             amenable to nanofabrication, and could find application as
             an ultra-compact component for integrated photonic and
             quantum optic systems.},
   Key = {fds269790}
}

@article{fds269805,
   Author = {Mock, JJ and Hill, RT and Tsai, Y-J and Chilkoti, A and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Probing dynamically tunable localized surface plasmon
             resonances of film-coupled nanoparticles by evanescent wave
             excitation.},
   Journal = {Nano Letters},
   Volume = {12},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1757-1764},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22429053},
   Abstract = {The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) spectrum
             associated with a gold nanoparticle (NP) coupled to a gold
             film exhibits extreme sensitivity to the nanogap region
             where the fields are tightly localized. The LSPR of an
             ensemble of film-coupled NPs can be observed using an
             illumination scheme similar to that used to excite the
             surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of a thin metallic film;
             however, in the present system, the light is used to probe
             the highly sensitive distance-dependent LSPR of the gaps
             between NPs and film rather than the delocalized SPR of the
             film. We show that the SPR and LSPR spectral contributions
             can be readily distinguished, and we compare the
             sensitivities of both modes to displacements in the average
             gap between a collection of NPs and the gold film. The
             distance by which the NPs are suspended in solution above
             the gold film is fixed via a thin molecular spacer layer and
             can be further modulated by subjecting the NPs to a
             quasistatic electric field. The observed LSPR spectral
             shifts triggered by the applied voltage can be correlated
             with angstrom scale displacements of the NPs, suggesting the
             potential for chip-scale or flow-cell plasmonic nanoruler
             devices with extreme sensitivity.},
   Doi = {10.1021/nl204596h},
   Key = {fds269805}
}

@article{fds269788,
   Author = {Larouche, S and Tsai, Y-J and Tyler, T and Jokerst, NM and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Infrared metamaterial phase holograms.},
   Journal = {Nature Materials},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {450-454},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {1476-1122},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22426458},
   Abstract = {As a result of advances in nanotechnology and the burgeoning
             capabilities for fabricating materials with controlled
             nanoscale geometries, the traditional notion of what
             constitutes an optical device continues to evolve. The
             fusion of maturing low-cost lithographic techniques with
             newer optical design strategies has enabled the introduction
             of artificially structured metamaterials in place of
             conventional materials for improving optical components as
             well as realizing new optical functionality. Here we
             demonstrate multilayer, lithographically patterned,
             subwavelength, metal elements, whose distribution forms a
             computer-generated phase hologram in the infrared region
             (10.6 μm). Metal inclusions exhibit extremely large
             scattering and can be implemented in metamaterials that
             exhibit a wide range of effective medium response, including
             anomalously large or negative refractive index; optical
             magnetism; and controlled anisotropy. This large palette of
             metamaterial responses can be leveraged to achieve greater
             control over the propagation of light, leading to more
             compact, efficient and versatile optical
             components.},
   Doi = {10.1038/nmat3278},
   Key = {fds269788}
}

@article{fds269787,
   Author = {Hunt, J and Tyler, T and Dhar, S and Tsai, Y-J and Bowen, P and Larouche,
             S and Jokerst, NM and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Planar, flattened Luneburg lens at infrared
             wavelengths.},
   Journal = {Optics express},
   Volume = {20},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {1706-1713},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22274513},
   Abstract = {Employing artificially structured metamaterials provides a
             means of circumventing the limits of conventional optical
             materials. Here, we use transformation optics (TO) combined
             with nanolithography to produce a planar Luneburg lens with
             a flat focal surface that operates at telecommunication
             wavelengths. Whereas previous infrared TO devices have been
             transformations of free-space, here we implement a
             transformation of an existing optical element to create a
             new device with the same optical characteristics but a
             user-defined geometry.},
   Doi = {10.1364/oe.20.001706},
   Key = {fds269787}
}

@article{fds269753,
   Author = {Chen, S-Y and Urzhumov, Y and Smith, DR and Lazarides,
             AA},
   Title = {Characterization of high order modes of plasmonic antenna
             formed by nanoparticle/thin film hybrid structures},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical
             Engineering},
   Volume = {8269},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/5725 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {The plasmonic modes of a nano-antenna formed by a
             nanoparticle/thin film hybrid system are investigated.
             Plasmonic nano-antennas are well-known for their
             capabilities to concentrate electromagnetic wave into
             extreme small region and couple the emission from active
             materials in proximity to the antennas into far-field
             region. Previously, we have shown through direct measurement
             of emission profile images that the nano-antennas not only
             enhance Raman emission but also systematically direct
             inelastic emission to the far-field through the dipole mode.
             We also showed that high order modes of the hybrid structure
             can be detected. Here, the higher order plasmonic modes are
             characterized through imaging, variable angle linearly
             polarized excitation, and simulation. Through spectral
             simulation with improved resolution, two distinct modes are
             found to contribute to the broad band high order mode. One
             has dipole-like behavior and the other has quadrupole-like
             behavior. The modes are characterized both through
             near-field distribution and farfield scattering profiles.
             The quadrupole-like mode can be excited by both p- and
             s-polarized light whereas the dipolelike mode is only
             excited by p-polarized light. These high order modes are not
             as bright as the dipole mode in the farfield spectrum but
             have substantial near field enhancement which can be
             utilized for surface-enhancing spectroscopy and sensing. In
             addition, characterization of high order modes may serve to
             clarify the interaction between nano-antenna and active
             materials and will lead to design rules for applications of
             active plasmonic structures in integrated optical circuits.
             © 2012 Copyright Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation
             Engineers (SPIE).},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.907700},
   Key = {fds269753}
}

@article{fds269754,
   Author = {Holloway, CL and Kuester, EF and Gordon, JA and O'Hara, J and Booth, J and Smith, DR},
   Title = {An overview of the theory and applications of metasurfaces:
             The two-dimensional equivalents of metamaterials},
   Journal = {IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine},
   Volume = {54},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {10-35},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {1045-9243},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MAP.2012.6230714},
   Abstract = {Metamaterials are typically engineered by arranging a set of
             small scatterers or apertures in a regular array throughout
             a region of space, thus obtaining some desirable bulk
             electromagnetic behavior. The desired property is often one
             that is not normally found naturally (negative refractive
             index, near-zero index, etc.). Over the past ten years,
             metamaterials have moved from being simply a theoretical
             concept to a field with developed and marketed applications.
             Three-dimensional metamaterials can be extended by arranging
             electrically small scatterers or holes into a
             two-dimensional pattern at a surface or interface. This
             surface version of a metamaterial has been given the name
             metasurface (the term metafilm has also been employed for
             certain structures). For many applications, metasurfaces can
             be used in place of metamaterials. Metasurfaces have the
             advantage of taking up less physical space than do full
             three-dimensional metamaterial structures; consequently,
             metasurfaces offer the possibility of less-lossy structures.
             In this overview paper, we discuss the theoretical basis by
             which metasurfaces should be characterized, and discuss
             their various applications. We will see how metasurfaces are
             distinguished from conventional frequency-selective
             surfaces. Metasurfaces have a wide range of potential
             applications in electromagnetics (ranging from low microwave
             to optical frequencies), including: (1) controllable smart
             surfaces, (2) miniaturized cavity resonators, (3) novel
             wave-guiding structures, (4) angular-independent surfaces,
             (5) absorbers, (6) biomedical devices, (7) terahertz
             switches, and (8) fluid-tunable frequency-agile materials,
             to name only a few. In this review, we will see that the
             development in recent years of such materials and/or
             surfaces is bringing us closer to realizing the exciting
             speculations made over one hundred years ago by the work of
             Lamb, Schuster, and Pocklington, and later by Mandel'shtam
             and Veselago. © 2012 IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/MAP.2012.6230714},
   Key = {fds269754}
}

@article{fds269755,
   Author = {Shin, D and Urzhumov, Y and Jung, Y and Kang, G and Baek, S and Choi, M and Park, H and Kim, K and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Broadband electromagnetic cloaking with smart
             metamaterials},
   Journal = {Nature Communications},
   Volume = {3},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {2041-1723},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/7571 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {The ability to render objects invisible with a cloak that
             fits all objects and sizes is a long-standing goal for
             optical devices. Invisibility devices demonstrated so far
             typically comprise a rigid structure wrapped around an
             object to which it is fitted. Here we demonstrate smart
             metamaterial cloaking, wherein the metamaterial device not
             only transforms electromagnetic fields to make an object
             invisible, but also acquires its properties automatically
             from its own elastic deformation. The demonstrated device is
             a ground-plane microwave cloak composed of an elastic
             metamaterial with a broad operational band (10-12 GHz) and
             nearly lossless electromagnetic properties. The metamaterial
             is uniform, or perfectly periodic, in its undeformed state
             and acquires the necessary gradient-index profile, mimicking
             a quasi-conformal transformation, naturally from a boundary
             load. This easy-to-fabricate hybrid elasto-electromagnetic
             metamaterial opens the door to implementations of a variety
             of transformation optics devices based on quasi-conformal
             maps. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights
             reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1038/ncomms2219},
   Key = {fds269755}
}

@article{fds269756,
   Author = {Grajower, M and Lerman, G and Goykhman, I and Desiatov, B and Yanai, A and Smith, DR and Levy, U},
   Title = {Plasmonic graded-index planar lens based on subwavelength
             features in the effective index regime},
   Journal = {2012 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO
             2012},
   Year = {2012},
   Abstract = {We experimentally demonstrate the planar focusing of Surface
             Plasmon Polaritons using space variant PMMA subwavelength
             features on top of a metallic film. Focusing is obtained by
             creating an effective graded refractive index profile. ©
             2012 OSA.},
   Key = {fds269756}
}

@article{fds269757,
   Author = {Smith, DR},
   Title = {Defining new optics with metamaterials},
   Journal = {2012 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO
             2012},
   Year = {2012},
   Abstract = {Metamaterials provide resources for the development of
             unconventional optical devices and the improvement of
             conventional ones. We review the methods of analyzing,
             constructing and characterizing metamaterials, and discuss
             their extension to infrared and visible wavelengths. © 2012
             OSA.},
   Key = {fds269757}
}

@article{fds269758,
   Author = {Urzhumov, Y and Chen, W and Bingham, C and Padilla, W and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Magnetic levitation of metamaterial bodies enhanced with
             magnetostatic surface resonances},
   Journal = {Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials
             Physics},
   Volume = {85},
   Number = {5},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {1098-0121},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/5723 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {We propose that macroscopic objects built from
             negative-permeability metamaterials may experience
             resonantly enhanced magnetic force in low-frequency magnetic
             fields. Resonant enhancement of the time-averaged force
             originates from magnetostatic surface resonances (MSRs),
             which are analogous to the electrostatic resonances of
             negative-permittivity particles, well known as surface
             plasmon resonances in optics. We generalize the classical
             problem of the MSR of a homogeneous object to include
             anisotropic metamaterials and consider the most extreme case
             of anisotropy, where the permeability is negative in one
             direction but positive in the others. It is shown that
             deeply subwavelength objects made of such indefinite
             (hyperbolic) media exhibit a pronounced magnetic dipole
             resonance that couples strongly to uniform or weakly
             inhomogeneous magnetic field and provides strong enhancement
             of the magnetic force, enabling applications such as
             enhanced magnetic levitation. © 2012 American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.85.054430},
   Key = {fds269758}
}

@article{fds269759,
   Author = {Bowen, PT and Driscoll, T and Kundtz, NB and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Using a discrete dipole approximation to predict complete
             scattering of complicated metamaterials},
   Journal = {New Journal of Physics},
   Volume = {14},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {1367-2630},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1367-2630/14/3/033038},
   Abstract = {We develop a numerical technique for simulating metamaterial
             electromagnetic response based on an adaptation of the
             discrete dipole approximation (DDA). Our approach reduces
             each constituent metamaterial element within the composite
             to a point dipole with electric and magnetic
             polarizabilities, rather than assuming a homogenized
             effective material. We first validate the approach by
             computing the scattering cross-section for a collection of
             densely spaced isotropic dipole moments arranged within a
             cylindrical area, and compare with the known result from Mie
             theory. The discrete dipole approach has considerable
             advantages for the design of gradient and transformation
             optical media based on metamaterials, since the absence of
             local periodicity in other common design approaches leaves
             them with questionable validity. Several variants of iconic
             cloaking structures are investigated to illustrate the
             method, in which we study the impact that different
             configurations of dipolar elements can have on cloak
             performance. The modeling of a complex medium as polarizable
             dipoles provides a much closer connection to actual
             metamaterial implementations, and can address key nonlocal
             phenomena, such as magnetoelectric coupling, not accessible
             to most current numerical metamaterial approaches. © IOP
             Publishing Ltd and Deutsche Physikalische
             Gesellschaft.},
   Doi = {10.1088/1367-2630/14/3/033038},
   Key = {fds269759}
}

@article{fds269760,
   Author = {Arritt, BJ and Smith, DR and Khraishi, TA},
   Title = {Analytically describing the temperature-dependent
             constitutive parameters of an electromagnetic
             metamaterial},
   Journal = {Journal of Intelligent Materials Systems and
             Structures},
   Volume = {23},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {463-471},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {1045-389X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1045389X11433496},
   Abstract = {Analogous to mechanical systems, modeling the
             electromagnetic (EM) performance of large and complex
             metamaterial structures requires the use of
             effective-medium/constitutive properties. Constitutive
             properties are critical for efficiently bridging the gap
             between subwavelength geometry and performance at the
             mesoscale. In this article, the temperature-dependent
             effective medium properties for a metamaterial
             electric-inductive-capacitive (ELC) resonator are described
             analytically. ELC structures are commonly used in
             metamaterial designs to provide a tailored electric response
             to EM waves. An equivalent circuit model, coupled with
             analytic expressions for the capacitances, inductance, and
             resistance of the ELC resonator, is utilized to describe how
             thermally induced mechanical strain and changes in material
             properties manifest as temperature-dependent permittivity
             and permeability curves for the metamaterial. The resulting
             analytic expressions account for the effects of spatial
             dispersion and losses. This article also details how the
             process may be expanded to similarly describe the
             temperature-dependent constitutive properties of
             metamaterial magnetic resonators. © The Author(s)
             2011.},
   Doi = {10.1177/1045389X11433496},
   Key = {fds269760}
}

@article{fds269761,
   Author = {Urzhumov, Y and Landy, N and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Isotropic-medium three-dimensional cloaks for acoustic and
             electromagnetic waves},
   Journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
   Volume = {111},
   Number = {5},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {0021-8979},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/5721 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {We propose a generalization of the two-dimensional
             eikonal-limit cloak derived from a conformal transformation
             to three dimensions. The proposed cloak is a spherical shell
             composed of only isotropic media; it operates in the
             transmission mode and requires no mirror or ground plane.
             Unlike the well-known omnidirectional spherical cloaks, it
             may reduce visibility of an arbitrary object only for a very
             limited range of observation angles. In the short-wavelength
             limit, this cloaking structure restores not only the
             trajectories of incident rays, but also their phase, which
             is a necessary ingredient to complete invisibility. Both
             scalar-wave (acoustic) and transverse vector-wave
             (electromagnetic) versions are presented. © 2012 American
             Institute of Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.3691242},
   Key = {fds269761}
}

@article{fds269762,
   Author = {Huang, D and Urzhumov, Y and Smith, DR and Teo, KH and Zhang,
             J},
   Title = {Magnetic superlens-enhanced inductive coupling for wireless
             power transfer},
   Journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
   Volume = {111},
   Number = {6},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {0021-8979},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/5722 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {We investigate numerically the use of a negative-permeability
             perfect lens for enhancing wireless power transfer between
             two current carrying coils. The negative permeability slab
             serves to focus the flux generated in the source coil to the
             receiver coil, thereby increasing the mutual inductive
             coupling between the coils. The numerical model is compared
             with an analytical theory that treats the coils as point
             dipoles separated by an infinite planar layer of magnetic
             material Urzhumov, Phys. Rev. B 19, 8312 (2011). In the
             limit of vanishingly small radius of the coils, and large
             width of the metamaterial slab, the numerical simulations
             are in excellent agreement with the analytical model. Both
             the idealized analytical and realistic numerical models
             predict similar trends with respect to metamaterial loss and
             anisotropy. Applying the numerical models, we further
             analyze the impact of finite coil size and finite width of
             the slab. We find that, even for these less idealized
             geometries, the presence of the magnetic slab greatly
             enhances the coupling between the two coils, including cases
             where significant loss is present in the slab. We therefore
             conclude that the integration of a metamaterial slab into a
             wireless power transfer system holds promise for increasing
             the overall system performance. © 2012 American Institute
             of Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.3692757},
   Key = {fds269762}
}

@article{fds269763,
   Author = {Ciracì, C and Poutrina, E and Scalora, M and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Origin of second-harmonic generation enhancement in optical
             split-ring resonators},
   Journal = {Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials
             Physics},
   Volume = {85},
   Number = {20},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {1098-0121},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.85.201403},
   Abstract = {We present a study of the second-order nonlinear optical
             properties of metal-based metamaterials. A hydrodynamic
             model for electronic response is used, in which nonlinear
             surface contributions are expressed in terms of the bulk
             polarization. The model is in good agreement with published
             experimental results, and clarifies the mechanisms
             contributing to the nonlinear response. In particular, we
             show that the reported enhancement of the second harmonic in
             split-ring resonator based media is driven by the electric
             rather than the magnetic properties of the structure. ©
             2012 American Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.85.201403},
   Key = {fds269763}
}

@article{fds269766,
   Author = {Paul, O and Urzhumov, Y and Elsen, C and Smith, D and Rahm,
             M},
   Title = {Construction of invisibility cloaks of arbitrary shape and
             size using planar layers of metamaterials},
   Journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
   Volume = {111},
   Number = {12},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {0021-8979},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/7570 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {Transformation optics (TO) is a powerful tool for the design
             of electromagnetic and optical devices with novel
             functionality derived from the unusual properties of the
             transformation media. In general, the fabrication of TO
             media is challenging, requiring spatially varying material
             properties with both anisotropic electric and magnetic
             responses. Though metamaterials have been proposed as a path
             for achieving such complex media, the required properties
             arising from the most general transformations remain
             elusive, and cannot implemented by state-of-the-art
             fabrication techniques. Here, we propose faceted
             approximations of TO media of arbitrary shape in which the
             volume of the TO device is divided into flat metamaterial
             layers. These layers can be readily implemented by standard
             fabrication and stacking techniques. We illustrate our
             approximation approach for the specific example of a
             two-dimensional, omnidirectional "invisibility cloak", and
             quantify its performance using the total scattering cross
             section as a practical figure of merit. © 2012 American
             Institute of Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.4729012},
   Key = {fds269766}
}

@article{fds269767,
   Author = {Rose, A and Huang, D and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Demonstration of nonlinear magnetoelectric coupling in
             metamaterials},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {101},
   Number = {5},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4738774},
   Abstract = {We demonstrate nonlinear magnetoelectric coupling in a
             varactor-loaded metamaterial at microwave frequencies. The
             nonlinear magnetoelectric coupling takes the form of
             second-harmonic generation in which incident magnetic fields
             at frequency ω drive an electric polarization at frequency
             2ω. The magnitudes and phases of the generated signals from
             two nonlinear metamaterials are measured, verifying the
             dominant nonlinear process in each sample. We expect the
             metamaterial design employed in this letter to form the
             prototype for future investigations into nonlinear
             magnetoelectric coupling. © 2012 American Institute of
             Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.4738774},
   Key = {fds269767}
}

@article{fds269768,
   Author = {Rose, A and Larouche, S and Poutrina, E and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Nonlinear magnetoelectric metamaterials: Analysis and
             homogenization via a microscopic coupled-mode
             theory},
   Journal = {Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical
             Physics},
   Volume = {86},
   Number = {3},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {1050-2947},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.86.033816},
   Abstract = {Artificially structured metamaterials hybridized with
             elements that respond nonlinearly to incident
             electromagnetic fields can, from a macroscopic perspective,
             support nonlinear responses that cannot be described by
             purely electric or magnetic interactions. To investigate the
             mechanisms and behaviors of such interactions, termed
             nonlinear magnetoelectric coupling, we develop a set of
             coupled-mode equations for describing three-wave mixing in a
             metamaterial, using Bloch modes as the basis. By equating
             these coupled-mode equations to those of a homogenized
             system, we derive closed-form expressions for the
             macroscopic nonlinear susceptibilities. From these
             expressions, a great deal can be inferred about the nature
             and construction of magnetoelectric nonlinearities in
             metamaterials. As an example, we apply this method in the
             analysis of a prototypical nonlinear magnetoelectric
             metamaterial. In particular, we show that independent
             control of the eight second-order susceptibility tensors
             encompasses a massive parameter space from which new realms
             of nonlinear interference and wave manipulation can be
             accessed. © 2012 American Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevA.86.033816},
   Key = {fds269768}
}

@article{fds269769,
   Author = {Driscoll, T and Quinn, J and Ventra, MD and Basov, DN and Seo, G and Lee,
             Y-W and Kim, H-T and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Current oscillations in vanadium dioxide: Evidence for
             electrically triggered percolation avalanches},
   Journal = {Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials
             Physics},
   Volume = {86},
   Number = {9},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {1098-0121},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.86.094203},
   Abstract = {In this work, we experimentally and theoretically explore
             voltage-controlled oscillations occurring in microbeams of
             vanadium dioxide. These oscillations are a result of the
             reversible insulator-to-metal phase transition in vanadium
             dioxide. By examining the structure of the observed
             oscillations in detail, we propose a modified
             percolative-avalanche model which allows for voltage
             triggering. This model captures the periodicity and
             waveshape of the oscillations as well as several other key
             features. Importantly, our modeling shows that while
             temperature plays a critical role in the vanadium dioxide
             phase transition, electrically induced heating can not act
             as the primary instigator of the oscillations in this
             configuration. This realization leads us to identify the
             electric field as the most likely candidate for driving the
             phase transition. © 2012 American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.86.094203},
   Key = {fds269769}
}

@article{fds269770,
   Author = {Larouche, S and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Optics: Nanotube holograms},
   Journal = {Nature},
   Volume = {491},
   Number = {7422},
   Pages = {47-48},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {0028-0836},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/491047a},
   Doi = {10.1038/491047a},
   Key = {fds269770}
}

@article{fds269773,
   Author = {Urzhumov, YA and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Flow stabilization with active hydrodynamic
             cloaks},
   Journal = {Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter
             Physics},
   Volume = {86},
   Number = {5},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {1539-3755},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/7574 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {We demonstrate that fluid flow cloaking solutions, based on
             active hydrodynamic metamaterials, exist for two-dimensional
             flows past a cylinder in a wide range of Reynolds numbers
             (Re's), up to approximately 200. Within the framework of the
             classical Brinkman equation for homogenized porous flow, we
             demonstrate using two different methods that such cloaked
             flows can be dynamically stable for Re's in the range of
             5-119. The first highly efficient method is based on a
             linearization of the Brinkman-Navier-Stokes equation and
             finding the eigenfrequencies of the least stable
             eigenperturbations; the second method is a direct numerical
             integration in the time domain. We show that, by suppressing
             the von Kármán vortex street in the weakly turbulent wake,
             porous flow cloaks can raise the critical Reynolds number up
             to about 120 or five times greater than for a bare uncloaked
             cylinder. © 2012 American Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.86.056313},
   Key = {fds269773}
}

@article{fds269786,
   Author = {Larouche, S and Tsai, Y-J and Tyler, T and Jokerst, NM and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Infrared metamaterial hologram},
   Journal = {2012 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO
             2012},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {450-454},
   Year = {2012},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nmat3278},
   Abstract = {We designed, fabricated, and characterized an infrared
             metamaterial hologram. The hologram correctly reproduces the
             design image. This work demonstrates that metamaterials can
             be used to fabricate devices with arbitrary 2D refractive
             index profiles. © 2012 OSA.},
   Doi = {10.1038/nmat3278},
   Key = {fds269786}
}

@article{fds269789,
   Author = {Urzhumov, Y and Lee, JS and Tyler, T and Dhar, S and Nguyen, V and Jokerst,
             NM and Schmalenberg, P and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Electronically reconfigurable metal-on-silicon
             metamaterial},
   Journal = {Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials
             Physics},
   Volume = {86},
   Number = {7},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {1098-0121},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/7573 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {Reconfigurable metamaterial-based apertures can play a
             unique role in both imaging and in beam-forming
             applications, where current technology relies mostly on the
             fabrication and integration of large detector or antenna
             arrays. Here, we report the experimental demonstration of a
             voltage-controlled, silicon-based electromagnetic
             metamaterial operating in the W-band (75-110 GHz). In this
             composite semiconductor metamaterial, patterned gold
             metamaterial elements serve both to manage electromagnetic
             wave propagation while simultaneously acting as electrical
             Schottky contacts that control the local conductivity of the
             semiconductor substrate. The active device layers consist of
             a patterned metal on a 2-μm-thick n-doped silicon layer,
             adhesively bonded to a transparent Pyrex wafer. The
             transmittance of the composite metamaterial can be modulated
             over a given frequency band as a function of bias voltage.
             We demonstrate a quantitative understanding of the composite
             device through the application of numerical approaches that
             simultaneously treat the semiconductor junction physics as
             well as wave propagation. © 2012 American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.86.075112},
   Key = {fds269789}
}

@article{fds269836,
   Author = {Pendry, JB and Aubry, A and Smith, DR and Maier, SA},
   Title = {Transformation optics and subwavelength control of
             light},
   Journal = {Science},
   Volume = {337},
   Number = {6094},
   Pages = {549-552},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {0036-8075},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1220600},
   Abstract = {Our intuitive understanding of light has its foundation in
             the ray approximation and is intimately connected with our
             vision. As far as our eyes are concerned, light behaves like
             a stream of particles. We look inside the wavelength and
             study the properties of plasmonic structures with dimensions
             of just a few nanometers, where at a tenth or even a
             hundredth of the wavelength of visible light the ray picture
             fails. We review the concept of transformation optics that
             manipulates electric and magnetic field lines, rather than
             rays; can provide an equally intuitive understanding of
             subwavelength phenomena; and at the same time can be an
             exact description at the level of Maxwell's
             equations.},
   Doi = {10.1126/science.1220600},
   Key = {fds269836}
}

@article{fds269837,
   Author = {Ciracì, C and Poutrina, E and Scalora, M and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Second-harmonic generation in metallic nanoparticles:
             Clarification of the role of the surface},
   Journal = {Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials
             Physics},
   Volume = {86},
   Number = {11},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {1098-0121},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.86.115451},
   Abstract = {We present a numerical investigation of the second-order
             nonlinear optical properties of metal-based metamaterial
             nanoresonators. The nonlinear optical response of the metal
             is described by a hydrodynamic model, with the effects of
             electron pressure in the electron gas also taken into
             account. We show that as the pressure term tends to zero the
             amount of converted second-harmonic field tends to an
             asymptotic value. In this limit it becomes possible to
             rewrite the nonlinear surface contributions as functions of
             the value of the polarization vector inside the bulk region.
             Nonlocality thus can be incorporated into numerical
             simulations without actually utilizing the nonlocal equation
             of motion or solving for the rapidly varying fields that
             occur near the metal surface. We use our model to
             investigate the second-harmonic generation process with
             three-dimensional gold nanoparticle arrays and show that
             nanocrescents can easily attain conversion efficiencies of
             ∼6.0×10 -8 for pumping peak intensities of a few tens of
             MW/cm2. ©2012 American Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.86.115451},
   Key = {fds269837}
}

@article{fds269602,
   Author = {Smith, DR and Poutrina, E and Huang, D and Rose, A and Larouche,
             S},
   Title = {Controlling nonlinearity with structured
             metamaterials},
   Journal = {Optics InfoBase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {Artificially structured media can exhibit a wider range of
             both linear and nonlinear electromagnetic properties than
             are supported in conventional media. We discuss the design
             techniques and impact of these new emerging nonlinear
             metamaterials. © 2011 OSA.},
   Key = {fds269602}
}

@article{fds269603,
   Author = {Rose, A and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Quasi-phase matching in nonlinear metamaterials},
   Journal = {Optics InfoBase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {We employ nonlinear metamaterials to demonstrate alternative
             quasi-phase matching (QPM) methods not feasible in natural
             materials. Additionally, we propose a method for dynamic QPM
             via resonance tuning, allowing for a tunable frequency of
             operation. © OSA/CLEO 2011.},
   Key = {fds269603}
}

@article{fds269604,
   Author = {Huang, D and Poutrina, E and Rose, A and Larouche, S and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Three-wave mixing in microwave nonlinear
             metamaterial},
   Journal = {Optics InfoBase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {We present a quantitative analysis of a three-wave mixing
             process in a microwave nonlinear metamaterial showing a good
             agreement between the analytical predictions and the
             experiment. Strong resonant nonlinear response is observed.
             © 2010 Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {fds269604}
}

@article{fds269605,
   Author = {Rose, A and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Quasi-phase matching in nonlinear metamaterials},
   Journal = {Optics InfoBase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {We employ nonlinear metamaterials to demonstrate alternative
             quasi-phase matching (QPM) methods not feasible in natural
             materials. Additionally, we propose a method for dynamic QPM
             via resonance tuning, allowing for a tunable frequency of
             operation. © OSA/CLEO 2011.},
   Key = {fds269605}
}

@article{fds269606,
   Author = {Poutrina, E and Ciraci, C and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Plasmonic nanocomposits for enhanced four-wave mixing
             generation},
   Journal = {Optics InfoBase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {Third-order nonlinear response and strong field enhancement
             in gold nanocomposites are utilized to analyze the enhanced
             effective nonlinear susceptibility, subwavelength field
             confinement and reduced bend radii in the evanescent and
             propagating regimes of the generated four-wave-mixed light.
             © 2008 Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {fds269606}
}

@article{fds269607,
   Author = {Rose, A and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Quasi-phase matching in nonlinear metamaterials},
   Journal = {Optics InfoBase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {We employ nonlinear metamaterials to demonstrate alternative
             quasi-phase matching (QPM) methods not feasible in natural
             materials. Additionally, we propose a method for dynamic QPM
             via resonance tuning, allowing for a tunable frequency of
             operation. © OSA/CLEO 2011.},
   Key = {fds269607}
}

@article{fds269612,
   Author = {Chen, SY and Mock, JJ and Hill, RT and Chilkoti, A and Smith, DR and Lazarides, AA},
   Title = {Raman antenna formed by molecule/plasmonic nanostructure
             hybrid system},
   Journal = {Optics InfoBase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {A nano-antenna composed of a particle and a polarizable
             surface provides control of the spatial distribution and
             high enhancement of Raman scattering. This structure may
             serve as a stable platform for single molecule detection. ©
             2010 Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {fds269612}
}

@article{fds269613,
   Author = {Tsai, YJ and Larouche, S and Tyler, T and Lipworth, G and Mock, J and Jokerst, NM and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Metamaterial blazed gratings},
   Journal = {Optics InfoBase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {We design, fabricate, and test a graded index diffractive
             structure based on non-resonant I-beam metamaterials. The
             measured diffraction spectrum is in good agreement with
             simulation, and suggests a path toward metamaterial based
             diffractive optics. © OSA/CLEO 2011.},
   Key = {fds269613}
}

@article{fds269785,
   Author = {Tsai, Y-J and Larouche, S and Tyler, T and Lipworth, G and Jokerst, NM and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Design and fabrication of a metamaterial gradient index
             diffraction grating at infrared wavelengths.},
   Journal = {Optics express},
   Volume = {19},
   Number = {24},
   Pages = {24411-24423},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22109468},
   Abstract = {We demonstrate the design, fabrication and characterization
             of an artificially structured, gradient index metamaterial
             with a linear index variation of Δn ~ 3.0. The linear
             gradient profile is repeated periodically to form the
             equivalent of a blazed grating, with the gradient occurring
             across a spatial distance of 61 μm. The grating, which
             operates at a wavelength of 10.6 μm, is composed of
             non-resonant, progressively modified "I-beam" metamaterial
             elements and approximates a linear phase shift gradient
             using 61 distinguishable phase levels. The grating structure
             consists of four layers of lithographically patterned
             metallic I-beam elements separated by dielectric layers of
             SiO(2). The index gradient is confirmed by comparing the
             measured magnitudes of the -1, 0 and +1 diffracted orders to
             those obtained from full wave simulations incorporating all
             material properties of the metals and dielectrics of the
             structures. The large index gradient has the potential to
             enable compact infrared diffractive and gradient index
             optics, as well as more exotic transformation optical
             media.},
   Doi = {10.1364/oe.19.024411},
   Key = {fds269785}
}

@article{fds269746,
   Author = {Urzhumov, YA and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Fluid flow control with transformation media.},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {107},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {074501},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21902398},
   Abstract = {We introduce a new concept for the manipulation of fluid
             flow around three-dimensional bodies. Inspired by
             transformation optics, the concept is based on a
             mathematical idea of coordinate transformations and
             physically implemented with anisotropic porous media
             permeable to the flow of fluids. In two situations-for an
             impermeable object placed either in a free-flowing fluid or
             in a fluid-filled porous medium-we show that the object can
             be coated with an inhomogeneous, anisotropic permeable
             medium, such as to preserve the flow that would have existed
             in the absence of the object. The proposed fluid flow cloak
             eliminates downstream wake and compensates viscous drag,
             hinting at the possibility of novel propulsion
             techniques.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.074501},
   Key = {fds269746}
}

@article{fds269745,
   Author = {Rose, A and Huang, D and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Controlling the second harmonic in a phase-matched
             negative-index metamaterial.},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {107},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {063902},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21902325},
   Abstract = {Nonlinear metamaterials have been predicted to support new
             and exciting domains in the manipulation of light, including
             novel phase-matching schemes for wave mixing. Most notable
             is the so-called nonlinear-optical mirror, in which a
             nonlinear negative-index medium emits the generated
             frequency towards the source of the pump. In this Letter, we
             experimentally demonstrate the nonlinear-optical mirror
             effect in a bulk negative-index nonlinear metamaterial,
             along with two other novel phase-matching configurations,
             utilizing periodic poling to switch between the three
             phase-matching domains.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.063902},
   Key = {fds269745}
}

@article{fds269739,
   Author = {Poutrina, E and Huang, D and Urzhumov, Y and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Nonlinear oscillator metamaterial model: numerical and
             experimental verification.},
   Journal = {Optics express},
   Volume = {19},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {8312-8319},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21643082},
   Abstract = {We verify numerically and experimentally the accuracy of an
             analytical model used to derive the effective nonlinear
             susceptibilities of a varactor-loaded split ring resonator
             (VLSRR) magnetic medium. For the numerical validation, a
             nonlinear oscillator model for the effective magnetization
             of the metamaterial is applied in conjunction with Maxwell
             equations and the two sets of equations solved numerically
             in the time-domain. The computed second harmonic generation
             (SHG) from a slab of a nonlinear material is then compared
             with the analytical model. The computed SHG is in excellent
             agreement with that predicted by the analytical model, both
             in terms of magnitude and spectral characteristics.
             Moreover, experimental measurements of the power transmitted
             through a fabricated VLSRR metamaterial at several power
             levels are also in agreement with the model, illustrating
             that the effective medium techniques associated with
             metamaterials can accurately be transitioned to nonlinear
             systems.},
   Key = {fds269739}
}

@article{fds269731,
   Author = {Hunt, J and Kundtz, N and Sun, B and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Transformation optics compressed rotman lens implemented
             with complementary metamaterials},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical
             Engineering},
   Volume = {8021},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.884319},
   Abstract = {The solutions to the Rotman lens design equations constrain
             the minimum size of the device. Here we use Transformation
             Optics to compress a transmission line based Rotman lens by
             27 percent along the optical axis while maintaining the beam
             steering range, gain and side lobe amplitudes over the full
             frequency range of the original lens. The transformation
             applied requires an anisotropic magnetic response, which is
             achieved in the transmission line context using
             complementary electric dipole structures patterned into the
             top conductor of the lens. The non-resonant complementary
             metamaterial elements provide an anisotropic, effective
             magnetic permeability with values that can be varied across
             a spatial region by varying the geometry of each element. ©
             2010 SPIE.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.884319},
   Key = {fds269731}
}

@article{fds269732,
   Author = {Huang, D and Poutrina, E and Rose, A and Larouche, S and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Three-wave mixing in microwave nonlinear
             metamaterial},
   Journal = {2011 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics: Laser Science
             to Photonic Applications, CLEO 2011},
   Year = {2011},
   Abstract = {We present a quantitative analysis of a three-wave mixing
             process in a microwave nonlinear metamaterial showing a good
             agreement between the analytical predictions and the
             experiment. Strong resonant nonlinear response is observed.
             © 2011 OSA.},
   Key = {fds269732}
}

@article{fds269733,
   Author = {Rose, A and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Quasi-phase matching in nonlinear metamaterials},
   Journal = {2011 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics: Laser Science
             to Photonic Applications, CLEO 2011},
   Year = {2011},
   Abstract = {We employ nonlinear metamaterials to demonstrate alternative
             quasi-phase matching (QPM) methods not feasible in natural
             materials. Additionally, we propose a method for dynamic QPM
             via resonance tuning, allowing for a tunable frequency of
             operation. © 2011 OSA.},
   Key = {fds269733}
}

@article{fds269734,
   Author = {Hunt, J and Kundtz, N and Landy, N and Nguyen, V and Perram, T and Starr,
             A and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Broadband wide angle lens implemented with dielectric
             metamaterials.},
   Journal = {Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {7982-7991},
   Year = {2011},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22164056},
   Abstract = {The Luneburg lens is a powerful imaging device, exhibiting
             aberration free focusing for parallel rays incident from any
             direction. However, its advantages are offset by a focal
             surface that is spherical and thus difficult to integrate
             with standard planar detector and emitter arrays. Using the
             recently developed technique of transformation optics, it is
             possible to transform the curved focal surface to a flat
             plane while maintaining the perfect focusing behavior of the
             Luneburg over a wide field of view. Here we apply these
             techniques to a lesser-known refractive Luneburg lens and
             implement the design with a metamaterial composed of a
             semi-crystalline distribution of holes drilled in a
             dielectric. In addition, we investigate the aberrations
             introduced by various approximations made in the
             implementation of the lens. The resulting design approach
             has improved mechanical strength with small aberrations and
             is ideally suited to implementation at infrared and visible
             wavelengths.},
   Doi = {10.3390/s110807982},
   Key = {fds269734}
}

@article{fds269735,
   Author = {Smith, DR and Tsai, Y-J and Larouche, S},
   Title = {Analysis of a gradient index metamaterial blazed diffraction
             grating},
   Journal = {IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters},
   Volume = {10},
   Pages = {1605-1608},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {1536-1225},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LAWP.2011.2179632},
   Abstract = {The equivalent of a blazed diffraction grating can be formed
             from an array of metamaterial elements arranged so as to
             produce a linear gradient in the effective refractive index.
             By spreading the gradient over a multiwavelength distance,
             and repeating the pattern many times, a gradient index
             (GRIN) diffraction grating is formed. Using lithographically
             patterned, metallic metamaterial elements, dozens of
             distinguishable phase levels can be implemented by slightly
             modifying the design of each successive metamaterial
             element. We analyze here a multilayer metamaterial
             diffraction grating designed for operation at 10.6 μm,
             exploring the impact of material losses and impedance
             mismatch on the diffraction efficiency. © 2006
             IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/LAWP.2011.2179632},
   Key = {fds269735}
}

@article{fds269736,
   Author = {Urzhumov, YA and Kundtz, NB and Smith, DR and Pendry,
             JB},
   Title = {Cross-section comparisons of cloaks designed by
             transformation optical and optical conformal mapping
             approaches},
   Journal = {Journal of Optics A: Pure and Applied Optics},
   Volume = {13},
   Number = {2},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {2040-8978},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/5724 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {We review several approaches to optical invisibility
             designed using transformation optics (TO) and optical
             conformal mapping (CM) techniques. TO is a general framework
             for solving inverse scattering problems based on mimicking
             spatial coordinate transformations with distributions of
             material properties. There are two essential steps in the
             design of TO media: first, a coordinate transformation that
             achieves some desired functionality, resulting in a
             continuous spatial distribution of constitutive parameters
             that are generally anisotropic; and, second, the reduction
             of the derived continuous constitutive parameters to a
             metamaterial that serves as a stepwise approximation. We
             focus here on the first step, discussing the merits of
             various TO strategies proposed for the long-sought
             'invisibility cloak'-a structure that renders opaque objects
             invisible. We also evaluate the cloaking capabilities of
             structures designed by the related CM approach, which makes
             use of conformal mapping to achieve index-only material
             distributions. The performance of the various cloaks is
             evaluated and compared using a universal measure-the total
             (all-angle) scattering cross section. © 2011 IOP Publishing
             Ltd.},
   Doi = {10.1088/2040-8978/13/2/024002},
   Key = {fds269736}
}

@article{fds269737,
   Author = {Mock, JJ and Norton, SM and Chen, S-Y and Lazarides, AA and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Electromagnetic Enhancement Effect Caused by Aggregation on
             SERS-Active Gold Nanoparticles},
   Journal = {Plasmonics},
   Volume = {6},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {113-124},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {1557-1955},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11468-010-9176-1},
   Abstract = {We report a morphology-correlated surface-enhanced Raman
             scattering (SERS) from molecules on the surface of
             individual clusters of gold nanoparticles of two types and
             compare the signal from clusters of two, three, four, and
             five nanoparticles with the signal from single particles.
             Cluster geometry and particle morphology are determined from
             transmission electron microscopy for both clusters of 78- to
             133-nm nanospheres and clusters of ~250-nm-etched
             cylindrical particles with crevices and sharp edges, formed
             in templates. Scattering from molecules on etched cylinders,
             but not spheres, is sufficiently strong to allow spectra to
             be collected from single particles illuminated at 632.8 nm.
             SERS intensities from clusters of cylinders are found to
             scale linearly with particle number, whereas, for
             nanospheres, the scaling is non-linear. The linear scaling
             of SERS from cylinders is a reflection of the high
             enhancement provided by the sharp features of the individual
             particles; whereas, the non-linear scaling of SERS from
             clusters of spheres is found to be consistent with the
             near-field enhancement from inter-particle coupling
             simulated for clusters of spheres arranged in
             representative-observed geometries. © 2010 Springer
             Science+Business Media, LLC.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s11468-010-9176-1},
   Key = {fds269737}
}

@article{fds269738,
   Author = {Arritt, BJ and Smith, DR and Khraishi, T},
   Title = {Equivalent circuit analysis of metamaterial strain-dependent
             effective medium parameters},
   Journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
   Volume = {109},
   Number = {7},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {0021-8979},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3569742},
   Abstract = {In this paper, we analytically describe the strain-dependent
             effective medium properties for a metamaterial electric-LC
             (ELC) resonator, commonly used in metamaterial designs to
             provide a tailored electric response to electromagnetic
             waves. Combining an equivalent circuit model of the ELC
             resonator with existing analytic expressions for the
             capacitive and inductive regions comprising the structure,
             we obtain strain-dependent permittivity and permeability
             curves for the metamaterial. The derived expressions account
             for the effects of spatial dispersion and losses. © 2011
             American Institute of Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.3569742},
   Key = {fds269738}
}

@article{fds269740,
   Author = {Huang, D and Rose, A and Poutrina, E and Larouche, S and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Wave mixing in nonlinear magnetic metacrystal},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {98},
   Number = {20},
   Pages = {204102-204102},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3592574},
   Abstract = {We present experimental measurements of three- and four-wave
             mixing phenomena in an artificially structured nonlinear
             magnetic metacrystal at microwave frequencies. The sum
             frequency generation signal for the varactor-loaded
             split-ring resonator (VLSRR) metamaterial agrees
             quantitatively with that predicted using an analytical
             effective medium model describing the VLSRR medium. A
             resonant enhancement of the nonlinear response is observed
             near the metamaterial resonance. © 2011 American Institute
             of Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.3592574},
   Key = {fds269740}
}

@article{fds269741,
   Author = {Allen, JW and Steyskal, H and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Impedance and complex power of radiating elements under
             electromagnetic source transformation},
   Journal = {Microwave and Optical Technology Letters},
   Volume = {53},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {1524-1527},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {0895-2477},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mop.26077},
   Abstract = {Transformation optics is a methodology that has proven
             useful in the design of complex media used to alter and
             control electromagnetic waves in either passive space or
             regions that contain source distributions. Recently it has
             been shown that the application of source transformations
             can reshape field radiation patterns corresponding to
             arbitrarily shaped sources. In the accompanying numerical
             confirmations, the effect of source transformations on
             fundamental quantities that are critical to the design and
             evaluation of antenna based systems - such as complex power
             and impedance, remain unexplored. In this paper, we present
             results of theoretical analysis as well as full wave finite
             element simulations, proving that the complex power and
             impedance associated with an electromagnetic source are not
             changed by source transformation methods. These results open
             the door to the application of source transformations for
             the design of practical antenna based systems, such as
             conformal and phased array antenna design. Copyright © 2011
             Wiley Periodicals, Inc.},
   Doi = {10.1002/mop.26077},
   Key = {fds269741}
}

@article{fds269742,
   Author = {Urzhumov, Y and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Metamaterial-enhanced coupling between magnetic dipoles for
             efficient wireless power transfer},
   Journal = {Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials
             Physics},
   Volume = {83},
   Number = {20},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {1098-0121},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/5076 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {Nonradiative coupling between conductive coils is a
             candidate mechanism for wireless energy transfer
             applications. In this paper we propose a power relay system
             based on a near-field metamaterial superlens and present a
             thorough theoretical analysis of this system. We use
             time-harmonic circuit formalism to describe all interactions
             between two coils attached to external circuits and a slab
             of anisotropic medium with homogeneous permittivity and
             permeability. The fields of the coils are found in the
             point-dipole approximation using Sommerfeld integrals which
             are reduced to standard special functions in the
             long-wavelength limit. We show that, even with a realistic
             magnetic loss tangent of order 0.1, the power transfer
             efficiency with the slab can be an order of magnitude
             greater than free-space efficiency when the load resistance
             exceeds a certain threshold value. We also find that the
             volume occupied by the metamaterial between the coils can be
             greatly compressed by employing magnetic permeability with a
             large anisotropy ratio. © 2011 American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.83.205114},
   Key = {fds269742}
}

@article{fds269743,
   Author = {Rose, A and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Broadly tunable quasi-phase-matching in nonlinear
             metamaterials},
   Journal = {Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical
             Physics},
   Volume = {84},
   Number = {1},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {1050-2947},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.84.013823},
   Abstract = {The ability to tune the quasi-phase-matching (QPM) frequency
             is a highly desirable though lacking feature of many
             nonlinear devices. To this end, we consider QPM in a special
             class of active nonlinear metamaterials (MMs), whose
             properties can be controlled postfabrication. By application
             of a tunable, periodic perturbation in the linear
             susceptibility (magnetic or electric) of a MM, a single
             nonlinear device can be constructed to operate over an
             exceedingly broad bandwidth. We propose a nonlinear MM for
             QPM second-order harmonic generation at terahertz
             frequencies, predicted to have a tunable bandwidth of over
             100%. © 2011 American Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevA.84.013823},
   Key = {fds269743}
}

@article{fds269744,
   Author = {Hunt, J and Jang, G and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Perfect relay lens at microwave frequencies based on
             flattening a Maxwell lens},
   Journal = {Journal of the Optical Society of America
             B},
   Volume = {28},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {2025-2029},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {0740-3224},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAB.28.002025},
   Abstract = {We consider the design and implementation of a
             two-dimensional metamaterial relay lens, conceptually formed
             by flattening a Maxwell fisheye lens-a perfect imaging
             device-through the use of a coordinate transformation.
             Because Maxwell's equations are form-invariant under
             coordinate transformations, the specifications for the
             constitutive parameters of the device are obtained
             immediately in a procedure that has now become known as
             transformation optics. To obtain a more favorable
             implementation of the lens, we seek a quasi-conformal
             transformation optics transformation that minimizes the
             required anisotropy, such that the resulting lens can be
             formed using isotropic, dielectric-only media. We
             demonstrate a flattened Maxwell lens at microwave
             frequencies using a nonresonant metamaterial and confirm its
             focusing and broad bandwidth behavior. Such planar,
             dielectric-only structures can be readily implemented in
             infrared and optical waveguides. © 2011 Optical Society of
             America.},
   Doi = {10.1364/JOSAB.28.002025},
   Key = {fds269744}
}

@article{fds269747,
   Author = {Dellagiacoma, C and Lasser, T and Martin, OJF and Degiron, A and Mock,
             JJ and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Simulation of complex plasmonic circuits including
             bends},
   Journal = {Optics express},
   Volume = {19},
   Number = {20},
   Pages = {18979-18988},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {1094-4087},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.018979},
   Abstract = {Using a finite-element, full-wave modeling approach, we
             present a flexible method of analyzing and simulating
             dielectric and plas-monic waveguide structures as well as
             their mode coupling. This method is applied to an integrated
             plasmonic circuit where a straight dielectric waveguide
             couples through a straight hybrid long-range plasmon
             waveguide to a uniformly bent hybrid one. The hybrid
             waveguide comprises a thin metal core embedded in a
             two-dimensional dielectric waveguide. The performance of
             such plasmonic circuits in terms of insertion losses is
             discussed. © 2011 Optical Society of America.},
   Doi = {10.1364/OE.19.018979},
   Key = {fds269747}
}

@article{fds269748,
   Author = {Kundtz, NB and Smith, DR and Pendry, JB},
   Title = {Electromagnetic design with transformation
             optics},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics
             Engineers (IEEE)},
   Volume = {99},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {1622-1633},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {0018-9219},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JPROC.2010.2089664},
   Abstract = {Transformation optics is an emerging technique for the
             design of advanced electromagnetic media. Transformation
             optical devices exploit the form invariance of Maxwell's
             equations, allowing geometry to play the dominant role in
             the design process rather than traditional wave or ray
             optics. The use of coordinate transformations vastly eases
             the burden of design for a large class of devices, though at
             the expense of increasing the complexity of the underlying
             materials used. Although the required constitutive
             parameters of a transformation optical structure can be
             challenginginherently anisotropic and spatially varying,
             with both magnetic and electric responsenevertheless the
             parameter requirements can often be met or approximated
             through the use of artificially structured metamaterials.
             Here, we review the basic concepts associated with
             transformation optics and provide several examples to
             illustrate its application. © 2011 IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/JPROC.2010.2089664},
   Key = {fds269748}
}

@article{fds269749,
   Author = {Urzhumov, YA and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Erratum: Fluid flow control with transformation media
             (Physical Review Letters (2011) 107 (074501))},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {107},
   Number = {18},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {0031-9007},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.189902},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.189902},
   Key = {fds269749}
}

@article{fds269750,
   Author = {Rose, A and Larouche, S and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Quantitative study of the enhancement of bulk nonlinearities
             in metamaterials},
   Journal = {Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical
             Physics},
   Volume = {84},
   Number = {5},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {1050-2947},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.84.053805},
   Abstract = {Artificially structured metamaterials offer a means to
             enhance the weak optical nonlinearities of natural
             materials. The enhancement results from the inhomogeneous
             nature of the metamaterial unit cell, over which the local
             field distribution can likewise be strongly inhomogeneous,
             with highly localized and concentrated field regions. We
             investigate the nonlinear enhancement effect in
             metamaterials through a numerical study of four nonlinear
             metamaterial designs comprising arrays of metallic
             structures embedded in nonlinear dielectrics and operating
             around 10 THz. Through full-wave simulations and by
             employing an extended version of the transfer-matrix-based
             nonlinear parameter retrieval method, we confirm and
             quantify the enhanced nonlinearities, showing bulk quadratic
             nonlinear properties that are up to two orders of magnitude
             larger, and cubic nonlinear properties that are up to four
             orders of magnitude larger than the bulk nonlinear
             dielectric alone. Furthermore, the proposed nonlinear
             metamaterials support a variety of configurable nonlinear
             properties and regimes, including electric, magnetic,
             broadband, and low loss, depending on the particular
             geometry chosen. Finally, we use the retrieved parameters in
             a coupled-mode theory to predict the optimal crystal lengths
             and conversion efficiencies of these structures, displaying
             the possibility of efficient and subwavelength nonlinear
             devices based on metamaterials. © 2011 American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevA.84.053805},
   Key = {fds269750}
}

@article{fds269751,
   Author = {Rose, A and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Overcoming phase mismatch in nonlinear metamaterials
             [Invited]},
   Journal = {Optical Materials Express},
   Volume = {1},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {1232-1243},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {2159-3930},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OME.1.001232},
   Abstract = {Nonlinear metamaterials have potentially interesting
             applications in highly efficient wave-mixing and parametric
             processes, owing to their ability to combine enhanced
             nonlinearities with exotic and configurable linear
             properties. However, the strong dispersion and
             unconventional configurations typically associated with
             metamaterials place strong demands on phase matching in such
             structures. In this paper, we present an overview of
             potential phase matching solutions for wave-mixing processes
             in nonlinear metamaterials. Broadly speaking, we divide the
             phase matching solutions into conventional techniques
             (anomalous dispersion, birefringence, and quasi-phase
             matching) and metamaterial-inspired techniques
             (negative-index and index-near-zero phase matching),
             offering numerical and experimental examples where possible.
             We find that not only is phase matching feasible in
             metamaterials, but metamaterials can support a wide range of
             phase matching configurations that are otherwise impossible
             in natural materials. These configurations have their most
             compelling applications in those devices where at least one
             of the interacting waves is counter-propagating, such as the
             mirror-less optical parametric oscillator and the nonlinear
             optical mirror. © 2011 Optical Society of
             America.},
   Doi = {10.1364/OME.1.001232},
   Key = {fds269751}
}

@article{fds269752,
   Author = {Huang, D and Poutrina, E and Zheng, H and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Design and experimental characterization of nonlinear
             metamaterials},
   Journal = {Journal of the Optical Society of America
             B},
   Volume = {28},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {2925-2930},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {0740-3224},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAB.28.002925},
   Abstract = {We apply an analytic theory [New J. Phys. 12, 093010 (2010)]
             toward the design of varactor-loaded split-ring resonator
             metacrystals, having nonlinear electromagnetic properties on
             demand. The design methodology here is shown to be efficient
             and is validated by the excellent agreement between the
             analytically predicted and experimentally measured harmonic
             generation. The analytic formulas enable a path toward
             optimization of nonlinear properties, which we demonstrate
             by varying the spacing of the metamaterial elements to
             maximize the second-order nonlinear susceptibility of the
             system. © 2011 Optical Society of America.},
   Doi = {10.1364/JOSAB.28.002925},
   Key = {fds269752}
}

@article{fds269783,
   Author = {Tsai, Y-J and Larouche, S and Tyler, T and Lipworth, G and Mock, J and Jokerst, NM and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Metamaterial blazed gratings},
   Journal = {2011 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics: Laser Science
             to Photonic Applications, CLEO 2011},
   Year = {2011},
   Abstract = {We design, fabricate, and test a graded index diffractive
             structure based on non-resonant I-beam metamaterials. The
             measured diffraction spectrum is in good agreement with
             simulation, and suggests a path toward metamaterial based
             diffractive optics. © 2011 OSA.},
   Key = {fds269783}
}

@article{fds269784,
   Author = {Goldflam, MD and Driscoll, T and Chapler, B and Khatib, O and Jokerst,
             NM and Palit, S and Smith, DR and Kim, B-J and Seo, G and Kim, H-T and Ventra,
             MD and Basov, DN},
   Title = {Reconfigurable gradient index using VO2 memory
             metamaterials},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {99},
   Number = {4},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3615804},
   Abstract = {We demonstrate tuning of a metamaterial device that
             incorporates a form of spatial gradient control. Electrical
             tuning of the metamaterial is achieved through a vanadium
             dioxide layer which interacts with an array of split ring
             resonators. We achieved a spatial gradient in the magnitude
             of permittivity, writeable using a single transient
             electrical pulse. This induced gradient in our device is
             observed on spatial scales on the order of one wavelength at
             1 THz. Thus, we show the viability of elements for use in
             future devices with potential applications in beamforming
             and communications. © 2011 American Institute of
             Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.3615804},
   Key = {fds269784}
}

@article{fds269804,
   Author = {Chen, S-Y and Mock, JJ and Hill, RT and Chilkoti, A and Smith, DR and Lazarides, AA},
   Title = {Raman antenna formed by molecule/plasmonic nanostructure
             hybrid system},
   Journal = {2011 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics: Laser Science
             to Photonic Applications, CLEO 2011},
   Year = {2011},
   Abstract = {A nano-antenna composed of a particle and a polarizable
             surface provides control of the spatial distribution and
             high enhancement of Raman scattering. This structure may
             serve as a stable platform for single molecule detection. ©
             2011 OSA.},
   Key = {fds269804}
}

@article{fds269834,
   Author = {Schurig, D and Eleftheriades, GV and Smith, DR and Tretyakov,
             SA},
   Title = {Guest editorial: Special cluster on metamaterials},
   Journal = {IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters},
   Volume = {10},
   Pages = {1476-1479},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {1536-1225},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LAWP.2012.2183989},
   Doi = {10.1109/LAWP.2012.2183989},
   Key = {fds269834}
}

@article{fds269835,
   Author = {Chen, W-C and Mock, JJ and Smith, DR and Akalin, DR and Padilla,
             WJ},
   Title = {Controlling Gigahertz and Terahertz Surface
             ElectromagneticWaves with Metamaterial Resonators},
   Journal = {Physical Review X},
   Volume = {1},
   Number = {2},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {2160-3308},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevX.1.021016},
   Abstract = {We computationally and experimentally investigate the use of
             metamaterial resonators as bandpass filters and other
             components that enable control of guided surface
             electromagnetic waves. The guided surface electromagnetic
             wave propagates on a planar Goubau line, launched via a
             coplanar waveguide coupler with 50ω impedance. Experimental
             samples targeted for either microwave or terahertz
             frequencies are measured and shown to be in excellent
             agreement with simulations. Metamaterial elements are
             designed to absorb energy only of the planar Goubau line and
             yield narrow-band resonances with relatively high quality
             factors. Two independent configurations of coupled
             metamaterial elements are demonstrated that modify the
             otherwise flat transmission spectrum of the planar Goubau
             line. By physically shunting the capacitive gaps of the
             coupled metamaterial elements, we demonstrate the potential
             for a large dynamic range in transmissivity, suggesting the
             use of this configuration for highbandwidth terahertz
             communications.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevX.1.021016},
   Key = {fds269835}
}

@article{fds269594,
   Author = {Cui, TJ and Smith, DR and Liu, R},
   Title = {Preface},
   Pages = {vii-ix},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {December},
   ISBN = {9781441905727},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-0573-4},
   Doi = {10.1007/978-1-4419-0573-4},
   Key = {fds269594}
}

@article{fds269589,
   Author = {Poutrina, E and Huang, D and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Analysis of nonlinear electromagnetic metamaterials},
   Journal = {Optics InfoBase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {We derive the expressions for the effective nonlinear
             susceptibilities of a metacrystal formed from resonant
             elements that couple strongly to the magnetic field. We
             experimentally illus-trate the accuracy and validity of our
             theoretical framework. © 2008 Optical Society of
             America.},
   Key = {fds269589}
}

@article{fds269595,
   Author = {Chin, JY and Liu, R and Cui, TJ and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Rapid design for metamaterials},
   Pages = {61-85},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-0573-4_4},
   Abstract = {Metamaterials are generally composed of sub-wavelength
             structures with designable geometries. The macroscopic
             properties of metamaterials are harnessed by engineering the
             geometric dimensions of the particles. During the past few
             years, designing metamaterials has become increasingly
             time-consuming due to the growing complexity of their
             electromagnetic properties and the complexity has been
             spurred by the arising interest in generating inhomogeneous
             and anisotropic metamaterials. Motivated by accelerating the
             design process for metamaterials with excellent accuracy,
             rapid design for metamaterials is introduced in this
             chapter. This method is based on full-wave simulation,
             S-parameter retrieval technique, and the effective medium
             theory for metamaterials. The rapid design algorithm for
             metamaterials is widely applicable to all particles with or
             without resonances from microwave to optical regime. Its
             efficiency is validated and demonstrated by a few examples.
             © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010.},
   Doi = {10.1007/978-1-4419-0573-4_4},
   Key = {fds269595}
}

@article{fds269596,
   Author = {Cui, TJ and Liu, R and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Introduction to metamaterials},
   Pages = {1-19},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-0573-4_1},
   Abstract = {There have been increasing interests in metamaterials in the
             past 10 years in the scientific communities. However,
             metamaterials are sometimes regarded as left-handed
             materials or negative refractive index materials by a lot of
             people including researchers. In fact, the rapid development
             in this exciting area has shown that metamaterials are far
             beyond left-handed materials. In this chapter, we will
             clarify what metamaterial is and report the recent progress
             on metamaterials. We also summarize the important issues for
             the development and future of metamaterials, including the
             optical transformation, effective medium theory for periodic
             structures, broadband and low-loss metamaterials, rapid
             design of metamaterials, and potential applications. The
             impact of computational electromagnetics on metamaterials is
             briefly discussed. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC
             2010.},
   Doi = {10.1007/978-1-4419-0573-4_1},
   Key = {fds269596}
}

@article{fds269597,
   Author = {Liu, R and Chin, JY and Ji, C and Cui, TJ and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Experiment on cloaking devices},
   Pages = {99-114},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-0573-4_6},
   Abstract = {In this chapter, we will discuss the approach of utilizing
             transformation optic approach and metamaterial technology to
             construct various cloaking devices in experiment. We take
             the advantage of rapid design approach to demonstrate the
             reduced cloaking device in free space. Then we discuss the
             next-generation cloaking device of broadband and low-loss
             feature. The experiment at microwave verifies the broadband
             complex cloaking design. © Springer Science+Business Media,
             LLC 2010.},
   Doi = {10.1007/978-1-4419-0573-4_6},
   Key = {fds269597}
}

@article{fds269598,
   Author = {Cui, TJ and Smith, DR and Liu, R},
   Title = {Metamaterials: Theory, design, and applications},
   Journal = {Metamaterials: Theory, Design, and Applications},
   Pages = {1-367},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-0573-4},
   Abstract = {Metamaterials: Theory, Design and Applications focuses on
             the most recent research activity in metamaterials, taking a
             reader beyond previously covered areas like left-handed
             materials (LHM) and negative index materials (LIM). Some new
             developments covered in the book include a rapid design
             method for inhomogeneous metamaterials, microwave and RF
             applications of metamaterials and dynamic metamaterial
             systems. Editors Tie Jun Cui, David R. Smith and Ruopeng Liu
             bring together the leading international minds focused on
             metamaterials to provide an all-encompassing look at a
             rapidly-developing field. This book stands alone as a
             must-read for any engineer or researcher working with
             metamaterials. Drawing on their years of experience in the
             field, editors Tie Jun Cui, David R. Smith and Ruopeng Liu
             present a breadth of research in metamaterials, covering
             areas like: Optical transformation theory, including
             invisible cloaks, concentrators, beam splitters and
             antennas. Photonic metamaterials and the magnetic Plasmon
             effect. Experimental verification techniques for invisible
             cloaks. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010. All
             rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1007/978-1-4419-0573-4},
   Key = {fds269598}
}

@article{fds269599,
   Author = {Liu, R and Cui, TJ and Smith, DR},
   Title = {General theory on artificial metamaterials},
   Pages = {49-59},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-0573-4_3},
   Abstract = {In this chapter, we present a general theory of effective
             media to establish the relationship between the local field
             responses on metamaterial structure and the macroscopical
             behaviors for artificial metamaterials composed of periodic
             resonant structures. By treating the unit cell of the
             periodic structure as a particle, we average the local field
             to define the local average permittivity and permeability
             for different unit structures and derive a general form of
             discrete Maxwell's equations in macroscale. We obtain
             different wave modes in metamaterials including propagation
             mode, pure plasma mode, and resonant crystal bandgap mode.
             The distortion in the electromagnetic parameters has been
             well explained by the derived spatial dispersion model.
             Thus, the unfamiliar behaviors of metamaterials from the
             numerical S-parameter retrieval approach is further verified
             and described. The excellent agreements between the
             theoretical predictions and the numerical retrieval results
             indicate that the new defined model and method of analysis
             fit better to the physical structures and is thereafter a
             more advanced form of fitting formula for the effective
             electromagnetic parameters of metamaterials. © Springer
             Science+Business Media, LLC 2010.},
   Doi = {10.1007/978-1-4419-0573-4_3},
   Key = {fds269599}
}

@article{fds269600,
   Author = {Cheng, Q and Yang, XM and Ma, HF and Chin, JY and Cui, TJ and Liu, R and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Experiments and applications of metamaterials in microwave
             regime},
   Pages = {321-355},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-0573-4_14},
   Abstract = {In this chapter some experiments and applications of
             metamaterials in the microwave regime have been presented.
             Although metamaterials are composed of structures with
             finite periodicity, they can still be regarded as effective
             medium when the periodicity is far smaller than the
             wavelength. We discuss some interesting experiments such as
             the tunneling structure and the partial focusing phenomenon
             and investigate several applications like gradient index
             circuit and the Luneberg lens antenna. The simulation and
             experimental results show that metamaterials may have great
             potentials in the design of microwave devices and antennas.
             © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010.},
   Doi = {10.1007/978-1-4419-0573-4_14},
   Key = {fds269600}
}

@article{fds269601,
   Author = {Liu, R and Cheng, Q and Cui, TJ and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Broadband and low-loss non-resonant metamaterials},
   Pages = {87-97},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-0573-4_5},
   Abstract = {Loss and bandwidth have been major problems that limit the
             potential applications on metamaterials for a long time. To
             bring the ultimate opportunity to metamaterials, we analyze
             and discuss, in this chapter, another type of metamaterials
             that perform at low loss and broad bandwidth. Although the
             range of structures is limited to those having only electric
             response, with an electric permittivity always equal to or
             greater than unity, there are still numerous metamaterial
             design possibilities enabled by leveraging the non-resonant
             elements. For example, a gradient, impedance matching layer
             can be added that drastically reduces the return loss of the
             optical elements, making them essentially reflectionless and
             lossless. In microwave experiments, we demonstrate the
             broadband design concepts with a gradient-index lens and a
             beam-steering element, both of which are confirmed to
             operate over the entire X-band (roughly 8-12∈GHz)
             frequency spectrum. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC
             2010.},
   Doi = {10.1007/978-1-4419-0573-4_5},
   Key = {fds269601}
}

@article{fds269803,
   Author = {Chen, S-Y and Mock, JJ and Hill, RT and Chilkoti, A and Smith, DR and Lazarides, AA},
   Title = {Gold nanoparticles on polarizable surfaces as Raman
             scattering antennas.},
   Journal = {ACS Nano},
   Volume = {4},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {6535-6546},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21038892},
   Abstract = {Surface plasmons supported by metal nanoparticles are
             perturbed by coupling to a surface that is polarizable.
             Coupling results in enhancement of near fields and may
             increase the scattering efficiency of radiative modes. In
             this study, we investigate the Rayleigh and Raman scattering
             properties of gold nanoparticles functionalized with cyanine
             deposited on silicon and quartz wafers and on gold thin
             films. Dark-field scattering images display red shifting of
             the gold nanoparticle plasmon resonance and doughnut-shaped
             scattering patterns when particles are deposited on silicon
             or on a gold film. The imaged radiation patterns and
             individual particle spectra reveal that the polarizable
             substrates control both the orientation and brightness of
             the radiative modes. Comparison with simulation indicates
             that, in a particle-surface system with a fixed junction
             width, plasmon band shifts are controlled quantitatively by
             the permittivity of the wafer or the film. Surface-enhanced
             resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) spectra and images are
             collected from cyanine on particles on gold films. SERRS
             images of the particles on gold films are doughnut-shaped as
             are their Rayleigh images, indicating that the SERRS is
             controlled by the polarization of plasmons in the antenna
             nanostructures. Near-field enhancement and radiative
             efficiency of the antenna are sufficient to enable Raman
             scattering cyanines to function as gap field probes. Through
             collective interpretation of individual particle Rayleigh
             spectra and spectral simulations, the geometric basis for
             small observed variations in the wavelength and intensity of
             plasmon resonant scattering from individual antenna on the
             three surfaces is explained.},
   Doi = {10.1021/nn101644s},
   Key = {fds269803}
}

@article{fds269729,
   Author = {Landy, NI and Kundtz, N and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Designing three-dimensional transformation optical media
             using quasiconformal coordinate transformations.},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {105},
   Number = {19},
   Pages = {193902},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21231170},
   Abstract = {We introduce an approach to the design of three-dimensional
             transformation optical (TO) media based on a generalized
             quasiconformal mapping approach. The generalized
             quasiconformal TO (QCTO) approach enables the design of
             media that can, in principle, be broadband and low loss,
             while controlling the propagation of waves with arbitrary
             angles of incidence and polarization. We illustrate the
             method in the design of a three-dimensional carpet ground
             plane cloak and of a flattened Luneburg lens. Ray-trace
             studies provide a confirmation of the performance of the
             QCTO media, while also revealing the limited performance of
             index-only versions of these devices.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.193902},
   Key = {fds269729}
}

@article{fds269728,
   Author = {Urzhumov, YA and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Transformation optics with photonic band gap
             media.},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {105},
   Number = {16},
   Pages = {163901},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21230972},
   Abstract = {We introduce a class of optical media based on adiabatically
             modulated, dielectric-only, and potentially extremely
             low-loss, photonic crystals (PC). The media we describe
             represent a generalization of the eikonal limit of
             transformation optics (TO). The basis of the concept is the
             possibility to fit some equal frequency surfaces of certain
             PCs with elliptic surfaces, allowing them to mimic the
             dispersion relation of light in anisotropic effective media.
             PC cloaks and other TO devices operating at visible
             wavelengths can be constructed from optically transparent
             substances such as glasses, whose attenuation coefficient
             can be as small as 10 dB/km, suggesting the TO design
             methodology can be applied to the development of optical
             devices not limited by the losses inherent to metal-based,
             passive metamaterials.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.163901},
   Key = {fds269728}
}

@article{fds269802,
   Author = {Hill, RT and Mock, JJ and Urzhumov, Y and Sebba, DS and Oldenburg, SJ and Chen, S-Y and Lazarides, AA and Chilkoti, A and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Leveraging nanoscale plasmonic modes to achieve reproducible
             enhancement of light.},
   Journal = {Nano Letters},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {4150-4154},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20804206},
   Abstract = {The strongly enhanced and localized optical fields that
             occur within the gaps between metallic nanostructures can be
             leveraged for a wide range of functionality in nanophotonic
             and optical metamaterial applications. Here, we introduce a
             means of precise control over these nanoscale gaps through
             the application of a molecular spacer layer that is
             self-assembled onto a gold film, upon which gold
             nanoparticles (NPs) are deposited electrostatically.
             Simulations using a three-dimensional finite element model
             and measurements from single NPs confirm that the gaps
             formed by this process, between the NP and the gold film,
             are highly reproducible transducers of surface-enhanced
             resonant Raman scattering. With a spacer layer of roughly
             1.6 nm, all NPs exhibit a strong Raman signal that decays
             rapidly as the spacer layer is increased.},
   Doi = {10.1021/nl102443p},
   Key = {fds269802}
}

@article{fds269724,
   Author = {Smith, DR and Urzhumov, Y and Kundtz, NB and Landy,
             NI},
   Title = {Enhancing imaging systems using transformation
             optics.},
   Journal = {Optics express},
   Volume = {18},
   Number = {20},
   Pages = {21238-21251},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20941020},
   Abstract = {We apply the transformation optical technique to modify or
             improve conventional refractive and gradient index optical
             imaging devices. In particular, when it is known that a
             detector will terminate the paths of rays over some surface,
             more freedom is available in the transformation approach,
             since the wave behavior over a large portion of the domain
             becomes unimportant. For the analyzed configurations,
             quasi-conformal and conformal coordinate transformations can
             be used, leading to simplified constitutive parameter
             distributions that, in some cases, can be realized with
             isotropic index; index-only media can be low-loss and have
             broad bandwidth. We apply a coordinate transformation to
             flatten a Maxwell fish-eye lens, forming a near-perfect
             relay lens; and also flatten the focal surface associated
             with a conventional refractive lens, such that the system
             exhibits an ultra-wide field-of-view with reduced
             aberration.},
   Key = {fds269724}
}

@article{fds269714,
   Author = {Kundtz, N and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Extreme-angle broadband metamaterial lens.},
   Journal = {Nature Materials},
   Volume = {9},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {129-132},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {1476-1122},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20023631},
   Abstract = {For centuries, the conventional approach to lens design has
             been to grind the surfaces of a uniform material in such a
             manner as to sculpt the paths that rays of light follow as
             they transit through the interfaces. Refractive lenses
             formed by this procedure of bending the surfaces can be of
             extremely high quality, but are nevertheless limited by
             geometrical and wave aberrations that are inherent to the
             manner in which light refracts at the interface between two
             materials. Conceptually, a more natural--but usually less
             convenient--approach to lens design would be to vary the
             refractive index throughout an entire volume of space. In
             this manner, far greater control can be achieved over the
             ray trajectories. Here, we demonstrate how powerful emerging
             techniques in the field of transformation optics can be used
             to harness the flexibility of gradient index materials for
             imaging applications. In particular we design and
             experimentally demonstrate a lens that is broadband (more
             than a full decade bandwidth), has a field-of-view
             approaching 180 degrees and zero f-number. Measurements on a
             metamaterial implementation of the lens illustrate the
             practicality of transformation optics to achieve a new class
             of optical devices.},
   Doi = {10.1038/nmat2610},
   Key = {fds269714}
}

@article{fds269646,
   Author = {Arritt, B and Adomanis, B and Khraishi, T and Smith,
             D},
   Title = {Parametric analysis of the strain-dependent behavior of a
             metamaterial electric resonator},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {97},
   Number = {19},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3507892},
   Abstract = {In this paper, we describe the strain-dependent behavior of
             an electric-LC (ELC) resonator unit cell, commonly used in
             metamaterial designs. We leverage analytic expression to
             understand the way strain manifests itself in a change in
             electromagnetic (EM) response. We verify the simplified
             physical models using full-wave simulations and generalize
             the trends to accommodate the strain profile for any
             arbitrary plane-stress loading scenario. © 2010 American
             Institute of Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.3507892},
   Key = {fds269646}
}

@article{fds269710,
   Author = {Huang, D and Poutrina, E and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Analysis of the power dependent tuning of a varactor-loaded
             metamaterial at microwave frequencies},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {96},
   Number = {10},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/3339 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {We present an analysis of the nonlinear, power-dependent
             resonance frequency shift for two metamaterial mediums
             consisting of arrays of varactor-loaded split ring
             resonators (VLSRRs). We confirm that, over a limited range
             of power, a VLSRR medium can be described by its second and
             third order nonlinear susceptibilities, making it a useful
             analog medium for the quantitative investigation of other
             nonlinear phenomena that might be achieved using inherently
             nonlinear materials integrated into metamaterials.
             Experimental measurements of the resonance frequency shift
             with power from fabricated VLSRR samples are found to be in
             excellent agreement with the analytical model. © 2010
             American Institute of Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.3356223},
   Key = {fds269710}
}

@article{fds269712,
   Author = {Nguyen, VN and Yönak, SH and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Multilayer W-band artificial dielectric on liquid crystal
             polymer},
   Journal = {IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters},
   Volume = {9},
   Pages = {974-977},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {1536-1225},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LAWP.2010.2088104},
   Abstract = {We present an artificial dielectric material designed to
             operate at W-band millimeter-wave frequencies. The
             artificial dielectric exhibits a wide range of variation in
             its effective refractive index, making it suitable for use
             in planar gradient index (GRIN) microwave lenses and other
             quasi-optical devices. These devices include those designed
             using recently developed transformation optics techniques.
             Because the artificial materials are designed to be
             nonresonant, their effective refractive indices display very
             low dispersion with frequency; simulation and measurement
             results for a number of test samples are presented that
             confirm the expected broad bandwidth properties. A
             comparison between the expected and experimentally
             determined indices-of-refraction for these samples further
             reveals close, quantitative agreement. © 2010
             IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/LAWP.2010.2088104},
   Key = {fds269712}
}

@article{fds269713,
   Author = {Ghezzo, F and Starr, AF and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Integration of networks of sensors and electronics for
             structural health monitoring of composite
             materials},
   Journal = {Advances in Civil Engineering},
   Volume = {2010},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {1687-8086},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/598458},
   Abstract = {The low-cost, widespread availability and robust nature of
             current electronic devices suggest the feasibility of
             creating a composite structure with integrated networked
             sensors to monitor in real time the life of civil and
             aerospace structures while in service conditions. For
             structures that need to survive to high number of life
             cycles under varying load-environmental conditions, it is of
             crucial importance that the strength, stiffness, endurance,
             and general load-bearing capabilities of the composite not
             to be severely degraded by the integrated networked
             components. Therefore, design tools must be developed to
             achieve optimized, safe, and reliable structures. High
             values of stress concentrations due to the presence of a
             rigid device within a highly anisotropic material can
             trigger the initiation of microcracks in the resin matrix.
             To quantify these effects, the acoustic emission technique
             is used to characterize the initiation of microfailures
             within laminated composites with integrated electronics. ©
             2010 Fabrizia Ghezzo et al.},
   Doi = {10.1155/2010/598458},
   Key = {fds269713}
}

@article{fds269715,
   Author = {Larouche, S and Smith, DR},
   Title = {A retrieval method for nonlinear metamaterials},
   Journal = {Optics Communications},
   Volume = {283},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {1621-1627},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {0030-4018},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.optcom.2009.10.107},
   Abstract = {Metamaterials are engineered periodic structures for which
             it is possible to assign effective homogenized constitutive
             properties. In recent years, metamaterials in which the
             constituent elements are integrated with inherently
             nonlinear materials or electronic components have been
             considered for their potential impact on nonlinear wave
             propagation. As is the case with their linear counterparts,
             nonlinear metamaterials can also be assigned homogenized
             effective properties. The effective constitutive parameters
             of a metamaterial can be determined by a retrieval method
             applied to full-wave numerical simulations of a single layer
             of the structure. In this work, we present a transfer matrix
             approach that extends the retrieval of metamaterial
             properties to include the effective nonlinear
             susceptibilities. Comparisons with time-domain finite
             element simulations of continuous nonlinear slabs confirm
             the validity of this approach. The proposed approach is also
             applied to determine the nonlinear susceptibility of a
             simple nonlinear metamaterial. © 2009 Elsevier
             B.V.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.optcom.2009.10.107},
   Key = {fds269715}
}

@article{fds269716,
   Author = {Poutrina, E and Larouche, S and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Parametric oscillator based on a single-layer resonant
             metamaterial},
   Journal = {Optics Communications},
   Volume = {283},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {1640-1646},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {0030-4018},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.optcom.2009.11.037},
   Abstract = {We perform numerical simulations demonstrating parametric
             generation and oscillation processes in a single-layer of
             metamaterial composed of split ring resonators (SRRs). In
             general, a parametric resonance is achieved by introducing a
             time-modulation of one of the energy-storing parameters of a
             resonant system. An individual SRR is a resonant system that
             can be modeled as an RLC-circuit inductively coupled to an
             applied time-varying magnetic field. The relatively simple
             circuit model can be employed to establish the range of
             parameters providing the growth of parametric oscillations
             within the SRR medium. We relate the numerically predicted
             circuit parameters that ensure the buildup of parametric
             oscillations to those parameters expected to be available in
             a modified SRR medium, in which lumped element varactors
             integrated into the SRRs are used as modulable capacitance
             elements. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights
             reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.optcom.2009.11.037},
   Key = {fds269716}
}

@article{fds269717,
   Author = {Smith, DR},
   Title = {Analytic expressions for the constitutive parameters of
             magnetoelectric metamaterials},
   Journal = {Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter
             Physics},
   Volume = {81},
   Number = {3},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {1539-3755},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/4286 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {Electromagnetic metamaterials are artificially structured
             media typically composed of arrays of resonant
             electromagnetic circuits, the dimension and spacing of which
             are considerably smaller than the free-space wavelengths of
             operation. The constitutive parameters for metamaterials,
             which can be obtained using full-wave simulations in
             conjunction with numerical retrieval algorithms, exhibit
             artifacts related to the finite size of the metamaterial
             cell relative to the wavelength. Liu showed that the
             complicated, frequency-dependent forms of the constitutive
             parameters can be described by a set of relatively simple
             analytical expressions. These expressions provide useful
             insight and can serve as the basis for more intelligent
             interpolation or optimization schemes. Here, we show that
             the same analytical expressions can be obtained using a
             transfer-matrix formalism applied to a one-dimensional
             periodic array of thin, resonant, dielectric, or magnetic
             sheets. The transfer-matrix formalism breaks down, however,
             when both electric and magnetic responses are present in the
             same unit cell, as it neglects the magnetoelectric coupling
             between unit cells. We show that an alternative analytical
             approach based on the same physical model must be applied
             for such structures. Furthermore, in addition to the
             intercell coupling, electric and magnetic resonators within
             a unit cell may also exhibit magnetoelectric coupling. For
             such cells, we find an analytical expression for the
             effective index, which displays markedly characteristic
             dispersion features that depend on the strength of the
             coupling coefficient. We illustrate the applicability of the
             derived expressions by comparing to full-wave simulations on
             magnetoelectric unit cells. We conclude that the design of
             metamaterials with tailored simultaneous electric and
             magnetic response-such as negative index materials-will
             generally be complicated by potentially unwanted
             magnetoelectric coupling. © 2010 The American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.81.036605},
   Key = {fds269717}
}

@article{fds269718,
   Author = {Larouche, S and Rose, A and Poutrina, E and Huang, D and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Experimental determination of the quadratic nonlinear
             magnetic susceptibility of a varactor-loaded split ring
             resonator metamaterial},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {97},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {011109-011109},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/3338 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {This letter presents a quantitative measurement of the
             second harmonic generated by a slab of varactor loaded split
             ring resonator metamaterial and the retrieval of the
             effective quadratic nonlinear magnetic susceptibility
             χ(2)musing an approach based on transfer matrices. The
             retrieved value of χ(2)m is in excellent agreement with
             that predicted by an analytical effective medium theory
             model. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.3460919},
   Key = {fds269718}
}

@article{fds269719,
   Author = {Ghezzo, F and Smith, DR and Starr, TN and Perram, T and Starr, AF and Darlington, TK and Baldwin, RK and Oldenburg, SJ},
   Title = {Development and characterization of healable carbon fiber
             composites with a reversibly cross linked
             polymer},
   Journal = {Journal of Composite Materials},
   Volume = {44},
   Number = {13},
   Pages = {1587-1603},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {0021-9983},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0021998310363165},
   Abstract = {Carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates with
             remendable cross-linked polymeric matrices were fabricated
             using a modified resin transfer mold (RTM) technique. The
             healable composite resin, bis-maleimide tetrafuran (2MEP4F),
             was synthesized by mixing two monomers, furan (4F) and
             maleimide (2MEP), at elevated temperatures. The fast kinetic
             rate of the reaction of polymer constituents requires a fast
             injection of the healable resin into the carbon fiber
             preform. The polymer viscosity as a function of time and
             temperature was experimentally quantified in order to
             optimize the fabrication of the composite material and to
             guarantee a uniform flow of the resin through the
             reinforcement. The method was validated by characterizing
             the thermo-mechanical properties of the polymerized 2MEP4F.
             Additionally, the thermo-mechanical properties of the
             remendable CFRP material were studied. © 2010 The
             Author(s).},
   Doi = {10.1177/0021998310363165},
   Key = {fds269719}
}

@article{fds269720,
   Author = {Kundtz, N and Gaultney, D and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Scattering cross-section of a transformation optics-based
             metamaterial cloak},
   Journal = {New Journal of Physics},
   Volume = {12},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {1367-2630},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1367-2630/12/4/043039},
   Abstract = {We present experimental quantitative scattering
             cross-section (SCS) measurements for a metamaterial cloak.
             The cloak is nearly identical to that reported in 2006;
             however, quantitative experimental measurements have not yet
             been reported for such a structure. This cylindrically
             symmetric cloak is designed to operate at a frequency of 10
             GHz and to reduce the SCS of a cylinder 50 mm in diameter.
             Despite being only a crude approximation of the ideal
             transformation optical design, the fabricated metamaterial
             cloak is shown to reduce the SCS of the cylinder over the
             frequency range from 9.91 to 10.14GHz, a span of 230MHz or a
             2.3% bandwidth. The maximum reduction in the SCS is 24%.
             This result provides a useful experimental, quantitative
             benchmark that can form the basis for comparison of the
             performances of future improved cloaking structures. © IOP
             Publishing Ltd and Deutsche Physikalische
             Gesellschan.},
   Doi = {10.1088/1367-2630/12/4/043039},
   Key = {fds269720}
}

@article{fds269721,
   Author = {Hunt, J and Kundtz, N and Landy, N and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Relaxation approach for the generation of inhomogeneous
             distributions of uniformly sized particles},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {97},
   Number = {2},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/3238 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {For many applications in gradient index devices and photonic
             crystals, it is necessary to be able to design
             semicrystalline distributions of particles where the lattice
             constant of the distribution is an arbitrary function of
             position. We propose a method to generate such distributions
             which is physically motivated by a system of interacting
             particles, and apply it to the design and implementation of
             a microwave gradient index lens. While the demonstration was
             preformed at microwave wavelengths, this technique would
             also be particularly useful for designing devices for
             operation at IR and visible wavelengths where the
             fabrication of distributions of uniformly sized holes or
             columns is very easy. © 2010 American Institute of
             Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.3460914},
   Key = {fds269721}
}

@article{fds269722,
   Author = {Urzhumov, Y and Ghezzo, F and Hunt, J and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Acoustic cloaking transformations from attainable material
             properties},
   Journal = {New Journal of Physics},
   Volume = {12},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {1367-2630},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/5078 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {We propose a general methodology and a set of practical
             recipes for the construction of ultra-broadband acoustic
             cloaks-structures that can render themselves and a concealed
             object undetectable by means of acoustic scattering. The
             acoustic cloaks presented here are designed and function
             analogously to electromagnetic cloaks. However, acoustic
             cloaks in a fluid medium do not suffer the bandwidth
             limitations imposed on their electromagnetic counterparts by
             the finite speed of light in vacuum. In the absence of
             specific metamaterials having arbitrary combinations of
             quasi-static speed of sound and mass density, we explore the
             flexibility of continuum transformations that produce
             approximate cloaking solutions. We show that an imperfect,
             eikonal acoustic cloak (that is, one which is not impedance
             matched but is valid in the geometrical optics regime) with
             negligible dispersion can be designed using a simple layered
             geometry. Since a practical cloaking device will probably be
             composed of combinations of solid materials rather than
             fluids, it is necessary to consider the full elastic
             properties of such media, which support shear waves in
             addition to the compression waves associated with the
             acoustic regime. We perform a systematic theoretical and
             numerical investigation of the role of shear waves in
             elastic cloaking devices. We find that for elastic
             metamaterials with Poisson's ratio v &gt; 0.49, shear waves
             do not alter the cloaking effect. Such metamaterials can be
             built from nearly incompressible rubbers (with v ≈ 0.499)
             and fluids. We expect this finding to have applications in
             other acoustic devices based on the form-invariance of the
             scalar acoustic wave equation. © IOP Publishing Ltd and
             Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.},
   Doi = {10.1088/1367-2630/12/7/073014},
   Key = {fds269722}
}

@article{fds269723,
   Author = {Poutrina, E and Huang, D and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Analysis of nonlinear electromagnetic metamaterials},
   Journal = {New Journal of Physics},
   Volume = {12},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {1367-2630},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1367-2630/12/9/093010},
   Abstract = {We analyze the properties of a nonlinear metamaterial formed
             by integrating nonlinear components or materials into the
             capacitive regions of metamaterial elements. A
             straightforward homogenization procedure leads to general
             expressions for the nonlinear susceptibilities of the
             composite metamaterial medium. The expressions are
             convenient, as they enable an inhomogeneous system of
             scattering elements to be described as a continuous medium
             using the standard notation of nonlinear optics. We
             illustrate the validity and accuracy of our theoretical
             framework by performing measurements on a fabricated
             metamaterial sample composed of an array of split ring
             resonators (SRRs) with packaged varactors embedded in the
             capacitive gaps, in a manner similar to that of Wang et al
             (2008 Opt. Express 16 16058). Because the SRRs exhibit a
             predominantly magnetic response to electromagnetic fields,
             the varactor-loaded SRR composite can be described as a
             magnetic material with nonlinear terms in its effective
             magnetic susceptibility. Treating the composite as a
             nonlinear effective medium, we can quantitatively assess the
             performance of the medium to enhance and facilitate
             nonlinear processes, including second harmonic generation,
             three-and four-wave mixing, selffocusing and other
             well-known nonlinear phenomena. We illustrate the accuracy
             of our approach by predicting the intensity-dependent
             resonance frequency shift in the effective permeability of
             the varactor-loaded SRR medium and comparing with
             experimental measurements. © IOP Publishing Ltd and
             Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.},
   Doi = {10.1088/1367-2630/12/9/093010},
   Key = {fds269723}
}

@article{fds269725,
   Author = {Degiron, A and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Nonlinear long-range plasmonic waveguides},
   Journal = {Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical
             Physics},
   Volume = {82},
   Number = {3},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {1050-2947},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/3309 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {We report on plasmonic waveguides made of a thin metal
             stripe surrounded on one or both sides by a Kerr nonlinear
             medium. Using an iterative numerical method, we investigate
             the stationary long-range plasmons that exist for
             self-focusing and self-defocusing Kerr-type nonlinearities.
             The solutions are similar to the well-known case of
             infinitely wide nonlinear waveguides-they are strongly
             power-dependent and can experience symmetry-breaking
             bifurcations under appropriate conditions. © 2010 The
             American Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevA.82.033812},
   Key = {fds269725}
}

@article{fds269726,
   Author = {Rose, A and Larouche, S and Huang, D and Poutrina, E and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Nonlinear parameter retrieval from three- and four-wave
             mixing in metamaterials},
   Journal = {Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter
             Physics},
   Volume = {82},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {036608},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {1539-3755},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/4289 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {We present a generalized nonlinear susceptibility retrieval
             method for metamaterials based on transfer matrices and
             valid in the nondepleted pump approximation. We construct a
             general formalism to describe the transfer matrix method for
             nonlinear media and apply it to the processes of three- and
             four-wave mixing. The accuracy of this approach is verified
             via finite element simulations. The method is then reversed
             to give a set of equations for retrieving the nonlinear
             susceptibility. Finally, we apply the proposed retrieval
             operation to a three-wave mixing transmission experiment
             performed on a varactor loaded split ring resonator
             metamaterial sample and find quantitative agreement with an
             analytical effective medium theory model. © 2010 The
             American Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.82.036608},
   Key = {fds269726}
}

@article{fds269727,
   Author = {Ghezzo, F and Smith, DR and Starr, TN and Perram, T and Starr, AF and Darlington, TK and Baldwin, RK and Oldenburg, SJ},
   Title = {Erratum: Development and characterization of healable carbon
             fiber composites with a reversibly cross linked polymer
             (Journal of Composite Materials 44:13 (1587-1603))},
   Journal = {Journal of Composite Materials},
   Volume = {44},
   Number = {22},
   Pages = {2619-},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {0021-9983},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0021998310387033},
   Doi = {10.1177/0021998310387033},
   Key = {fds269727}
}

@article{fds269730,
   Author = {Driscoll, T and Smith, DR and Basov, DN},
   Title = {Spectroscopic investigation of metamaterials across the
             effective medium threshold},
   Journal = {Metamaterials},
   Volume = {4},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {175-180},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {1873-1988},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.metmat.2010.06.002},
   Abstract = {We spectroscopically investigate the scaling properties of a
             metamaterial consisting of a square array of gold
             cylindrical dots. The electromagnetic response of the
             gold-dot array is found to scale in relation to the ratio of
             the incident wavelength over the array spacing, in agreement
             with general predictions of metamaterial theory. The
             appropriateness of an effective medium description of the
             array is analyzed in terms of the resonant polarizability of
             the array components, and the onset of van der Hulst
             backscattering at higher frequencies. © 2010 Elsevier
             B.V.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.metmat.2010.06.002},
   Key = {fds269730}
}

@article{fds269782,
   Author = {Dhar, S and Degiron, A and Smith, DR and Jokerst,
             NM},
   Title = {Planar integrated optical detection of a hybrid long-range
             surface plasmon using an ingaas inverted-msm detector bonded
             to silicon},
   Journal = {IEEE Photonics Technology Letters},
   Volume = {22},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {841-843},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {1041-1135},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LPT.2010.2046402},
   Abstract = {An InxGa1-x As thin-film inverted metalsemiconductormetal
             photodetector has been integrated with a gold hybrid
             long-range surface plasmon waveguide on silicon. This
             integrated structure enables planar integrated optical
             detection of a long-range surface plasmon wave at a
             wavelength of 1.55℧ m. © 2010 IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/LPT.2010.2046402},
   Key = {fds269782}
}

@article{fds269801,
   Author = {Sajuyigbe, S and Ross, M and Geren, P and Cummer, SA and Tanielian, MH and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Wide angle impedance matching metamaterials for
             waveguide-fed phased-array antennas},
   Journal = {IET Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation},
   Volume = {4},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {1063-1072},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {1751-8725},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1049/iet-map.2009.0543},
   Abstract = {This work investigates the gains realisable through the use
             of artificially structured materials, otherwise known as
             metamaterials, in the wide angle impedance matching (WAIM)
             of waveguide-fed phased-array antennas. The authors propose
             that the anisotropic properties of a metamaterial layer,
             when designed appropriately, can be employed to achieve
             impedance matching at a wide contiguous range of
             phased-array antenna transmission angles. Simulation and
             numerical results show that an optimised impedance match
             over a broad angular range can be readily achieved using a
             doubly uniaxial (magnetic and electric) anisotropic layer,
             an outcome not found accomplishable when an optimised
             isotropic dielectric layer is used. The authors propose the
             possibility of using metamaterials to achieve anisotropic
             WAIM layer configurations, and the authors show, using two
             simple uniaxial designs, that a metamaterial layer over the
             phased-array gives performance characteristics similar to
             its homogeneous anisotropic effective medium counterpart. ©
             2010 The Institution of Engineering and Technology.},
   Doi = {10.1049/iet-map.2009.0543},
   Key = {fds269801}
}

@article{fds269611,
   Author = {Dhar, S and Degiron, A and Smith, DR and Jokerst,
             NM},
   Title = {Planar integration of a long range surface plasmon waveguide
             with an inverted metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector on
             silicon},
   Journal = {Optics InfoBase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {A long range surface plasmon polariton (LR-SPP)
             insulator-metal-insulator waveguide was integrated with a
             thin film InxGa1-xAs-based photodetector (PD) on silicon for
             planar detection of LR-SPPs, and demonstrated coupling from
             the LR-SPP to the PD. © 2009 Optical Society of
             America.},
   Key = {fds269611}
}

@article{fds269701,
   Author = {Liu, R and Cheng, Q and Chin, JY and Mock, JJ and Cui, TJ and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Broadband gradient index microwave quasi-optical elements
             based on non-resonant metamaterials.},
   Journal = {Optics express},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {23},
   Pages = {21030-21041},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19997341},
   Abstract = {Utilizing non-resonant metamaterial elements, we demonstrate
             that complex gradient index optics can be constructed
             exhibiting low material losses and large frequency
             bandwidth. Although the range of structures is limited to
             those having only electric response, with an electric
             permittivity always equal to or greater than unity, there
             are still numerous metamaterial design possibilities enabled
             by leveraging the non-resonant elements. For example, a
             gradient, impedance matching layer can be added that
             drastically reduces the return loss of the optical elements
             due to reflection. In microwave experiments, we demonstrate
             the broadband design concepts with a gradient index lens and
             a beam-steering element, both of which are confirmed to
             operate over the entire X-band (roughly 8-12 GHz) frequency
             spectrum.},
   Key = {fds269701}
}

@article{fds269781,
   Author = {Tsai, Y-J and Degiron, A and Jokerst, NM and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Plasmonic multi-mode interference couplers.},
   Journal = {Optics express},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {20},
   Pages = {17471-17482},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19907531},
   Abstract = {Plasmonic multi-mode interference (MMI) couplers have been
             investigated both numerically and experimentally at the
             telecommunication wavelength of 1.55 mum. In this study, the
             couplers are implemented using thin Au stripes that support
             long-range surface plasmons. We first detail the operation
             principle of these devices with numerical simulations and
             show that useful effects can be obtained despite the high
             material losses inherent to metallic structures. A series of
             MMI couplers is subsequently fabricated and experimentally
             characterized, showing a quantitative agreement with our
             numerical predictions. We conclude by discussing some of the
             possible applications for these structures.},
   Key = {fds269781}
}

@article{fds269778,
   Author = {Driscoll, T and Kim, H-T and Chae, B-G and Kim, B-J and Lee, Y-W and Jokerst, NM and Palit, S and Smith, DR and Di Ventra and M and Basov,
             DN},
   Title = {Memory metamaterials.},
   Journal = {Science},
   Volume = {325},
   Number = {5947},
   Pages = {1518-1521},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19696311},
   Abstract = {The resonant elements that grant metamaterials their
             distinct properties have the fundamental limitation of
             restricting their useable frequency bandwidth. The
             development of frequency-agile metamaterials has helped to
             alleviate these bandwidth restrictions by allowing real-time
             tuning of the metamaterial frequency response. We
             demonstrate electrically controlled persistent frequency
             tuning of a metamaterial, which allows the lasting
             modification of its response by using a transient stimulus.
             This work demonstrates a form of memory capacitance that
             interfaces metamaterials with a class of devices known
             collectively as memory devices.},
   Doi = {10.1126/science.1176580},
   Key = {fds269778}
}

@article{fds269711,
   Author = {Roberts, DA and Kundtz, N and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Optical lens compression via transformation
             optics.},
   Journal = {Optics express},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {19},
   Pages = {16535-16542},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19770868},
   Abstract = {Transformation optics is widely associated with the design
             of unconventional electromagnetic devices, such as
             electromagnetic cloaks or concentrators. However, a wide
             range of conventional optical devices with potentially
             advantageous properties can be designed by the
             transformation optical approach. For example, a coordinate
             transformation can be introduced that compresses a region of
             space, resulting in an overall decrease in the thickness of
             an optical instrument such as a lens. The optical properties
             of a transformed lens, such as Fresnel reflection or
             aberration profile, are equivalent to those of the original
             lens, while the transformed lens and the bounding
             transformation optical material are thinner than the
             original lens. This approach to flattening the profile of a
             lens represents an advantage over the use of a higher
             dielectric material because it does not introduce greater
             Fresnel reflections or require a redesign of the basic
             optic. Though transformation optical media are generally
             anisotropic, with both electric and magnetic response, it is
             possible to arrive at a dielectric-only transformation
             optical distribution for a lens interacting with
             transverse-magnetic (TM) polarized light. The
             dielectric-only distribution can be implemented using
             broad-band, low-loss metamaterials. Lens designs for both a
             full transformation and a dielectric-only implementation are
             discussed and confirmed via finite-element
             simulations.},
   Key = {fds269711}
}

@article{fds269708,
   Author = {Gollub, JN and Chin, JY and Cui, TJ and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Hybrid resonant phenomena in a SRR/YIG metamaterial
             structure.},
   Journal = {Optics express},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {2122-2131},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19219116},
   Abstract = {We consider the hybridization of the resonance of a SRR
             metamaterial with the gyromagnetic material resonance of
             yittrium iron garnet (YIG) inclusions. The combination of an
             artificial structural resonance and natural material
             resonance generates a unique hybrid resonance that can be
             harnessed to make tunable metamaterials and further extend
             the range of achievable electromagnetic materials. A
             predictive analytic model is applied that accurately
             describes the characteristics of this SRR/YIG hybridization.
             We suggest that this hybridization has been observed in
             experimental data presented by Kang et al. [Opt. Express,
             16, 8825 (2008)] and present numerical simulations to
             support this assertion. In addition, we investigate a design
             for optimizing the SRR/YIG structure that shows strong
             hybridization with a minimum amount of YIG
             material.},
   Key = {fds269708}
}

@article{fds269706,
   Author = {Liu, R and Ji, C and Mock, JJ and Chin, JY and Cui, TJ and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Broadband ground-plane cloak.},
   Journal = {Science},
   Volume = {323},
   Number = {5912},
   Pages = {366-369},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19150842},
   Abstract = {The possibility of cloaking an object from detection by
             electromagnetic waves has recently become a topic of
             considerable interest. The design of a cloak uses
             transformation optics, in which a conformal coordinate
             transformation is applied to Maxwell's equations to obtain a
             spatially distributed set of constitutive parameters that
             define the cloak. Here, we present an experimental
             realization of a cloak design that conceals a perturbation
             on a flat conducting plane, under which an object can be
             hidden. To match the complex spatial distribution of the
             required constitutive parameters, we constructed a
             metamaterial consisting of thousands of elements, the
             geometry of each element determined by an automated design
             process. The ground-plane cloak can be realized with the use
             of nonresonant metamaterial elements, resulting in a
             structure having a broad operational bandwidth (covering the
             range of 13 to 16 gigahertz in our experiment) and
             exhibiting extremely low loss. Our experimental results
             indicate that this type of cloak should scale well toward
             optical wavelengths.},
   Doi = {10.1126/science.1166949},
   Key = {fds269706}
}

@article{fds269588,
   Author = {Poutrina, E and Smith, DR},
   Title = {High-frequency active metamaterials},
   Journal = {Optics InfoBase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {We present a systematic numerical study of metamaterials
             integrated with gain media to achieve composite
             metamaterials at terahertz and infrared wavelength with
             reduced losses. The impact of spatial dispersion on the
             effective permeability resonance restoration is emphasized.
             © 2008 Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {fds269588}
}

@article{fds269699,
   Author = {Garcia-Pomar, JL and Gollub, JN and Mock, JJ and Smith, DR and Nieto-Vesperinas, M},
   Title = {Experimental two-dimensional field mapping of total internal
             reflection lateral beam shift in a self-collimated photonic
             crystal},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {94},
   Number = {6},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3085768},
   Abstract = {A lateral beam shift is demonstrated both theoretically and
             in microwave experiments when total internal reflection
             takes place at the boundary of a self-collimating
             two-dimensional photonic crystal consisting of an array of
             high index dielectric cylinders. We further show the
             dependence of this shift on the cut of the last row of
             cylinders that defines the crystal interface. © 2009
             American Institute of Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.3085768},
   Key = {fds269699}
}

@article{fds269700,
   Author = {Liu, R and Yang, XM and Gollub, JG and Mock, JJ and Cui, TJ and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Gradient index circuit by waveguided metamaterials},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {94},
   Number = {7},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3081399},
   Abstract = {Metamaterials are artificially structured materials that
             provide considerable flexibility for control of
             electromagnetic waves. The metamaterial concept can also be
             applied to the design of planar waveguiding structures.
             Here, we illustrate this design approach with the
             development of two-dimensional (2D) planar gradient index
             (GRIN) circuits. To form the structure, we make use of a 2D
             complementary split ring resonator, which exhibits an
             electric response to guided transverse-electric waves. To
             confirm the properties of the planar GRIN structure
             predicted from numerical simulations, we present
             experimental results for a beam-steering and a focusing GRIN
             circuit. These examples illustrate the versatility of the
             metamaterial approach in the design of complex waveguiding
             structures. © 2009 American Institute of
             Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.3081399},
   Key = {fds269700}
}

@article{fds269702,
   Author = {Nguyen, VN and Yönak, SH and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Millimeter-wave artificial dielectric gradient index
             lenses},
   Journal = {European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, EuCAP 2009,
             Proceedings},
   Pages = {1886-1890},
   Year = {2009},
   Abstract = {We present an artificial dielectric gradient index lens
             designed to operate at millimeter-wave frequencies. Finite
             element simulations are used in conjunction with material
             parameter retrieval techniques to design an artificial
             dielectric unit cell with an optimum refractive index range.
             This refractive index range is then used with ray-tracing
             software to arrive at an optimized index profile. A lens
             with this index profile is realized using multilayer printed
             wiring boards (PWBs) and tested.},
   Key = {fds269702}
}

@article{fds269703,
   Author = {Poutrina, E and Smith, DR},
   Title = {High-frequency active metamaterials},
   Journal = {2009 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics and 2009
             Conference on Quantum Electronics and Laser Science
             Conference, CLEO/QELS 2009},
   Year = {2009},
   Abstract = {We present a systematic numerical study of metamaterials
             integrated with gain media to achieve composite
             metamaterials at terahertz and infrared wavelength with
             reduced losses. The impact of spatial dispersion on the
             effective permeability resonance restoration is emphasized.
             © 2008 Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {fds269703}
}

@article{fds269704,
   Author = {Sajuyigbe, S and Justice, BJ and Starr, AF and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Design and analysis of three-dimensionalized ELC
             metamaterial unit cell},
   Journal = {IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters},
   Volume = {8},
   Pages = {1268-1271},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {1536-1225},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LAWP.2009.2036572},
   Abstract = {The use of a three-dimensional electric-LC (3D-ELC)
             resonator to obtain a minimally refractive and strongly
             transmissive composite metamaterial is explored. The 3D-ELC
             repeated unit cell consists of two ELC elements that, when
             put together, may be used to generate responding electric
             dipole moments in the x̧, y̧, and z̧ directions. When
             embedded inside a host material whose permittivity is
             significantly greater than unity, the repeated 3D-ELC
             metamaterial can be used to depress the effective dielectric
             constant of the resulting composite material to a nearunity
             value in all Cartesian directions. The concept of designing
             a unity-index metamaterial-with the properties of free
             space-may prove useful in creating mechanically durable
             materials for use as radomes or other enclosures for
             radiating structures. © 2009 IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/LAWP.2009.2036572},
   Key = {fds269704}
}

@article{fds269705,
   Author = {Ghezzo, F and Starr, TN and Perram, T and Darlington, TK and Starr, AF and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Development of self healing composite materials: Fabrication
             and micro-structural analyses},
   Journal = {ICCM International Conferences on Composite
             Materials},
   Year = {2009},
   Abstract = {A custom resin transfer molding (RTM) method for the
             fabrication of carbon fiber composites using thermally
             reversible highly cross linked polymeric matrices was
             developed. The resulting material quality and healing
             efficiency was assessed using X-ray phase contrast
             micro-tomography. The X-ray investigations revealed that
             partial healing of extended cracks occurred in samples that
             were kept at 90°C for 2 hours.},
   Key = {fds269705}
}

@article{fds269707,
   Author = {Arritt, BJ and Starr, AF and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Electromagnetic performance of mechanically loaded composite
             metamaterials},
   Journal = {ICCM International Conferences on Composite
             Materials},
   Year = {2009},
   Abstract = {The field of metamaterials has seen tremendous advancements
             in the design, modeling, and development of structures with
             novel ElectroMagnetic (EM) properties. However, nothing had
             been done to characterize how those EM properties change
             when a metamaterial structure is transitioned into a
             relevant environment (i.e. mechanical and thermal loading).
             This research seeks to understand the linkage between the
             mechanical loading of these multi-component,
             inclusion-intensive structures, and their resultant changes
             in EM performance; thus laying the foundation for the
             eventual operational use of these novel multifunctional
             structures.},
   Key = {fds269707}
}

@article{fds269709,
   Author = {Chin, JY and Gollub, JN and Mock, JJ and Liu, R and Harrison, C and Smith,
             DR and Cui, TJ},
   Title = {An efficient broadband metamaterial wave
             retarder},
   Journal = {Optics express},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {7640-7647},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {1094-4087},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.17.007640},
   Abstract = {Metamaterials with anisotropic electromagnetic properties
             have the capability to manipulate the polarization states of
             electromagnetic waves. We describe a method to design a
             broadband, low-loss wave retarder with graded constitutive
             parameter distributions based on non-resonant metamaterial
             elements. A structured metamaterial half-wave retarder that
             converts one linear polarization to its cross polarization
             is designed and its performance is characterized
             experimentally. © 2009 Optical Society of
             America.},
   Doi = {10.1364/OE.17.007640},
   Key = {fds269709}
}

@article{fds269777,
   Author = {Dhar, S and Degiron, A and Smith, DR and Jokerst,
             NM},
   Title = {Planar integration of a long range surface plasmon waveguide
             with an inverted metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector on
             silicon},
   Journal = {2009 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics and 2009
             Conference on Quantum Electronics and Laser Science
             Conference, CLEO/QELS 2009},
   Year = {2009},
   Abstract = {A long range surface plasmon polariton (LR-SPP)
             insulator-metal-insulator waveguide was integrated with a
             thin film InxGa1-xAs-based photodetector (PD) on silicon for
             planar detection of LR-SPPs, and demonstrated coupling from
             the LR-SPP to the PD. ©2009 Optical Society of
             America.},
   Key = {fds269777}
}

@article{fds269779,
   Author = {Landy, NI and Bingham, CM and Tyler, T and Jokerst, N and Smith, DR and Padilla, WJ},
   Title = {Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization-insensitive
             absorber for terahertz imaging},
   Journal = {Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials
             Physics},
   Volume = {79},
   Number = {12},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {1098-0121},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.79.125104},
   Abstract = {We present the theory, design, and realization of a
             polarization- insensitive metamaterial absorber for
             terahertz frequencies. Effective-medium theory is used to
             describe the absorptive properties of the metamaterial in
             terms of optical constants-a description that has been thus
             far lacking. From our theoretical approach, we construct a
             device that yields over 95% absorption in simulation. Our
             fabricated design consists of a planar single unit-cell
             layer of metamaterial and reaches an absorptivity of 77% at
             1.145 THz. © 2009 The American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.79.125104},
   Key = {fds269779}
}

@article{fds269780,
   Author = {Degiron, A and Cho, S-Y and Tyler, T and Jokerst, NM and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Directional coupling between dielectric and long-range
             plasmon waveguides},
   Journal = {New Journal of Physics},
   Volume = {11},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {1367-2630},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1367-2630/11/1/015002},
   Abstract = {We have designed, fabricated and characterized integrated
             directional couplers capable of converting the mode of an
             optical dielectric waveguide into a long-range plasmon
             propagating along a thin metal stripe. We demonstrate that
             the coupling between the two types of waveguides is
             generally very weak unless specific conditions are met. This
             sensitivity could be potentially exploited in sensing
             applications or for developing novel active photonic
             components. © IOP Publishing Ltd and Deutsche Physikalische
             Gesellschaft.},
   Doi = {10.1088/1367-2630/11/1/015002},
   Key = {fds269780}
}

@article{fds269798,
   Author = {Allen, J and Kundtz, N and Roberts, DA and Cummer, SA and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Electromagnetic source transformations using superellipse
             equations},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {94},
   Number = {19},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3130182},
   Abstract = {Transformation optics can be used to design media with
             unique properties that alter the behavior of electromagnetic
             waves in passive space and recently in space containing
             source distributions. We present source transformations
             where current from a linear radiator is spread over a
             cylindrical shell with various cross sections. The
             semianalytic transformations are based on superellipse
             equations. Finite-element full-wave simulations of
             transformations from a dipole to a cylinder, diamond-shaped
             cylinder, and flattened cylinder are presented. The
             radiation pattern of the dipole seen by an outside observer
             is replicated in all cases demonstrating the potential
             applicability of source transformations to conformal antenna
             design. © 2009 American Institute of Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.3130182},
   Key = {fds269798}
}

@article{fds269800,
   Author = {Sajuyigbe, S and Cummer, SA and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Utilization of metamaterials for wide angle impedance
             matching (WAIM) in phased array antennas},
   Journal = {International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation
             (APSURSI)},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {1522-3965},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/APS.2009.5172272},
   Doi = {10.1109/APS.2009.5172272},
   Key = {fds269800}
}

@article{fds269799,
   Author = {Kundtz, N and Roberts, DA and Allen, J and Cummer, S and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Optical source transformations.},
   Journal = {Optics express},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {26},
   Pages = {21215-21222},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19104551},
   Abstract = {Transformation optics is a recently appreciated methodology
             for the design of complex media that control the propagation
             of electromagnetic and other types of waves. The
             transformation optical technique involves the use of
             coordinate transformations applied to some region of space,
             providing a conceptual means to redirect the flow of waves.
             Successfully designed devices to date have made use of
             transformations acting on passive space only; however, the
             technique can also be applied when source distributions
             (e.g., current and charge) are included within the space
             being transformed. In this paper we present examples of
             source transformations that illustrate the potential of
             these expanded transformation optical methods. In
             particular, using finite-element full-wave simulations, we
             confirm the restoration of dipole radiation patterns from
             both a distorted 'pin-wheel' antenna and a bent dipole
             partially occluded by a cylindrical scatterer. We propose
             the technique of source transformations as a powerful
             approach for antenna design, especially in relation to
             conformal antennas.},
   Key = {fds269799}
}

@booklet{Mock08,
   Author = {Mock, JJ and Hill, RT and Degiron, A and Zauscher, S and Chilkoti, A and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Distance-dependent plasmon resonant coupling between a gold
             nanoparticle and gold film.},
   Journal = {Nano Letters},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {2245-2252},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {1530-6984},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18590340},
   Abstract = {We present an experimental analysis of the plasmonic
             scattering properties of gold nanoparticles controllably
             placed nanometers away from a gold metal film. We show that
             the spectral response of this system results from the
             interplay between the localized plasmon resonance of the
             nanoparticle and the surface plasmon polaritons of the gold
             film, as previously predicted by theoretical studies. In
             addition, we report that the metal film induces a
             polarization to the single nanoparticle light scattering,
             resulting in a doughnut-shaped point spread function when
             imaged in the far-field. Both the spectral response and the
             polarization effects are highly sensitive to the
             nanoparticle-film separation distance. Such a system shows
             promise in potential biometrology and diagnostic
             devices.},
   Doi = {10.1021/nl080872f},
   Key = {Mock08}
}

@booklet{Rahm08,
   Author = {Rahm, M and Roberts, DA and Pendry, JB and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Transformation-optical design of adaptive beam bends and
             beam expanders.},
   Journal = {Optics express},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {15},
   Pages = {11555-11567},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {1094-4087},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18648477},
   Abstract = {We describe the design of adaptive beam bends and beam
             splitters with arbitrary bend and split angles by use of
             finite embedded coordinate transformations. The devices do
             not exhibit reflection at the entrance or exit surfaces. It
             is shown that moderate and practically achievable values of
             the relative permittivity and permeability can be obtained
             for beam bends and splitters with both small and large bend
             radius. The devices are also discussed in the context of
             reconfigurable metamaterials, in which the bend and split
             angles can be dynamically tuned. The performance of adaptive
             beam bends and splitters is demonstrated in full wave
             simulations based on a finite-element method. Furthermore,
             the design of an adaptively adjustable transformation-optical
             beam expander/compressor is presented. It is observed that a
             pure transformation-optical design cannot result in a
             reflectionless beam expander/compressor.},
   Key = {Rahm08}
}

@booklet{Sebba08,
   Author = {Sebba, DS and Mock, JJ and Smith, DR and Labean, TH and Lazarides,
             AA},
   Title = {Reconfigurable core-satellite nanoassemblies as
             molecularly-driven plasmonic switches.},
   Journal = {Nano Letters},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {1803-1808},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {1530-6984},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18540653},
   Abstract = {Molecular control of plasmon coupling is investigated in
             sub-100 nm assemblies composed of 13 nm gold "satellite"
             particles tethered by reconfigurable DNA nanostructures to a
             50 nm gold "core" particle. Reconfiguration of the DNA
             nanostructures from a compact to an extended state results
             in blue shifting of the assembly plasmon resonance,
             indicating reduced interparticle coupling and lengthening of
             the core-satellite tether. Scattering spectra of the
             core-satellite assemblies before and after reconfiguration
             are compared with spectra calculated using a structural
             model that incorporates the core/satellite ratio determined
             by TEM imaging and estimates of tether length based upon
             prior measurements of interparticle separation in DNA linked
             nanoparticle networks. A strong correspondence between
             measured and simulated difference spectra validates the
             structural models that link the observed plasmon modulation
             with DNA nanostructure reconfiguration.},
   Doi = {10.1021/nl080029h},
   Key = {Sebba08}
}

@booklet{Yuan08,
   Author = {Yuan, Y and Bingham, C and Tyler, T and Palit, S and Hand, TH and Padilla,
             WJ and Smith, DR and Jokerst, NM and Cummer, SA},
   Title = {Dual-band planar electric metamaterial in the terahertz
             regime.},
   Journal = {Optics express},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {13},
   Pages = {9746-9752},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {1094-4087},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18575543},
   Abstract = {We present the design, fabrication, and measurement of a
             dual-band planar metamaterial with two distinct electric
             resonances at 1.0 and 1.2 THz, as a step towards the
             development of frequency agile or broadband THz materials
             and devices. A method of defining the effective thickness of
             the metamaterial layer is introduced to simplify the
             material design and characterization. Good agreement between
             the simulated and measured transmission is obtained for the
             fabricated sample by treating the sample as multi-layer
             system, i. e. the effective metamaterial layer plus the rest
             of the substrate, as well as properly modeling the loss of
             the substrate. The methods introduced in this paper can be
             extended to planar metamaterial structures operating in
             infrared and optical frequency ranges.},
   Doi = {10.1364/oe.16.009746},
   Key = {Yuan08}
}

@booklet{Soukoulis08,
   Author = {Soukoulis, CM and Smith, DR},
   Title = {The Seventh International Symposium on Photonic and
             Electromagnetic Crystal Structures (PECS-VII) -
             Preface},
   Journal = {Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and
             Applications},
   Volume = {6},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {1-2},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {1569-4410},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000255667700001&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.photonics.2008.01.003},
   Key = {Soukoulis08}
}

@booklet{Rahm08b,
   Author = {Rahm, M and Cummer, SA and Schurig, D and Pendry, JB and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Optical design of reflectionless complex media by finite
             embedded coordinate transformations.},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {100},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {063903},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0031-9007},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18352474},
   Abstract = {Transformation optics offers an unconventional approach to
             the control of electromagnetic fields. The transformation
             optical structures proposed to date, such as electromagnetic
             "invisibility" cloaks and concentrators, are inherently
             reflectionless and leave the transmitted wave undisturbed.
             Here, we expand the class of transformation optical
             structures by introducing finite, embedded coordinate
             transformations, which allow the electromagnetic waves to be
             steered or focused. We apply the method to the design of
             several devices, including a parallel beam shifter and a
             beam splitter, both of which are reflectionless and exhibit
             unusual electromagnetic behavior as confirmed by 2D
             full-wave simulations.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.063903},
   Key = {Rahm08b}
}

@article{fds304903,
   Author = {Cummer, SA and Popa, B-I and Schurig, D and Smith, DR and Pendry, J and Rahm, M and Starr, A},
   Title = {Scattering theory derivation of a 3D acoustic cloaking
             shell.},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {100},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {024301},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0031-9007},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18232873},
   Abstract = {Through acoustic scattering theory we derive the mass
             density and bulk modulus of a spherical shell that can
             eliminate scattering from an arbitrary object in the
             interior of the shell--in other words, a 3D acoustic
             cloaking shell. Calculations confirm that the pressure and
             velocity fields are smoothly bent and excluded from the
             central region as for previously reported electromagnetic
             cloaking shells. The shell requires an anisotropic mass
             density with principal axes in the spherical coordinate
             directions and a radially dependent bulk modulus. The
             existence of this 3D cloaking shell indicates that such
             reflectionless solutions may also exist for other wave
             systems that are not isomorphic with electromagnetics.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.024301},
   Key = {fds304903}
}

@article{fds304904,
   Author = {Liu, R and Cheng, Q and Hand, T and Mock, JJ and Cui, TJ and Cummer, SA and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Experimental demonstration of electromagnetic tunneling
             through an epsilon-near-zero metamaterial at microwave
             frequencies.},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {100},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {023903},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0031-9007},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18232869},
   Abstract = {Silveirinha and Engheta have recently proposed that
             electromagnetic waves can tunnel through a material with an
             electric permittivity (epsilon) near zero (ENZ). An ENZ
             material of arbitrary geometry can thus serve as a perfect
             coupler between incoming and outgoing waveguides with
             identical cross-sectional area, so long as one dimension of
             the ENZ is electrically small. In this Letter we present an
             experimental demonstration of microwave tunneling between
             two planar waveguides separated by a thin ENZ channel. The
             ENZ channel consists of a planar waveguide in which
             complementary split ring resonators are patterned on the
             lower surface. A tunneling passband is found in transmission
             measurements, while a two-dimensional spatial map of the
             electric field distribution reveals a uniform phase
             variation across the channel--both measurements in agreement
             with theory and numerical simulations.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.023903},
   Key = {fds304904}
}

@article{fds269586,
   Author = {Hand, TH and Yuan, Y and Palit, S and Bingham, C and Rahm, M and Smith, DR and Padilla, WJ and Jokerst, N and Cummer, SA},
   Title = {Dual-band planar electric THz metamaterial with resonator
             yield analysis},
   Journal = {Optics InfoBase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {THz radiation transmission through a dual-band electric
             metamaterial is presented, where we analyze manufacturing
             defects in the metamaterial. Removing different resonator
             percentages allows us to quantify the effects of
             manufacturing defects on the material response. © 2008 OSA
             / CLEO/QELS 2008.},
   Key = {fds269586}
}

@article{fds269587,
   Author = {Hand, TH and Yuan, Y and Palit, S and Bingham, C and Rahm, M and Smith, DR and Padilla, WJ and Jokerst, N and Cummer, SA},
   Title = {Dual-band planar electric THz metamaterial with resonator
             yield analysis},
   Journal = {Optics InfoBase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {THz radiation transmission through a dual-band electric
             metamaterial is presented, where we analyze manufacturing
             defects in the metamaterial. Removing different resonator
             percentages allows us to quantify the effects of
             manufacturing defects on the material response. © 2008 OSA
             / CLEO/QELS 2008.},
   Key = {fds269587}
}

@booklet{Cummer08,
   Author = {Cummer, SA and Popa, BI and Schurig, D and Smith, DR and Pendry, J and Rahm, M and Starr, A},
   Title = {Scattering theory derivation of a 3D acoustic cloaking
             shell},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {1},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {024301},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0031-9007},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18232873},
   Abstract = {Through acoustic scattering theory we derive the mass
             density and bulk modulus of a spherical shell that can
             eliminate scattering from an arbitrary object in the
             interior of the shell-in other words, a 3D acoustic cloaking
             shell. Calculations confirm that the pressure and velocity
             fields are smoothly bent and excluded from the central
             region as for previously reported electromagnetic cloaking
             shells. The shell requires an anisotropic mass density with
             principal axes in the spherical coordinate directions and a
             radially dependent bulk modulus. The existence of this 3D
             cloaking shell indicates that such reflectionless solutions
             may also exist for other wave systems that are not
             isomorphic with electromagnetics.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.024301},
   Key = {Cummer08}
}

@booklet{Liu08,
   Author = {Liu, R and Cheng, Q and Hand, T and Mock, JJ and Cui, TJ and Cummer, SA and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Experimental demonstration of electromagnetic tunneling
             through an epsilon-near-zero metamaterial at microwave
             frequencies},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {1},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {023903},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0031-9007},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18232869},
   Abstract = {Silveirinha and Engheta have recently proposed that
             electromagnetic waves can tunnel through a material with an
             electric permittivity (epsilon) near zero (ENZ). An ENZ
             material of arbitrary geometry can thus serve as a perfect
             coupler between incoming and outgoing waveguides with
             identical cross-sectional area, so long as one dimension of
             the ENZ is electrically small. In this Letter we present an
             experimental demonstration of microwave tunneling between
             two planar waveguides separated by a thin ENZ channel. The
             ENZ channel consists of a planar waveguide in which
             complementary split ring resonators are patterned on the
             lower surface. A tunneling passband is found in transmission
             measurements, while a two-dimensional spatial map of the
             electric field distribution reveals a uniform phase
             variation across the channel-both measurements in agreement
             with theory and numerical simulations.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.023903},
   Key = {Liu08}
}

@article{fds269690,
   Author = {Nguyen, VN and Justice, BJ and Yönak, SH and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Electrically coupled graded index metamaterial},
   Journal = {Conference Proceedings 2008 IEEE International Workshop on
             Antenna Technology: Small Antennas and Novel Metamaterials,
             IWAT 2008},
   Pages = {119-122},
   Year = {2008},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IWAT.2008.4511304},
   Doi = {10.1109/IWAT.2008.4511304},
   Key = {fds269690}
}

@article{fds269691,
   Author = {Jiang, WX and Cui, TJ and Yang, XM and Cheng, Q and Liu, R and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Invisibility cloak without singularity},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {93},
   Number = {19},
   Year = {2008},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3026532},
   Abstract = {An elliptical invisible cloak is proposed using a coordinate
             transformation in the elliptical-cylindrical coordinate
             system, which crushes the cloaked object to a line segment
             instead of a point. The elliptical cloak is reduced to a
             nearly circular cloak if the elliptical focus becomes very
             small. The advantage of the proposed invisibility cloak is
             that none of the parameters is singular and the changing
             range of all parameters is relatively small. © 2008
             American Institute of Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.3026532},
   Key = {fds269691}
}

@article{fds269692,
   Author = {Leonhardt, U and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Focus on cloaking and transformation optics},
   Journal = {New Journal of Physics},
   Volume = {10},
   Year = {2008},
   ISSN = {1367-2630},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1367-2630/10/11/115019},
   Doi = {10.1088/1367-2630/10/11/115019},
   Key = {fds269692}
}

@article{fds269693,
   Author = {Liu, R and Ji, C and Mock, JJ and Tiejun, C and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Random gradient index metamaterials},
   Journal = {META08 - Proceedings of the 2008 International Workshop on
             Metamaterials},
   Pages = {248-250},
   Year = {2008},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/META.2008.4723589},
   Abstract = {We report a broadband reflectionless gradient random medium
             design and experimental implementation by using metamaterial
             technology. This gradient random medium matches the
             impedance of the air and gradually change its refraction
             index randomly, creating a puzzle for wave propagation in
             front of a metal conductor. Thus, such type of coating is
             expected to diffuse the reflection waves from a conductor
             metal. The implementation of such device needs, in our
             experiment, more than 30,000 different unit cells.
             Obviously, such large scale design and fabrication mask
             generation have been out of the scope of traditional manual
             production. We propose an automatical metamaterial design
             system, which made the implementation of gradient random
             medium possible and provide the technique of large scale
             metamaterial unit-cell design. The design is verified by the
             2D near field scanning mapper measurement and the angular
             measurement. The measurement results show that the designed
             sample works well as we expected. © 2008
             IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/META.2008.4723589},
   Key = {fds269693}
}

@article{fds269694,
   Author = {Liu, R and Ji, C and Tiejun, C and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Progress of metamaterials at microwave frequencies},
   Journal = {META08 - Proceedings of the 2008 International Workshop on
             Metamaterials},
   Pages = {47-49},
   Year = {2008},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/META.2008.4723528},
   Abstract = {Metamaterials have been rapidly explored for a few years and
             attracted tremendous attentions. This paper discussed the
             latest progress in metamaterials at microwave frequencies.
             The ability of designing and building the complex medium has
             been dramatically enlarged via the development of various
             types of metamaterial configuration, rapid design system and
             sophisticated fabrication technique. © 2008
             IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/META.2008.4723528},
   Key = {fds269694}
}

@article{fds269695,
   Author = {Roberts, DA and Rahm, M and Pendry, JB and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Transformation-optical design of sharp waveguide bends and
             corners},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {93},
   Number = {25},
   Year = {2008},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3055604},
   Abstract = {Transformation optics is a recently appreciated approach for
             designing complex electromagnetic media. Here, we describe
             the extension of transformation optical techniques to
             include waveguide boundary conditions. We illustrate the use
             of finite embedded coordinate transformations to design a
             medium that can be incorporated into a waveguide bend or
             corner, rendering the structure reflectionless. The expected
             behavior of the waveguide bends is confirmed with numerical
             simulations. © 2008 American Institute of
             Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.3055604},
   Key = {fds269695}
}

@article{fds269696,
   Author = {Smith, DR and Soukoulis, CM},
   Title = {Preface},
   Journal = {Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and
             Applications},
   Volume = {6},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {1-2},
   Year = {2008},
   ISSN = {1569-4410},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.photonics.2008.01.003},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.photonics.2008.01.003},
   Key = {fds269696}
}

@article{fds269697,
   Author = {Degiron, A and Berini, P and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Guiding light with long-range plasmons},
   Journal = {Optics & Photonics News},
   Volume = {19},
   Number = {7-8},
   Pages = {28-34},
   Year = {2008},
   ISSN = {1047-6938},
   Abstract = {Long-range surface plasmons can be implemented, to develop
             integrated optical circuits and other chip-scale photonic
             applications. Long-range surface plasmons are optical modes
             propagating along metallic circuits at optical and
             near-infrared wavelengths that are characterized by specific
             electromagnetic properties. It is also a coupled mode of
             metal films, arising when its thickness is small, to allow
             it on each metal-dielectric interface to interact. These
             modes are less confined and less affected by absorption in
             the metal. The electromagnetic fields associated with these
             plasmons are evanescent in the direction transverse to their
             propagation, due to interaction between plasmons and
             electrons. A simple way to guide a long-range surface
             plasmon is, to restrict the width of the thin metal film
             along which it propagates.},
   Key = {fds269697}
}

@article{fds269698,
   Author = {Cheng, Q and Liu, R and Mock, JJ and Cui, TJ and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Partial focusing by indefinite complementary
             metamaterials},
   Journal = {Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials
             Physics},
   Volume = {78},
   Number = {12},
   Year = {2008},
   ISSN = {1098-0121},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.78.121102},
   Abstract = {We have experimentally realized a two-dimensional partial
             focusing within a planar waveguide using complementary
             indefinite metamaterials. When the electric fields emitted
             from the dipole are TE polarized, the focusing condition
             requires negative magnetic response in the propagation
             direction of the waveguide, which can be achieved by the
             complementary electric resonator (CELC) structures. We have
             carefully designed the experimental configurations and the
             dimensions for the CELC structures. The experimental result
             is consistent with the theoretical prediction, which
             validates the partial focusing phenomenon. © 2008 The
             American Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.78.121102},
   Key = {fds269698}
}

@article{fds269792,
   Author = {Hand, TH and Yuan, Y and Palit, S and Bingham, C and Rahm, M and Smith, DR and Padilla, WJ and Jokerst, N and Cummer, SA},
   Title = {Dual-band planar electric THz metamaterial with resonator
             yield analysis},
   Journal = {Conference on Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (QELS) -
             Technical Digest Series},
   Year = {2008},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/QELS.2008.4552848},
   Abstract = {THz radiation transmission through a dual-band electric
             metamaterial is presented, where we analyze manufacturing
             defects in the metamaterial. Removing different resonator
             percentages allows us to quantify the effects of
             manufacturing defects on the material response. © 2008
             IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/QELS.2008.4552848},
   Key = {fds269792}
}

@article{fds269793,
   Author = {Hand, TH and Yu, Y and Palit, S and Bingham, C and Rahm, M and Smith, DR and Padilla, WJ and Jokerst, N and Cummer, SA},
   Title = {Dual-band planar electric THz metamaterial with resonator
             yield analysis},
   Journal = {2008 Conference on Quantum Electronics and Laser Science
             Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics,
             CLEO/QELS},
   Year = {2008},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/CLEO.2008.4552339},
   Abstract = {THz radiation transmission through a dual-band electric
             metamaterial is presented, where we analyze manufacturing
             defects in the metamaterial. Removing different resonator
             percentages allows us to quantify the effects of
             manufacturing defects on the material response. ©2008
             IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/CLEO.2008.4552339},
   Key = {fds269793}
}

@article{fds269795,
   Author = {Hand, TH and Gollub, J and Sajuyigbe, S and Smith, DR and Cummer,
             SA},
   Title = {Characterization of complementary electric field coupled
             resonant surfaces},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {93},
   Number = {21},
   Year = {2008},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3037215},
   Abstract = {We present angle-resolved free-space transmission and
             reflection measurements of a surface composed of
             complementary electric inductive-capacitive (CELC)
             resonators. By measuring the reflection and transmission
             coefficients of a CELC surface with different polarizations
             and particle orientations, we show that the CELC only
             responds to in-plane magnetic fields. This confirms the
             Babinet particle duality between the CELC and its
             complement, the electric field coupled LC resonator.
             Characterization of the CELC structure serves to expand the
             current library of resonant elements metamaterial designers
             can draw upon to make unique materials and surfaces. © 2008
             American Institute of Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.3037215},
   Key = {fds269795}
}

@booklet{Driscoll08,
   Author = {Driscoll, T and Palit, S and Qazilbash, MM and Brehm, M and Keilmann, F and Chae, B-G and Yun, S-J and Kim, H-T and Cho, SY and Jokerst, NM and Smith,
             DR and Basov, DN},
   Title = {Dynamic tuning of an infrared hybrid-metamaterial resonance
             using vanadium dioxide},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {93},
   Number = {2},
   Year = {2008},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2956675},
   Abstract = {We demonstrate a metamaterial device whose far-infrared
             resonance frequency can be dynamically tuned. Dynamic tuning
             should alleviate many bandwidth-related roadblocks to
             metamaterial application by granting a wide matrix of
             selectable electromagnetic properties. This tuning effect is
             achieved via a hybrid-metamaterial architecture;
             intertwining split ring resonator metamaterial elements with
             vanadium dioxide (VO2) -a material whose optical properties
             can be strongly and quickly changed via external stimulus.
             This hybrid structure concept opens a fresh dimension in
             both exploring and exploiting the intriguing electromagnetic
             behavior of metamaterials. © 2008 American Institute of
             Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.2956675},
   Key = {Driscoll08}
}

@booklet{Rahm08a,
   Author = {Rahm, M and Schurig, D and Roberts, DA and Cummer, SA and Smith, DR and Pendry, JB},
   Title = {Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using
             form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwell's
             equations},
   Journal = {Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and
             Applications},
   Volume = {6},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {87-95},
   Year = {2008},
   ISSN = {1569-4410},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.photonics.2007.07.013},
   Abstract = {The technique of applying form-invariant, spatial coordinate
             transformations of Maxwell's equations can facilitate the
             design of structures with unique electromagnetic or optical
             functionality. Here, we illustrate the transformation-optical
             approach in the designs of a square electromagnetic cloak
             and an omni-directional electromagnetic field concentrator.
             The transformation equations are described and the
             functionality of the devices is numerically confirmed by
             two-dimensional finite element simulations. The two devices
             presented demonstrate that the transformation optic approach
             leads to the specification of complex, anisotropic and
             inhomogeneous materials with well directed and distinct
             electromagnetic behavior. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights
             reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.photonics.2007.07.013},
   Key = {Rahm08a}
}

@booklet{Jiang08,
   Author = {Jiang, WX and Cui, TJ and Cheng, Q and Chin, JY and Yang, XM and Liu, R and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Design of arbitrarily shaped concentrators based on
             conformally optical transformation of nonuniform rational
             B-spline surfaces},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {92},
   Number = {26},
   Year = {2008},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2951485},
   Abstract = {We study the design of arbitrarily shaped electromagnetic
             (EM) concentrators and their potential applications. To
             obtain closed-form formulas of EM parameters for an
             arbitrarily shaped concentrator, we employ nonuniform
             rational B -spline (NURBS) to represent the geometrical
             boundary. Using the conformally optical transformation of
             NURBS surfaces, we propose the analytical design of
             arbitrarily shaped concentrators, which are composed of
             anisotropic and inhomogeneous metamaterials with closed-form
             constitutive tensors. The designed concentrators are
             numerically validated by full-wave simulations, which show
             perfectly directed EM behaviors. As one of the potential
             applications, we demonstrate a way to amplify plane waves
             using a rectangular concentrator, which is much more
             efficient and easier than the existing techniques. Using
             NURBS expands the generality of the transformation optics
             and could lead toward making a very general tool that would
             interface with commercial softwares such as 3D STUDIOMAX and
             MAYA. © 2008 American Institute of Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.2951485},
   Key = {Jiang08}
}

@booklet{Landy08,
   Author = {Landy, NI and Sajuyigbe, S and Mock, JJ and Smith, DR and Padilla,
             WJ},
   Title = {Perfect metamaterial absorber},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {100},
   Number = {20},
   Pages = {207402},
   Year = {2008},
   ISSN = {0031-9007},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.207402},
   Abstract = {We present the design for an absorbing metamaterial (MM)
             with near unity absorbance A(ω). Our structure consists of
             two MM resonators that couple separately to electric and
             magnetic fields so as to absorb all incident radiation
             within a single unit cell layer. We fabricate, characterize,
             and analyze a MM absorber with a slightly lower predicted
             A(ω) of 96%. Unlike conventional absorbers, our MM consists
             solely of metallic elements. The substrate can therefore be
             optimized for other parameters of interest. We
             experimentally demonstrate a peak A(ω) greater than 88% at
             11.5GHz. © 2008 The American Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.207402},
   Key = {Landy08}
}

@booklet{Degiron08,
   Author = {Degiron, A and Cho, S-Y and Harrison, C and Jokerst, NM and Dellagiacoma, C and Martin, OJF and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Experimental comparison between conventional and hybrid
             long-range surface plasmon waveguide bends},
   Journal = {Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical
             Physics},
   Volume = {77},
   Number = {2},
   Year = {2008},
   ISSN = {1050-2947},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.77.021804},
   Abstract = {We report on the characterization of long-range surface
             plasmon waveguide bends at telecom wavelengths (λ=1550
             nm). The structures consist of a thin Au stripe embedded in
             a transparent polymer film. When the polymer thickness is
             larger than the lateral extension of the plasmon, the stripe
             sustains a conventional long-range mode; in the opposite
             case, the mode is hybrid because its field distribution is
             confined by total internal reflection in the dielectric
             cladding. This hybridization increases the damping by
             absorption but dramatically reduces the radiation loss that
             occurs for curved geometries, such as bends. Our results are
             supported quantitatively by full-wave finite-element
             simulations. © 2008 The American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevA.77.021804},
   Key = {Degiron08}
}

@booklet{Chen08,
   Author = {Chen, H-T and Palit, S and Tyler, T and Bingham, CM and Zide, JMO and O'Hara, JF and Smith, DR and Gossard, AC and Averitt, RD and Padilla,
             WJ and Jokerst, NM and Taylor, AJ},
   Title = {Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of
             freely propagating terahertz waves},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {93},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {091117-091117},
   Year = {2008},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2978071},
   Abstract = {We demonstrate fast electrical modulation of freely
             propagating terahertz waves at room temperature using hybrid
             metamaterial devices. The devices are planar metamaterials
             fabricated on doped semiconductor epitaxial layers, which
             form hybrid metamaterial-Schottky diode structures. With an
             applied ac voltage bias, we show modulation of terahertz
             radiation at inferred frequencies over 2 MHz. The modulation
             speed is limited by the device depletion capacitance which
             may be reduced for even faster operation. © 2008 American
             Institute of Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.2978071},
   Key = {Chen08}
}

@article{fds304083,
   Author = {Rahm, M and Cummer, SA and Schurig, D and Pendry, JB and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Optical design of reflectionless complex media by finite
             embedded coordinate transformations},
   Journal = {Phys. Rev. Lett.},
   Volume = {100},
   Pages = {063903},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/0711.1846v2},
   Abstract = {Transformation optics offers an unconventional approach to
             the control of electromagnetic fields. A transformation
             optical structure is designed by first applying a
             form-invariant coordinate transform to Maxwell's equations,
             in which part of free space is distorted in some desired
             manner. The coordinate transformation is then applied to the
             permittivity and permeability tensors to yield the
             specification for a complex medium with desired
             functionality. The transformation optical structures
             proposed to date, such as electromagnetic "invisibility"
             cloaks and concentrators, are inherently reflectionless and
             leave the transmitted wave undisturbed. Here we expand the
             class of transformation optical structures by introducing
             finite, embedded coordinate transformations, which allow the
             electromagnetic waves to be steered or focused. We apply the
             method to the design of several devices, including a
             parallel beam shifter and a beam splitter, both of which
             exhibit unusual electromagnetic behavior as confirmed by 2D
             full-wave simulations. The devices are designed to be
             reflectionless, in accordance with a straightforward
             topological criterion.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.063903},
   Key = {fds304083}
}

@booklet{Degiron07a,
   Author = {Degiron, A and Dellagiacoma, C and McIlhargey, JG and Shvets, G and Martin, OJF and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Simulations of hybrid long-range plasmon modes with
             application to 90 degree bends.},
   Journal = {Optics Letters},
   Volume = {32},
   Number = {16},
   Pages = {2354-2356},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0146-9592},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17700783},
   Abstract = {We perform rigorous simulations of hybrid long-range modes
             guided by a central metal core and a two-dimensional
             dielectric slab. We show that these modes are subject to
             fewer limitations than conventional long-range plasmon modes
             in terms of field confinement and guiding performance. These
             hybrid modes may offer substantial improvements for
             integrated plasmonic components, as illustrated here by the
             consideration of 90 degrees bends.},
   Key = {Degiron07a}
}

@booklet{Degiron07,
   Author = {A. Degiron and D. R. Smith and J. J. Mock and B. J. Justice and J. Gollub},
   Title = {Negative index and indefinite media waveguide
             couplers},
   Journal = {Applied Physics A-materials Science \& Processing},
   Volume = {87},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {321 -- 328},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0947-8396},
   Abstract = {We study the coupling interaction between dielectric
             waveguides and coupling elements made from
             negative-refracting media. The coupling configuration
             consists of a length of dielectric waveguide, which
             terminates either directly into or near a planar layer
             composed of the negative-refracting medium, and is followed
             by a second waveguide. Radiation output from the first
             waveguide is refocused at the position of the second
             waveguide, so that the negative-refracting layer serves as a
             coupler between the waveguides. Because both isotropic
             negative-index layers and bilayers of indefinite media can
             recover the near-field, evanescent components of a source
             field distribution, the coupling between the input and
             output waveguides can be highly efficient - in principle
             providing perfect, lossless coupling. We present simulations
             and some initial experimental results illustrating the
             coupling effect, and speculate on the potential for optical
             fiber couplers and integrated modulators.},
   Key = {Degiron07}
}

@booklet{Degiron07b,
   Author = {A. Degiron and J. J. Mock and D. R. Smith},
   Title = {Modulating and tuning the response of metamaterials at the
             unit cell level},
   Journal = {Optics Express},
   Volume = {15},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {1115 -- 1127},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {1094-4087},
   Abstract = {We perform a series of simulations and experiments at
             microwave frequencies where we dynamically alter the
             magnetic resonance of one individual split ring resonator by
             photodoping a piece of low-doped semiconductor positioned
             within the gap of the resonator. We predict and
             experimentally achieve a complete suppression of the
             resonance amplitude using an 815 nm laser source and then
             briefly consider the problem of tuning the frequency of an
             SRR by the same method. We also illustrate the metamaterial
             approach to active electromagnetic devices by implementing a
             simple yet efficient optical modulator and a three channel
             dynamical filter. (c) 2007 Optical Society of
             America.},
   Key = {Degiron07b}
}

@booklet{Driscoll07b,
   Author = {T. Driscoll and G. O. Andreev and D. N. Basov and S. Palit and T. Ren and J. Mock and S. Y. Cho and N. M. Jokerst and D. R. Smith},
   Title = {Quantitative investigation of a terahertz artificial
             magnetic resonance using oblique angle spectroscopy},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {90},
   Number = {9},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   Abstract = {The authors present a spectroscopic analysis of a planar
             split-ring-resonator (SRR) medium at terahertz frequencies,
             quantitatively characterizing the associated magnetic
             resonance. Experimental quantification at terahertz and
             infrared frequencies of metamaterial optical constants has
             been primarily absent, largely due to the difficulty of
             collecting phase information at these frequencies. In this
             letter, the authors circumvent the need for phase
             information in the characterization by acquiring the power
             transmitted through the metamaterial at a series of oblique
             angles, and relating the multiangle data set to the
             effective permittivity and permeability through the Fresnel
             expressions. The resulting measurements reveal the expected
             resonant permeability of the SRR which exhibits a range of
             negative values, the minimum value being mu=-0.8 at 1.1 THz.
             (c) 2007 American Institute of Physics.},
   Key = {Driscoll07b}
}

@article{fds269687,
   Author = {Degiron, A and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Numerical simulations of long-range plasmonic transmission
             lines},
   Journal = {Springer Series in Optical Sciences},
   Volume = {131},
   Pages = {55-71},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {0342-4111},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-4333-8_5},
   Abstract = {Structures that guide waves can be found in almost every
             optoelectronic or photonic device. Yet, the basic principles
             of guided waves in practical realizations have not evolved
             substantially over the past several decades. At microwave or
             radio frequencies (RF), waveguides typically comprise
             metal-enclosed volumes with or without a central conductor;
             in the latter case, the lateral dimensions of the waveguide
             dictate the frequencies of operation. At optical
             wavelengths, metals are comparatively poor conductors and
             have traditionally been excluded as optical components.
             Instead, dielectric waveguides are employed in which the
             mismatch between a higher dielectric region and free space
             or a lower dielectric cladding constrains light in a plane
             perpendicular to propagation. Because of the low losses in
             insulating dielectrics, optical waveguides (such as fiber
             optics) can support propagating modes with extraordinarily
             low absorption attenuation-often less than 1 dB per
             kilometer. © 2007 Springer.},
   Doi = {10.1007/978-1-4020-4333-8_5},
   Key = {fds269687}
}

@article{fds269688,
   Author = {Smith, DR},
   Title = {The role of metamaterials and plasmons for novel sensing
             applications},
   Journal = {Proceedings of IEEE Sensors},
   Pages = {1-},
   Year = {2007},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICSENS.2007.4388317},
   Abstract = {The past ten years have seen a tremendous acceleration in
             the exploration of metals for photonic applications. This
             exploration has been common to both the metamaterials and
             the plasmonics fields, which leverage the strong resonances
             of structured metals to produce desired electromagnetic
             response. However, the unique electromagnetic properties of
             metal components and composite materials come at a price:
             while a seemingly limitless palette of electromagnetic
             behavior can be coaxed out of carefully designed metal
             structures - negative refractive index and optical magnetism
             being two striking examples - material losses and dispersion
             place heavy constraints on the ultimate usability of these
             properties. Despite their drawbacks, metamaterials based on
             metals and plasmonic structures also exhibit unique
             phenomena that are distinct from other systems and
             materials. Both structures possess the capability to
             localize electromagnetic fields to regions much smaller than
             the wavelength of light, and to strongly enhance the local
             fields. This focusing of light naturally brings about an
             extreme sensitivity to the local environment, which can be
             used to implement sensing or modulation functionality. By
             exploiting the benefits of metals - field localization,
             field enhancement and sensitivity to local environment -
             while minimizing their disadvantages, we hope to develop an
             array of unique and competitive devices across the
             electromagnetic spectrum. In this talk we describe the
             amazing electromagnetic response that can be achieved in
             engineered metamaterial composites with metal inclusions,
             including negative index materials and the recently reported
             "invisibility" cloaks. © 2007 IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/ICSENS.2007.4388317},
   Key = {fds269688}
}

@article{fds269689,
   Author = {Degiron, A and Mock, JJ and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Optical control of metamaterial unit cells at microwave
             frequencies},
   Journal = {Conference Proceedings of the International Symposium on
             Signals, Systems and Electronics},
   Pages = {209-212},
   Year = {2007},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ISSSE.2007.4294450},
   Abstract = {We have developed metamaterial unit cells whose properties
             can be controlled dynamically using near-infrared light. The
             structures consist of split ring resonators (SRRs) operating
             at microwave frequencies that contain a piece of low-doped
             silicon in their gap. We show that the SRR response strongly
             depends on the silicon resistivity and exploit this property
             to modulate the amplitude or tune the frequency of the SRR
             resonance by photodoping the semiconductor with an 815 nm
             laser diode. We present several designs and experimental
             demonstrations of elementary active photonic devices based
             on this approach. © 2007 IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/ISSSE.2007.4294450},
   Key = {fds269689}
}

@article{fds269775,
   Author = {Justice, BJ and Nguyen, VN and Yönak, SH and Kim, J and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Electric-field-coupled metamaterials for microwave beam
             formation},
   Journal = {International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation
             (APSURSI)},
   Pages = {2566-2569},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {1522-3965},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/APS.2007.4396058},
   Abstract = {Microwave propagation through an eleetrie-field-coupled
             metamaterial lens with a refractive index gradient is
             experimentally investigated. A gradient in the refractive
             index of the metamaterial is introduced by continuous tuning
             of a single parameter in the metamaterial elements.
             Experimental field maps, acquired in a planar waveguide,
             demonstrate that the planar gradient index lens can be used
             to collimate radiation from a line source, thereby forming a
             beam. © 2007 IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/APS.2007.4396058},
   Key = {fds269775}
}

@article{fds269776,
   Author = {Palit, S and Driscoll, T and Ren, T and Mock, J and Cho, S-Y and Jokerst,
             NM and Smith, D and Basov, D},
   Title = {Toward artificial magnetism using terahertz split ring
             resonator metamaterials},
   Journal = {Conference Proceedings - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society
             Annual Meeting-LEOS},
   Pages = {248-249},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {1092-8081},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LEOS.2006.279022},
   Abstract = {Split Ring Resonator arrays have been fabricated to
             demonstrate magnetic resonance in the terahertz regime.
             Spectroscopic transmission measurements as a function of
             oblique angle enable quantitative values of the permeability
             to be calculated © 2006 IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/LEOS.2006.279022},
   Key = {fds269776}
}

@article{fds269791,
   Author = {Parazzoli, CG and Greegor, RB and Tanielian, MH and Smith, DR and Cummer, S and Schurig, D and Ziolkowski, R},
   Title = {Applications of metamaterials in the GHz frequency
             domain},
   Journal = {International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation
             (APSURSI)},
   Pages = {1152-1155},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {1522-3965},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/APS.2007.4395703},
   Doi = {10.1109/APS.2007.4395703},
   Key = {fds269791}
}

@booklet{Driscoll07,
   Author = {Driscoll, T and Andreev, GO and Basov, DN and Palit, S and Cho, SY and Jokerst, NM and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Tuned permeability in terahertz split-ring resonators for
             devices and sensors},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {91},
   Number = {6},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2768300},
   Abstract = {A process is demonstrated for tuning the magnetic resonance
             frequency of a fixed split-ring resonator array, by way of
             adding material near the split-ring elements. Applying drops
             of a silicon-nanospheres/ethanol solution to the surface of
             the sample decreases the magnetic resonance frequency of the
             split-ring array in incremental steps of 0.03 THz. This fine
             tuning is done post fabrication and is demonstrated to be
             reversible. The exhibited sensitivity of the split-ring
             resonance frequency to the presence of silicon nanospheres
             also suggests further application possibilities as a sensor
             device. © 2007 American Institute of Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.2768300},
   Key = {Driscoll07}
}

@booklet{Liu07,
   Author = {Liu, R and Cui, TJ and Huang, D and Zhao, B and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Description and explanation of electromagnetic behaviors in
             artificial metamaterials based on effective medium
             theory},
   Journal = {Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter
             Physics},
   Volume = {76},
   Number = {2},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {1539-3755},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.76.026606},
   Abstract = {We present a general theory of effective media to set up the
             relationship between the particle responses and the
             macroscopic system behaviors for artificial metamaterials
             composed of periodic resonant structures. By treating the
             unit cell of the periodic structure as a particle, we define
             the average permittivity and permeability for different unit
             structures and derive a general form of discrete Maxwell's
             equations on the macroscale, from which we obtain different
             wave modes in metamaterials including the propagation mode,
             pure plasma mode, and resonant crystal band-gap mode. We
             explain unfamiliar behaviors of metamaterials from the
             numerical S parameter retrieval approach. The excellent
             agreement between theoretical predictions and retrieval
             results indicates that the defined model and method of
             analysis fit the physical structures very well. Thereafter,
             we propose a more advanced form of the fitting formulas for
             the effective electromagnetic parameters of metamaterials.
             © 2007 The American Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.76.026606},
   Key = {Liu07}
}

@booklet{Liu07b,
   Author = {Liu, R and Cui, TJ and Zhao, B and Lin, XQ and Ma, HF and Huang, D and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Resonant crystal band gap metamaterials in the microwave
             regime and their exotic amplification of evanescent
             waves},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {90},
   Number = {9},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2709897},
   Abstract = {The authors realize resonant crystal band gap metamaterials
             (CBMs) using circuit structures in the microwave regime,
             which behave quite differently from the conventional
             photonic band gap structures. They show that a periodic
             array of series inductor and shunt capacitor is equivalent
             to a CBM similar to a magnetic plasma at higher frequency
             band, and a periodic array of series capacitor and shunt
             inductor behaves like a CBM similar to an electric plasma at
             lower frequency band. The equivalent medium parameters have
             been derived in both cases, which show the existence of
             conjugate loss in imaginary parts. When two such structures
             are cascaded together, the authors demonstrate that
             evanescent waves are amplified and transmitted in a very
             narrow frequency band under the antimatching condition. Such
             a feature can be used to design extremely narrow band
             filters. Theoretical predictions, circuit simulations, and
             experimental results are presented to validate their
             conclusions. © 2007 American Institute of
             Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.2709897},
   Key = {Liu07b}
}

@booklet{Yao07,
   Author = {Yao, YH and Cui, TJ and Cheng, Q and Liu, R and Huang, D and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Realization of a super waveguide for high-power-density
             generation and transmission using right- and left-handed
             transmission-line circuits},
   Journal = {Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter
             Physics},
   Volume = {76},
   Number = {3},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {1539-3755},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.76.036602},
   Abstract = {In an earlier work, we have shown theoretically that
             extremely high power densities can be generated and
             transmitted in a super waveguide which is filled with
             homogeneous bilayers of right- and left-handed materials. In
             this paper, we realize such a super waveguide using
             right-handed transmission-line (RHTL) and left-handed
             transmission-line (LHTL) circuits. After a rigorous design
             of the RHTL-LHTL structure, we observe the generation and
             transmission of high-power densities in the super circuit
             waveguide from accurate simulation results. Both lossless
             and lossy cases have been studied for the LHTL circuit. From
             the simulation results and the rigorous analysis of energy
             speeds, we show that high-power flows with opposite
             directions are excited in the RHTL and LHTL parts of the
             super waveguide, which form the energy vortices in the
             waveguide cross section. © 2007 The American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.76.036602},
   Key = {Yao07}
}

@booklet{Schurig07,
   Author = {Schurig, D and Pendry, JB and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Transformation-designed optical elements},
   Journal = {Optics express},
   Volume = {15},
   Number = {22},
   Pages = {14772-14782},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {1094-4087},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.15.014772},
   Abstract = {We describe transformation design of optical elements which,
             in addition to image transfer, perform useful operations.
             For one class of operations, including translation,
             rotation, mirroring and inversion, an image can be generated
             that is ideal in the sense of the perfect lens (combining
             both near- and far-field components in a flat, unit transfer
             function, up to the limits imposed by material
             imperfection). We also describe elements that perform
             magnification, free from geometric aberrations, even while
             providing free-space working distance on both the input and
             output sides. These magnifying elements also operate in the
             near- and far-field, allowing them to transfer near field
             information into the far field, as with the hyper lens and
             other related devices, however in contrast to those devices,
             insertion loss can be much lower, due to the matching
             properties accessible with transformation design. The
             devices here described inherently require dispersive
             materials, thus chromatic aberration will be present, and
             the bandwidth limited. © 2007 Optical Society of
             America.},
   Doi = {10.1364/OE.15.014772},
   Key = {Schurig07}
}

@booklet{Liu07a,
   Author = {Liu, R and Degiron, A and Mock, JJ and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Negative index material composed of electric and magnetic
             resonators},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {90},
   Number = {26},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2752120},
   Abstract = {Negative index-of-refraction materials (NIMs) require both
             the electric permittivity and the magnetic permeability of
             the material to be negative. Most reported NIMs have
             combined conducting split ring resonators (SRRs) to realize
             the magnetic response and nonresonant wires to realize the
             electric response. Here, however, the authors demonstrate an
             impedance-matched, relatively broadband NIM which makes use
             of SRRs and electric resonators, tuned such that they
             resonate at the same frequency and with nearly the same
             frequency dispersion. The NIM properties are confirmed by
             direct measurements of the phase variation and field
             distributions, obtained by field mapping. © 2007 American
             Institute of Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.2752120},
   Key = {Liu07a}
}

@booklet{Cheng07,
   Author = {Cheng, Q and Liu, R and Huang, D and Cui, TJ and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Circuit verification of tunneling effect in zero
             permittivity medium},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {91},
   Number = {23},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2822444},
   Abstract = {We demonstrate the tunneling effect in zero permittivity
             medium using the multilayered printed circuit, where
             complementary split ring resonators have been used to
             produce the resonant electric response and achieve the
             effective zero permittivity near the plasma frequency. We
             have shown experimentally the existence of the transmission
             peak near the zero permittivity frequency. The application
             of such a structure as a circuit bend has been investigated,
             which shows the potential usage in the design of microwave
             and millimeter-wave integrated circuits in the future. ©
             2007 American Institute of Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.2822444},
   Key = {Cheng07}
}

@booklet{Gollub07,
   Author = {Gollub, J and Hand, T and Sajuyigbe, S and Mendonca, S and Cummer, S and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Characterizing the effects of disorder in metamaterial
             structures},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {91},
   Number = {16},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2801391},
   Abstract = {We investigate the effects of disorder on metamaterial
             samples composed of split ring resonators with randomly
             introduced variation in their geometrical dimensions. We
             demonstrate that disorder broadens the negative permeability
             band and introduces effective losses into the system.
             Transmission measurements on samples with varying degrees of
             disorder are found to be in excellent agreement with
             predictions based on standard homogenization theories. ©
             2007 American Institute of Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.2801391},
   Key = {Gollub07}
}

@booklet{Baena07,
   Author = {Baena, JD and Jelinek, L and Marqús, R and Mock, JJ and Gollub, J and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Isotropic frequency selective surfaces made of cubic
             resonators},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {91},
   Number = {19},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2806915},
   Abstract = {Isotropic frequency selective surface (FSS) made of cubic
             arrangements of split ring resonators (SRRs) is proposed and
             analyzed. For this purpose, a suitable isotropic
             modification of the SRR was used in the design of a cubic
             unit element invariant under the tetrahedral point symmetry
             group. It was experimentally demonstrated that the
             transmission through such a FSS is angle and polarization
             independent. For comparison, another FSS, whose unit
             elements do not satisfy necessary symmetries, was measured,
             showing clearly anisotropic behavior. We feel then that
             symmetries play an important role. Potential device
             applications are envisioned for antenna technology at
             microwave and terahertz frequencies. © 2007 American
             Institute of Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.2806915},
   Key = {Baena07}
}

@booklet{Greegor07,
   Author = {Greegor, RB and Parazzoli, CG and Nielsen, JA and Thompson, MA and Tanielian, MH and Vier, DC and Schultz, S and Smith, DR and Schurig,
             D},
   Title = {Microwave focusing and beam collimation using negative index
             of refraction lenses},
   Journal = {IET Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation},
   Volume = {1},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {108-115},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {1751-8725},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1049/iet-map:20060071},
   Abstract = {Negative index of refraction materials (NIMs) were first
             postulated by Veselago in 1968 and have recently been
             realised using structures formed with rings and wires
             deposited on printed circuit boards. The proof of the
             existence of negative index of refraction was established
             using a Snell's law experiment with a wedge. The predicted
             and measured refraction angles were found to be consistent
             for a negative index material and in excellent agreement
             with the theoretical expectations. For microwave lenses NIMs
             have the advantage of being lighter, having better focusing
             properties and potentially lower aberrations. Simulation and
             experimental results on NIM configurations including
             gradient index of refraction and spherical 3D lenses are
             presented. Both focusing and beam collimating applications
             will be considered. These results will be compared to normal
             positive index of refraction material lenses. © 2007 The
             Institution of Engineering and Technology.},
   Doi = {10.1049/iet-map:20060071},
   Key = {Greegor07}
}

@booklet{Driscoll07a,
   Author = {Driscoll, T and Basov, DN and Padilla, WJ and Mock, JJ and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Electromagnetic characterization of planar metamaterials by
             oblique angle spectroscopic measurements},
   Journal = {Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials
             Physics},
   Volume = {75},
   Number = {11},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {1098-0121},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.75.115114},
   Abstract = {Artificially structured metamaterials with unit-cell
             dimensions on the order of 1 10th of a wavelength (λ 10)
             have been shown to be well approximated by an effective
             medium description which mimics a continuous material. In
             this paper we present data for transmission and reflection
             from a planar array of split-ring resonators (SRRs) at
             varying angles of incidence. We attempt to model the form of
             the angle-dependent response of the SRRs using the Fresnel
             equations formulated from effective medium theory-treating
             the array as a thin continuous anisotropic crystal. This
             model is then fit to experimental data taken on a planar
             array of split rings to gauge the model accuracy, and to
             produce values for the frequency-dependent permeability and
             permittivity of the experimental SRR array. Simultaneous
             fitting of the transmission and reflection at multiple
             angles helps to avoid multiple solutions for the
             permittivity and permeability. This forward fitting approach
             using multiple angles is advantageous, as it enables a
             characterization of the optical constants without the need
             for phase information, and it avoids many of the branch
             problems inherent in the numerical inversion methods used so
             far on metamaterials. The work presented here shows the
             feasibility of this method. A refined procedure will be
             particularly advantageous for experimental characterization
             of higher frequency structures (i.e., THz and above), where
             phase information is difficult or impossible to obtain. ©
             2007 The American Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.75.115114},
   Key = {Driscoll07a}
}

@article{071010476427,
   Author = {Driscoll, T and Andreev, GO and Basov, DN and Palit, S and Ren, T and Mock,
             J and Cho, S-Y and Jokerst, NM and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Quantitative investigation of a terahertz artificial
             magnetic resonance using oblique angle spectroscopy},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {90},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {092508 -},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2679766},
   Keywords = {Magnetic permeability;Natural frequencies;Optical
             constants;Permittivity;Power transmission;Spectroscopic
             analysis;},
   Abstract = {The authors present a spectroscopic analysis of a planar
             split-ring-resonator (SRR) medium at terahertz frequencies,
             quantitatively characterizing the associated magnetic
             resonance. Experimental quantification at terahertz and
             infrared frequencies of metamaterial optical constants has
             been primarily absent, largely due to the difficulty of
             collecting phase information at these frequencies. In this
             letter, the authors circumvent the need for phase
             information in the characterization by acquiring the power
             transmitted through the metamaterial at a series of oblique
             angles, and relating the multiangle data set to the
             effective permittivity and permeability through the Fresnel
             expressions. The resulting measurements reveal the expected
             resonant permeability of the SRR which exhibits a range of
             negative values, the minimum value being μ=-0.8 at 1.1 THz.
             © 2007 American Institute of Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.2679766},
   Key = {071010476427}
}

@article{070710426144,
   Author = {Degiron, A and Mock, JJ and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Modulating and tuning the response of metamaterials at the
             unit cell level},
   Journal = {Optics express},
   Volume = {15},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {1115-1127},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {1094-4087},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.15.001115},
   Keywords = {Light modulators;Light sources;Magnetic resonance;Microwaves;Natural
             frequencies;Semiconductor materials;},
   Abstract = {We perform a series of simulations and experiments at
             microwave frequencies where we dynamically alter the
             magnetic resonance of one individual split ring resonator by
             photodoping a piece of low-doped semiconductor positioned
             within the gap of the resonator. We predict and
             experimentally achieve a complete suppression of the
             resonance amplitude using an 815 nm laser source and then
             briefly consider the problem of tuning the frequency of an
             SRR by the same method. We also illustrate the metamaterial
             approach to active electromagnetic devices by implementing a
             simple yet efficient optical modulator and a three channel
             dynamical filter. © 2007 Optical Society of
             America.},
   Doi = {10.1364/OE.15.001115},
   Key = {070710426144}
}

@article{071210498773,
   Author = {Degiron, A and Smith, DR and Mock, JJ and Justice, BJ and Gollub,
             J},
   Title = {Negative index and indefinite media waveguide
             couplers},
   Journal = {Applied Physics A},
   Volume = {87},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {321-328},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {0947-8396},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00339-006-3835-2},
   Keywords = {Computer simulation;Dielectric waveguides;Modulators;Planar
             waveguides;Refractive index;},
   Abstract = {We study the coupling interaction between dielectric
             waveguides and coupling elements made from
             negative-refracting media. The coupling configuration
             consists of a length of dielectric waveguide, which
             terminates either directly into or near a planar layer
             composed of the negative-refracting medium, and is followed
             by a second waveguide. Radiation output from the first
             waveguide is refocused at the position of the second
             waveguide, so that the negative-refracting layer serves as a
             coupler between the waveguides. Because both isotropic
             negative-index layers and bilayers of indefinite media can
             recover the near-field, evanescent components of a source
             field distribution, the coupling between the input and
             output waveguides can be highly efficient - in principle
             providing perfect, lossless coupling. We present simulations
             and some initial experimental results illustrating the
             coupling effect, and speculate on the potential for optical
             fiber couplers and integrated modulators. © Springer-Verlag
             2007.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s00339-006-3835-2},
   Key = {071210498773}
}

@article{9187001,
   Author = {Schurig, D and Mock, JJ and Justice, BJ and Cummer, SA and Pendry, JB and Starr, AF and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave
             frequencies.},
   Journal = {Science},
   Volume = {314},
   Number = {5801},
   Pages = {977-980},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17053110},
   Keywords = {copper;metamaterials;microwave propagation;},
   Abstract = {A recently published theory has suggested that a cloak of
             invisibility is in principle possible, at least over a
             narrow frequency band. We describe here the first practical
             realization of such a cloak; in our demonstration, a copper
             cylinder was "hidden" inside a cloak constructed according
             to the previous theoretical prescription. The cloak was
             constructed with the use of artificially structured
             metamaterials, designed for operation over a band of
             microwave frequencies. The cloak decreased scattering from
             the hidden object while at the same time reducing its
             shadow, so that the cloak and object combined began to
             resemble empty space.},
   Doi = {10.1126/science.1133628},
   Key = {9187001}
}

@booklet{Justice06,
   Author = {B. J. Justice and J. J. Mock and L. H. Guo and A. Degiron and D. Schurig and D. R. Smith},
   Title = {Spatial mapping of the internal and external electromagnetic
             fields of negative index metamaterials},
   Journal = {Optics Express},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {19},
   Pages = {8694 -- 8705},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {1094-4087},
   Abstract = {We perform an experimental study of the phase and amplitude
             of microwaves interacting with and scattered by
             two-dimensional negative index metamaterials. The
             measurements are performed in a parallel plate waveguide
             apparatus at X-band frequencies (8-12 GHz), thus
             constraining the electromagnetic fields to two dimensions. A
             detection antenna is fixed to one of the plates, while a
             second plate with a fixed source antenna or waveguide is
             translated relative to the first plate. The detection
             antenna is inserted into, but not protruding below, the
             stationary plate so that fields internal to the metamaterial
             samples can be mapped. From the measured mappings of the
             electric field, the interplay between the microstructure of
             the metamaterial lattice and the macroscopic averaged
             response is revealed. For example, the mapped phase fronts
             within a metamaterial having a negative refractive index are
             consistent with a macroscopic phase-in accordance with the
             effective medium predictions-which travels in a direction
             opposite to the direction of propagation. The field maps are
             in excellent agreement with finite element numerical
             simulations performed assuming homogeneous metamaterial
             structures. (c) 2006 Optical Society of America},
   Key = {Justice06}
}

@booklet{Cummer06,
   Author = {S. A. Cummer and B. I. Popa and D. Schurig and D. R. Smith and J. Pendry},
   Title = {Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking
             structures},
   Journal = {Physical Review E},
   Volume = {74},
   Number = {3},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {1539-3755},
   Abstract = {Pendry have reported electromagnetically anisotropic and
             inhomogeneous shells that, in theory, completely shield an
             interior structure of arbitrary size from electromagnetic
             fields without perturbing the external fields. Neither the
             coordinate transformation-based analytical formulation nor
             the supporting ray-tracing simulation indicate how material
             perturbations and full-wave effects might affect the
             solution. We report fully electromagnetic simulations of the
             cylindrical version of this cloaking structure using ideal
             and nonideal (but physically realizable) electromagnetic
             parameters that show that the low-reflection and power-flow
             bending properties of the electromagnetic cloaking structure
             are not especially sensitive to modest permittivity and
             permeability variations. The cloaking performance degrades
             smoothly with increasing loss, and effective low-reflection
             shielding can be achieved with a cylindrical shell composed
             of an eight- (homogeneous) layer approximation of the ideal
             continuous medium. An imperfect but simpler version of the
             cloaking material is derived and is shown to reproduce the
             ray bending of the ideal material in a manner that may be
             easier to experimentally realize.},
   Key = {Cummer06}
}

@booklet{Smith06,
   Author = {D. R. Smith and D. Schurig and J. J. Mock},
   Title = {Characterization of a planar artificial magnetic
             metamaterial surface},
   Journal = {Physical Review E},
   Volume = {74},
   Number = {3},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {1539-3755},
   Abstract = {We explore the electromagnetic characterization of a planar
             artificial magnetic metamaterial. Because the composite
             structure is two- rather than three-dimensional, it does not
             form a medium with assignable bulk properties, such as the
             electric permittivity and magnetic permeability. However, we
             find that it is possible to characterize the expected bulk
             response of a structure composed of repeated layers of
             metamaterial planes, from a reflectance measurement of a
             single metamaterial surface made at an oblique angle. We
             present an analytical theory that relates the reflectance of
             a single plane to the expected bulk permeability and
             permeability of the composite, as well as supporting
             experiments and numerical simulations. Our results show that
             the recent use of reflectance measurements to characterize
             planar split ring resonator samples can reveal the presence
             of circulating currents in a sample-the precursor to
             artificial magnetism-but are insufficient to provide
             quantitative results unless the symmetry of the underlying
             metamaterial elements is carefully specified.},
   Key = {Smith06}
}

@booklet{Smith06a,
   Author = {D. R. Smith and J. Gollub and J. J. Mock and W. J. Padilla and D. Schurig},
   Title = {Calculation and measurement of bianisotropy in a split ring
             resonator metamaterial},
   Journal = {Journal Of Applied Physics},
   Volume = {100},
   Number = {2},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0021-8979},
   Abstract = {A medium that exhibits artificial magnetism can be formed by
             assembling an array of split ring resonators (SRRs)-planar
             conducting elements that exhibit a resonant response to
             electromagnetic radiation. The SRR exhibits a large magnetic
             dipole moment when excited by a magnetic field directed
             along its axis. However, the SRR also exhibits an electric
             response that can be quite large depending on the symmetry
             of the SRR and the orientation of the SRR with respect to
             the electric component of the field. So, while the SRR
             medium can be considered as having a predominantly magnetic
             response for certain orientations with respect to the
             incident wave, it is generally the case that the SRR
             exhibits magnetoelectric coupling, and hence a medium of
             SRRs arranged so as to break mirror symmetry about one of
             the axes will exhibit bianisotropy. We present here a method
             of directly calculating the magnetoelectric coupling terms
             using averages over the fields computed from full-wave
             finite-element based numerical simulations. We confirm the
             predicted bianisotropy of a fabricated SRR medium by
             measuring the cross polarization of a microwave beam
             transmitted through the sample. We also demonstrate that the
             magnetoelectric coupling that gives rise to the
             bianisotropic response is suppressed by symmetrizing the SRR
             composite structure and provide measurements comparing the
             cross polarization of the symmetric and asymmetric
             structures. (c) 2006 American Institute of
             Physics.},
   Key = {Smith06a}
}

@booklet{Smith06b,
   Author = {D. R. Smith and J. B. Pendry},
   Title = {Homogenization of metamaterials by field averaging (invited
             paper)},
   Journal = {Journal Of The Optical Society Of America B-optical
             Physics},
   Volume = {23},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {391 -- 403},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0740-3224},
   Abstract = {Over the past several years, metamaterials have been
             introduced and rapidly been adopted as a means of achieving
             unique electromagnetic material response. In metamaterials,
             artificially structured-often periodically
             positioned-inclusions replace the atoms and molecules of
             conventional materials. The scale of these inclusions is
             smaller than that of the electromagnetic wavelength of
             interest, so that a homogenized description applies. We
             present a homogenization technique in which macroscopic
             fields are determined via averaging the local fields
             obtained from a full-wave electromagnetic simulation or
             analytical calculation. The field-averaging method can be
             applied to homogenize any periodic structure with unit cells
             having inclusions of arbitrary geometry and material. By
             analyzing the dispersion diagrams and retrieved parameters
             found by field averaging, we review the properties of
             several basic metamaterial structures. (c) 2006 Optical
             Society of America.},
   Key = {Smith06b}
}

@booklet{Degiron06,
   Author = {A. Degiron and D. R. Smith},
   Title = {Numerical simulations of long-range plasmons},
   Journal = {Optics Express},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1611 -- 1625},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {1094-4087},
   Abstract = {We present simulations of plasmonic transmission lines
             consisting of planar metal strips embedded in isotropic
             dielectric media, with a particular emphasis on the
             long-range surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes that can be
             supported in such structures. Our computational method is
             based on analyzing the eigenfrequencies corresponding to the
             wave equation subject to a mixture of periodic, electric and
             magnetic boundary conditions. We demonstrate the accuracy of
             our approach through comparisons with previously reported
             simulations based on the semi-analytical method-of-lines. We
             apply our method to study a variety of aspects of long-range
             SPPs, including tradeoffs between mode confinement and
             propagation distance, the modeling of bent waveguides and
             the effect of disorder and periodicity on the long-ranging
             modes. (c) 2006 Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {Degiron06}
}

@booklet{Schurig06a,
   Author = {D. Schurig and J. J. Mock and D. R. Smith},
   Title = {Electric-field-coupled resonators for negative permittivity
             metamaterials},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {88},
   Number = {4},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   Abstract = {A lithographically patterned inductive-capacitive resonator
             is described that has a strong electric response. This
             resonator can be used to construct metamaterials with
             desired positive or negative permittivity. Such materials
             provide an alternative to wire media, and have the benefit
             of not requiring continuous current paths between unit
             cells. A planar medium composed of these resonators was
             simulated, fabricated, and measured in the microwave
             frequency range. (c) 2006 American Institute of
             Physics.},
   Key = {Schurig06a}
}

@article{fds269585,
   Author = {Degiron, A and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Numerical simulations of plasmonic transmission
             lines},
   Journal = {Optics InfoBase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {We present simulations of plasmonic transmission lines
             consisting of metal strips embedded in dielectric media. Our
             numerical method is based on calculating the eigenmodes
             using a finite-element method as will be illustrated by
             several examples. © 2005 Optical Society of
             America.},
   Key = {fds269585}
}

@article{063910137125,
   Author = {Justice, Bryan J. and Mock, Jack J. and Guo, Liheng and Degiron, Aloyse and Schurig, David and Smith, David
             R.},
   Title = {Spatial mapping of the internal and external electromagnetic
             fields of negative index metamaterials},
   Journal = {Optics Express},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {19},
   Pages = {8694 - 8705},
   Year = {2006},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.14.008694},
   Keywords = {Conformal mapping;Spatial variables control;Microwaves;Natural
             frequencies;Microwave antennas;Waveguides;Electric
             fields;Electric field effects;Microstructure;},
   Abstract = {We perform an experimental study of the phase and amplitude
             of microwaves interacting with and scattered by
             two-dimensional negative index metamaterials. The
             measurements are performed in a parallel plate waveguide
             apparatus at X-band frequencies (8-12 GHz), thus
             constraining the electromagnetic fields to two dimensions. A
             detection antenna is fixed to one of the plates, while a
             second plate with a fixed source antenna or waveguide is
             translated relative to the first plate. The detection
             antenna is inserted into, but not protruding below, the
             stationary plate so that fields internal to the metamaterial
             samples can be mapped. From the measured mappings of the
             electric field, the interplay between the microstructure of
             the metamaterial lattice and the macroscopic averaged
             response is revealed. For example, the mapped phase fronts
             within a metamaterial having a negative refractive index are
             consistent with a macroscopic phase - in accordance with the
             effective medium predictions - which travels in a direction
             opposite to the direction of propagation. The field maps are
             in excellent agreement with finite element numerical
             simulations performed assuming homogeneous metamaterial
             structures. &copy; 2006 Optical Society of
             America.},
   Key = {063910137125}
}

@article{fds269683,
   Author = {Smith, DR and Park, DF},
   Title = {A novel organic fiber for fiber reinforced structural
             composites},
   Journal = {6th Annual SPE Automotive Composites Conference
             2006},
   Volume = {2},
   Pages = {830-839},
   Year = {2006},
   Abstract = {A novel fiber technology is being developed for the fiber
             reinforced composites industry. The fiber is a form of poly
             vinyl alcohol (PVOH). When added to conventional fiber
             reinforced composite PVOH fiber gives exceptional impact
             resistance, surface finish and improved recycling properties
             to fiber reinforced composites. PVOH is highly chemical and
             UV light resistant compared to other commercially available
             reinforcing fibers. PVOH is also economical compared to many
             high performance reinforcing fibers. PVOH can be used in
             combination with existing fibers (such as fiberglass,
             polyester, Kevlar) or as a stand alone fiber in both
             thermoset and thermoplastic resins. PVOH requires distinct
             surface modification to make the fiber compatible with each
             commercial polymer resin system. PVOH is commercially
             available for polyester and epoxy resins with vinyl ester,
             phenolic, polyolefin, silicone and urethane resins in
             development. Advanced resin systems have been demonstrated
             that create a bond that is stronger between fiber and resin
             than the fiber itself, giving a moldable composite with true
             isotropic properties. PVOH fiber is being targeted toward a
             broad array of applications and markets. Applications
             include molding compounds (bulk and sheet), pre-pregs, mats
             (woven, non-woven and uni-directional), braided structures,
             and chopped fiber (including wet laid). Markets include
             aerospace, automotive, construction, consumer, electronics,
             marine and the chemical industry. PVOH has a fit wherever
             molded composites require a lightweight reinforcing fiber
             with excellent impact, chemical and environmental
             properties.},
   Key = {fds269683}
}

@article{fds269684,
   Author = {Browning, VM and Tanielian, MH and Ziolkowski, RW and Engheta, N and Smith, DR},
   Title = {A DoD perspective on left handed negative index materials
             and potential applications},
   Journal = {Materials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings},
   Volume = {919},
   Pages = {1-11},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {0272-9172},
   Abstract = {In the quest for ever smaller, lighter weight, and conformal
             components and devices for radar and communication
             applications, researchers in the RF community have
             increasingly turned to artificially engineered, composite
             structures (or "metamaterials") in order to exploit the
             extraordinary electromagnetic response these materials
             offer. One particularly promising class of metamaterials
             that has recently received a great deal of attention are
             "left-handed" or negative index materials. Because these
             metamaterials exhibit the unique ability to bend and focus
             light in ways no other conventional materials can, they hold
             great potential for enabling a number of innovative lens and
             antenna structures for a broad range of commercial and DoD
             relevant applications. Exploring the possible implementation
             of negative index materials for such applications will
             require significant enhancements in the properties of
             existing Negative Index Materials (NIM) (bandwidth, loss,
             operational frequency, etc.), as well as improved
             understanding of the physics of their electromagnetic
             transport properties. For this reason the Defense Advanced
             Research Project Agency (DARPA) has initiated a program that
             seeks to further develop and demonstrate NIM for future DoD
             missions including, but not limited to, the following: 1)
             lightweight, compact lenses with improved optics; 2) sub
             wavelength/high resolution imaging across the
             electromagnetic spectrum; 3) novel approaches to beam
             steering for radar, RF, and/or optical communications; and
             4) novel approaches for integrating optics with
             semiconductor electronics. A brief overview of the salient
             properties of NIM will be presented as well as a general
             discussion of a few of their potential applications. © 2006
             Materials Research Society.},
   Key = {fds269684}
}

@article{fds269685,
   Author = {Pendry, JB and Schurig, D and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Controlling electromagnetic fields},
   Journal = {Science},
   Volume = {312},
   Number = {5781},
   Pages = {1780-1782},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {0036-8075},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1125907},
   Abstract = {Using the freedom of design that metamaterials provide, we
             show how electromagnetic fields can be redirected at will
             and propose a design strategy. The conserved fields-electric
             displacement field D1 magnetic induction field B, and
             Poynting vector B-are all displaced in a consistent manner.
             A simple illustration is given of the cloaking of a
             proscribed volume of space to exclude completely all
             electromagnetic fields. Our work has relevance to exotic
             lens design and to the cloaking of objects from
             electromagnetic fields.},
   Doi = {10.1126/science.1125907},
   Key = {fds269685}
}

@article{fds269686,
   Author = {Pendry, JB and Smith, DR},
   Title = {THE QUEST for the superlens},
   Journal = {Scientific American},
   Volume = {295},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {60-67},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {0036-8733},
   Abstract = {The superlens, made from metamaterials with bizarre,
             controversial optical properties have the capacity to
             produce images that include details finer than the
             wavelength of light that is used. When an electromagnetic
             wave travels through a material, the electrons within the
             material's atoms or molecules experience a force and move in
             response to it. This motion uses up some some of the wave's
             energy which affects the properties of the wave and the way
             in which it travels. Resonance, which is the tendency to
             oscillate at a particular frequency, is the key to achieving
             a negative response and is introduced artificially in a
             metamaterial by building small circuits designed to mimic
             the magnetic or electrical response of a material. The
             demonstration of superlensing id the latest of many
             predictions for negative-index materials to be realized
             which is an indication of the rapid progress that has
             occurred in the emerging field.},
   Key = {fds269686}
}

@booklet{Padilla06,
   Author = {Padilla, WJ and Basov, DN and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Negative refractive index metamaterials},
   Journal = {Materials Today},
   Volume = {9},
   Number = {7-8},
   Pages = {28-35},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {1369-7021},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1369-7021(06)71573-5},
   Abstract = {Engineered materials composed of designed inclusions can
             exhibit exotic and unique electromagnetic properties not
             inherent in the individual constituent components. These
             artificially structured composites, known as metamaterials,
             have the potential to fill critical voids in the
             electromagnetic spectrum where material response is limited
             and enable the construction of novel devices. Recently,
             metamaterials that display negative refractive index - a
             property not found in any known naturally occurring material
             - have drawn significant scientific interest, underscoring
             the remarkable potential of metamaterials to facilitate new
             developments in electromagnetism. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All
             rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S1369-7021(06)71573-5},
   Key = {Padilla06}
}

@booklet{Schurig06,
   Author = {Schurig, D and Pendry, JB and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Calculation of material properties and ray tracing in
             transformation media},
   Journal = {Optics express},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {21},
   Pages = {9794 -- 9804},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {1094-4087},
   Abstract = {Complex and interesting electromagnetic behavior can be
             found in spaces with non-flat topology. When considering the
             properties of an electromagnetic medium under an arbitrary
             coordinate transformation an alternative interpretation
             presents itself. The transformed material property tensors
             may be interpreted as a different set of material properties
             in a flat, Cartesian space. We describe the calculation of
             these material properties for coordinate transformations
             that describe spaces with spherical or cylindrical holes in
             them. The resulting material properties can then implement
             invisibility cloaks in flat space. We also describe a method
             for performing geometric ray tracing in these materials
             which are both inhomogeneous and anisotropic in their
             electric permittivity and magnetic permeability. © 2006
             Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {Schurig06}
}

@booklet{Padilla06a,
   Author = {Padilla, WJ and Smith, DR and Basov, DN},
   Title = {Spectroscopy of metamaterials from infrared top optical
             frequencies},
   Journal = {Journal of the Optical Society of America
             B},
   Volume = {23},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {404-414},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {0740-3224},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAB.23.000404},
   Abstract = {We review both the theoretical electromagnetic response and
             the spectroscopic measurements of metamaterials. To
             critically examine published results for metamaterial
             structures operating in the range from terahertz to optical
             frequencies, we focus on protocols allowing one to extract
             the optical constants from experimental observables. We
             discuss the complexity of this task when applied to
             metamaterials exhibiting electric, magnetic, and
             magneto-optical response. The general theory of the
             electromagnetic response of such systems is presented and
             methods are described. Finally, we briefly overview possible
             solutions for implementing metamaterials with tunable
             resonant behavior. © 2006 Optical Society of
             America.},
   Doi = {10.1364/JOSAB.23.000404},
   Key = {Padilla06a}
}

@booklet{Driscoll06,
   Author = {Driscoll, T and Basov, DN and Rye, PM and Nemat-Nasser, S and Schurig,
             D and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Free space microwave focusing by a negative-index gradient
             lens},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical
             Engineering},
   Volume = {6320},
   Number = {8},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.680752},
   Abstract = {Metamaterial structures designed to have simultaneously
             negative permittivity and permeability are known as
             left-handed materials. Their complexity and our
             understanding of their properties have advanced rapidly to
             the point where direct applications are now viable. We
             present a radial gradient-index (GRIN) lens with an
             index-of-refraction ranging from -2.67(edge) to
             -0.97(center). Experimentally, we find the lens can produce
             field intensities at the focus that are greater than that of
             the incident plane wave. These results are obtained at 10.45
             GHz and in excellent agreement with full-wave simulations.
             This lens is a demonstrate an newly pioneered advanced
             fabrication technique using conventional printed circuit
             board (PCB) technology which offers significant design,
             mechanical, and cost advantages over other microwave lens
             constructions.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.680752},
   Key = {Driscoll06}
}

@article{06099724955,
   Author = {Degiron, A and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Numerical simulations of long-range plasmons},
   Journal = {Optics express},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1611-1625},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {1094-4087},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.14.001611},
   Keywords = {Plasmas;Strip metal;Dielectric materials;Computer
             simulation;Boundary conditions;Computational
             methods;Eigenvalues and eigenfunctions;},
   Abstract = {We present simulations of plasmonic transmission lines
             consisting of planar metal strips embedded in isotropic
             dielectric media, with a particular emphasis on the
             long-range surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes that can be
             supported in such structures. Our computational method is
             based on analyzing the eigenfrequencies corresponding to the
             wave equation subject to a mixture of periodic, electric and
             magnetic boundary conditions. We demonstrate the accuracy of
             our approach through comparisons with previously reported
             simulations based on the semi-analytical method-of-lines. We
             apply our method to study a variety of aspects of long-range
             SPPs, including tradeoffs between mode confinement and
             propagation distance, the modeling of bent waveguides and
             the effect of disorder and periodicity on the long-ranging
             modes. © 2006 Optical Society of America.},
   Doi = {10.1364/OE.14.001611},
   Key = {06099724955}
}

@article{8775845,
   Author = {Schurig, D and Mock, JJ and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Electric-field-coupled resonators for negative permittivity
             metamaterials},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {88},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1-3},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2166681},
   Keywords = {metamaterials;permittivity;resonators;},
   Abstract = {A lithographically patterned inductive-capacitive resonator
             is described that has a strong electric response. This
             resonator can be used to construct metamaterials with
             desired positive or negative permittivity. Such materials
             provide an alternative to wire media, and have the benefit
             of not requiring continuous current paths between unit
             cells. A planar medium composed of these resonators was
             simulated, fabricated, and measured in the microwave
             frequency range. © 2006 American Institute of
             Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.2166681},
   Key = {8775845}
}

@article{063210058628,
   Author = {Smith, DR and Gollub, J and Mock, JJ and Padilla, WJ and Schurig,
             D},
   Title = {Calculation and measurement of bianisotropy in a split ring
             resonator metamaterial},
   Journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
   Volume = {100},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {024507-024507},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {0021-8979},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2218033},
   Keywords = {Electromagnetic waves;Magnetic moments;Magnetic field
             effects;Magnetic couplings;Polarization;Composite
             structures;},
   Abstract = {A medium that exhibits artificial magnetism can be formed by
             assembling an array of split ring resonators (SRRs) - planar
             conducting elements that exhibit a resonant response to
             electromagnetic radiation. The SRR exhibits a large magnetic
             dipole moment when excited by a magnetic field directed
             along its axis. However, the SRR also exhibits an electric
             response that can be quite large depending on the symmetry
             of the SRR and the orientation of the SRR with respect to
             the electric component of the field. So, while the SRR
             medium can be considered as having a predominantly magnetic
             response for certain orientations with respect to the
             incident wave, it is generally the case that the SRR
             exhibits magnetoelectric coupling, and hence a medium of
             SRRs arranged so as to break mirror symmetry about one of
             the axes will exhibit bianisotropy. We present here a method
             of directly calculating the magnetoelectric coupling terms
             using averages over the fields computed from full-wave
             finite-element based numerical simulations. We confirm the
             predicted bianisotropy of a fabricated SRR medium by
             measuring the cross polarization of a microwave beam
             transmitted through the sample. We also demonstrate that the
             magnetoelectric coupling that gives rise to the
             bianisotropic response is suppressed by symmetrizing the SRR
             composite structure and provide measurements comparing the
             cross polarization of the symmetric and asymmetric
             structures. © 2006 American Institute of
             Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.2218033},
   Key = {063210058628}
}

@article{06169829702,
   Author = {Smith, DR and Pendry, JB},
   Title = {Homogenization of metamaterials by field averaging (invited
             paper)},
   Journal = {Journal of the Optical Society of America
             B},
   Volume = {23},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {391-403},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {0740-3224},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAB.23.000391},
   Keywords = {Optical properties;Electromagnetic waves;Dispersion
             (waves);Computer simulation;},
   Abstract = {Over the past several years, metamaterials have been
             introduced and rapidly been adopted as a means of achieving
             unique electromagnetic material response. In metamaterials,
             artificially structured - often periodically positioned -
             inclusions replace the atoms and molecules of conventional
             materials. The scale of these inclusions is smaller than
             that of the electromagnetic wavelength of interest, so that
             a homogenized description applies. We present a
             homogenization technique in which macroscopic fields are
             determined via averaging the local fields obtained from a
             full-wave electromagnetic simulation or analytical
             calculation. The field-averaging method can be applied to
             homogenize any periodic structure with unit cells having
             inclusions of arbitrary geometry and material. By analyzing
             the dispersion diagrams and retrieved parameters found by
             field averaging, we review the properties of several basic
             metamaterial structures. © 2006 Optical Society of
             America.},
   Doi = {10.1364/JOSAB.23.000391},
   Key = {06169829702}
}

@article{9337862,
   Author = {Smith, DR and Schurig, D and Mock, JJ},
   Title = {Characterization of a planar artificial magnetic
             metamaterial surface},
   Journal = {Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter
             Physics},
   Volume = {74},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {36604 - 1},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {1539-3755},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.74.036604},
   Keywords = {magnetic materials;metamaterials;permeability;permittivity;photonic
             crystals;reflectivity;},
   Abstract = {We explore the electromagnetic characterization of a planar
             artificial magnetic metamaterial. Because the composite
             structure is two- rather than three-dimensional, it does not
             form a medium with assignable bulk properties, such as the
             electric permittivity and magnetic permeability. However, we
             find that it is possible to characterize the expected bulk
             response of a structure composed of repeated layers of
             metamaterial planes, from a reflectance measurement of a
             single metamaterial surface made at an oblique angle. We
             present an analytical theory that relates the reflectance of
             a single plane to the expected bulk permeability and
             permeability of the composite, as well as supporting
             experiments and numerical simulations. Our results show that
             the recent use of reflectance measurements to characterize
             planar split ring resonator samples can reveal the presence
             of circulating currents in a sample-the precursor to
             artificial magnetism-but are insufficient to provide
             quantitative results unless the symmetry of the underlying
             metamaterial elements is carefully specified. © 2006 The
             American Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.74.036604},
   Key = {9337862}
}

@article{9324139,
   Author = {Justice, BJ and Mock, JJ and Guo, L and Degiron, A and Schurig, D and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Spatial mapping of the internal and external electromagnetic
             fields of negative index metamaterials},
   Journal = {Optics express},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {19},
   Pages = {8694-8705},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {1094-4087},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.14.008694},
   Keywords = {finite element analysis;metamaterials;microwave
             propagation;refractive index;},
   Abstract = {We perform an experimental study of the phase and amplitude
             of microwaves interacting with and scattered by
             two-dimensional negative index metamaterials. The
             measurements are performed in a parallel plate waveguide
             apparatus at X-band frequencies (8-12 GHz), thus
             constraining the electromagnetic fields to two dimensions. A
             detection antenna is fixed to one of the plates, while a
             second plate with a fixed source antenna or waveguide is
             translated relative to the first plate. The detection
             antenna is inserted into, but not protruding below, the
             stationary plate so that fields internal to the metamaterial
             samples can be mapped. From the measured mappings of the
             electric field, the interplay between the microstructure of
             the metamaterial lattice and the macroscopic averaged
             response is revealed. For example, the mapped phase fronts
             within a metamaterial having a negative refractive index are
             consistent with a macroscopic phase - in accordance with the
             effective medium predictions - which travels in a direction
             opposite to the direction of propagation. The field maps are
             in excellent agreement with finite element numerical
             simulations performed assuming homogeneous metamaterial
             structures. © 2006 Optical Society of America.},
   Doi = {10.1364/OE.14.008694},
   Key = {9324139}
}

@article{064110158839,
   Author = {Cummer, SA and Popa, B-I and Schurig, D and Smith, DR and Pendry,
             J},
   Title = {Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking
             structures},
   Journal = {Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter
             Physics},
   Volume = {74},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {036621 -},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {1539-3755},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.74.036621},
   Keywords = {Computer simulation;Electromagnetic fields;Ray
             tracing;Perturbation techniques;Approximation
             theory;},
   Abstract = {Pendry have reported electromagnetically anisotropic and
             inhomogeneous shells that, in theory, completely shield an
             interior structure of arbitrary size from electromagnetic
             fields without perturbing the external fields. Neither the
             coordinate transformation-based analytical formulation nor
             the supporting ray-tracing simulation indicate how material
             perturbations and full-wave effects might affect the
             solution. We report fully electromagnetic simulations of the
             cylindrical version of this cloaking structure using ideal
             and nonideal (but physically realizable) electromagnetic
             parameters that show that the low-reflection and power-flow
             bending properties of the electromagnetic cloaking structure
             are not especially sensitive to modest permittivity and
             permeability variations. The cloaking performance degrades
             smoothly with increasing loss, and effective low-reflection
             shielding can be achieved with a cylindrical shell composed
             of an eightâ€" (homogeneous) layer approximation of the
             ideal continuous medium. An imperfect but simpler version of
             the cloaking material is derived and is shown to reproduce
             the ray bending of the ideal material in a manner that may
             be easier to experimentally realize. © 2006 The American
             Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.74.036621},
   Key = {064110158839}
}

@article{fds319565,
   Author = {Driscoll, T and Basov, DN and Starr, AF and Rye, PM and Nemat-Nasser, S and Schurig, D and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Free-space microwave focusing by a negative-index gradient
             lens},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {88},
   Number = {8},
   Year = {2006},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2174088},
   Abstract = {Metamaterial structures designed to have simultaneously
             negative permittivity and permeability are known as
             left-handed materials. Their complexity and our
             understanding of their properties have advanced rapidly to
             the point where direct applications are now viable. We
             present a radial gradient-index lens with an index of
             refraction ranging from -2.67 (edge) to -0.97 (center).
             Experimentally, we find that the lens can produce field
             intensities at the focus that are greater than that of the
             incident plane wave. These results are obtained at 10.3 GHz
             and in excellent agreement with full-wave simulations. We
             also demonstrate an advanced fabrication technique using
             conventional printed circuit board technology which offers
             significant design, mechanical, and cost advantages over
             other microwave lens constructions. © 2006 American
             Institute of Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.2174088},
   Key = {fds319565}
}

@article{fds269576,
   Author = {Schurig, D and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Negative Index Lenses},
   Pages = {213-248},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/0471744751.ch5},
   Doi = {10.1002/0471744751.ch5},
   Key = {fds269576}
}

@booklet{Schurig05,
   Author = {D. Schurig and D. R. Smith},
   Title = {Sub-diffraction imaging with compensating
             bilayers},
   Journal = {New Journal Of Physics},
   Volume = {7},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {1367-2630},
   Abstract = {We derive a general expression for the material properties
             of a compensating bilayer, which is a pair of material
             layers which transfer the field distribution from one side
             of the bilayer to the other with resolution limited only by
             the deviation of the material properties from specified
             values. One of the layers can be free space, a special case
             of which is the perfect lens, but the layers need not have
             equal thickness. Compensating a thick layer of free space
             with a thin layer creates a focusing device with increased
             working distance, and employs an anisotropic material. It is
             also possible to achieve compensation of materials with
             property tensors that are neither positive nor negative
             definite. In this case, we refer to such media as
             indefinite, and we analyse, in detail, bilayers of these
             media which support coupling of internal propagating waves
             to incident waves of any transverse wave vector. In this
             case, we find that the enhanced spatial resolution provided
             by large transverse wave vectors is far less sensitive to
             loss than that of the perfect lens.},
   Key = {Schurig05}
}

@booklet{Gollub05,
   Author = {J. N. Gollub and D. R. Smith and D. C. Vier and T. Perram and J. J. Mock},
   Title = {Experimental characterization of magnetic surface plasmons
             on metamaterials with negative permeability},
   Journal = {Physical Review B},
   Volume = {71},
   Number = {19},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {1098-0121},
   Abstract = {We study the surface plasmons (SPs) that exist at the
             interface between air and a metamaterial constructed of
             split ring resonators (SRRs). The SRR metamaterial possesses
             a frequency band in the microwave regime (12.5-14 GHz) over
             which the permeability is negative. We apply an attenuated
             total reflection technique in the Otto configuration in
             which a beam of microwaves is reflected from a higher
             dielectric (polycarbonate) prism to excite and probe the
             surface plasmons. The resulting evanescent microwave fields
             on the transmission side of the prism couple to SPs on the
             metamaterial and are indicated by a dip in the reflected
             power. The experimental data are compared with analytic
             solutions in which the metamaterial slab is approximated as
             an infinite half space, for which the frequency-dependent
             permeability (and permittivity) is derived from
             finite-element simulations on an SRR structure with the same
             parameters as those measured.},
   Key = {Gollub05}
}

@article{fds269680,
   Author = {Smith, DR},
   Title = {Applied physics. How to build a superlens.},
   Journal = {Science},
   Volume = {308},
   Number = {5721},
   Pages = {502-503},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15845838},
   Doi = {10.1126/science.1110900},
   Key = {fds269680}
}

@booklet{Smith05a,
   Author = {D. R. Smith and D. C. Vier and T. Koschny and C. M.
             Soukoulis},
   Title = {Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous
             metamaterials},
   Journal = {Physical Review E},
   Volume = {71},
   Number = {3},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {1063-651X},
   Abstract = {We discuss the validity of standard retrieval methods that
             assign bulk electromagnetic properties, such as the electric
             permittivity epsilon and the magnetic permeability mu, from
             calculations of the scattering (S) parameters for
             finite-thickness samples. S-parameter retrieval methods have
             recently become the principal means of characterizing
             artificially structured metamaterials, which, by nature, are
             inherently inhomogeneous. While the unit cell of a
             metamaterial can be made considerably smaller than the free
             space wavelength, there remains a significant variation of
             the phase across the unit cell at operational frequencies in
             nearly all metamaterial structures reported to date. In this
             respect, metamaterials do not rigorously satisfy an
             effective medium limit and are closer conceptually to
             photonic crystals. Nevertheless, we show here that a
             modification of the standard S-parameter retrieval procedure
             yields physically reasonable values for the retrieved
             electromagnetic parameters, even when there is significant
             inhomogeneity within the unit cell of the structure. We thus
             distinguish a metamaterial regime, as opposed to the
             effective medium or photonic crystal regimes, in which a
             refractive index can be rigorously established but where the
             wave impedance can only be approximately defined. We present
             numerical simulations on typical metamaterial structures to
             illustrate the modified retrieval algorithm and the impact
             on the retrieved material parameters. We find that no
             changes to the standard retrieval procedures are necessary
             when the inhomogeneous unit cell is symmetric along the
             propagation axis; however, when the unit cell does not
             possess this symmetry, a modified procedure-in which a
             periodic structure is assumed-is required to obtain
             meaningful electromagnetic material parameters.},
   Key = {Smith05a}
}

@booklet{Smith05,
   Author = {D. R. Smith and J. J. Mock and A. F. Starr and D.
             Schurig},
   Title = {Gradient index metamaterials},
   Journal = {Physical Review E},
   Volume = {71},
   Number = {3},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {1063-651X},
   Abstract = {Metamaterials-artificially structured materials with
             tailored electromagnetic response-can be designed to have
             properties difficult or impossible to achieve with
             traditional materials fabrication methods. Here we present a
             structured metamaterial, based on conducting split ring
             resonators (SRRs), which has an effective index of
             refraction with a constant spatial gradient. We
             experimentally confirm the gradient by measuring the
             deflection of a microwave beam by a planar slab of the
             composite metamaterial over a range of microwave
             frequencies. The gradient index metamaterial may prove an
             advantageous alternative approach to the development of
             gradient index lenses and similar optics, especially at
             higher frequencies. In particular, the gradient index
             metamaterial we propose may be suited for terahertz
             applications, where the magnetic resonant response of SRRs
             has recently been demonstrated.},
   Key = {Smith05}
}

@article{fds269584,
   Author = {Smith, DR and Schurig, D},
   Title = {New optics using negative refraction},
   Journal = {Optics InfoBase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {We summarize the benefits that negative index materials
             (NIMs), realizable in artificially constructed
             metamaterials, can have on both geometrical and wave optics.
             NIMs may lead to novel or improved future optical devices.
             © Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {fds269584}
}

@article{fds269676,
   Author = {Padilla, WJ and Yen, TJ and Fang, N and Vier, DC and Smith, DR and Pendry,
             JB and Zhang, X and Basov, DN},
   Title = {Infrared spectroscopy and ellipsometry of magnetic
             metamaterials},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE},
   Volume = {5732},
   Pages = {460-469},
   Year = {2005},
   ISSN = {1605-7422},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.581787},
   Abstract = {We present S and P polarized measurements of artificial
             bianisotropic magnetic metamaterials with resonant behavior
             at infrared frequencies. These metamaterials consist of an
             array of micron sized (∼40μm) copper rings fabricated
             upon a quartz substrate. Simulation of the reflectance is
             obtained through a combination of electromagnetic eigenmode
             simulation and Jones matrix analysis, and we find excellent
             agreement with the experimental data. It is shown that
             although the artificial magnetic materials do indeed exhibit
             a magnetic response, care must be taken to avoid an
             undesirable electric dipole resonance, due to lack of
             reflection symmetry in one orientation. The effects of
             bianisotropy on negative index are detailed and shown to be
             beneficial for certain configurations of the material
             parameters.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.581787},
   Key = {fds269676}
}

@article{fds269678,
   Author = {Martin, MC and Zhao, H and Liddle, A and Anderson, EH and Padilla, WJ and Schurig, D and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Fabrication and optical measurements of nanoscale
             meta-materials: Terahertz and beyond},
   Journal = {The Joint 30th International Conference on Infrared and
             Millimeter Waves and 13th International Conference on
             Terahertz Electronics, 2005. IRMMW-THz 2005},
   Volume = {1},
   Pages = {34-35},
   Year = {2005},
   Key = {fds269678}
}

@article{fds269679,
   Author = {Smith, DR and Schurig, D},
   Title = {New optics using negative refraction},
   Journal = {2005 OSA Topical Meeting on Information Photonics, IP
             2005},
   Year = {2005},
   Abstract = {We summarize the benefits that negative index materials
             (NIMs), realizable in artificially constructed
             metamaterials, can have on both geometrical and wave optics.
             NIMs may lead to novel or improved future optical devices.
             © Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {fds269679}
}

@article{fds269681,
   Author = {Smith, D},
   Title = {Superlens breaks optical barrier},
   Journal = {Physics World},
   Volume = {18},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {23-24},
   Year = {2005},
   Abstract = {A lens developed by physicists that can image nano-scale
             objects using visible light is discussed. It is found that
             diffraction restricts the resolution of microscopes and
             other optical devices to the wavelength of light used. The
             new superlens can produce a much sharper image than a
             conventional lens because it is bale to focus the near field
             components of the transmitted light. The lenses could be
             used to image structures with a resolution as high as
             one-quarter the wavelength of the incident light.
             Superlensing may find applications in industries such as
             optical lithography or optical storage and will enable
             manufacturers to fabricate devices on smaller
             scales.},
   Key = {fds269681}
}

@booklet{Koschny05,
   Author = {Koschny, T and Markoš, P and Economou, EN and Smith, DR and Vier, DC and Soukoulis, CM},
   Title = {Impact of inherent periodic structure on effective medium
             description of left-handed and related metamaterials},
   Journal = {Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials
             Physics},
   Volume = {71},
   Number = {24},
   Year = {2005},
   ISSN = {1098-0121},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.71.245105},
   Abstract = {We study the frequency dependence of the effective
             electromagnetic parameters of left-handed and related
             metamaterials of the split ring resonator and wire type. We
             show that the reduced translational symmetry (periodic
             structure) inherent to these metamaterials influences their
             effective electromagnetic response. To anticipate this
             periodicity, we formulate a periodic effective medium model
             which enables us to distinguish the resonant behavior of
             electromagnetic parameters from effects of the periodicity
             of the structure. We use this model for the analysis of
             numerical data for the transmission and reflection of
             periodic arrays of split ring resonators, thin metallic
             wires, cut wires, as well as the left-handed structures. The
             present method enables us to identify the origin of the
             previously observed resonance-antiresonance coupling as well
             as the occurrence of negative imaginary parts in the
             effective permittivities and permeabilities of those
             materials. Our analysis shows that the periodicity of the
             structure can be neglected only for the wavelength of the
             electromagnetic wave larger than 30 space periods of the
             investigated structure. © 2005 The American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.71.245105},
   Key = {Koschny05}
}

@booklet{Depine05,
   Author = {Depine, RA and Lakhtakia, A and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Enhanced diffraction by a rectangular grating made of a
             negative phase-velocity (or negative index)
             material},
   Journal = {Physics Letters, Section A: General, Atomic and Solid State
             Physics},
   Volume = {337},
   Number = {1-2},
   Pages = {155-160},
   Year = {2005},
   ISSN = {0375-9601},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physleta.2005.01.028},
   Abstract = {The diffraction of electromagnetic plane waves by a
             rectangular grating formed by discrete steps in the
             interface of a homogeneous, isotropic, linear, negative
             phase-velocity (negative index) material with free space is
             studied using the semi-analytic C method. When a nonspecular
             diffracted order is of the propagating type, coupling to
             that order is significantly larger for a negative index
             material than for a conventional material. The computed
             coupling strengths reported here are in agreement with
             recent experiments, and illustrate the role of evanescent
             fields localized at the grating interface in producing this
             enhanced coupling. © 2005 Published by Elsevier
             B.V.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.physleta.2005.01.028},
   Key = {Depine05}
}

@booklet{Greegor05,
   Author = {Greegor, RB and Parazzoli, CG and Nielsen, JA and Thompson, MA and Tanielian, MH and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Simulation and testing of a graded negative index of
             refraction lens},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {87},
   Number = {9},
   Year = {2005},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2037202},
   Abstract = {A gradient index (GRIN) lens using a negative index of
             refraction material (NIM) has been designed and tested. The
             GRIN lens was fabricated using a NIM slab with a variable
             index of refraction perpendicular to the propagation
             direction. Ray tracing calculations based on the isotropic
             Eikonal equation determined the index of refraction gradient
             required for a given focal length. An electromagnetic code
             was then used to design the required ring and wire unit
             cells. Finally, the index of refraction was approximated
             using ten discrete steps in an effective medium simulation
             for the GRIN lens that agreed with the experimental
             measurements. © 2005 American Institute of
             Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.2037202},
   Key = {Greegor05}
}

@article{8601580,
   Author = {Schurig, D and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Sub-diffraction imaging with compensating
             bilayers},
   Journal = {New Journal of Physics},
   Volume = {7},
   Number = {1},
   Year = {2005},
   ISSN = {1367-2630},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1367-2630/7/1/162},
   Keywords = {lenses;metamaterials;optical focusing;refractive
             index;},
   Abstract = {We derive a general expression for the material properties
             of a compensating bilayer, which is a pair of material
             layers which transfer the field distribution from one side
             of the bilayer to the other with resolution limited only by
             the deviation of the material properties from specified
             values. One of the layers can be free space, a special case
             of which is the perfect lens, but the layers need not have
             equal thickness. Compensating a thick layer of free space
             with a thin layer creates a focusing device with increased
             working distance, and employs an anisotropic material. It is
             also possible to achieve compensation of materials with
             property tensors that are neither positive nor negative
             definite. In this case, we refer to such media as
             indefinite, and we analyse, in detail, bilayers of these
             media which support coupling of internal propagating waves
             to incident waves of any transverse wave vector. In this
             case, we find that the enhanced spatial resolution provided
             by large transverse wave vectors is far less sensitive to
             loss than that of the perfect lens. © IOP Publishing Ltd
             and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.},
   Doi = {10.1088/1367-2630/7/1/162},
   Key = {8601580}
}

@article{8388993,
   Author = {Smith, DR and Mock, JJ and Starr, AF and Schurig,
             D},
   Title = {Gradient index metamaterials},
   Journal = {Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter
             Physics},
   Volume = {71},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {36609 - 1},
   Year = {2005},
   ISSN = {1539-3755},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.71.036609},
   Keywords = {metamaterials;microwave photonics;optical
             materials;refractive index;},
   Abstract = {Metamaterials - artificially structured materials with
             tailored electromagnetic response - can be designed to have
             properties difficult or impossible to achieve with
             traditional materials fabrication methods. Here we present a
             structured metamaterial, based on conducting split ring
             resonators (SRRs), which has an effective index of
             refraction with a constant spatial gradient. We
             experimentally confirm the gradient by measuring the
             deflection of a microwave beam by a planar slab of the
             composite metamaterial over a range of microwave
             frequencies. The gradient index metamaterial may prove an
             advantageous alternative approach to the development of
             gradient index lenses and similar optics, especially at
             higher frequencies. In particular, the gradient index
             metamaterial we propose may be suited for terahertz
             applications, where the magnetic resonant response of SRRs
             has recently been demonstrated. © 2005 The American
             Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.71.036609},
   Key = {8388993}
}

@article{8420161,
   Author = {Smith, DR and Vier, DC and Koschny, T and Soukoulis,
             CM},
   Title = {Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous
             metamaterials},
   Journal = {Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter
             Physics},
   Volume = {71},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {36617 - 1},
   Year = {2005},
   ISSN = {1539-3755},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.71.036617},
   Keywords = {metamaterials;optical materials;periodic
             structures;S-parameters;},
   Abstract = {We discuss the validity of standard retrieval methods that
             assign bulk electromagnetic properties, such as the electric
             permittivity ε and the magnetic permeability μ, from
             calculations of the scattering (S) parameters for
             finite-thickness samples. S-parameter retrieval methods have
             recently become the principal means of characterizing
             artificially structured metamaterials, which, by nature, are
             inherently inhomogeneous. While the unit cell of a
             metamaterial can be made considerably smaller than the free
             space wavelength, there remains a significant variation of
             the phase across the unit cell at operational frequencies in
             nearly all metamaterial structures reported to date. In this
             respect, metamaterials do not rigorously satisfy an
             effective medium limit and are closer conceptually to
             photonic crystals. Nevertheless, we show here that a
             modification of the standard S-parameter retrieval procedure
             yields physically reasonable values for the retrieved
             electromagnetic parameters, even when there is significant
             inhomogeneity within the unit cell of the structure. We thus
             distinguish a metamaterial regime, as opposed to the
             effective medium or photonic crystal regimes, in which a
             refractive index can be rigorously established but where the
             wave impedance can only be approximately defined. We present
             numerical simulations on typical metamaterial structures to
             illustrate the modified retrieval algorithm and the impact
             on the retrieved material parameters. We find that no
             changes to the standard retrieval procedures are necessary
             when the inhomogeneous unit cell is symmetric along the
             propagation axis; however, when the unit cell does not
             possess this symmetry, a modified procedure - in which a
             periodic structure is assumed - is required to obtain
             meaningful electromagnetic material parameters. ©2005 The
             American Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.71.036617},
   Key = {8420161}
}

@article{8482582,
   Author = {Gollub, JN and Smith, DR and Vier, DC and Perram, T and Mock,
             JJ},
   Title = {Experimental characterization of magnetic surface plasmons
             on metamaterials with negative permeability},
   Journal = {Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials
             Physics},
   Volume = {71},
   Number = {19},
   Pages = {195402 - 1},
   Year = {2005},
   ISSN = {1098-0121},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.71.195402},
   Keywords = {attenuated total reflection;finite element analysis;magnetic
             permeability;metamaterials;permittivity;surface
             plasmons;},
   Abstract = {We study the surface plasmons (SPs) that exist at the
             interface between air and a metamaterial constructed of
             split ring resonators (SRRs). The SRR metamaterial possesses
             a frequency band in the microwave regime (12.5-14 GHz) over
             which the permeability is negative. We apply an attenuated
             total reflection technique in the Otto configuration in
             which a beam of microwaves is reflected from a higher
             dielectric (polycarbonate) prism to excite and probe the
             surface plasmons. The resulting evanescent microwave fields
             on the transmission side of the prism couple to SPs on the
             metamaterial and are indicated by a dip in the reflected
             power. The experimental data are compared with analytic
             solutions in which the metamaterial slab is approximated as
             an infinite half space, for which the frequency-dependent
             permeability (and permittivity) is derived from
             finite-element simulations on an SRR structure with the same
             parameters as those measured. © 2005 The American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.71.195402},
   Key = {8482582}
}

@article{fds330366,
   Author = {Koschny, T and Markoš, P and Smith, DR and Soukoulis,
             CM},
   Title = {Reply to Comments on “Resonant and antiresonant frequency
             dependence of the effective parameters of
             metamaterials”},
   Journal = {Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter
             Physics},
   Volume = {70},
   Number = {4},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.70.048603},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.70.048603},
   Key = {fds330366}
}

@article{fds269575,
   Author = {Gregoire, T and Smith, DR and Wacker, JG},
   Title = {What precision electroweak physics says about the little
             Higgs model},
   Journal = {Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation, and
             Cosmology},
   Volume = {69},
   Number = {11},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {1550-7998},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.69.115008},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.69.115008},
   Key = {fds269575}
}

@article{fds269677,
   Author = {Depine, RA and Lakhtakia, A and Efros, AL and Koschny, T and Markoš, P and Smith, DR and Soukoulis, CM},
   Title = {Comment I on "Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence
             of the effective parameters of metamaterials"},
   Journal = {Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter
             Physics},
   Volume = {70},
   Number = {4 2},
   Pages = {048601-1-048603-1},
   Year = {2004},
   ISSN = {1539-3755},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.70.048601},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.70.048601},
   Key = {fds269677}
}

@article{fds269825,
   Author = {Caloz, C and Lee, C-J and Smith, DR and Pendry, JB and Itoh,
             T},
   Title = {Existence and properties of microwave surface plasmons at
             the interface between a right-handed and a left-handed
             media},
   Journal = {International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation
             (APSURSI)},
   Volume = {3},
   Pages = {3151-3154},
   Year = {2004},
   ISSN = {1522-3965},
   Abstract = {Surface plasmons (SPs) are interface waves very similar to
             Zenneck waves but existing only at optical frequencies where
             metals exhibit a negative permittivity. The availability of
             novel structured metamaterials with tailorable
             positive/negative constitutive parameters allows the
             generation of SPs in the microwave range, which may lead to
             novel components and antennas applications. This paper
             describes SPs existing at the interface between a
             right-bunded (RH) and a left-handed (LH) materials. The
             dispersion relation is established, the properties of these
             SPs are discussed, a transmission line (TL) LC
             implementation of the RH/LH interface is proposed, and the
             phenomena are demonstrated by full-wave simulation in an
             effective medium approach.},
   Key = {fds269825}
}

@article{fds269826,
   Author = {Starr, AF and Nemat-Nasser, S and Smith, DR and Plaisted,
             TA},
   Title = {Integrated sensing networks in composite
             materials},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical
             Engineering},
   Volume = {5391},
   Pages = {197-201},
   Year = {2004},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.540209},
   Abstract = {Increasingly, the demand to monitor structures in service is
             driving technology in new directions. Advances in many areas
             including novel sensor technologies afford new opportunities
             in structural health monitoring. We present efforts to
             develop structural composite materials which include
             networks of embedded sensors with decision-making
             capabilities that extend the functionality of the composite
             materials to be information-aware. The next generation of
             structural systems will include the capability to acquire,
             process, and if necessary respond to structural or other
             types of information. This work brings together many
             important developments over the last few years in several
             areas: developments in composites and the emergence of
             multifunctional composites, the emergence of a broad range
             of new sensors, smaller and lower power microelectronics
             with increased and multiple integrated functionality, and
             the emergence of algorithms that extract important
             structural health information from large data sets. This
             work seeks to leverage these individual advances by solving
             the challenges needed to integrate these into an
             information-aware composite structure. We present details of
             efforts to integrate and entrap connectorized
             microelectronic components within fiber/conductor braided
             bundles to minimize their impact as composite crack
             initiation centers. The bundles include conductors to
             transmit electric signals for power and communications. They
             are suitable for inclusion in woven composite fabrics or
             directly in the composite lay-up. The low-power electronic
             devices can operate on a multi-drop and point-to-point
             networks. Future directions include implementing in-network
             local processing, adding a greater range of sensors, and
             developing the composite processing techniques that allow
             sensor network integration.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.540209},
   Key = {fds269826}
}

@article{fds269827,
   Author = {Yen, TJ and Padilla, WJ and Fang, N and Vier, DC and Smith, DR and Pendry,
             JB and Basov, DN and Zhang, X},
   Title = {Terahertz Magnetic Response from Artificial
             Materials},
   Journal = {Science},
   Volume = {303},
   Number = {5663},
   Pages = {1494-1496},
   Year = {2004},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1094025},
   Abstract = {We show that magnetic response at terahertz frequencies can
             be achieved in a planar structure composed of nonmagnetic
             conductive resonant elements. The effect is realized over a
             large bandwidth and can be tuned throughout the terahertz
             frequency regime by scaling the dimensions of the structure.
             We suggest that artificial magnetic structures, or hybrid
             structures that combine natural and artificial magnetic
             materials, can play a key role in terahertz
             devices.},
   Doi = {10.1126/science.1094025},
   Key = {fds269827}
}

@article{fds269828,
   Author = {Marqués, R and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Comment on "Electrodynamics of Metallic Photonic Crystals
             and the Problem of Left-Handed Materials"
             [1]},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {92},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {594011-},
   Year = {2004},
   Key = {fds269828}
}

@article{fds269829,
   Author = {Pendry, JB and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Reversing light with negative refraction},
   Journal = {Physics today},
   Volume = {57},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {37-43},
   Year = {2004},
   ISSN = {0031-9228},
   Abstract = {The phenomenon of negative refraction is studied. This new
             field has generated great enthusiasm but also controversy,
             yet even the controversies have had the positive effect that
             key concepts have been critically scrutinized in the past 18
             months. Many groups are already moving forward with
             applications. Many researchers are joining this fascinating
             field: 2003 saw more than 200 papers published on negative
             refraction.},
   Key = {fds269829}
}

@article{fds269830,
   Author = {Smith, DR and Pendry, JB and Wiltshire, MCK},
   Title = {Metamaterials and negative refractive index},
   Journal = {Science},
   Volume = {305},
   Number = {5685},
   Pages = {788-792},
   Year = {2004},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1096796},
   Abstract = {Recently, artificially constructed metamaterials have become
             of considerable interest, because these materials can
             exhibit electromagnetic characteristics unlike those of any
             conventional materials. Artificial magnetism and negative
             refractive index are two specific types of behavior that
             have been demonstrated over the past few years, illustrating
             the new physics and new applications possible when we expand
             our view as to what constitutes a material. In this review,
             we describe recent advances in metamaterials research and
             discuss the potential that these materials may hold for
             realizing new and seemingly exotic electromagnetic
             phenomena.},
   Doi = {10.1126/science.1096796},
   Key = {fds269830}
}

@article{fds269831,
   Author = {Lin, H and Mock, J and Smith, D and Gao, T and Sailor,
             MJ},
   Title = {Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from silver-plated porous
             silicon},
   Journal = {The Journal of Physical Chemistry Part B: Condensed Matter,
             Materials, Surfaces, Interfaces and Biophysical},
   Volume = {108},
   Number = {31},
   Pages = {11654-11659},
   Year = {2004},
   ISSN = {1520-6106},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp049008b},
   Abstract = {Silver micro- and nanocrystallites are prepared on porous Si
             substrates by immersion plating, and their activity toward
             SERS (surface-enhanced Raman scattering) is assessed.
             Scanning electron microscopy reveals a rough silver film
             containing randomly spaced dendritic structures. SERS
             spectra of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) and adenine are obtained using
             an 18-mW, 488-nm laser. The SERS signal from these analytes
             is dramatically improved by pretreatment of the
             silver-plated porous Si samples (Ag-PS) with a 1 mM mineral
             acid solution. Detection of R6G and adenine from 1 nM
             solutions is demonstrated, corresponding to (at most) 9 ×
             10 5 molecules in the experimental configuration used in the
             current study. Ag-PS samples that have been stored in air
             for 10 days still display high sensitivity. The presence of
             chloride either in the analyte solution or in the
             pretreatment solution is found to dramatically reduce the
             limit of detection for R6G.},
   Doi = {10.1021/jp049008b},
   Key = {fds269831}
}

@article{fds269832,
   Author = {Starr, AF and Rye, PM and Smith, DR and Nemat-Nasser,
             S},
   Title = {Fabrication and characterization of a negative-refractive-index
             composite metamaterial},
   Journal = {Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials
             Physics},
   Volume = {70},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {113102-1-113102-4},
   Year = {2004},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.70.113102},
   Abstract = {We have designed, produced, and experimentally characterized
             2.7 mm thick composite panels having negative refractive
             index between 8.4 and 9.2 GHz. The composite metamaterial is
             fabricated using conventional commercial multilayer
             circuit-board lithography; three-dimensional physical (as
             opposed to electromagnetic) structure is introduced by the
             use of vias to form sections of the scattering elements in
             the direction perpendicular to the circuit board surfaces.
             From scattering parameter measurements, we show that the
             complex permittivity, permeability, index, and impedance of
             the composite can be unambiguously determined. The
             measurements enable the quantitative determination of the
             negative index band and associated losses. The extracted
             material parameters are shown to be in excellent agreement
             with simulation results.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.70.113102},
   Key = {fds269832}
}

@article{fds269833,
   Author = {Hall, LJ and March-Russell, J and Okui, T and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Towards a theory of flavor from orbifold
             GUTs},
   Journal = {Journal of High Energy Physics},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {587-607},
   Year = {2004},
   Abstract = {We show that the recently constructed 5-dimensional
             supersymmetric S 1 /(Z2 × Z′2) orbifold GUT models allow
             an appealing explanation of the observed hierarchical
             structure of the quark and lepton masses and mixing angles.
             Flavor hierarchies arise from the geometrical suppression of
             some couplings when fields propagate in different numbers of
             dimensions, or on different fixed branes. Restrictions
             arising from locality in the extra dimension allow
             interesting texture zeroes to be easily generated. In
             addition the detailed nature of the SU(5)-breaking orbifold
             projections lead to simple theories where b - τ unification
             is maintained but similar disfavored SU(5) relations for the
             lighter generations are naturally avoided. We find that
             simple 5d models based on S1 /(Z2 × Z′2) are strikingly
             successful in explaining many features of the masses and
             mixing angles of the 2nd and 3rd generation. Successful
             three generation models of flavor including neutrinos are
             constructed by generalizing the S1 /(Z2 × Z′2) model to
             six dimensions. Large angle neutrino mixing is elegantly
             accommodated. Novel features of these models include a
             simple mu = 0 configuration leading to a solution of the
             strong CP problem. © SISSA/ISAS 2004.},
   Key = {fds269833}
}

@booklet{Schurig04,
   Author = {Schurig, D and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Negative index lens aberrations},
   Journal = {Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter
             Physics},
   Volume = {70},
   Number = {6 2},
   Pages = {065601/1-065601/4},
   Year = {2004},
   ISSN = {1539-3755},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000226299200005&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Abstract = {The Seidel aberrations of thin spherical lenses composed of
             media with refractive index were examined. To confirm the
             analytical aberration results, a custom ray tracing code was
             developed that does not rely on the sign of the index to
             determine the path of the ray. It was observed that the
             expressions for the Seidel aberrations of thin spherical
             lenses, found in the optics literature were unchanged by the
             consideration of negative index media. It was also observed
             that spherical lenses possessing real aplanatic focal points
             are possible only with a negative index.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.70.065601},
   Key = {Schurig04}
}

@article{04328303467,
   Author = {Smith, DR},
   Title = {Beating the diffraction limit},
   Journal = {Physics World},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {23-24},
   Year = {2004},
   Keywords = {Light refraction;Refractive index;Lenses;Image
             reconstruction;Diffraction;Light propagation;},
   Abstract = {The subject of negative-index phenomena is drawing
             significant interest among researchers due to the emergence
             of a new class of artificially structured materials called
             metamaterials. Such materials can be engineered so that they
             have a much wider range of electromagnetic responses.
             Results reported to date demonstrate the negative refraction
             at microwave frequencies. Furthermore, recent experiments
             and theoretical work indicate that photonic crystals allow
             these effects to be demonstrated at visible
             wavelengths.},
   Key = {04328303467}
}

@article{04198155680,
   Author = {Starr, AF and Rye, PM and Mock, JJ and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Angle resolved microwave spectrometer for metamaterial
             studies},
   Journal = {Review of Scientific Instruments},
   Volume = {75},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {820-825},
   Year = {2004},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1669119},
   Keywords = {Electromagnetic wave scattering;Electromagnetic wave
             polarization;Optimization;Scanning;Refraction;},
   Abstract = {The angle resolved microwave spectrometer (ARMS) provides
             highly reproductible automated data acquisition of microwave
             refraction from positive and negative refracting samples.
             The flexibility of the instrument allows many types of
             metamaterial experiments to be carried out efficiently. The
             two-dimensional character of the measurement allows for easy
             and cost-effective sample preparation.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.1669119},
   Key = {04198155680}
}

@article{04158106248,
   Author = {Smith, DR and Rye, P and Vier, DC and Starr, AF and Mock, JJ and Perram,
             T},
   Title = {Design and Measurement of Anisotropic Metamaterials that
             Exhibit Negative Refraction},
   Journal = {IEICE Transactions on Electronics},
   Volume = {E87-C},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {359-370},
   Year = {2004},
   Keywords = {Anisotropy;Refractive index;Electromagnetic
             waves;Semiconductor lasers;Crystals;Electromagnetic wave
             propagation;Optical waveguides;Permittivity;Damping;Scattering;Electromagnetic
             wave reflection;Computer simulation;},
   Abstract = {Artificial electromagnetic structures have significantly
             broadened the range of wave propagation phenomena available.
             In particular, it has been shown that metamaterials can be
             constructed for which the index-of-refraction is negative
             over a finite band of frequencies. In this paper, we present
             the design, fabrication and characterization of a
             metamaterial that exhibits negative refraction. The
             metamaterial design we explore is an Isotropic in the plane
             of propagation. Based on our analysis and supporting
             simulations and measurements, we demonstrate that for the
             geometry considered, the anisotropic metamaterial has the
             identical negative refraction properties as would an
             isotropic negative index metamaterial.},
   Key = {04158106248}
}

@article{04478465820,
   Author = {Smith, DR and Rye, PM and Mock, JJ and Vier, DC and Starr,
             AF},
   Title = {Enhanced diffraction from a grating on the surface of a
             negative-index metamaterial},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {93},
   Number = {13},
   Pages = {137405-1-137405-4},
   Year = {2004},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.93.137405},
   Keywords = {Surface treatment;Refractive index;Optical
             devices;Magnetoelectric effects;Refraction;Microwaves;Magnetic
             permeability;Permittivity;Functions;Boundary
             conditions;Mathematical models;Computer simulation;},
   Abstract = {The stepping of the refraction interface, due to the finite
             unit cell size was showed by numerical simulation and by
             measurements on negative-index metamaterial wedge samples.
             The surface stepping on the metamaterial sample constitutes
             a grating, which could be expected to generate a diffracted
             beam in addition to the zeroth order refracted beam. The
             results confirms theoretical predictions of enhanced
             diffraction for negative index grating surfaces. It was
             found that a surface stepping added to a positive index
             wedge produces a single refracted beam identical to that of
             the smooth wedge.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.93.137405},
   Key = {04478465820}
}

@article{04208158307,
   Author = {Smith, DR and Schurig, D and Mock, JJ and Kolinko, P and Rye,
             P},
   Title = {Partial focusing of radiation by a slab of indefinite
             media},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {84},
   Number = {13},
   Pages = {2244-2246},
   Year = {2004},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1690471},
   Keywords = {Anisotropy;Permittivity;Magnetic permeability;Electromagnetic
             waves;Refractive index;Geometrical optics;Electromagnetic
             wave propagation;Electromagnetic wave scattering;Optical
             resonators;Boundary conditions;Computer simulation;},
   Abstract = {The indefinite medium slab for which the permeability
             component along the z-axis of propagation was negative,
             while other permeability and permittivity tensors were
             positive was discussed. It was observed from simulations and
             transmission experiments on the SRR lattice that the
             component of the permeability perpendicular to the SRR axes
             was -1 near 11.3 GHz. It was found that the permittivity of
             the indefinite media was isotropic and equal to unity and
             the principal elements of the permeability tensors were also
             unity. It was also observed that the results of substantial
             field enhancement was consistent with ray tracing and
             numerical simulations which indicated that indefinite
             material had the potential for lens structures.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.1690471},
   Key = {04208158307}
}

@article{04388358163,
   Author = {Smith, DR and Vier, DC},
   Title = {Design of metamaterials with negative refractive
             index},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical
             Engineering},
   Volume = {5359},
   Pages = {52-63},
   Address = {San Jose, CA, United States},
   Year = {2004},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.518133},
   Keywords = {Refractive index;Electromagnetism;Refraction;Electrodynamics;Light
             propagation;Magnetic permeability;Wave equations;Computer
             simulation;},
   Abstract = {Due to the recent experimental validations of left-handed
             metamaterials, negative refractive index has now become
             recognized as a new parameter space for the electromagnetic
             response of materials. Because materials with negative index
             behave quite differently than materials with positive index,
             many familiar electromagnetic phenomena must be
             reconsidered. Having established now the scientific basis of
             negative index, the effort of the community is turning
             toward the practical realization of both the predicted
             scientific phenomena and associated applications. In both of
             these pursuits, the ability to design, characterize and
             fabricate negative index materials is critical; we can
             consider the current status of negative refraction in some
             sense a materials issue, as our ability to demonstrate the
             predicted phenomena is linked to the quality of
             metamaterials we can produce. In this paper we consider
             several issues associated with the design and simulation of
             negative index metamaterials.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.518133},
   Key = {04388358163}
}

@article{04518729664,
   Author = {Smith, DR and Kolinko, P and Schurig, D},
   Title = {Negative refraction in indefinite media},
   Journal = {Journal of the Optical Society of America
             B},
   Volume = {21},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1032-1043},
   Year = {2004},
   ISSN = {0740-3224},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAB.21.001032},
   Keywords = {Refractive index;Permittivity;Mechanical permeability;Light
             refraction;Light reflection;Anisotropy;Interfaces
             (materials);Vacuum applications;Electromagnetic
             dispersion;Finite element method;Computer
             simulation;},
   Abstract = {Initial experiments on wedge samples composed of isotropic
             metamaterials with simultaneously negative permittivity and
             permeability have indicated that electromagnetic radiation
             can be negatively refracted. In more recently reported
             experiments [Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 1074011 (2003)],
             indefinite metamaterial samples, for which the permittivity
             and permeability tensors are negative along only certain of
             the principal axes of the metamaterial, have also been used
             to demonstrate negative refraction. We present here a
             detailed analysis of the refraction and reflection behavior
             of electromagnetic waves at an interface between an
             indefinite medium and vacuum. We conclude that certain
             classes of indefinite media have identical refractive
             properties as isotropic negative index materials. However,
             there are limits to this correspondence, and other
             complicating phenomena may occur when indefinite media are
             substituted for isotropic negative index materials. We
             illustrate the results of our analysis with
             finite-element-based numerical simulations on planar slabs
             and wedges of negative index and indefinite media. © 2004
             Optical Society of America.},
   Doi = {10.1364/JOSAB.21.001032},
   Key = {04518729664}
}

@article{fds269541,
   Author = {Starr, A and Nemat-Nasser, S and Smith, DR and Plaisted,
             TA},
   Title = {Integrated sensing in structural composites},
   Journal = {Structural Health Monitoring 2003: From Diagnostics and
             Prognostics to Structural Health Management - Proceedings of
             the 4th International Workshop on Structural Health
             Monitoring, IWSHM 2003},
   Pages = {879-886},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {1932078207},
   Abstract = {Copyright © 2003 by DEStech Publications, Inc. All right
             reserved. Increasing demand for monitoring of in-service
             structures is driving technology in new directions. Advances
             in many related technologies, including novel sensor design
             and implementation, have created new opportunities in
             structural health monitoring. We present efforts to develop
             structural composite materials that employ networks of
             embedded transducers to extend the functionality of the
             composite beyond that of load bearing. The capability to
             acquire, process, and if necessary respond to structural or
             other types of information represents the next generation of
             structural systems. Sensorized composite materials bring
             together many disparate yet fundamentally important
             developments that have occurred over the last few years in
             several areas: developments in composites and the emergence
             of multifunctional composites, the emergence of a broad
             range of new sensors, smaller and lower power
             microelectronics with increased and multiple integrated
             functionality, and the emergence of device level single-wire
             long haul communications protocols. Information-aware
             composite structures are now feasible due to the recent
             advances in these fields, although the integration of these
             technologies remains a challenge. In this work, we summarize
             our efforts to integrate and embed connectorized
             microelectronic components within fiber/conductor braided
             bundles to minimize their impact as composite crack
             initiation centers. The resulting bundles have mm size
             diameters, and are suitable for inclusion in woven composite
             fabrics or directly in the composite lay-up. The low-power
             electronic devices operate on a multi-drop network with a
             single wire providing power and communications. A
             computer-network interface is provided by multiple channel
             external electronic driver circuitries. Future directions
             include implementing in-network local processing, a greater
             range of sensors, adding in-situ power generation, and
             optimizing the composite processing techniques.},
   Key = {fds269541}
}

@article{fds269542,
   Author = {Su, KH and Wei, QH and Zhang, X and Mock, JJ and Smith, DR and Schultz,
             S},
   Title = {Surface plasmon coupling between two nano Au
             particles},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology},
   Volume = {1},
   Pages = {279-282},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {0780379764},
   ISSN = {1944-9399},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/NANO.2003.1231772},
   Abstract = {© 2003 IEEE. Nano metal particles which interact strongly
             with visible light make themselves useful for molecular
             detection and biosensing. To facilitate the useful
             application for these nano particles, it is important to
             design and fabricate the particles at a desired frequency.
             In this paper, we present our experimental and computer
             simulation studies on the plasmon resonance of single nano
             Au particles and nano Au particle pairs in close proximity.
             The results show that the resonant wavelength peak of two
             particle plasmons is red-shifted in comparison to that of a
             single particle and the shift decays approximately
             exponentially with particle spacing, and drops to zero when
             the gap between two particles exceeds about 2.5 times the
             particle short axis length. It is also found that the decay
             function of the resonant wavelength shift is
             size-independent.},
   Doi = {10.1109/NANO.2003.1231772},
   Key = {fds269542}
}

@article{fds269645,
   Author = {Smith, D and Weiner, N},
   Title = {Inelastic dark matter at DAMA, CDMS and future
             experiments},
   Journal = {Nuclear Physics B - Proceedings Supplements},
   Volume = {124},
   Pages = {197-200},
   Year = {2003},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0920-5632(03)02105-4},
   Abstract = {The DAMA annual modulation signature, interpreted as
             evidence for a spin-independent WIMP coupling, seems in
             conflict with null results from CDMS. However, in models of
             "inelastic dark matter", the experiments are compatible.
             Inelastic dark matter can arise in supersymmetric theories
             as the real component of a sneutrino mixed with a singlet
             scalar. In contrast with ordinary sneutrino dark matter,
             such particles can satisfy all experimental constraints
             while giving the appropriate relic abundance. We discuss the
             modifications to the signal seen at DAMA, in particular
             noting the strong suppression of low energy events in both
             modulated and unmodulated components. We discuss future
             experiments, with emphasis on distinguishing inelastic dark
             matter from ordinary dark matter, and stressing the
             significance of experiments with heavy target nuclei, such
             as xenon and tungsten.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0920-5632(03)02105-4},
   Key = {fds269645}
}

@article{fds269671,
   Author = {Wu, D and Fang, N and Sun, C and Zhang, X and Padilla, WJ and Basov, DN and Smith, DR and Schultz, S},
   Title = {Artificial plasmonic metamaterial fabricated by
             micro-stereolithography},
   Journal = {American Society of Mechanical Engineers,
             Micro-Electromechanical Systems Division Publication
             (MEMS)},
   Volume = {5},
   Pages = {89-91},
   Year = {2003},
   Abstract = {Micro-structured materials, which contain engineered
             sub-wavelength components, can be designed to have positive
             or negative ε and μ at desired frequency. In this paper,
             we demonstrate a high pass Terahertz (THz) filter which
             utilizes the lowered plasma frequency of thin metal wire
             structures. This high pass filter may have applications in
             the THz imaging systems. The filter is formed by
             two-dimensional cubic lattice of thin metal wires. The
             diameter of the wire is 30 μm, the lattice constant is 120
             μm, and the length of the wire is 1mm. Micro-stereolithography
             technique is applied to fabricate this high aspect ratio
             cylinders. The reflection property of the filter is
             characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)
             spectroscopy, and a plasma frequency at 0.7 THz is observed,
             which agrees with the approximate theory.},
   Key = {fds269671}
}

@article{fds269672,
   Author = {Mock, JJ and Smith, DR and Barbic, M and Oldenburg, SJ and Schultz, DA and Schultz, S},
   Title = {Spectroscopic studies of individual plasmon resonant
             nanoparticles},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical
             Engineering},
   Volume = {5221},
   Pages = {66-75},
   Year = {2003},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.506523},
   Abstract = {We present a detailed description of the apparatus and
             techniques that we have utilized in our experimental study
             of individual plasmon resonant nanoparticles, along with a
             brief description of some major results. The apparatus
             consists of a spectroscopic system combined with a modified
             darkfield microscope, which enables the user to sequentially
             select individual resonant nanostructures in the microscopic
             field of view for spectroscopic study. Plasmon resonant
             nanostructures scatter light elastically, and typically have
             very large scattering cross-sections at their resonant
             optical wavelengths. In general, spectra can be obtained
             with acquisition times between. 1 to 30 seconds, and color
             images can be captured using consumer digital color cameras.
             Spheres, tetrahedrons, and pentagonal platelets were
             fabricated using colloidal chemistry techniques. To produce
             highly anisotropic structures such as nanorods and
             "barbells", templates were used. Many of these
             nanostructures have been individually spectroscopically
             characterized, and their spectra correlated with their shape
             and size as determined by transmission electron microscope
             (TEM). The unique shape, size, composition, and dielectric
             surroundings of the individual plasmon resonant
             nanostructures determine their plasmon resonant behavior. We
             will show how the composition of the substrate on which the
             particles are immobilized and the dielectric of the
             surrounding medium have a significant effect on the plasmon
             resonance of the individual particles.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.506523},
   Key = {fds269672}
}

@article{fds269673,
   Author = {Su, K-H and Wei, Q-H and Zhang, X and Mock, JJ and Smith, DR and Schultz,
             S},
   Title = {Optical Properties of Coupled Nano Gold Particles},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical
             Engineering},
   Volume = {5221},
   Pages = {108-115},
   Year = {2003},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.506371},
   Abstract = {Nano gold particles interact strongly with visible light to
             excite the collaborative oscillation of conductive electrons
             within nano particles resulting in a surface plasmon
             resonance which makes them useful for various applications
             including bio-labeling. In this paper, we study the effect
             of particle sizes with particle plasmon resonant wavelength
             and the coupling between pair of elliptical metallic disks
             and ellipsoid particles by simulations and experiments. The
             red-shift resonant peak wavelength of coupled particles to
             that of single particle is due to particle plasmons
             near-field coupling. The shift decays is approximately
             exponentially with increasing particle spacing, and reaches
             zero when the gap between the two particles exceeds about
             2.5 times the particle short axis length. It is also found
             that the exponential decay of peak shift with particle gap
             is size independent but shape dependent.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.506371},
   Key = {fds269673}
}

@article{fds269674,
   Author = {Pendry, JB and Smith, DR and Valanju, PM and Walser, RM and Valanju,
             AP},
   Title = {Comment on "wave refraction in negative-index media: Always
             positive and very inhomogeneous" (multiple
             letters)},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {90},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {029703/1-029704/1},
   Year = {2003},
   Key = {fds269674}
}

@article{fds269819,
   Author = {Goldberger, WD and Nomura, Y and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Warped supersymmetric grand unification},
   Journal = {Physical Review D: Particles, Fields, Gravitation and
             Cosmology},
   Volume = {67},
   Number = {7},
   Year = {2003},
   ISSN = {0556-2821},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.67.075021},
   Abstract = {We construct a realistic theory of grand unification in AdS5
             truncated by branes, in which the unified gauge symmetry is
             broken by boundary conditions and the electroweak scale is
             generated by the AdS warp factor. We show that the theory
             preserves the successful gauge coupling unification of the
             4D MSSM at the leading-logarithmic level. Kaluza-Klein (KK)
             towers, including those of the XY gauge and colored Higgs
             multiplets, appear at the TeV scale, while the extra
             dimension provides natural mechanisms for doublet-triplet
             splitting and proton decay suppression. In one possible
             scenario supersymmetry is strongly broken on the TeV brane,
             in which case the lightest SU/(3) C × SU(2)L × U(1)Y
             gauginos are approximately Dirac and the mass of the
             lightest XY gaugino is pushed well below that of the lowest
             gauge boson KK mode, improving the prospects for its
             production at the CERN LHC. The bulk Lagrangian possesses a
             symmetry that we call GUT parity. If GUT parity is exact,
             the lightest GUT particle, most likely an XY gaugino, is
             stable. Once produced in a collider, the XY gaugino
             hadronizes to form mesons, some of which will be charged and
             visible as highly ionizing tracks. The lightest
             supersymmetric particle is the gravitino of mass ∼ 10-3
             eV, which is also stable if R parity is conserved. © 2003
             The American Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.67.075021},
   Key = {fds269819}
}

@article{fds269821,
   Author = {Nomura, Y and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Spectrum of TeV particles in warped supersymmetric grand
             unification},
   Journal = {Physical Review D: Particles, Fields, Gravitation and
             Cosmology},
   Volume = {68},
   Number = {7},
   Year = {2003},
   ISSN = {0556-2821},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.68.075003},
   Abstract = {In warped supersymmetric grand unification, XY gauge
             particles appear near the TeV scale along with Kaluza-Klein
             towers of the standard model gauge fields. In spite of this
             exotic low-energy physics, the successful gauge coupling
             unification prediction of the minimal supersymmetric
             standard model (MSSM) is preserved and proton decay is
             naturally suppressed. In this paper we study in detail the
             low-lying mass spectrum of superparticles and grand unified
             particles in this theory, taking supersymmetry breaking to
             be localized to the TeV brane. The masses of the MSSM
             particles, Kaluza-Klein modes, and XY states are all
             determined by two parameters, one that fixes the strength of
             the supersymmetry breaking and the other that sets the scale
             of the infrared brane. A particularly interesting result is
             that for relatively strong supersymmetry breaking, the XY
             gauginos and the lowest Kaluza-Klein excitations of the MSSM
             gauginos may both lie within reach of the CERN Large Hadron
             Collider, providing the possibility that the underlying
             unified gauge symmetry and the enhanced N=2 supersymmetry of
             the theory will both be revealed. © 2003 The American
             Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.68.075003},
   Key = {fds269821}
}

@article{fds269822,
   Author = {Wu, D and Fang, N and Sun, C and Zhang, X and Padilla, WJ and Basov, DN and Smith, DR and Schultz, S},
   Title = {Terahertz plasmonic high pass filter},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {83},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {201-203},
   Year = {2003},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1591083},
   Abstract = {Terahertz plasmonic high pass filter was studied. The sharp
             change of reflection and transmission of electromagnetic
             waves at plasma frequency made the structure a high pass
             filter. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to
             characterize the reflection response, and a plasma frequency
             at 0.7 THz was observed.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.1591083},
   Key = {fds269822}
}

@article{fds269823,
   Author = {Su, K-H and Wei, Q-H and Zhang, X and Mock, JJ and Smith, DR and Schultz,
             S},
   Title = {Interparticle coupling effects on plasmon resonances of
             nanogold particles},
   Journal = {Nano Letters},
   Volume = {3},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {1087-1090},
   Year = {2003},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/nl034197f},
   Abstract = {The collaborative oscillation of conductive electrons in
             metal nanoparticles results in a surface plasmon resonance
             that makes them useful for various applications including
             biolabeling. We investigate the coupling between pairs of
             elliptical metal particles by simulations and experiments.
             The results demonstrate that the resonant wavelength peak of
             two interacting particles is red-shifted from that of a
             single particle because of near-field coupling. It is also
             found that the shift decays approximately exponentially with
             increasing particle spacing and become negligible when the
             gap between the two particles exceeds about 2.5 times the
             particle short-axis length.},
   Doi = {10.1021/nl034197f},
   Key = {fds269823}
}

@article{fds269824,
   Author = {Koschny, T and Markoš, P and Smith, DR and Soukoulis,
             CM},
   Title = {Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the
             effective parameters of metamaterials},
   Journal = {Physical Review E - Statistical Physics, Plasmas, Fluids,
             and Related Interdisciplinary Topics},
   Volume = {68},
   Number = {6 2},
   Pages = {656021-656024},
   Year = {2003},
   ISSN = {1063-651X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.68.065602},
   Abstract = {The numerical analysis of the electromagnetic response of
             two metamaterials which include an array of split ring
             resonators (SRR) and an array of thin metallic cut wires was
             presented. It was found that the effective parameters of
             these systems exhibit resonant and antiresonant behavior
             similar to that found in the double-negative metamaterials.
             The antiresonant behavior of the thin wires was due to the
             refractive index possessing finite spatial periodicity. The
             results show that the observed seemingly unphysical behavior
             of effective material parameters is an intrinsic property of
             composites.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.68.065602},
   Key = {fds269824}
}

@article{04278253472,
   Author = {Kolinko, P and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Numerical study of electromagnetic waves interacting with
             negative index materials},
   Journal = {Optics express},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {640-648},
   Year = {2003},
   ISSN = {1094-4087},
   Keywords = {Light scattering;Permittivity;Prisms;Refractive
             index;Parameter estimation;Waveguides;Polarization;Lighting;Maxwell
             equations;Approximation theory;Computational
             methods;Computer simulation;},
   Abstract = {We study numerically the electromagnetic scattering
             properties of structures with negative indices of
             refraction. To perform this analysis, we utilize a
             commercial finite-element based electromagnetic solver
             (HFSS, Ansoft), in which a negative index material can be
             formed from mesh elements whose permittivity and
             permeability are both negative. In particular, we
             investigate the expected transmission characteristics of a
             finite beam incident on negative index prisms and lenses. We
             also confirm numerically the predicted superlens effect of
             an image formed by a planar slab with index n=-1, using two
             subwavelength (λ/20) slits as objects. © 2003 Optical
             Society of America.},
   Key = {04278253472}
}

@article{7580297,
   Author = {Smith, DR and Schurig, D},
   Title = {Electromagnetic wave propagation in media with indefinite
             permittivity and permeability tensors},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {90},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {077405/1-077405/4},
   Year = {2003},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.90.077405},
   Keywords = {anisotropic media;electromagnetic wave propagation;electromagnetic
             wave reflection;focusing;inhomogeneous media;refractive
             index;},
   Abstract = {The properties of media with indefinite ε and μ tensors
             were explored. Consideration of layered structures led to
             useful and interesting reflection and refraction behavior,
             including a new mechanism for subdiffraction
             focusing.},
   Key = {7580297}
}

@article{03157430058,
   Author = {Smith, DR and Schurig, D and Rosenbluth, M and Schultz, S and Ramakrishna, SA and Pendry, JB},
   Title = {Limitations on subdiffraction imaging with a negative
             refractive index slab},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {82},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {1506-1508},
   Year = {2003},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1554779},
   Keywords = {Imaging techniques;Refractive index;Electromagnetic wave
             diffraction;Optical materials;Surface plasmon
             resonance;Electromagnetic wave propagation;Fourier
             optics;Finite difference method;Computational
             geometry;Computer simulation;},
   Abstract = {Limitations on subdiffraction imaging with a negative
             refractive index slab was studied. The planar geometry
             allowed a straight forward analysis to be implemented. The
             fields from an arbitray electromagnetic source were expanded
             in a Fourier series over homogeneous and inhomogeneous plane
             waves. The sensitivity of subwavelength focus to the slab
             material properties, periodicity and its connection to slab
             surface plasmon modes were studied. It was concluded that
             significant subwavelength resollution was achievable with a
             single negative index slab, only over a restrictive range of
             parameters.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.1554779},
   Key = {03157430058}
}

@article{7583055,
   Author = {Schurig, D and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Spatial filtering using media with indefinite permittivity
             and permeability tensors},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {82},
   Number = {14},
   Pages = {2215-2217},
   Year = {2003},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1562344},
   Keywords = {band-pass filters;high-pass filters;low-pass
             filters;magnetic permeability;permittivity;spatial
             filters;},
   Abstract = {The construction of bandpass spatial, low pass and high pass
             filters was discussed. Bilayers of media with indefinite
             permittivity and permeability tensors were used for the
             construction. The filters formed had sharp adjustable
             roll-offs and could operate both below and above free space
             cutoff to select beam angles or spatial variation components
             from an image or source.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.1562344},
   Key = {7583055}
}

@article{7694827,
   Author = {Mock, JJ and Smith, DR and Schultz, S},
   Title = {Local refractive index dependence of plasmon resonance
             spectra from individual nanoparticles},
   Journal = {Nano Letters},
   Volume = {3},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {485-491},
   Year = {2003},
   ISSN = {1530-6984},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/nl0340475},
   Keywords = {nanoparticles;optical microscopy;red shift;refractive
             index;silver;surface plasmon resonance;},
   Abstract = {We present an experimental optical darkfield microscope
             study of the dependence of the plasmon resonance spectrum of
             individual silver nanoparticles on the local index of
             refraction. We systematically characterize the position of
             the resonance peaks associated with the same set of
             individual silver nanoparticles embedded sequentially in
             index oils with increasing refractive index. This technique
             effectively allows the local refractive index to be stepped
             in increments of 0.04. As the local index is increased, the
             spectrum from each of the nanoparticles generally undergoes
             a very regular and reproducible red shift; however, we find
             that the amount of red shift per index increase varies
             depending on the shape of the nanoparticle and the mode of
             excitation. In particular, we find that the spectral peak
             that occurs in triangular nanoparticles exhibits a
             noticeably larger red shift than that associated with the
             dipole mode corresponding to spherical nanoparticles. Our
             results are consistent with experiments performed on
             ensembles of similar nanoparticles and suggest that
             individual nanoparticles may be utilized in biosensing
             applications where currently ensembles are being
             investigated.},
   Doi = {10.1021/nl0340475},
   Key = {7694827}
}

@article{03227488267,
   Author = {Smith, DR},
   Title = {The reality of negative refraction},
   Journal = {Physics World},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {23-24},
   Year = {2003},
   Keywords = {Microwaves;Interfaces (materials);Refractive
             index;Diffraction;Polytetrafluoroethylenes;},
   Abstract = {Recent experiments that demonstrated the negative refraction
             of light were presented. The refraction at the interface
             between a positive-index material and a negative index
             material teared the wave apart, leaving no single negatively
             refracted wave. The researchers used a positive-index Teflon
             wedge as a control sample, which caused the path of a
             microwave beam to exit the sample at a positive
             angle.},
   Key = {03227488267}
}

@article{fds300150,
   Author = {Wu, D and Fang, N and Sun, C and Zhang, X and Padilla, W and Basov, D and Smith, D},
   Title = {Fabrication and characterization of THz plasmonic
             filter},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology},
   Volume = {2002-January},
   Pages = {229-231},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {0780375386},
   ISSN = {1944-9399},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/NANO.2002.1032234},
   Abstract = {© 2002 IEEE. Terahertz imaging systems have applications
             for explosives detection, aircraft guidance and landing in
             zero-visibility weather condition, as well as terrestrial
             and astronomical remote sensing. These critical applications
             need a variety of optical elements in the THz frequency,
             which has yet to be explored. In this paper, we demonstrate
             a high pass THz filter which utilizes the lowered plasma
             frequency of thin metal wire structures. The
             microstereolithography technique is applied to fabricate the
             2D lattice of thin metal cylinders. The reflection property
             of the filter is characterized by FTIR, and the plasma
             frequency is determined at 0.7 THz, which agrees with the
             approximate theory.},
   Doi = {10.1109/NANO.2002.1032234},
   Key = {fds300150}
}

@article{fds269644,
   Author = {Hall, L and Nomura, Y and Okui, T and Smith, D},
   Title = {SO(10) unified theories in six dimensions},
   Journal = {Physical Review D: Particles, Fields, Gravitation and
             Cosmology},
   Volume = {65},
   Number = {3},
   Year = {2002},
   ISSN = {0556-2821},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.65.035008},
   Abstract = {We construct supersymmetric models of SO(10) unification in
             which the gauge symmetry is broken by orbifold
             compactification. We find that using boundary conditions to
             break the gauge symmetry down to SU(3) C⊗ SU(2) L ⊗U(1)
             Y⊗U(1) X without leaving unwanted massless states requires
             at least two extra dimensions, motivating us to work with 6D
             orbifolds. SO(10) is broken by two operations, each of which
             induces gauge breaking to either the Georgi-Glashow,
             Pati-Salam, or flipped SU(5)⊗U(1) subgroups; assigning
             different unbroken subgroups to the two operations leaves
             only the-standard model gauge group and U(1) X unbroken. The
             models we build employ extra-dimensional mechanisms for
             naturally realizing doublet-triplet splitting, suppressing
             proton decay, and avoiding unwanted grand-unified fermion
             mass relations. We find some tension between being free of
             anomalies of the 6D bulk, accommodating a simple mechanism
             for generating right-handed neutrino masses, and preserving
             the precise prediction of the weak mixing angle. © 2002 The
             American Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.65.035008},
   Key = {fds269644}
}

@article{fds269648,
   Author = {Skiba, W and Smith, D},
   Title = {Localized fermions and anomaly inflow via
             deconstruction},
   Journal = {Physical Review D: Particles, Fields, Gravitation and
             Cosmology},
   Volume = {65},
   Number = {9 B},
   Pages = {950021-950027},
   Year = {2002},
   ISSN = {0556-2821},
   Abstract = {We study fermion localization in gauge theory space. We
             consider four-dimensional product gauge groups in which
             light chiral fermions transform under different gauge
             factors of the product group. This construction provides a
             suppression of higher dimensional operators. For example, it
             can be used to suppress dangerous proton decay operators.
             The anomalies associated with the light chiral fermions are
             compensated by Wess-Zumino terms, which in the continuum
             limit reproduce the five-dimensional Chern-Simons
             term.},
   Key = {fds269648}
}

@article{fds269668,
   Author = {Smith, DR and Schultz, S and Markoš, P and Soukoulis,
             CM},
   Title = {Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of
             metamaterials from reflection and transmission
             coefficients},
   Journal = {Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials
             Physics},
   Volume = {65},
   Number = {19},
   Pages = {1951041-1951045},
   Year = {2002},
   ISSN = {0163-1829},
   Abstract = {We analyze the reflection and transmission coefficients
             calculated from transfer matrix simulations on finite
             lengths of electromagnetic metamaterials, to determine the
             effective permittivity (ε) and permeability (μ). We
             perform this analysis on structures composed of periodic
             arrangements of wires, split ring resonators (SRRs), and
             both wires and SRRs. We find the recovered
             frequency-dependent ε and μ are entirely consistent with
             analytic expressions predicted by effective medium
             arguments. Of particular relevance are that a wire medium
             exhibits a frequency region in which the real part of ε is
             negative, and SRRs produce a frequency region in which the
             real part of μ is negative. In the combination structure,
             at frequencies where both the recovered real parts of ε and
             μ are simultaneously negative, the real part of the index
             of refraction is also found to be unambiguously
             negative.},
   Key = {fds269668}
}

@article{fds269669,
   Author = {Ramakrishna, SA and Pendry, JB and Schurig, D and Smith, DR and Schultz,
             S},
   Title = {The asymmetric lossy near-perfect lens},
   Journal = {Journal of Modern Optics},
   Volume = {49},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {1747-1762},
   Year = {2002},
   ISSN = {0950-0340},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09500340110120950},
   Abstract = {We extend the ideas of the perfect lens recently proposed
             [J.B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000)] to an
             alternative structure. We show that a slab of a medium with
             negative refractive index bounded by media of different
             positive refractive index also amplifies evanescent waves
             and can act as a near-perfect lens. We examine the role of
             the surface states in the amplification of the evanescent
             waves. The image resolution obtained by this asymmetric lens
             is more robust against the effects of absorption in the
             lens. In particular, we study the case of a slab of silver,
             which has a negative dielectric constant, with air on one
             side and other media such as glass or GaAs on the other side
             as an 'asymmetric' lossy near-perfect lens for p-polarized
             waves. It is found that retardation has an adverse effect on
             the imaging due to the positive magnetic permeability of
             silver, but we conclude that subwavelength image resolution
             is possible in spite of it.},
   Doi = {10.1080/09500340110120950},
   Key = {fds269669}
}

@article{fds269670,
   Author = {Smith, DR and Schurig, D and Pendry, JB},
   Title = {Negative refraction of modulated electromagnetic
             waves},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {81},
   Number = {15},
   Pages = {2713-2715},
   Year = {2002},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1512828},
   Abstract = {We show that a modulated Gaussian beam undergoes negative
             refraction at the interface between a positive and negative
             refractive index material. While the refraction of the beam
             is clearly negative, the modulation interference fronts are
             not normal to the group velocity, and thus exhibit a
             sideways motion relative to the beam - an effect due to the
             inherent frequency dispersion associated with the negative
             index medium. In particular, the interference fronts appear
             to bend in a manner suggesting positive refraction, such
             that for a plane wave, the true direction of the energy flow
             associated with the refracted beam is not obvious. © 2002
             American Institute of Physics. © 2002 American Institute of
             Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.1512828},
   Key = {fds269670}
}

@article{fds269817,
   Author = {Oldenburg, SJ and Mock, JJ and Glass, J and Asenjo, A and Genick, C and Smith, DR and Schultz, DA and Schultz, S},
   Title = {Metal nanoparticles for biodetection},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical
             Engineering},
   Volume = {4810},
   Pages = {36-41},
   Year = {2002},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.450805},
   Abstract = {The large scattering cross section of plasmon resonant gold
             and silver nanoparticles functionalized with the appropriate
             ligand allows for sensitive and specific detection of
             nucleic acids and proteins. By varying the size, shape, and
             material morphology populations with a specific peak plasmon
             resonance can be prepared. By varying the order and length
             of plasmon resonant bar segment in a composite nanowire one
             can obtain a large number of particle populations. Distinct
             populations can be used for labels for multiplexing or as a
             platform for biological assays. An larger number of color
             populations can be obtained with composite nanowires that
             are fabricated with various lengths of silver, gold, or
             nickel segments. The order and length of the different
             plasmon resonance rod segments can be used to uniquely
             identify a rod population allowing for a large degree of
             multiplexing within a single sample.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.450805},
   Key = {fds269817}
}

@article{fds269818,
   Author = {Low, I and Skiba, W and Smith, D},
   Title = {Little Higgs bosons from an antisymmetric
             condensate},
   Journal = {Physical Review D: Particles, Fields, Gravitation and
             Cosmology},
   Volume = {66},
   Number = {7},
   Year = {2002},
   ISSN = {0556-2821},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.66.072001},
   Abstract = {We construct an SU(6)/Sp(6) non-linear sigma model in which
             the Higgs bosons arise as pseudo Goldstone bosons. There are
             two Higgs doublets whose masses have no one-loop quadratic
             sensitivity to the cutoff of the effective theory, which can
             be at around 10 TeV. The Higgs potential is generated by
             gauge and Yukawa interactions, and is distinctly different
             from that of the minimal supersymmetric standard model. At
             the TeV scale, the new bosonic degrees of freedom are a
             single neutral complex scalar and a second copy of
             SU(2)×U(1) gauge bosons. Additional vector-like pairs of
             colored fermions are also present. © 2002 The American
             Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.66.072001},
   Key = {fds269818}
}

@article{fds269820,
   Author = {Hall, L and Nomura, Y and Smith, D},
   Title = {Gauge-higgs unification in higher dimensions},
   Journal = {Nuclear Physics B},
   Volume = {639},
   Number = {1-2},
   Pages = {307-330},
   Year = {2002},
   ISSN = {0550-3213},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0550-3213(02)00539-4},
   Abstract = {The electroweak Higgs doublets are identified as components
             of a vector multiplet in a higher-dimensional supersymmetric
             field theory. We construct a minimal model in 6D where the
             electroweak SU (2) ⊗ U (1) gauge group is extended to
             SU(3), and unified 6D models with the unified SU(5) gauge
             symmetry extended to SU(6). In these realistic theories the
             extended gauge group is broken by orbifold boundary
             conditions, leaving Higgs doublet zero modes which have
             Yukawa couplings to quarks and leptons on the orbifold fixed
             points. In one SU(6) model the weak mixing angle receives
             power law corrections, while in another the fixed point
             structure forbids such corrections. A 5D model is also
             constructed in which the Higgs doublet contains the fifth
             component of the gauge field. In this case Yukawa couplings
             are introduced as nonlocal operators involving the Wilson
             line of this gauge field. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All
             rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0550-3213(02)00539-4},
   Key = {fds269820}
}

@article{02206947052,
   Author = {Mock, JJ and Barbic, M and Smith, DR and Schultz, DA and Schultz,
             S},
   Title = {Shape effects in plasmon resonance of individual colloidal
             silver nanoparticles},
   Journal = {Journal of Chemical Physics},
   Volume = {116},
   Number = {15},
   Pages = {6755-6759},
   Year = {2002},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1462610},
   Keywords = {Silver;Colloids;Particle size analysis;Surface plasmon
             resonance;Heat treatment;Spectrum analysis;Transmission
             electron microscopy;},
   Abstract = {The effect of shape of individual silver colloidal
             nanoparticle on surface plasmon resonance was investigated
             by an optical detection technique combined with high
             resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The
             geometrical shape of nanoparticle had a major role in
             determining plasmon resonance, while the spectrum redshifted
             with increasing particle size. Heat treatment was found to
             be capable of modifying particle shape, resulting in a
             change in its plasmon resonant properties.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.1462610},
   Key = {02206947052}
}

@article{7571878,
   Author = {Barbic, M and Mock, JJ and Smith, DR and Schultz,
             S},
   Title = {Single crystal silver nanowires prepared by the metal
             amplification method},
   Journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
   Volume = {91},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {9341-9345},
   Year = {2002},
   ISSN = {0021-8979},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1476071},
   Keywords = {electroless deposition;electron diffraction
             crystallography;membranes;nanostructured
             materials;nanotechnology;optical microscopy;polymer
             films;porous materials;silver;transmission electron
             microscopy;},
   Abstract = {We present a method of fabricating single crystal silver
             nanowires based on the electroless deposition of silver into
             the pores of the polycarbonate membranes by the metal
             amplification process. A gold film on one side of the
             nanoporous membrane is used as the initiation layer for the
             silver crystal growth, while the pores of the membrane are
             used for guiding the growth of the silver crystal into a
             cylindrical nanostructure. Optical microscopy and
             spectroscopy of individual nanowires, transmission electron
             microscopy (TEM), and TEM diffraction crystallography were
             used to characterize the silver nanostructures. The metal
             amplification technique presents an electroless, simple, and
             inexpensive solution to the challenge of fabricating silver
             nanowires for electronic, optical, and biological
             applications. © 2002 American Institute of
             Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.1476071},
   Key = {7571878}
}

@article{7442974,
   Author = {Mock, JJ and Oldenburg, SJ and Smith, DR and Schultz, DA and Schultz,
             S},
   Title = {Composite Plasmon Resonant Nanowires},
   Journal = {Nano Letters},
   Volume = {2},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {465-469},
   Year = {2002},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/nl0255247},
   Keywords = {electroless deposition;electroplating;filled
             polymers;gold;light scattering;nanostructured
             materials;nickel;optical microscopy;silver;surface plasmon
             resonance;},
   Abstract = {We present an experimental study of the polarization-dependent
             scattering of light from homogeneous and multisegment
             silver, gold, and nickel nanowires. The metallic nanowires
             are prepared within a polycarbonate membrane template by a
             combination of electroplating (gold and nickel) and
             electroless (silver) growth processes. The size range of the
             nanowire segments is such that surface plasmon resonances
             are supported, dominating the optical spectra. We
             characterize the light scattering properties of individual
             composite nanowires using an optical microscope configured
             for single particle spectroscopy. Because of the scattering
             efficiency associated with the plasmon resonance, very
             narrow (∼30 nm diameter) nanowires can be readily observed
             under white-light illumination, with the spectral
             characteristics of each subsection easily distinguishable.
             Because of their compactness, these simply prepared
             multiisegment plasmon resonant nanowires are capable of
             hosting a large number of segment sequences over a
             comparatively small spatial range, suggesting their possible
             application as unique nanolabels in biological
             assays.},
   Doi = {10.1021/nl0255247},
   Key = {7442974}
}

@article{fds269640,
   Author = {Arkani-Hamed, M and Hall, L and Smith, D and Weiner,
             N},
   Title = {Exponentially small supersymmetry breaking from extra
             dimensions},
   Journal = {Physical Review D: Particles, Fields, Gravitation and
             Cosmology},
   Volume = {63},
   Number = {5},
   Year = {2001},
   ISSN = {0556-2821},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.63.056003},
   Abstract = {The supersymmetric "shining" of free massive chiral
             superficiels in extra dimensions from a distant source brane
             can trigger exponentially small supersymmetry breaking on
             our brane of order e~27rR, where R is the radius of the
             extra dimensions. This supersymmetry breaking can be
             transmitted to the superpartners in a number of ways, for
             instance by gravity or via the standard model gauge
             interactions. The radius R can easily be stabilized at a
             size 0(10) larger that the fundamental scale. The models are
             extremely simple, relying only on free, classical bulk
             dynamics to solve the hierarchy problem. ©2001 The American
             Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.63.056003},
   Key = {fds269640}
}

@article{fds269641,
   Author = {Smith, D and Weiner, N},
   Title = {Inelastic dark matter},
   Journal = {Physical Review D: Particles, Fields, Gravitation and
             Cosmology},
   Volume = {64},
   Number = {4},
   Year = {2001},
   ISSN = {0556-2821},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.64.043502},
   Abstract = {Many observations suggest that much of the matter of the
             universe is nonbaryonic. Recently, the DAMA Nal dark matter
             direct detection experiment reported an annual modulation in
             their event rate consistent with a WIMP relic. However, the
             Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) Ge experiment excludes
             most of the region preferred by DAMA. We demonstrate that if
             the dark matter can only scatter by making a transition to a
             slightly heavier state (Δm∼100 keV), the experiments are
             no longer in conflict. Moreover, differences in the energy
             spectrum of nuclear recoil events could distinguish such a
             scenario from the standard WIMP scenario. Finally, we
             discuss the sneutrino as a candidate for inelastic dark
             matter in supersymmetric theories. ©2001 The American
             Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.64.043502},
   Key = {fds269641}
}

@article{fds269642,
   Author = {Arkani-Hamed, N and Hall, L and Nomura, Y and Smith, D and Weiner,
             N},
   Title = {Finite radiative electroweak symmetry breaking from the
             bulk},
   Journal = {Nuclear Physics B},
   Volume = {605},
   Number = {1-3},
   Pages = {81-115},
   Year = {2001},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0550-3213(01)00203-6},
   Abstract = {A new physical origin for electroweak symmetry breaking is
             proposed, involving compact spatial dimensions of scale
             1/R≈1 TeV. The higher-dimensional theory is
             supersymmetric, and hence requires the top-quark Yukawa
             coupling to be localized on some "Yukawa brane" in the bulk.
             The short distance divergence in the Higgs-boson mass is
             regulated because supersymmetry is unbroken in the vicinity
             of this Yukawa brane. A finite, negative Higgs mass-squared
             is generated radiatively by the top-quark supermultiplet
             propagating a distance of order R from the Yukawa brane to
             probe supersymmetry breaking. The physics of electroweak
             symmetry breaking is therefore closely related to this top
             propagation across the bulk, and is dominated by the mass
             scale 1/R, with exponential insensitivity to higher energy
             scales. The masses of the superpartners and the Kaluza-Klein
             resonances are also set by the mass scale 1/R, which is
             naturally larger than the W boson mass by a loop factor.
             Explicit models are constructed which are highly constrained
             and predictive. The finite radiative correction to the Higgs
             mass is computed, and the Higgs sector briefly explored. The
             superpartner and Kaluza-Klein resonance spectra are
             calculated, and the problem of flavor violation from squark
             and slepton exchange is solved. Important collider
             signatures include highly ionizing charged tracks from
             stable top squarks, and events with two Higgs bosons and
             missing transverse energy. © 2001 Elsevier Science
             B.V.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0550-3213(01)00203-6},
   Key = {fds269642}
}

@article{fds269643,
   Author = {Nomura, Y and Smith, D and Weiner, N},
   Title = {GUT breaking on the brane},
   Journal = {Nuclear Physics B},
   Volume = {613},
   Number = {1-2},
   Pages = {147-166},
   Year = {2001},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0550-3213(01)00388-1},
   Abstract = {We present a five-dimensional supersymmetric SU(5) theory in
             which the gauge symmetry is broken maximally (i.e., at the
             5D Planck scale M*) on the same 4D brane where chiral matter
             is localized. Masses of the lightest Kaluza-Klein modes for
             the colored Higgs and X and Y gauge fields are determined by
             the compactification scale of the fifth dimension, MC~1015
             GeV, rather than by M*. These fields' wave functions are
             repelled from the GUT-breaking brane, so that proton decay
             rates are suppressed below experimental limits. Above the
             compactification scale, the differences between the standard
             model gauge couplings evolve logarithmically, so that
             ordinary logarithmic gauge coupling unification is
             preserved. The maximal breaking of the grand unified group
             can also lead to other effects, such as O(1) deviations from
             SU(5) predictions of Yukawa couplings, even in models
             utilizing the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0550-3213(01)00388-1},
   Key = {fds269643}
}

@article{fds269810,
   Author = {Kottmann, JP and Martin, OJF and Smith, DR and Schultz,
             S},
   Title = {Non-regularly shaped plasmon resonant nanoparticle as
             localized light source for near-field microscopy},
   Journal = {Journal of Microscopy},
   Volume = {202},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {60-65},
   Year = {2001},
   ISSN = {0022-2720},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2818.2001.00866.x},
   Abstract = {We study numerically two-dimensional nanoparticles with a
             non-regular shape and demonstrate that these particles can
             support many more plasmon resonances than a particle with a
             regular shape (e.g. an ellipse). The electric field
             distributions associated with these different resonances are
             investigated in detail in the context of near-field
             microscopy. Depending on the particle shape, extremely
             strong and localized near-fields, with intensity larger than
             l05 that of the illumination wave, can be generated. We also
             discuss the spectral dependence of these near-fields and
             show that different spatial distributions are observed,
             depending which plasmon resonance is excited in the
             particle.},
   Doi = {10.1046/j.1365-2818.2001.00866.x},
   Key = {fds269810}
}

@article{fds269811,
   Author = {Kottmann, JP and Martin, OJF and Smith, DR and Schultz,
             S},
   Title = {Dramatic localized electromagnetic enhancement in plasmon
             resonant nanowires},
   Journal = {Chemical Physics Letters},
   Volume = {341},
   Number = {1-2},
   Pages = {1-6},
   Year = {2001},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0009-2614(01)00715-1},
   Abstract = {We investigate numerically the plasmon resonances of 10-50
             nm nanowires with a non-elliptical section. Such wires have
             a much more complex behavior than elliptical wires and their
             resonances span a larger frequency range. The field
             distribution at the surface of these wires exhibits a
             dramatic enhancement, up to several hundred times the
             incident field amplitude. These strongly localized fields
             can provide an important mechanism for surface enhanced
             Raman scattering (SERS). © 2001 Elsevier Science
             B.V.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0009-2614(01)00715-1},
   Key = {fds269811}
}

@article{fds269812,
   Author = {Aubert, B and Boutigny, D and Gaillard, J-M and Hicheur, A and Karyotakis, Y and Lees, JP and Robbe, P and Tisserand, V and Palano, A and Chen, GP and al, E},
   Title = {Measurement of the decays B → φK and B →
             φK},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {87},
   Number = {15},
   Pages = {151801/1-151801/7},
   Year = {2001},
   ISSN = {0031-9007},
   Abstract = {An attempt was made to observe B decays to φK +, φK 0, φK
             *+, and φK *0 with significances, including systematic
             uncertainties, of greater than four standard deviations. It
             was found that the decay B + → φπ + has both
             Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa and color suppression relative to
             φK +.},
   Key = {fds269812}
}

@article{fds269813,
   Author = {Aubert, B and Boutigny, D and Gaillard, J-M and Hicheur, A and Karyotakis, Y and Lees, JP and Robbe, P and Tisserand, V and Palano, A and Chen, GP and al, E},
   Title = {Measurement of branching fractions and search for
             CP-violating charge asymmetries in charmless two-body B
             decays into pions and kaons},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {87},
   Number = {15},
   Pages = {151802/1-151802/7},
   Year = {2001},
   ISSN = {0031-9007},
   Abstract = {Branching ratios were measured for the rate charmless decays
             B 0→π +π -, B 0→K +π -, B +→K +π 0, B +→K 0π +,
             and B 0→π +π 0, and B +→K̃ 0K +. No evidence was
             found for direct CP violation in the observed decays. 90%
             confidence level intervals were set.},
   Key = {fds269813}
}

@article{fds269814,
   Author = {Weiland, T and Schuhmann, R and Greegor, RB and Parazzoli, CG and Vetter, AM and Smith, DR and Vier, DC and Schultz,
             S},
   Title = {Ab initio numerical simulation of left-handed metamaterials:
             Comparison of calculations and experiments},
   Journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
   Volume = {90},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {5419-5424},
   Year = {2001},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1410881},
   Abstract = {Using numerical simulation techniques, the transmission and
             reflection coefficients, or S parameters, for left-handed
             metamaterials are calculated. Metamaterials consist of a
             lattice of conducting, nonmagnetic elements that can be
             described by an effective magnetic permeability μeff and an
             effective electrical permittivity εeff, both of which can
             exhibit values not found in naturally occurring materials.
             Because the electromagnetic fields in conducting
             metamaterials can be localized to regions much smaller than
             the incident wavelength, it can be difficult to perform
             accurate numerical simulations. The metamaterials simulated
             here, for example, are based on arrays of split ring
             resonators (SRRs), which produce enhanced and highly
             localized electric fields within the gaps of the elements in
             response to applied time dependent fields. To obtain greater
             numerical accuracy we utilize the newly developed
             commercially available code MICROWAVE STUDIO, which is based
             on the finite integration technique with the perfect
             boundary approximation. The simulation results are in
             agreement with published experimental results for the
             frequencies and bandwidths of the propagation and stop bands
             associated with the various structures. We further analyze
             the properties of an individual SRR, and find the dependence
             of the resonant frequency on the SRR radius, ring thickness,
             inner/outer radial gap, azimuthal gap, electrical
             permittivity, and magnetic permeability of the components'
             materials. Comparison with previously published analytical
             estimates shows only approximate agreement with the
             simulation results. © 2001 American Institute of
             Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.1410881},
   Key = {fds269814}
}

@article{fds269815,
   Author = {Aubert, B and Boutigny, D and Gaillard, J-M and Hicheur, A and Karyotakis, Y and Lees, JP and Robbe, P and Tisserand, V and Palano, A and Chen, GP and al, E},
   Title = {Measurements of the branching fractions of exclusive
             charmless B meson decays with η′ or ω
             mesons},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {87},
   Number = {22},
   Pages = {221802/2-221802/7},
   Year = {2001},
   ISSN = {0031-9007},
   Abstract = {An overview is given on the results of searches for B decays
             to the charmless two-body final states B +→wπ +, B +→wK
             +, B +→η'π +, B +→η'K +, B 0→wK 0, B 0→wπ 0, and
             B 0→η,'K 0. The results are based on data taken in the
             1999-2000 run. The data were collected with the BABAR
             detector at the PEP-II asymmetric e +e - collider located at
             the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.},
   Key = {fds269815}
}

@article{fds269816,
   Author = {Kottman, PJ and Martin, OJF and Smith, DR and Schultz,
             S},
   Title = {Plasmon resonances of silver nanowires with a nonregular
             cross section},
   Journal = {Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials
             Physics},
   Volume = {64},
   Number = {23},
   Pages = {2354021-23540210},
   Year = {2001},
   ISSN = {0163-1829},
   Abstract = {We investigate numerically the spectrum of plasmon
             resonances for metallic nanowires with a nonregular Z, cross
             section, in the 20-50 nm range. We first consider the
             resonance spectra corresponding to nanowires whose cross
             sections form different simplexes. The number of resonances
             strongly increases when the section symmetry decreases: A
             cylindrical wire exhibits one resonance, whereas we observe
             more than five distinct resonances for a triangular
             particle. The spectral range covered by these different
             resonances becomes very large, giving to the particle-
             specific distinct colors. At the resonance, dramatic field
             enhancement is observed at the vicinity of nonregular
             particles, where the field amplitude can reach several
             hundred times that of the illumination field. This
             near-field enhancement corresponds to surface-enhanced Raman
             scattering (SERS) enhancement locally in excess of 1012. The
             distance dependence of this enhancement is investigated and
             we show that it depends on the plasmon resonance excited in
             the particle, i.e., on the illumination wavelength. The
             average Raman enhancement for molecules distributed on the
             entire particle surface is also computed and discussed in
             the context of experiments in which large numbers of
             molecules are used.},
   Key = {fds269816}
}

@article{04057982916,
   Author = {Shelby, RA and Smith, DR and Nemat-Nasser, SC and Schultz,
             S},
   Title = {Microwave transmission through a two-dimensional, isotropic,
             left-handed metamaterial},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {78},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {489-491},
   Year = {2001},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1343489},
   Abstract = {We present experimental data, numerical simulations, and
             analytical transfer-matrix calculations for a
             two-dimensionally isotropic, left-handed metamaterial (LHM)
             at X-band microwave frequencies. A LHM is one that has a
             frequency band with simultaneously negative εeff(ω) and
             μeff(ω), thereby having real values of index of refraction
             and wave vectors, and exhibiting extended wave propagation
             over that band. Our physical demonstration of a
             two-dimensional isotropic LHM will now permit experiments to
             verify some of the explicit predictions of reversed
             electromagnetic-wave properties including negative index of
             refraction as analyzed by Veselago [Usp. Fiz. Nauk 92, 517
             (1964), Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509 (1968)]. © 2001 American
             Institute of Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.1343489},
   Key = {04057982916}
}

@article{01216510625,
   Author = {Shelby, RA and Smith, DR and Schultz, S},
   Title = {Experimental verification of a negative index of
             refraction},
   Journal = {Science},
   Volume = {292},
   Number = {5514},
   Pages = {77-79},
   Year = {2001},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1058847},
   Keywords = {Microwaves;Arrays;Prisms;Electromagnetic wave
             scattering;},
   Abstract = {We present experimental scattering data at microwave
             frequencies on a structured metamaterial that exhibits a
             frequency band where the effective index of refraction (n)
             is negative. The material consists of a two-dimensional
             array of repeated unit cells of copper strips and split ring
             resonators on interlocking strips of standard circuit board
             material. By measuring the scattering angle of the
             transmitted beam through a prism fabricated from this
             material, we determine the effective n, appropriate to
             Snell's law. These experiments directly confirm the
             predictions of Maxwell's equations that n is given by the
             negative square root of ε·μ for the frequencies where
             both the permittivity (ε) and the permeability (μ) are
             negative. Configurations of geometrical optical designs are
             now possible that could not be realized by positive index
             materials.},
   Doi = {10.1126/science.1058847},
   Key = {01216510625}
}

@article{6899993,
   Author = {Smith, DR and Padilla, W and Vier, DC and Nemat-Nasser, SC and Schultz,
             S},
   Title = {Negative permeability from split ring resonator
             arrays},
   Journal = {Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe - Technical
             Digest},
   Pages = {49-},
   Address = {Nice, France},
   Year = {2000},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/CLEOE.2000.909747},
   Keywords = {arrays;dispersion relations;electrodynamics;magnetic
             permeability;Maxwell equations;resonators;},
   Abstract = {A single split ring resonator (SRR) was fabricated
             lithographically and its accompanying resonance curve is
             shown to determine if periodic arrays of SRRs can have a
             resonantly enhanced effective permeability displaying
             frequency regions with large positive or negative values.
             The SRR medium now offers the possibility of engineering
             materials to respond to time varying magnetic fields as well
             as time varying electric fields. Combining such composite
             media with standard materials offers the potential to yield
             novel and advantageous electromagnetic devices.},
   Key = {6899993}
}

@article{fds269666,
   Author = {Kottmann, JP and Martin, OJF and Smith, DR and Schultz,
             S},
   Title = {Spectral response of plasmon resonant nanoparticles with a
             non-regular shape},
   Journal = {Optics express},
   Volume = {6},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {213-219},
   Year = {2000},
   ISSN = {1094-4087},
   Abstract = {We study the plasmon resonances of 10-100(nm)
             two-dimensional metal particles with a non-regular shape.
             Movies illustrate the spectral response of such particles in
             the optical range. Contrary to particles with a simple shape
             (cylinder, ellipse) non-regular particles exhibit many
             distinct resonances over a large spectral range. At
             resonance frequencies, extremely large enhancements of the
             electromagnetic fields occur near the surface of the
             particle, with amplitudes several hundred-fold that of the
             incident field. Implications of these strong and localized
             fields for nano-optics and surface enhanced Raman scattering
             (SERS) are also discussed. © 2000 Optical Society of
             America.},
   Key = {fds269666}
}

@article{fds269667,
   Author = {Schultz, S and Smith, DR and Mock, JJ and Schultz,
             DA},
   Title = {Single-target molecule detection with nonbleaching
             multicolor optical immunolabels},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of
             USA},
   Volume = {97},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {996-1001},
   Year = {2000},
   ISSN = {0027-8424},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.97.3.996},
   Abstract = {We introduce and demonstrate the use of colloidal silver
             plasmon- resonant particles (PRPs) as optical reporters in
             typical biological assays. PRPs are ultrabright, nanosized
             optical scatterers, which scatter light elastically and can
             be prepared with a scattering peak at any color in the
             visible spectrum. PRPs are readily observed individually
             with a microscope configured for dark-field microscopy, with
             white-light illumination of typical power. Here we
             illustrate the use of PRPs, surface coated with standard
             ligands, as target-specific labels in an in situ
             hybridization and an immunocytology assay. We propose that
             PRPs can replace or complement established labels, such as
             those based on radioactivity, fluorescence,
             chemiluminescence, or enzymatic/colorimetric detection that
             are used routinely in biochemistry, cell biology, and
             medical diagnostic applications. Moreover, because PRP
             labels are nonbleaching and bright enough to be rapidly
             identified and counted, an ultrasensitive assay format based
             on single-target molecule detection is now practical. We
             also present the results of a model sandwich immunoassay for
             goat anti-biotin antibody, in which the number of PRP labels
             counted in an image constitutes the measured
             signal.},
   Doi = {10.1073/pnas.97.3.996},
   Key = {fds269667}
}

@article{fds269809,
   Author = {Kottmann, JP and Martin, OJF and Smith, DR and Schultz,
             S},
   Title = {Field polarization and polarization charge distributions in
             plasmon resonant nanoparticles},
   Journal = {New Journal of Physics},
   Volume = {2},
   Pages = {27.1-27.9},
   Year = {2000},
   Abstract = {We study the plasmon resonances for small two-dimensional
             silver particles (nanowires) with elliptical or triangular
             shapes in the 20 nm size range. While the elliptical
             particle has only two resonances, a well known fact, we
             demonstrate that the triangular particle displays a much
             more complex behaviour with several resonances over a broad
             wavelength range. Using animations of the field amplitude
             and field polarization, we investigate the properties of
             these different resonances. The field distribution
             associated with each plasmon resonance can be related to the
             polarization charges on the surface of the particles.
             Implications for the design of plasmon resonant structures
             with specific properties, for example, for nano-optics or
             surface enhanced Raman scattering are discussed.},
   Key = {fds269809}
}

@article{04057957932,
   Author = {Smith, DR and Padilla, WJ and Vier, DC and Nemat-Nasser, SC and Schultz,
             S},
   Title = {Composite Medium with Simultaneously Negative Permeability
             and Permittivity},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {84},
   Number = {18},
   Pages = {4184-4187},
   Year = {2000},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.84.4184},
   Abstract = {We demonstrate a composite medium, based on a periodic array
             of interspaced conducting nonmagnetic split ring resonators
             and continuous wires, that exhibits a frequency region in
             the microwave regime with simultaneously negative values of
             effective permeability μeff(ω) and permittivity εeff(ω).
             This structure forms a "left-handed" medium, for which it
             has been predicted that such phenomena as the Doppler
             effect, Cherenkov radiation, and even Snell's law are
             inverted. It is now possible through microwave experiments
             to test for these effects using this new
             metamaterial.},
   Doi = {10.1103/physrevlett.84.4184},
   Key = {04057957932}
}

@article{6740385,
   Author = {Smith, DR and Kroll, N},
   Title = {Negative refractive index in left-handed
             materials},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {85},
   Number = {14},
   Pages = {2933-2936},
   Year = {2000},
   ISSN = {0031-9007},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.85.2933},
   Keywords = {electromagnetic wave propagation;permittivity;refractive
             index;},
   Abstract = {The presence of negative refractive index in steady-state
             problems was explored. It was observed that this index leads
             to unusual and unexplored phenomena in wave propagation. A
             formalism was derived that can be applied to time dependent
             currents and pulses in 'left handed' (LH) media, or
             combinations of LH and 'right-hand' RH media.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.85.2933},
   Key = {6740385}
}

@article{04057969601,
   Author = {Smith, DR and Vier, DC and Kroll, N and Schultz, S},
   Title = {Direct calculation of permeability and permittivity for a
             left-handed metamaterial},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {77},
   Number = {14},
   Pages = {2246-2248},
   Year = {2000},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1314884},
   Abstract = {Recently, an electromagnetic metamaterial was fabricated and
             demonstrated to exhibit a "left-handed" (LH) propagation
             band at microwave frequencies. A LH metamaterial is one
             characterized by material constants - the permeability and
             permittivity - which are simultaneously negative, a
             situation never observed in naturally occurring materials or
             composites. While the presence of the propagation band was
             shown to be an inherent demonstration of left handedness,
             actual numerical values for the material constants were not
             obtained. In the present work, using appropriate averages to
             define the macroscopic fields, we extract quantitative
             values for the effective permeability and permittivity from
             finite-difference simulations using three different
             approaches. © 2000 American Institute of
             Physics.},
   Key = {04057969601}
}

@article{fds269638,
   Author = {Hall, LJ and Smith, D},
   Title = {Leading order textures for lepton mass matrices},
   Journal = {Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and
             Cosmology},
   Volume = {59},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {1-9},
   Year = {1999},
   Abstract = {In theories with three light neutrinos, certain simplicity
             assumptions allow the construction of a complete list of
             leading order lepton mass matrices. These matrices are
             consistent with mτ≠0,Δm122≪Δm 232,θ23∼O(1) and
             θ13=0, as suggested by measurements of atmospheric and
             solar neutrino fluxes. The list contains twelve generic
             cases: two have three degenerate neutrinos, eight have two
             neutrinos forming a Dirac state, and in only two cases is
             one neutrino much heavier than the other two. For each of
             these twelve generic cases the possible forms for the
             perturbations which yield mμ are given. Ten special
             textures are also found. ©1999 The American Physical
             Society.},
   Key = {fds269638}
}

@article{fds269639,
   Author = {Hall, LJ and Smith, D},
   Title = {Cosmological constraints on theories with large extra
             dimensions},
   Journal = {Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and
             Cosmology},
   Volume = {60},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {1-5},
   Year = {1999},
   Abstract = {In theories with large extra dimensions, constraints from
             cosmology lead to nontrivial lower bounds on the
             gravitational scale M, corresponding to upper bounds on the
             radii of the compact extra dimensions. These constraints are
             especially relevant to the case of two extra dimensions,
             since only if M is 10 TeV or less do deviations from the
             standard gravitational force law become evident at distances
             accessible to planned submillimeter gravity experiments. By
             examining the graviton decay contribution to the cosmic
             diffuse gamma radiation, we derive, for the case of two
             extra dimensions, a conservative bound M&gt;110 TeV,
             corresponding to r2&lt;5.1×10-5 mm, well beyond the reach
             of these experiments. We also consider the constraint coming
             from graviton overclosure of the universe and derive an
             independent bound M&gt;6.5/√h TeV or r2 &lt;0.015h mm.
             ©1999 The American Physical Society.},
   Key = {fds269639}
}

@article{6416238,
   Author = {Kroll, N and Schultz, S and Smith, DR and Vier, DC},
   Title = {Photonic Band Gap accelerator cavity design at 90
             GHz},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the IEEE Particle Accelerator
             Conference},
   Volume = {2},
   Pages = {830-832},
   Address = {New York, NY, USA},
   Year = {1999},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/PAC.1999.795370},
   Keywords = {accelerator cavities;},
   Abstract = {In previous work we have proposed utilizing Photonic Band
             Gap (PBG) structures as a new class of high-energy,
             high-intensity accelerator cavities. We have completed
             extensive MAFIA numerical calculations of multicell PBG
             structures, with each cell consisting of a square array of
             metal cylinders terminated by conducting sheets and
             surrounded by microwave absorber on the periphery. We find
             that our PBG structure has good higher order mode
             suppression, superior pumping properties, and potential
             fabricational advantages when compared to conventional
             cavity designs. These advantages scale favorably with
             increasing frequency, leading us to propose use of a PBG
             accelerator structure at W-band (91.392 GHz).},
   Key = {6416238}
}

@article{fds269663,
   Author = {Martin, OJF and Girard, C and Smith, DR and Schultz,
             S},
   Title = {Generalized Field Propagator for Arbitrary Finite-Size
             Photonic Band Gap Structures},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {82},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {315-318},
   Year = {1999},
   Abstract = {We investigate the properties of photonic hand gap
             structures of finite size and arbitrary geometry using the
             density of states deduced from scattering calculations. We
             first demonstrate this procedure on a finite 2D array of
             cylinders and then study at optical frequencies a system
             formed by a finite array of finite height cylinders
             positioned on a substrate and illuminated with an evanescent
             field.},
   Key = {fds269663}
}

@article{fds269664,
   Author = {Schultz, S and Mock, J and Smith, DR and Schultz,
             DA},
   Title = {Nanoparticle based biological assays},
   Journal = {Journal of Clinical Ligand Assay},
   Volume = {22},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {214-216},
   Year = {1999},
   ISSN = {1081-1672},
   Abstract = {An introduction to the utilization of plasmon resonant
             particles as optical labels for diverse biological
             applications is presented. Plasmon resonant particles
             (PRP(TM)) (Seashell Technology LLC, La Jolla, CA) are sub-
             micron (40-100 nanometer), ultra-bright, nonbleaching,
             multicolor, light scattering objects that can be attached to
             standard biomolecules. The basic concepts and use of PRP in
             various biological applications such as immunoassays and
             histology, including in-situ hybridization, and tissue
             labeling are discussed. We suggest that this new label will
             replace and/or complement the traditional labels presently
             used that are based on radioactivity, fluorescence, or
             chemiluminescence. Since the detection of each individual
             label is readily performed, the measured signal is a simple
             count of all of the detected labels. Thus, the ultimate
             sensitivity of the assay is set by both the degree of label
             binding to the individual 'target' molecular entity, and the
             corresponding number of labels that bind
             nondiscriminately.},
   Key = {fds269664}
}

@article{99114907465,
   Author = {Smith, DR and Vier, DC and Padilla, W and Nemat-Nasser, SC and Schultz,
             S},
   Title = {Loop-wire medium for investigating plasmons at microwave
             frequencies},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {75},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {1425-1427},
   Year = {1999},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.124714},
   Keywords = {Microwaves;Permittivity;Plasmas;Computer
             simulation;},
   Abstract = {A localized surface plasmon resonance is demonstrated at
             microwave frequencies. The plasmon structure is based on the
             assumption that the effective dielectric constant of the
             loop wire is due to the self-inductance of the constituent
             wire. The plasmon structure reveals subwavelength surface
             plasmon resonances below the bulk plasma
             frequency.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.124714},
   Key = {99114907465}
}

@article{fds269637,
   Author = {Barbieri, R and Hall, LJ and Smith, D and Weiner, NJ and Strumia,
             A},
   Title = {Oscillations of solar and atmospheric neutrinos},
   Journal = {The Journal of High Energy Physics},
   Volume = {2},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {XVII-30},
   Year = {1998},
   ISSN = {1029-8479},
   Abstract = {Motivated by recent results from SuperKamiokande, we study
             both solar and atmospheric neutrino fluxes in the context of
             oscillations of the three known neutrinos. We aim at a
             global view which identifies the various possibilities,
             rather than attempting the most accurate determination of
             the parameters of each scenario. For solar neutrinos we
             emphasise the importance of performing a general analysis,
             independent of any particular solar model and we consider
             the possibility that any one of the techniques - chlorine,
             gallium or water Cerenkov - has a large unknown systematic
             error, so that its results should be discarded. The
             atmospheric neutrino anomaly is studied by paying special
             attention to the ratios of upward and downward going ve and
             vμ fluxes. Both anomalies can be described in a minimal
             scheme where the respective oscillation frequencies are
             widely separated or in non-minimal schemes with two
             comparable oscillation frequencies. We discuss explicit
             forms of neutrino mass matrices in which both atmospheric
             and solar neutrino fluxes are explained. In the minimal
             scheme we identify only two 'zeroth order' textures that can
             result from unbroken symmetries. Finally we discuss
             experimental strategies for the determination of the various
             oscillation parameters.},
   Key = {fds269637}
}

@article{5788007,
   Author = {Li, D. and Kroll, N. and Smith, D.R. and Schultz,
             S.},
   Title = {Wake-field studies on Photonic Band Gap accelerator
             cavities},
   Journal = {AIP Conf. Proc. (USA)},
   Number = {398},
   Pages = {528 - 37},
   Address = {Lake Tahoe, CA, USA},
   Year = {1997},
   Keywords = {accelerator cavities;photonic band gap;Q-factor;wakefield
             accelerators;},
   Abstract = {We have studied the wake-field of several metal Photonic
             Band Gap (PBG) cavities which consist of either a square or
             a hexagonal array of metal cylinders, bounded on top and
             bottom by conducting or superconducting sheets, surrounded
             by placing microwave absorber at the periphery or by
             replacing outer rows of metal cylinders with lossy
             dielectric ones, or by metallic walls. A removed cylinder
             from the center of the array constitutes a site defect where
             a localized electromagnetic mode can occur. While both
             monopole and dipole wake-fields have been studied, we
             confine our attention here mainly to the dipole case. The
             dipole wake-field is produced by modes in the propagation
             bands which tend to fill the entire cavity more or less
             uniformly and are thus easy to damp selectively. MAFIA time
             domain simulation of the transverse wake-field has been
             compared with that of a cylindrical pill-box comparison
             cavity. Even without damping the wake-field of the metal PBG
             cavity is substantially smaller than that of the pill-box
             cavity and may be further reduced by increasing the size of
             the lattice. By introducing lossy material at the periphery
             we have been able to produce Q factors for the dipole modes
             in the 40 to 120 range without significantly degrading the
             accelerating mode},
   Key = {5788007}
}

@article{5730769,
   Author = {Smith, D.R.},
   Title = {A simplified module interface style for synthesis
             education},
   Journal = {Proceedings. 1997 IEEE International Conference on
             Microelectronic Systems Education, MSE'97. `Doing More with
             Less in a Rapidly Changing Environment' (Cat.
             No.97TB100127)},
   Pages = {73 - 4},
   Address = {Arlington, VA, USA},
   Year = {1997},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MSE.1997.612553},
   Keywords = {application specific integrated circuits;built-in self
             test;circuit CAD;computer aided instruction;computer science
             education;educational courses;electronic engineering
             education;field programmable gate arrays;integrated circuit
             design;integrated memory circuits;logic CAD;random-access
             storage;},
   Abstract = {In the synthesis course at Stony Brook we have made it
             possible for students to complete the tasks of
             specification, simulation, synthesis, FPGA fitting, low
             level verification, both on homework sets and on a
             non-trivial project, all within one semester. We do it by
             using a set of standard components and a consistent and
             standardized interface throughout: for the library
             components, for the designs themselves, and for the
             testbenches. It is possible to get designs working quickly
             because the control is implicit and the synthesis scripts
             are standardised, even though the projects covered a range
             from radix 4 multiplication and division, memory
             interleaver, a synchrotron controller, and parts for a 3
             dimensional graphics engine. The paper summarizes the method
             and illustrates it on a design for a RAM built-in
             self-test},
   Key = {5730769}
}

@article{5788006,
   Author = {Smith, D.R. and Derun Li and Vier, D.C. and Kroll, N. and Schultz, S.},
   Title = {Recent progress on Photonic Band Gap accelerator
             cavities},
   Journal = {AIP Conf. Proc. (USA)},
   Number = {398},
   Pages = {518 - 27},
   Address = {Lake Tahoe, CA, USA},
   Year = {1997},
   Keywords = {accelerator cavities;photonic band gap;},
   Abstract = {We report on the current status of our program to apply
             Photonic Band Gap (PBG) concepts to produce novel
             high-energy, high-intensity accelerator cavities. The PBG
             design on which we have concentrated our inital efforts
             consists of a square array of metal cylinders, terminated by
             conducting or superconducting sheets, and surrounded by
             microwave absorber on the periphery of the structure. A
             removed cylinder from the center of the array constitutes a
             site defect where a localized electromagnetic mode can
             occur. In previous work, we have proposed that this
             structure could be utilized as an accelerator cavity, with
             advantageous properties over conventional cavity designs. In
             the present work, we present further studies, including
             MAFIA-based numerical calculations and experimental
             measurements, demonstrating the feasibility of using the
             proposed structure in a real accelerator
             application},
   Key = {5788006}
}

@article{fds269660,
   Author = {Smith, DR},
   Title = {Thermal conductivity of fibrous glass board by guarded hot
             plates and heat flow meters: An international
             round-robin},
   Journal = {International Journal of Thermophysics},
   Volume = {18},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1557-1573},
   Year = {1997},
   Abstract = {In the early 1980s, an international round-robin was held in
             which the apparent thermal conductivity of specimens of
             fibrous glass insulation board was measured by users of
             guarded hot plates (GHPs) and heat-flow meters (HFMs). The
             round-robin was performed over a period of several years by
             laboratories in Europe, North America, Australia, and the
             Far East. Participants in this round-robin were organized
             into 12 "loops," 8 for participants with GHPs and 4 for
             those with HFMs. Each loop included laboratories located in
             the same region of the world and sharing the same set of
             specimens. In an attempt to obtain insight into the accuracy
             of the measurements, participants were also asked to measure
             the thermal conductivity of a layer of air. The data
             submitted in this round-robin are exhibited and analyzed.
             The overall agreement of individual measurements with a
             least-squares fitted curve, as measured by one standard
             deviation σ, was σ = 2.4% for GHPs and σ = 2.7% for HFMs.
             Suggestions are made for conducting future round-robins of
             this type. © 1997 Plenum Publishing Corporation.},
   Key = {fds269660}
}

@article{fds269661,
   Author = {Slifka, AJ and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Thermal expansion of an E-glass/vinyl ester composite from 4
             to 293 K},
   Journal = {International Journal of Thermophysics},
   Volume = {18},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1249-1256},
   Year = {1997},
   Abstract = {We have measured the thermal expansion of the three
             principal orthogonal directions of an E-glass/vinyl ester
             structural composite from liquid helium temperature, 4.2 K,
             to room temperature, 293 K. The linear thermal expansion at
             4.2 K ranged from -0.23 to -0.71%, referenced to zero
             expansion at 293 K. We fitted the linear thermal expansion
             data from 4.2 to 293 K with a cubic polynomial for each of
             the three principal orthogonal directions.},
   Key = {fds269661}
}

@article{5392654,
   Author = {Smith, D.R.},
   Title = {Hardware synthesis from encapsulated Verilog
             modules},
   Journal = {Proceedings. International Conference on
             Application-Specific Systems, Architectures and Processors
             1996 (Cat. No.96TB100068)},
   Pages = {284 - 92},
   Address = {Chicago, IL, USA},
   Year = {1996},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ASAP.1996.542823},
   Keywords = {computational complexity;hardware description
             languages;inference mechanisms;logic design;},
   Abstract = {This paper discusses experience with synthesis from a
             Verilog writing style using encapsulated modules. The method
             is shown to be capable of significant advantages in
             reduction of code complexity, re-use of submodules, and
             automatic inference of control. In order to pass synthesis
             and low level simulation, care must be taken in the
             translation of the encapsulated modules through an
             intermediate style accessible to industry synthesizers. If
             the encapsulated modules are edge activated then the control
             points need to be staggered in time through the clock cycle
             as control is passed down through the hierarchy. Examples
             are given of a such an intermediate style which is
             acceptable to synthesis and low level simulation. A
             conclusion discusses other implications of adapting the
             objective style to hardware design},
   Key = {5392654}
}

@article{fds269657,
   Author = {Suzuki, T and Yu, PKL and Smith, DR and Schultz, S},
   Title = {New type of waveguide structures with photonic band
             structures},
   Journal = {IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium
             Digest},
   Volume = {2},
   Pages = {911-914},
   Year = {1996},
   Abstract = {We study a new type of waveguide structures -
             two-dimensional photonic crystals sandwiched between two
             metal conductors. In the structures, not only the
             electromagnetic propagation, but also the radiation spectra
             can be controlled. Radiation from microwave dipole antennas
             can be completely suppressed in band gaps and enormously
             enhanced at specific pass bands frequencies.},
   Key = {fds269657}
}

@article{fds269658,
   Author = {Shtrikman, S and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Analytic and quasi-analytic formulae for MR
             heads},
   Journal = {IEEE Transactions on Magnetics},
   Volume = {32},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {43-48},
   Year = {1996},
   ISSN = {0018-9464},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/20.477548},
   Abstract = {We present analytic procedures for calculating the
             magnetostatic and response functions of magnetoresistive
             (MR) recording heads. To apply these methods we make several
             simplifying approximations, which have been found to be
             valid for typical recording head geometries. In particular,
             we show how to calculate the bias magnetization
             distribution, ideal transition pulse shape, and frequency
             response for the unshielded MR (UMR) head. To do this, we
             summarize a method based on conformal mapping and
             reciprocity, and present a simpler direct method which
             produces identical results. We extend this alternate method
             to find analytic expressions for the saturated bias
             magnetization. © 1996 IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/20.477548},
   Key = {fds269658}
}

@article{fds269659,
   Author = {Shtrikman, S and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Analytical formulas for the unshielded magnetoresistive
             head},
   Journal = {IEEE Transactions on Magnetics},
   Volume = {32},
   Number = {3 PART 2},
   Pages = {1987-1994},
   Year = {1996},
   ISSN = {0018-9464},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/20.492899},
   Abstract = {The magnetostatic and frequency response characteristics of
             the unshielded magnetoresistive (UMR) head have been
             previously calculated by means of a numerical simulation
             which ultilized the principle of reciprocity to reduce the
             computational task of solving the relevant micromagnetic
             equations. The results of the simulation were found to be in
             excellent agreement with measurements made on actual UMR
             heads [N. Smith and D. Wachenschwanz, IEEE Trans. Magn.,
             MAG-23, p. 2494 (1987)]. In the present paper, we analyze an
             idealized UMR head, following in spirit the procedure
             outlined in the previous work; however, we formulate the
             problem by introducing simplifying approximations which
             retain the essential physics, deriving simple equations
             describing the bias magnetization distribution, and the
             frequency response. The equations obtained in this way are
             analytic and simple, yet in agreement with the micromagnetic
             simulation and experimental measurements. Furthermore, the
             analytic formulas provide a source of insight which may be
             of use in the design or optimization of UMR recording heads.
             © 1996 IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/20.492899},
   Key = {fds269659}
}

@article{96023036050,
   Author = {Suzuki, T and Yu, PKL and Smith, DR and Schultz, S},
   Title = {Experimental and theoretical study of dipole emission in the
             two-dimensional photonic band structure of the square
             lattice with dielectric cylinders},
   Journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
   Volume = {79},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {582-594},
   Year = {1996},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.360800},
   Keywords = {Electromagnetic waves;Crystal lattices;Dielectric
             materials;Green's function;Integration;Microwaves;Frequencies;Electric
             fields;Emission spectroscopy;Eigenvalues and
             eigenfunctions;Interpolation;Antennas;},
   Abstract = {Dipole radiation in a two-dimensional periodic dielectric
             structure is studied both theoretically and experimentally
             in this article. For the two-dimensional square lattice
             structure with dielectric cylinders, the emission power of
             an electric dipole in the photonic band structure is
             computed numerically by a combination of the plane wave
             method, the dyadic Green's function, the Poynting theorem,
             and the triangular integration method. The theoretical
             results are compared with experimental measurements in a
             microwave frequency region. The computed radiation spectra
             in the photonic band structure show good agreement with the
             experimentally measured results. © 1996 American Institute
             of Physics.},
   Key = {96023036050}
}

@article{fds269574,
   Author = {Hayward, TD and Dowell, DH and Vetter, AM and Lancaster, C and Milliman,
             L and Smith, D and Adamski, J and Parazzoli, C},
   Title = {High duty factor electron linac for FEL},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the IEEE Particle Accelerator
             Conference},
   Volume = {1},
   Pages = {248-250},
   Year = {1995},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {An 18-MeV, 433-MHz linac capable of operating at 25% RF duty
             factor (DF) is being commissioned for FEL applications.
             Comprising a two-cell RF photocathode injector followed by
             four new multicell cavities, the linac is an extension of
             the photoinjector which previously delivered 5 nC at 27 MHz
             micropulse repetition frequency, and 25% DF. The system is
             constructed using equipment from the Ground Based Laser and
             the Average Power Laser Experiment (APLE). The linac can
             serve as the driver for an infrared FEL or as the
             preaccelerator for a higher energy linac driving a visible
             FEL.},
   Key = {fds269574}
}

@article{5212036,
   Author = {Smith, D.R. and Morris, S.C.},
   Title = {VHDL-based methodology for modelling computer communication
             systems},
   Journal = {1995 Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer
             Engineering (Cat. No.95TH8103)},
   Volume = {vol.2},
   Pages = {627 - 31},
   Address = {Montreal, Que., Canada},
   Year = {1995},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/CCECE.1995.526282},
   Keywords = {CAD;computer networks;digital simulation;hardware
             description languages;telecommunication computing;},
   Abstract = {Currently the design and development process employs
             different modelling and design techniques at each level of
             system abstraction. This makes the process inefficient and
             costly. VHDL, however, has the potential to unify this
             process. VHDL's widespread use in the design, development
             and synthesis of ASICs is an indication of its success. It
             has already lead to revolutionary changes in the way
             traditional systems design is performed. Today new ASIC
             design starts with a VHDL description of the circuit and
             then the ASIC is synthesized from this description. The next
             step in VHDL's evolutionary use is in the modelling of
             systems at higher levels of abstraction. The specification
             and design of an entire large scale system is possible. This
             paper presents a VHDL-based methodology for modelling
             computer communication systems, called VCCS, to demonstrate
             VHDL's ability to design and model systems at a high level
             of abstraction. The methodology, design strategy and primary
             characteristics of the VHDL implementation are
             explained},
   Key = {5212036}
}

@article{fds269656,
   Author = {Goplen, B and Ludeking, L and Smith, D and Warren,
             G},
   Title = {User-configurable MAGIC for electromagnetic PIC
             calculations},
   Journal = {Computer Physics Communications},
   Volume = {87},
   Number = {1-2},
   Pages = {54-86},
   Year = {1995},
   ISSN = {0010-4655},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0010-4655(95)00010-D},
   Abstract = {MAGIC is a user-configurable code that solves Maxwell's
             equations together with Lorentz particle motion. A variety
             of 2D, finite-difference electromagnetic algorithms and 3D
             particle-in-cell algorithms may be combined in
             problem-specific ways to provide fast, accurate,
             steady-state and transient calculations for many research
             and design needs. Default configurations provide good speed
             and accuracy for most applications, and a library of
             templates offers optimized algorithm configurations for
             specific devices. A programmable processor named POSTER
             provides advanced post-analysis of the field and particle
             solutions. Coordinate systems, boundary conditions,
             geometry, and materials are specified by the user, and grid
             generation can be manual, user-assisted, or fully automatic.
             MAGIC has a fully 3D counterpart called SOS. Programs exist
             to connect these analysis tools to parametric and CAD input
             from an integrated design environment. ©
             1995.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0010-4655(95)00010-D},
   Key = {fds269656}
}

@article{5081597,
   Author = {Smith, DR and Schildknecht, RR},
   Title = {A circuit-switched shared-memory multiprocessor},
   Journal = {Int. J. Mini Microcomput. (USA)},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {108-118},
   Year = {1995},
   Keywords = {circuit switching;CMOS integrated circuits;delays;hypercube
             networks;message passing;performance evaluation;shared
             memory systems;virtual machines;},
   Abstract = {A circuit-switched shared-memory multiprocessor based on the
             2D spanning bus hypercube is described. This design
             eliminates most of the processing overhead attributed to
             message passing systems. Circuit switching allows the sender
             to transfer directly into the receiver's address space by
             establishing a dedicated transmission path between the two
             nodes. Thus, data sets for cascaded calculations (using
             separate processors) can be prepared directly in the
             following processor's address space. A system was designed
             as an extension to a VME-based multiprocessor. This work
             investigates the potential efficiency of a circuit-switched
             topology using a simulation model. A simulation model for
             the implementation was developed using the NETWORK II.5
             simulation system. The simulation results are used to
             specify the performance requirements of a switching element
             for a hypercube-connected multiprocessor. Next, the design
             and the operation of the interconnection mechanism are
             detailed. The design was implemented and tested in 3 &mu;m
             CMOS technology using the suite of Mentor Graphics tools to
             establish the connection and communication delay parameters
             for the system architecture. Using the derived VLSI switch
             parameters, the performance of the 2D spanning bus hypercube
             is compared against that of two message-passing
             architectures based on the binary hypercube and the spanning
             bus hypercube. In both cases, the circuit-switched
             shared-memory design significantly reduced the processing
             overhead and the delay times involved in data
             transfers},
   Key = {5081597}
}

@article{4983835,
   Author = {Hudson, R and Chikhani, AY and Ferland, G and Smith, DR and Salama,
             MMA},
   Title = {Modelling the interaction of multiple small harmonic current
             sources in an isolated power distribution
             system},
   Journal = {Can. J. Electr. Comput. Eng. (Canada)},
   Volume = {20},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {85-90},
   Year = {1995},
   Keywords = {digital simulation;distribution networks;harmonic
             distortion;load (electric);naval engineering computing;power
             system analysis computing;power system harmonics;ships;software
             packages;},
   Abstract = {Given the growing number of interactive nonlinear loads in
             power distribution systems, some techniques to monitor the
             spread of harmonics through the power system need to be
             developed. This paper examines the nature of harmonics in a
             naval power distribution system and develops a harmonic
             model using the CYMHARMO package to monitor current sources
             and the interaction that can occur in the Canadian Patrol
             Frigate (CPF) power distribution system. The results
             indicate that a significant level of harmonics can exist in
             the CPF system due to 43 identified harmonic current
             sources. The presence of any capacitive loads will only
             serve to increase the level of distortion if resonance
             occurs. With shipboard testing to confirm equipment loading
             and identify capacitive elements, the model will be a useful
             tool for naval engineers to examine and modify the CPF
             system},
   Key = {4983835}
}

@article{4759795,
   Author = {Smith, DR and Schultz, S and Kroll, N and Sigalas, M and Ho, KM and Soukoulis, CM},
   Title = {Experimental and theoretical results for a two-dimensional
             metal photonic band-gap cavity},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {65},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {645-647},
   Year = {1994},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.112258},
   Keywords = {defect electron energy states;energy gap;localised electron
             states;optical constants;},
   Abstract = {We demonstrate, by both microwave experiments and numerical
             simulation, that a two-dimensional lattice of metal
             cylinders can form a complete photonic band-gap (PBG)
             structure. The band structure exhibits a single broad PBG
             extending from zero frequency to a threshold frequency,
             above which all modes may propagate in some direction. A
             single cylinder removed from the lattice produces a defect
             mode localized about the defect site, with an energy density
             attenuation rate of 30 dB per lattice constant. The
             frequency dependence of the transmission through a finite
             thickness of this structure is also calculated in good
             agreement with the measurements. We suggest that the defect
             mode resonant cavity when formed by appropriate low loss
             metals may be advantageous for use in PBG high energy
             accelerator structures that we are evaluating.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.112258},
   Key = {4759795}
}

@article{4651529,
   Author = {Smith, DR and Schultz, S and McCall, SL and Platzmann,
             PM},
   Title = {Defect studies in a two-dimensional periodic photonic
             lattice},
   Journal = {J. Mod. Opt. (UK)},
   Volume = {41},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {395-404},
   Year = {1994},
   Keywords = {energy gap;microwave spectra of inorganic
             solids;},
   Abstract = {Structures arranged so as to exhibit a complete photonic
             bandgap (PGB) have been proposed for a variety of
             technological applications. McCall et al. have reported an
             experimental and numerical investigation of microwave
             propagation in a two-dimensional array consisting of
             low-loss high-dielectric-constant cylinders. This system was
             shown to have a complete PBG, as well as a defect mode. Here
             we present an experimental investigation of the properties
             of a variety of defect modes, created by altering a region
             in the otherwise periodic lattice of dielectric cylinders.
             These alterations include removing one or more cylinders
             from the lattice in a variety of spatial separations and
             orientations, and also a procedure whereby the defect mode
             frequency may be tuned by slightly perturbing those
             cylinders closest to the defect region. The implication of
             these results for supercell numerical simulations and
             potential technical applications are discussed},
   Key = {4651529}
}

@article{94041257776,
   Author = {Schultz, S and Smith, DR and Kroll, N},
   Title = {Photonic band gap resonators for high energy
             accelerators},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the IEEE Particle Accelerator
             Conference},
   Volume = {4},
   Pages = {2559-2563},
   Address = {Washington, DC, USA},
   Year = {1993},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/PAC.1993.309387},
   Keywords = {Particle accelerators;Microwave devices;Mathematical
             models;Energy gap;Model structures;Cryogenics;Dielectric
             properties;Electromagnetic waves;},
   Abstract = {We have proposed that a new type of microwave resonator,
             based on Photonic Band Gap (PBG) structures, may be
             particularly useful for high energy accelerators. We provide
             an explanation of the PBG concept and present data which
             illustrate some of the special properties associated with
             such structures. Further evaluation of the utility of PBG
             resonators requires laboratory testing of model structures
             at cryogenic temperatures, and at high fields. We provide a
             brief discussion of our test program, which is currently in
             progress.},
   Key = {94041257776}
}

@article{94031223333,
   Author = {Smith, DR and Dalichaouch, R and Kroll, N and Schultz, S and McCall, SL and Platzman, PM},
   Title = {Photonic band structure and defects in one and two
             dimensions},
   Journal = {Journal of the Optical Society of America B: Optical
             Physics},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {314-321},
   Year = {1993},
   Keywords = {Energy gap;Band structure;Electromagnetic wave
             propagation;Quantum theory;},
   Abstract = {This paper presents a theoretical, numerical and
             experimental investigation of electromagnetic wave
             propagation in one- and two-dimensional periodic array
             systems consisting of dielectric scatterers. It is shown
             that in certain frequency regions the waves are attenuated
             for all directions of propagation, and these correspond to
             band gaps in the calculated band structures, termed photonic
             band-gap (PBG) structures. A highly localized defect mode is
             produced by the deletion of a single scatterer from the PBG
             structure, for which the energy density decays
             exponentially. Applications of 2-D PBG structures are
             discussed.},
   Key = {94031223333}
}

@article{fds269655,
   Author = {Smith, N and Smith, DR and Shtrikman, S},
   Title = {Analysis of a dual magnetoresistive head},
   Journal = {IEEE Transactions on Magnetics},
   Volume = {28},
   Number = {5 pt 2},
   Pages = {2295-2297},
   Year = {1992},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/20.179473},
   Abstract = {A proposed dual magnetoresistive (DMR) reproduce head,
             consisting of two identical, adjacent MR stripes separated
             by a nonmagnetic spacer and connected electrically in
             parallel, was shown to have potential in very high density
             magnetic recording applications. The authors consider the
             micromagnetics of this device and derive approximate
             analytical expressions for the expected signal output as a
             function of linear recording density. The expression for the
             intrinsic reproduce sensitivity vs. recorded density, when
             including a proposed correction to account for the energy of
             traditionally neglected edge fringing fields, are shown to
             be in good agreement with more exact numerical results. The
             same form of equations is shown to be useful for deriving,
             via reciprocity, analogous and reasonably accurate
             analytical results for the shielded MR head.},
   Doi = {10.1109/20.179473},
   Key = {fds269655}
}

@article{4682078,
   Author = {Smith, D.R. and Schildknecht, R.R.},
   Title = {Design of an intelligent switch for a shared memory
             two-dimensional spanning bus hypercube multiprocessor},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the Fourth ISMM/IASTED International
             Conference Parallel and Distributed Computing and Systems -
             II},
   Pages = {25 - 7},
   Address = {Washington, DC, USA},
   Year = {1991},
   Keywords = {CMOS integrated circuits;delays;digital simulation;hypercube
             networks;message passing;shared memory systems;},
   Abstract = {Multiprocessor architectures can be used to increase the
             amount of work that can be performed and to divide the
             software effort into manageable tasks units. The two major
             methods of inter-processor communication in these
             multiprocessors make use of message passing using a
             communications sub-system or the preparation of data buffers
             in processor shared memory. A message passing system
             requires a certain amount of processing overhead which
             subtracts from the total processing resource. A circuit
             switched, shared memory multiprocessor based on the
             two-dimensional spanning bus hypercube is described. This
             design eliminates most of the processing overhead attributed
             to message passing systems. Circuit switching allows the
             sender to transfer directly into the receivers' address
             space by establishing a dedicated transmission path between
             the two nodes. Thus, data sets for cascaded calculations
             (using separate processors) can be prepared directly in the
             following processors' address space. This work details the
             design and the operation of the interconnection mechanism.
             The paper describes the global and local addressing schemes
             that were devised to allow a VME bus-based multiprocessor to
             operate as a shared memory multiprocessor configured as a
             two-dimensional spanning bus hypercube. An intelligent
             switch has been designed to permit multiple connections
             within the spanning bus hypercube. A simulation model for
             the implementation was developed using the NETWORK II.5
             simulation system. The design was implemented and tested in
             3 &mu;m CMOS using the suite of Mentor Graphics tools to
             establish the connection and communication delay parameters
             for the system architecture},
   Key = {4682078}
}

@article{fds269653,
   Author = {McCall, SL and Platzman, PM and Dalichaouch, R and Smith, D and Schultz,
             S},
   Title = {Microwave propagation in two-dimensional dielectric
             lattices},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {67},
   Number = {15},
   Pages = {2017-2020},
   Year = {1991},
   Abstract = {We have calculated and measured the properties of X-band
             microwaves propagating in a 2D array of low-loss
             high-dielectric-constant cylinders. Transmission bands and
             photonic band gaps are conclusively identified in excellent
             agreement with the theoretical predictions. Detailed data on
             the properties of isolated defect states are also presented.
             We conclude that studies of this model scattering system
             allow the quantitative evaluation and testing of ideas
             regarding wave propagation and localization in strongly
             scattering media.},
   Key = {fds269653}
}

@article{fds269591,
   Author = {Burton, RM and Forsyth, JD and Obel, B},
   Title = {Preface},
   Journal = {Technovation},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {1-3},
   Pages = {vii-vii},
   Year = {1988},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0166-4972},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0166-4972(88)90049-1},
   Doi = {10.1016/0166-4972(88)90049-1},
   Key = {fds269591}
}

@article{fds269628,
   Author = {Petroski, HJ},
   Title = {Preface},
   Journal = {Nuclear Engineering and Design},
   Volume = {63},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {1-4},
   Year = {1981},
   ISSN = {0029-5493},
   Key = {fds269628}
}

@article{1458990,
   Author = {Bhatt, D. and Smith, D.R.},
   Title = {Communications in a hierarchical multicomputer},
   Journal = {COMPCON 79 Proceedings. Using Microprocessors, Extending Our
             Reach},
   Pages = {374 - 9},
   Address = {Washington, DC, USA},
   Year = {1979},
   Keywords = {computer architecture;multiprocessing systems;},
   Abstract = {Describes the design of the hardware and the basic functions
             of the operating system for a tree organized multicomputer
             now being constructed in the Computer Science department at
             Stony Brook. The processors have separate local memories and
             are interconnected by communication links specialized for
             the transfers of short control type messages and large
             blocks of data. Also discussed is the influence of previous
             simulation studies and the operating system considerations
             on the design of the hardware and interprocessor
             communication protocols},
   Key = {1458990}
}

@article{1121896,
   Author = {Harris, J.A. and Smith, D.R.},
   Title = {Hierarchical multiprocessor organizations},
   Journal = {4th Annual Symposium on Computer Architecture},
   Pages = {41 - 8},
   Address = {Silver Spring, MD, USA},
   Year = {1977},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/800255.810651},
   Keywords = {computer architecture;multiprocessing systems;},
   Abstract = {The primary advantages of `multi-microprocessor
             architectures' are their potential for improvements in cost,
             reliability, and possibly speed over conventional large
             computers. However, the realization of these advantages
             requires improvements in the techniques necessary to
             translate problems into parallel algorithms for
             multi-microprocessors, and in the architectures of the
             multi-microprocessors themselves. This paper describes an
             architecture currently being investigated at SUNY-Stony
             Brook. It discusses various strategies of design, the
             structure of the proposed system, and some classes of
             problems for which the architecture is suited},
   Key = {1121896}
}