Publications of Albert M. Chang    :chronological  alphabetical  combined listing:

%% Books   
@book{fds245761,
   Author = {Altomare, F and Chang, AM},
   Title = {One-Dimensional Superconductivity in Nanowires},
   Booktitle = {One-Dimensional Superconductivity in Nanowires},
   Publisher = {Wiley-VCH},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {April},
   ISBN = {9783527409952},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9783527649044},
   Abstract = {The book introduces scientists and graduate students to
             superconductivity, and highlights the differences arising
             from the different dimensionality of the sample under study.
             It focuses on transport in one-dimensional superconductors,
             describing relevant theories with particular emphasis on
             experimental results. It closely relates these results to
             the emergence of various novel fabrication techniques. The
             book closes by discussing future perspectives, and the
             connection and relevance to other physical systems,
             including superfluidity, Bose-Einstein condensates, and
             possibly cosmic strings. © 2013 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.
             KGaA. All rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1002/9783527649044},
   Key = {fds245761}
}


%% Papers Published   
@article{fds303657,
   Author = {Bove, A and Altomare, F and Kundtz, N and Chang, AM and Cho, YJ and Liu, X and Furdyna, J},
   Title = {A novel technique to make Ohmic contact to a buried
             two-dimensional electron gas in a molecular-beam-epitaxy
             grown GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As heterostructure with Mn
             δ-doping},
   Publisher = {Cornell University Library},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {October},
   url = {arxiv:0802.3863},
   Key = {fds303657}
}

@article{fds303658,
   Author = {Bove, A and Altomare, F and Kundtz, N and Chang, AM and Cho, AM and Liu, X and Furdyna, J},
   Title = {Electron-mediated ferromagnetism and small spin-orbit
             interaction in molecular-beam-epitaxy grown n-type
             GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As heterostructures with Mn
             δ-doping},
   Publisher = {Cornell University Library},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {October},
   url = {arxiv:0802.3871},
   Key = {fds303658}
}

@article{fds245759,
   Author = {Shang, R and Li, H-O and Cao, G and Yu, G and Xiao, M and Tu, T and Guo, G-C and Jiang, H and Chang, AM and Guo, G-P},
   Title = {Observation of the Kondo effect in a quadruple quantum
             dot},
   Journal = {Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials
             Physics},
   Volume = {91},
   Number = {24},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {1098-0121},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/11138 Duke open
             access},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.91.245102},
   Key = {fds245759}
}

@article{fds245760,
   Author = {Zhang, H and Wu, PM and Chang, AM},
   Title = {Differential conductance oscillations in asymmetric quantum
             point contacts},
   Journal = {Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials
             Physics},
   Volume = {91},
   Number = {19},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {1098-0121},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.91.195150},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.91.195150},
   Key = {fds245760}
}

@article{fds245790,
   Author = {Zhang, H and Wu, PM and Chang, AM},
   Title = {Quasibound States and Evidence for a Spin 1 Kondo Effect in
             Asymmetric Quantum Point Contacts},
   Journal = {Physical Review B},
   Volume = {88},
   Pages = {075311},
   Year = {2013},
   Abstract = {Linear conductance below 2e2/h shows resonance peaks in
             highly asymmetric quantum point contacts (QPCs). As the
             channel length increases, the number of peaks also
             increases. At the same time, differential conductance
             exhibits zero bias anomalies (ZBAs) in correspondence with
             every other peak in the linear conductance. This even odd
             effect, observable in the longer channels, is consistent
             with the formation of quasi-localized states within the QPC.
             In rare cases, triple peaks are observed, indicating the
             formation of a spin one Kondo effect when the electron
             filling number is even. Changing the gate voltage tunes this
             spin triplet to a singlet which exhibits no ZBA. The
             triple-peak provides the first evidence suggestive of a spin
             singlet triplet transition in a QPC, and the presence of a
             ferromagnetic spin interaction between electrons.},
   Key = {fds245790}
}

@article{fds245787,
   Author = {Wang, L-J and Li, H-O and Tu, T and Cao, G and Zhou, C and Hao, X-J and Su, Z and Xiao, M and Guo, G-C and Chang, AM and Guo, G-P},
   Title = {Controllable tunnel coupling and molecular states in a
             graphene double quantum dot},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {100},
   Number = {2},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3676083},
   Abstract = {We have measured a graphene double quantum dot device with
             multiple electrostatic gates that are used to enhance
             control to investigate it. At low temperatures, the
             transport measurements reveal honeycomb charge stability
             diagrams which can be tuned from weak to strong interdot
             tunnel coupling regimes. We precisely extract a large
             interdot tunnel coupling strength for this system allowing
             for the observation of tunnel-coupled molecular states
             extending over the whole double dot. This clean, highly
             controllable system serves as an essential building block
             for quantum devices in a nuclear-spin-free world. © 2012
             American Institute of Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.3676083},
   Key = {fds245787}
}

@article{fds245791,
   Author = {Wu, PM and Li, P and Zhang, H and Chang, AM},
   Title = {Evidence for the formation of quasibound states in an
             asymmetrical quantum point contact},
   Journal = {Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials
             Physics},
   Volume = {85},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {085305},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {1098-0121},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.85.085305},
   Abstract = {Features below the first conductance plateau in ballistic
             quantum point contacts (QPCs) are often ascribed to electron
             interaction and spin effects within the single mode limit.
             In QPCs with a highly asymmetric geometry, we observe sharp
             resonance peaks when the point contacts are gated to the
             single mode regime, and surprisingly, under certain gating
             conditions, a complete destruction of the 2e2/h first
             quantum plateau. The temperature evolution of the resonances
             suggest non-Fermi-liquid behavior, while the overall
             nonlinear characterizations reveal features reminiscent of
             the 0.7 effect. We attribute these unusual behaviors to the
             formation of a quasibound state, which is stabilized by a
             momentum mismatch accentuated by asymmetry. © 2012 American
             Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.85.085305},
   Key = {fds245791}
}

@article{fds245792,
   Author = {Chang, AM and Zhang, H and Pfeiffer, LN and West,
             KW},
   Title = {Fabrication of submicron devices on the (011) cleave surface
             of a cleaved-edge-overgrowth GaAs/AlGaAs
             crystal},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {100},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {123106},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3694052},
   Abstract = {We describe the fabrication of submicron devices on the
             (011) cleave surface of a GaAs heterostructure crystal, in
             which this surface is extremely narrow. Special purpose
             devices are produced, which take advantage of the unique
             characteristics of cleaved-edge-overgrowth. The successful
             fabrication relies on understanding the surface tension of
             the electron beam polymethyl methacrylate resist, the
             workable degree of variation in resist thickness, and on
             gluing the crystal onto a backing substrate to increase
             structural strength. We demonstrate functional
             gate-controlled quantum point contact constrictions placed 9
             m from one edge of the cleave surface. © 2012 American
             Institute of Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.3694052},
   Key = {fds245792}
}

@article{fds245795,
   Author = {Li, P and Wu, PM and Bomze, Y and Borzenets, IV and Finkelstein, G and Chang, AM},
   Title = {Switching currents limited by single phase slips in
             one-dimensional superconducting Al nanowires.},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {107},
   Number = {13},
   Pages = {137004},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22026893},
   Abstract = {An aluminum nanowire switches from superconducting to normal
             as the current is increased in an upsweep. The switching
             current (I(s)) averaged over upsweeps approximately follows
             the depairing critical current (I(c)) but falls below it.
             Fluctuations in I(s) exhibit three distinct regions of
             behaviors and are nonmonotonic in temperature: saturation
             well below the critical temperature T(c), an increase as
             T(2/3) at intermediate temperatures, and a rapid decrease
             close to T(c). Heat dissipation analysis indicates that a
             single phase slip is able to trigger switching at low and
             intermediate temperatures, whereby the T(2/3) dependence
             arises from the thermal activation of a phase slip, while
             saturation at low temperatures provides striking evidence
             that the phase slips by macroscopic quantum
             tunneling.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.137004},
   Key = {fds245795}
}

@article{fds245793,
   Author = {Wang, L-J and Guo, G-P and Wei, D and Cao, G and Tu, T and Xiao, M and Guo,
             G-C and Chang, AM},
   Title = {Gates controlled parallel-coupled double quantum dot on both
             single layer and bilayer graphene},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {99},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {112117},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://apl.aip.org/resource/1/applab/v99/i11/p112117_s1?isAuthorized=no},
   Abstract = {We present quantum transport measurements of gates
             controlled parallel-coupled double quantum dot (PDQD) device
             on both bilayer and single layer graphenes. The interdot
             coupling strength can be effectively tuned from weak to
             strong by in-plane plunger gates. All the relevant energy
             scales and parameters can be extracted from the honeycomb
             charge stability diagrams. The present method of designing
             and fabricating graphene PDQD is demonstrated to be general
             and reliable and will enhance the realization of graphene
             nanodevice and desirable study of rich PDQD physical
             phenomena in graphene. © 2011 American Institute of
             Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.3638471},
   Key = {fds245793}
}

@article{fds245794,
   Author = {Li, P and Wu, PM and Bomze, Y and Borzenets, IV and Finkelstein, G and Chang, AM},
   Title = {Retrapping current, self-heating, and hysteretic
             current-voltage characteristics in ultranarrow
             superconducting aluminum nanowires},
   Journal = {Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials
             Physics},
   Volume = {84},
   Number = {18},
   Pages = {184508},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {1098-0121},
   url = {http://prb.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v84/i18/e184508},
   Abstract = {Hysteretic I-V (current-voltage) curves are studied in
             narrow Al nanowires. The nanowires have a cross section as
             small as 50 nm2. We focus on the retrapping current in a
             down-sweep of the current, at which a nanowire re-enters the
             superconducting state from a normal state. The retrapping
             current is found to be significantly smaller than the
             switching current at which the nanowire switches into the
             normal state from a superconducting state during a current
             up-sweep. For wires of different lengths, we analyze the
             heat removal due to various processes, including electron
             and phonon processes. For a short wire 1.5μm in length,
             electronic thermal conduction is effective; for longer wires
             10μm in length, phonon conduction becomes important. We
             demonstrate that the measured retrapping current as a
             function of temperature can be quantitatively accounted for
             by the self-heating occurring in the normal portions of the
             nanowires to better than 20% accuracy. For the phonon
             processes, the extracted thermal conduction parameters
             support the notion of a reduced phase-space below three
             dimensions, consistent with the phonon thermal wavelength
             having exceeded the lateral dimensions at temperatures below
             ∼1.3 K. Nevertheless, surprisingly the best fit was
             achieved with a functional form corresponding to
             three-dimensional phonons, albeit requiring parameters far
             exceeding known values in the literature. © 2011 American
             Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.84.184508},
   Key = {fds245794}
}

@article{fds303659,
   Author = {Li, P and Wu, PM and Bomze, Y and Borzenets, IV and Finkelstein, G and Chang, AM},
   Title = {Single Phase Slip Limited Switching Current in 1-Dimensional
             Superconducting Al Nanowires},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {107},
   Pages = {137004},
   Year = {2011},
   url = {http://prl.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v107/i13/e137004},
   Abstract = {An aluminum nanowire switches from superconducting to normal
             as the current is increased in an upsweep. The switching
             current (Is) averaged over upsweeps approximately follows
             the depairing critical current (Ic) but falls below it.
             Fluctuations in Is exhibit three distinct regions of
             behaviors and are nonmonotonic in temperature: saturation
             well below the critical temperature Tc, an increase as
             T^{2/3} at intermediate temperatures, and a rapid decrease
             close to Tc. Heat dissipation analysis indicates that a
             single phase slip is able to trigger switching at low and
             intermediate temperatures, whereby the T^{2/3} dependence
             arises from the thermal activation of a phase slip, while
             saturation at low temperatures provides striking evidence
             that the phase slips by macroscopic quantum
             tunneling.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.137004},
   Key = {fds303659}
}

@article{fds167455,
   Author = {Peng Li and Phillip M. Wu and A.M. Chang},
   Title = {Can a 1-dimensional Superconducting Nanowire Behave Like a
             Josephson Junction},
   Year = {2009},
   Abstract = {The switching current ($I_s$) from the superconducting to
             normal state in Aluminum nanowires is studied. In the range
             0.3 - 1.4 K, $I_s$ fluctuations first increase and then
             decrease as the temperature rises. This behavior is
             consistent with a scenario where the resistive transition is
             triggered by a single phase slips at low temperature and by
             multiple consecutive phase slips at higher temperatures. The
             phase slip process is predominantly thermally-assisted
             except below 0.4 K, where possible quantum tunneling
             contributions appear. Our results suggest that ultra-narrow
             superconducting nanowires can exhibit behaviors similar to
             under-damped Josephson junctions.},
   Key = {fds167455}
}

@article{fds245796,
   Author = {Wang, MJ and Luo, JY and Huang, TW and Chang, HH and Chen, TK and Hsu, FC and Wu, CT and Wu, PM and Chang, AM and Wu, MK},
   Title = {Crystal Orientation and Thickness Dependence of the
             Superconducting Transition Temperature of Tetragonal FeSe1-x
             Thin Films},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {103},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {117002},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {0031-9007},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.117002},
   Abstract = {Superconductivity was recently found in the tetragonal phase
             FeSe. A structural transformation from tetragonal to
             orthorhombic (or monoclinic, depending on point of view) was
             observed at low temperature, but was not accompanied by a
             magnetic ordering as commonly occurs in the parent compounds
             of FeAs-based superconductors. Here, we report the
             correlation between structural distortion and
             superconductivity in FeSe1-x thin films with different
             preferred growth orientations. The films with preferred
             growth along the c axis show a strong thickness dependent
             suppression of superconductivity and low temperature
             structural distortion. In contrast, both properties are less
             affected in the films with (101) preferred orientation.
             These results suggest that the low temperature structural
             distortion is closely associated with the superconductivity
             of this material. © 2009 The American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.117002},
   Key = {fds245796}
}

@article{fds245797,
   Author = {Chang, AM and Chen, JC},
   Title = {The Kondo effect in coupled-quantum dots},
   Journal = {Reports on Progress in Physics},
   Volume = {72},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {096501},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {0034-4885},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0034-4885/72/9/096501},
   Abstract = {We discuss Kondo systems in coupled-quantum dots, with
             emphasis on the semiconductor quantum dot system. The rich
             variety of behaviors, such as distinct quantum phases,
             non-Fermi-liquid behavior and associated quantum phase
             transitions and cross-over behaviors are reviewed.
             Experimental evidence for such novel characteristics is
             summarized. The observed behaviors may provide clues as to
             the relevance of the 2-impurity Kondo (2IK) effect and the
             2-channel Kondo (2CK) effect to the unusual characteristics
             in strongly correlated systems, such as the heavy fermion
             system. © 2009 IOP Publishing Ltd.},
   Doi = {10.1088/0034-4885/72/9/096501},
   Key = {fds245797}
}

@article{fds245798,
   Author = {Mok, BH and Rao, SM and Ling, MC and Wang, KJ and Ke, CT and Wu, PM and Chen,
             CL and Hsu, FC and Huang, TW and Luo, JY and Yan, DC and Ye, KW and Wu, TB and Chang, AM and Wu, MK},
   Title = {Growth and investigation of crystals of the new
             superconductor α-FeSe from KCl solutions},
   Journal = {Crystal Growth & Design},
   Volume = {9},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {3260-3264},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {1528-7483},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/cg801423g},
   Abstract = {Crystals of FeSe 0.88 and FeSeMn 0.1 have been grown from
             KCl solutions. Crystals measuring 2-3 mm across and 0.1-0.3
             mm thick grow with a hexagonal plate like habit. Powder
             X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements show strong peaks
             corresponding to the tetragonal α-FeSe phase and weak
             hexagonal β-FeSe peaks in both cases. The plate side of the
             crystal is identified to be the (101) face of the tetragonal
             R-FeSe. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic (EDS)
             measurements show that Mn substitutes for Fe. Both types of
             crystals show a superconducting transition at 8 Kin the DC
             magnetization measurements and a broad resistive transition
             with zero resistance at 7.5 K with an onset at 11 K.
             Specific heat measurements also confirm bulk
             superconductivity in the crystals. Crystals could also be
             grown using KBr as a solvent. © 2009 American Chemical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1021/cg801423g},
   Key = {fds245798}
}

@article{fds245799,
   Author = {Wu, MK and Hsu, FC and Yeh, KW and Huang, TW and Luo, JY and Wang, MJ and Chang, HH and Chen, TK and Rao, SM and Mok, BH and Chen, CL and Huang, YL and Ke, CT and Wu, PM and Chang, AM and Wu, CT and Perng,
             TP},
   Title = {The development of the superconducting PbO-type β-FeSe and
             related compounds},
   Journal = {Physica C: Superconductivity and its Applications},
   Volume = {469},
   Number = {9-12},
   Pages = {340-349},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {0921-4534},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physc.2009.03.022},
   Abstract = {An overview of the recent development of the superconducting
             FeSe1-x and related compounds is presented. Methods to
             synthesize high purity polycrystalline samples, single
             crystals and thin films with preferred orientation are
             described. In addition to the synthesis of FeSe and FeSeTe,
             the effects of various partial chemical substitutions on Fe
             and Se/Te site are described. It was found that the effects
             of chemical doping to the Se-site or Fe-site are rather
             different. Ionic size of the dopant is found to play a
             critical role on the occurrence of superconductivity. We
             also review the physical properties, including transport,
             magnetic, and thermal properties. There exist interesting
             transport anomalies in the resistivity at low temperature,
             and it was found that a structural distortion at low
             temperature is critical to the occurrence of
             superconductivity in these materials. However, the exact
             origin of these observed anomalies is not clear, and the
             exact pairing symmetry in FeSe-based superconductors is also
             still in question. © 2009.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.physc.2009.03.022},
   Key = {fds245799}
}

@article{fds140966,
   Author = {A. Bove and F. Altomare and N. Kundtz and A.M. Chang and Y.J. Cho and X.
             Liu and J. Furdyna},
   Title = {Electron-mediated ferromagnetism and small spin-orbit
             interaction in molecular-beam-epitaxy grown n-type
             GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As heterostructures with Mn
             δ-doping},
   Year = {2007},
   Abstract = {We report the first evidence of electron mediated
             ferromagnetism in a molecular-beam-epitaxy (MBE) grown
             GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As heterostructure with Mn δ-doping. The
             interaction between the magnetic dopants (Mn) and the
             2-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) realizes magnetic ordering
             when the temperature is below the Curie temperature
             (TC~3.2K) and the 2DEG is brought in close proximity to the
             Mn layer by gating.},
   Key = {fds140966}
}

@article{fds245785,
   Author = {Altomare, F and Chang, AM and Melloch, MR and Hong, Y and Tu,
             CW},
   Title = {Erratum: Ultranarrow AuPd and Al wires (Applied Physics
             Letters (2005) 86 (172501))},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {90},
   Number = {17},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2731309},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.2731309},
   Key = {fds245785}
}

@article{fds245786,
   Author = {Altomare, F and Chang, AM and Melloch, MR and Hong, Y and Tu,
             CW},
   Title = {Erratum: Evidence for macroscopic quantum tunneling of phase
             slips in long one-dimensional superconducting Al wires
             (Physical Review Letters (2006) 97 (017001))},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {98},
   Number = {16},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {0031-9007},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.169901},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.169901},
   Key = {fds245786}
}

@article{fds245800,
   Author = {Fang, ZL and Wu, P and Kundtz, N and Chang, AM and Liu, XY and Furdyna,
             JK},
   Title = {Spin-dependent resonant tunneling through 6 μm diameter
             double barrier resonant tunneling diode},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {91},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {022101},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2751132},
   Abstract = {A vertical resonant tunneling diode based on the
             paramagnetic Zn1-x-y Mny Cdx Se system has been fabricated
             with a pillar diameter down to ∼6 μm. The diode exhibits
             high quality resonant tunneling characteristics through the
             electron subband of the quantum well at a temperature of 4.2
             K, where a clear phonon replica was observable in addition
             to the primary peak. Both peaks show a giant Zeeman
             splitting in an applied magnetic field. Employing a
             self-consistent real-time Green's function method, the
             current-voltage characteristic was simulated, showing good
             agreement with the measured result. © 2007 American
             Institute of Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.2751132},
   Key = {fds245800}
}

@article{fds245801,
   Author = {Altomare, F and Chang, AM and Melloch, MR and Hong, Y and Tu,
             CW},
   Title = {Evidence for macroscopic quantum tunneling of phase slips in
             long one-dimensional superconducting Al wires},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {97},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {017001},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {0031-9007},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.97.017001},
   Abstract = {Quantum phase slips have received much attention due to
             their relevance to superfluids in reduced dimensions and to
             models of cosmic string production in the early universe.
             Their establishment in one-dimensional superconductors has
             remained controversial. Here we study the nonlinear
             current-voltage characteristics and linear resistance in
             long superconducting Al wires with lateral dimensions
             ∼5nm. We find that, in a magnetic field and at
             temperatures well below the superconducting transition, the
             observed behaviors can be described by the nonclassical,
             macroscopic quantum tunneling of phase slips, and are
             inconsistent with the thermal activation of phase slips. ©
             2006 The American Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.97.017001},
   Key = {fds245801}
}

@article{fds245802,
   Author = {Butt, NZ and Chang, AM and Raza, H and Bashir, R and Liu, J and Kwong,
             DL},
   Title = {Low-frequency noise statistics for the breakdown
             characterization of ultrathin gate oxides},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {88},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {112901},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2186114},
   Abstract = {We have investigated the statistics of low-frequency noise
             in the tunneling current of ultrathin oxides (2.5-4 nm) in
             metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors as a function of the
             applied voltage stress. The statistical analysis includes
             (i) non-Gaussianity (nG), which is a measure of the degree
             of temporal correlation in the noise, and (ii) ratio of
             integrated noise power to the dc leakage current (R). The
             occurrence of high peaks in nG indicates the appearance of
             new percolation paths, and the subsequent conduction through
             these paths is indicated by R. Our results show that the nG
             and R characteristics are generic for the oxides of
             different thickness and growth quality and have the
             potential, in conjunction with leakage itself, of being used
             as a prognosticator of oxide reliability. © 2006 American
             Institute of Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.2186114},
   Key = {fds245802}
}

@article{fds245803,
   Author = {Altomare, F and Chang, AM and Melloch, MR and Hong, Y and Tu,
             CW},
   Title = {Ultranarrow AuPd and Al wires},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {86},
   Number = {17},
   Pages = {172501},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000229185500036&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Abstract = {In this letter, we discuss a versatile template technique
             aimed to the fabrication of sub-10 nm wide wires. Using this
             technique, we have measured AuPd wires, 12 nm wide and as
             long as 20 µm. Even materials that form a strong
             superficial oxide, and thus not suited to be used in
             combination with other techniques, can be employed. In
             particular, we have measured Al wires, with lateral width
             smaller or comparable to 10 nm, and length exceeding 10
             µm.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.1905806},
   Key = {fds245803}
}

@article{fds245784,
   Author = {Chang, AM},
   Title = {The Kondo effect and controlled spin entanglement in coupled
             double-quantum-dots},
   Journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings},
   Volume = {777},
   Pages = {100-111},
   Year = {2005},
   ISSN = {0094-243X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1996875},
   Abstract = {Semiconductor double-quantum dots represent an ideal system
             for studying the novel spin physics of localized spins. On
             each quantum dot when the number of electrons is odd and the
             net spin is 1/2, a strong coupling of this localized spin to
             conducting electrons in the leads gives rise to Kondo
             correlation. On the other hand, in the coupled
             double-quantum-dot if the inter-dot antiferromagnetic
             interaction is strong, the two spins can form a correlated
             spin-singlet state, quenching the Kondo effect. This
             competition between Kondo and antiferromagnetic correlation
             is studied in a controlled manner by tuning the inter-dot
             tunnel coupling. Increasing the inter-dot tunneling, we
             observe a continuous transition from a single-peaked to a
             double-peaked Kondo resonance in the differential
             conductance. On the double-peaked side, the differential
             conductance becomes suppressed at zero source-drain bias.
             The observed strong suppression of the differential
             conductance at zero bias provides direct evidence signaling
             the formation of an entangled spin-singlet state. This
             evidence for entanglement and the tunability of our devices
             bode well for quantum computation applications. © 2005
             American Institute of Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.1996875},
   Key = {fds245784}
}

@article{fds245843,
   Author = {Chen, JC and Chang, AM and Melloch, MR},
   Title = {Transition between quantum states in a parallel-coupled
             double quantum dot},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {92},
   Number = {17},
   Pages = {176801-176801},
   Year = {2004},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.92.176801},
   Abstract = {Transition between quantum states in a double quantum dot
             (DQD) arising from strong electron and spin correlations was
             studied. A continuous transition from Kondo state, which
             exhibits a single peak Kondo resonance, to another
             exhibiting a double peak was observed, when the interdot
             coupling in the parallel-coupled DQD was increased. Evidence
             for spin entanglement between the excess electrons in each
             dot was provided by the transitions into the double-peak
             state. The peak splitting was found to merge and become
             substantially smaller than the interdot coupling because of
             strong Coloumb effects.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.92.176801},
   Key = {fds245843}
}

@article{fds245752,
   Author = {Chang, AM},
   Title = {Novel Phenomena in Small Individual and Coupled Quantum
             Dots},
   Series = {Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers},
   Pages = {123 pages},
   Booktitle = {ELECTRON TRANSPORT IN QUANTUM DOTS},
   Publisher = {Kluwer Academic Publishers},
   Editor = {Bird, JP},
   Year = {2003},
   Abstract = {<p>We discuss several novel phenomena observed in individual
             or coupled quan-tum dots fabricated in GaAs/Al_xGa_{1-x}As
             materials, where the lithographic dot- size ranges from
             350nm down to 120nm. These include distinct signatures of
             "quantum chaos" as evidenced in the highly non-Gaussian
             distributionof Coulomb blockade conductance peak heights in
             individual quantum dots, which are related to the well-known
             Porter-Thomas distribution of resonance widths in the
             scattering of neutrons from nuclei, spin physics in
             individualdots manifested in the even-odd (pairing) effect
             and in the Kondo effect, and spin physics in an artificial,
             double-quantum-dot molecule as evidenced by theclear
             observation of the coherent Kondo effect. These significant
             observations may have ramifications for future
             implementation of the coupled-quantum-dotsystem for quantum
             computation.},
   Key = {fds245752}
}

@article{fds245844,
   Author = {Chang, AM},
   Title = {Chiral Luttinger liquids at the fractional quantum Hall
             edge},
   Journal = {Reviews of Modern Physics},
   Volume = {75},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1449-1505},
   Year = {2003},
   ISSN = {0034-6861},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/RevModPhys.75.1449},
   Abstract = {The edges of quantum Hall fluids behave as one-dimensional
             conductors. This article reviews electron transport into
             these edge states, covering both the theory based on the
             chiral Luttinger liquid and the experimental findings using
             electron tunneling as the probe. The first part of the
             review presents a basic description of this theory,
             including a derivation of the density of states, to provide
             a framework and language for discussing the experimental
             observations. The signature of the chiral Luttinger liquid
             is a power-law behavior for the density of stales and the
             tunneling conductances. Experimentally, two techniques have
             been applied to study the tunneling conductance, using a
             gated point contact between two quantum Hall edges, or using
             a cleaved-edge barrier between an edge and a normal
             conductor. The point-contact method exhibits resonant
             tunneling, which appears to show some aspects of the
             Luttinger liquid, and the cleaved-edge method has yielded
             clear power-law dependences in the off-resonance
             conductances. Power-law behavior over many orders of
             magnitude is observed, confirming the Luttinger-liquid
             character of the edge states. However, the power-law
             exponents, while in agreement with finite-size numerical
             calculations, can differ from the universal values predicted
             by the Chern-Simon field theory. This disagreement is still
             not well understood. The review concludes with a brief
             survey of other one-dimensional conductors that have been
             studied to look for characteristics of the nonchiral
             Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid.},
   Doi = {10.1103/RevModPhys.75.1449},
   Key = {fds245844}
}

@article{fds245782,
   Author = {Grayson, M and Tsui, DC and Pfeiffer, LN and West, KW and Chang,
             AM},
   Title = {The lever-arm model: Describing resonant tunneling under
             bias at a fractional quantum Hall edge},
   Journal = {Physica E: Low-dimensional Systems and Nanostructures},
   Volume = {12},
   Number = {1-4},
   Pages = {80-83},
   Year = {2002},
   ISSN = {1386-9477},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1386-9477(01)00247-8},
   Abstract = {New tunnel current measurements of resonant tunneling at
             voltage-biased quantum Hall effect edge were reported.
             Results showed that the tunneling density of states at a
             sharp quantum Hall edge obeyed a power-law form. The fits to
             this data demonstrated the robustness of the lever-arm model
             in quantitatively describing all observed features
             associated with the tunneling resonance.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S1386-9477(01)00247-8},
   Key = {fds245782}
}

@article{fds245783,
   Author = {Chang, AM},
   Title = {Is the chiral Luttinger liquid exponent universal?},
   Journal = {Comptes Rendus Physique},
   Volume = {3},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {677-684},
   Year = {2002},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1631-0705(02)01353-1},
   Abstract = {We present experimental evidence from electron tunneling
             measurements that the chiral Luttinger liquid power-law
             exponent, α, for tunneling into the fractional quantum Hall
             edge deviates substantially from the universal behavior
             predicted by theory. Our results suggest that the existing
             standard analyses based on effective Chern-Simon field
             theories deserve careful reexamination when applied to the
             dynamics at the Hall fluid edge. © 2002 Académie des
             sciences/Éditions scientifiques et médicales Elsevier
             SAS.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S1631-0705(02)01353-1},
   Key = {fds245783}
}

@article{fds245779,
   Author = {Chang, AM},
   Title = {Quantum chaos in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs
             microstructures},
   Journal = {Physica Scripta T},
   Volume = {90},
   Pages = {16-25},
   Year = {2001},
   Abstract = {We review clear signatures of "quantum chaos" observable in
             both open and closed systems realized in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs
             microstructures. In open ballistic billiards where
             scattering dynamics determine the characteristics of quantum
             transport, we find a striking difference in the shape of the
             negative magneto-resistance peak for transport through
             chaotic, stadium cavities-Lorentzian line shape, versus
             non-chaotic, circle cavities-unusual triangular line shape.
             In a nearly closed system of individual quantum dot
             single-electron-transistors, the distribution of the height
             of Coulomb blockade conductance peaks is strongly
             non-Gaussian and sensitive to the absence or presence of a
             magnetic field. Even though our findings are in substantial
             agreement with the prediction of Random Matrix Theory, there
             exist evidence that deviations can occur due to the effect
             of electron-electron interaction. Lastly, we briefly
             summarize recent observations of pairing effect in
             ultra-small quantum dots associated with the spin degree of
             freedom.},
   Key = {fds245779}
}

@article{fds245780,
   Author = {Chang, AM},
   Title = {Resistance of a perfect wire},
   Journal = {Nature},
   Volume = {411},
   Number = {6833},
   Pages = {39-40},
   Year = {2001},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/35075201},
   Abstract = {Intuition tells us that a wire without defects should have
             zero resistance. But in the real world all conductors,
             however perfect, have some resistance. A new study confirms
             that electrical contacts are the problem.},
   Doi = {10.1038/35075201},
   Key = {fds245780}
}

@article{fds245781,
   Author = {Jeong, H and Chang, AM and Melloch, MR},
   Title = {The Kondo effect in an artificial quantum dot
             molecule},
   Journal = {Science},
   Volume = {293},
   Number = {5538},
   Pages = {2221-2223},
   Year = {2001},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1063182},
   Abstract = {Double quantum dots provide an ideal model system for
             studying interactions between localized impurity spins. We
             report on the transport properties of a series-coupled
             double quantum dot as electrons are added one by one onto
             the dots. When the many-body molecular states are formed, we
             observe a splitting of the Kondo resonance peak in the
             differential conductance. This splitting reflects the energy
             difference between the bonding and antibonding states formed
             by the coherent superposition of the Kondo states of each
             dot. The occurrence of the Kondo resonance and its magnetic
             field dependence agree with a simple interpretation of the
             spin status of a double quantum dot.},
   Doi = {10.1126/science.1063182},
   Key = {fds245781}
}

@article{grayson:2645,
   Author = {Grayson, M and Tsui, DC and Pfeiffer, LN and West, KW and Chang,
             AM},
   Title = {Resonant tunneling into a biased fractional quantum Hall
             edge},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {86},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {2645-2648},
   Publisher = {APS},
   Year = {2001},
   url = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v86/p2645},
   Keywords = {quantum Hall effect; resonant tunnelling; Luttinger liquid;
             spectral line breadth; electronic density of states; gallium
             arsenide},
   Abstract = {The voltage dependence of a new type of resonance at a sharp
             fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) edge was
             characterized. Clear non-Fermi liquid (non-FL) behavior
             through line shape analysis and nonconservation of resonance
             area was demonstrated.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.86.2645},
   Key = {grayson:2645}
}

@article{chang:143,
   Author = {Chang, AM and Wu, MK and Chi, CC and Pfeiffer, LN and West,
             KW},
   Title = {Plateau behavior in the chiral Luttinger liquid
             exponent},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {86},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {143-146},
   Publisher = {APS},
   Year = {2001},
   url = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v86/p143},
   Keywords = {quantum Hall effect; Luttinger liquid; tunnelling; ground
             states},
   Abstract = {Results indicating the presence of a plateau feature for the
             α versus 1/v dependence with an α value close to 3 are
             discussed. These results have been obtained in two sets of
             samples studied via analysis of I-V tunneling data and
             statistical F-test.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.86.143},
   Key = {chang:143}
}

@article{fds245749,
   Author = {Chang, AM},
   Title = {Chiral Luttinger Liquids at the Fractional Quantum Hall
             Edge},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the Centennial OCPA conference},
   Year = {1999},
   Key = {fds245749}
}

@article{sperl:3165,
   Author = {Sperl, M and Chang, A and Weber, N and Hubler, A},
   Title = {Hebbian learning in the agglomeration of conducting
             particles},
   Journal = {Phys. Rev. E (Statistical Physics, Plasmas, Fluids, and
             Related Interdisciplinary Topics)},
   Volume = {59},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {3165-3168},
   Publisher = {APS},
   Year = {1999},
   url = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRE/v59/p3165},
   Keywords = {neural nets; Hebbian learning; surface mount
             technology},
   Key = {sperl:3165}
}

@article{fds245778,
   Author = {Chang, AM and Pfeiffer, LN and West, KW},
   Title = {An apparent g = 1/2 chiral Luttinger liquid at the edge of
             the v = 1/2 compressible composite Fermion
             liquid},
   Journal = {Physica B: Condensed Matter},
   Volume = {249-251},
   Pages = {383-387},
   Year = {1998},
   Abstract = {The conductance (G) and current-voltage (I - V)
             characteristics are investigated for electron tunneling into
             the edge of the v = 1/2 gapless quantum Hall composite
             Fermion liquid. A non-linear, power law I-V and a power-law
             temperature dependence in G are observed. We deduce an I-V
             exponent of 1.91 (∼2) and a corresponding tunneling
             conductance temperature exponent of 0.77 (∼1). These
             values are surprisingly close to those expected for a
             one-dimensional chiral Luttinger liquid with an intrinsic
             dimensionless conductance of g = 1/2. © 1998 Elsevier
             Science B. V. All rights reserved.},
   Key = {fds245778}
}

@article{grayson:1062,
   Author = {Grayson, M and Tsui, DC and Pfeiffer, LN and West, KW and Chang,
             AM},
   Title = {Continuum of chiral luttinger liquids at the fractional
             quantum hall edge},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {80},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1062-1065},
   Publisher = {APS},
   Year = {1998},
   url = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v80/p1062},
   Keywords = {Luttinger liquid; quantum Hall effect; chirality;
             tunnelling; gallium arsenide; electrical
             conductivity},
   Abstract = {We study current versus voltage (I-V) when tunneling into
             the edge of the fractional quantum Hall effect over a
             continuum of filling factors (ν) from 1/4 to 1. Our devices
             manifest the power law I-V behavior previously observed by
             Chang et al. at discrete fillings, but now with as many as
             six decades in current and over the whole range of filling
             factor suggesting the existence of a continuum of chiral
             Luttinger liquids. Surprisingly the exponent behaves
             approximately as 1/ν and does not exhibit the strong
             plateau features predicted in recent theoretical works based
             on the intermixing of copropagating and counterpropagating
             multiple edge modes.},
   Key = {grayson:1062}
}

@article{gammel:833,
   Author = {Gammel, PL and Yaron, U and Ramirez, AP and Bishop, DJ and Chang, AM and Ruel, R and Pfeiffer, LN and Bucher, E and D'Anna, G and Huse, DA and Mortensen, K and Eskildsen, MR and Kes, PH},
   Title = {Structure and correlations of the flux line lattice in
             crystalline Nb through the peak effect},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {80},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {833-836},
   Publisher = {APS},
   Year = {1998},
   url = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v80/p833},
   Keywords = {niobium; flux-line lattice; flux pinning; critical current
             density (superconductivity); neutron diffraction;
             correlation theory},
   Abstract = {We have measured the structure of the field cooled flux line
             lattice (FLL) in single crystal Nb using small angle neutron
             scattering. Augmented by transport and thermodynamic data, a
             scenario for the dramatic disordering of the FLL near the
             peak effect emerges. A precursor to the peak effect is an
             hexatic FLL as positional order is lost. As the critical
             current rises, the orientational and longitudinal
             correlation lengths also fall, leading to an amorphous array
             of lines at the critical current maximum.},
   Key = {gammel:833}
}

@article{fds322932,
   Author = {Chang, AM},
   Title = {Quantum chaos in GaAlxGa1−xAs microstructures},
   Journal = {Chaos, Solitons & Fractals},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {7-8},
   Pages = {1281-1297},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0960-0779(97)00020-9},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0960-0779(97)00020-9},
   Key = {fds322932}
}

@article{fds245777,
   Author = {Chang, AM},
   Title = {Quantum chaos in Ga/AlxGa1-xAs
             microstructures},
   Journal = {Chaos, Solitons and Fractals},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {7-8},
   Pages = {1281-1297},
   Year = {1997},
   Abstract = {We report distinct signatures of 'quantum chaos' in both
             open and closed systems. Quantum chaos refers to the quantum
             signature of systems which classically exhibit chaotic
             dynamics. In the open case, we measure the line shape of the
             negative magneto-resistance peak in ballistic cavities
             fabricated on very high quality GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs
             heterostructures. We find a striking difference in the line
             shape for chaotic, stadium cavities versus non-chaotic,
             circle cavities: Lorentzian versus triangular. In the case
             of closed systems, we study the distribution of Coulomb
             blockade conductance peak heights in individual quantum
             dots. We find a strongly non-Gaussian distribution and a
             significant difference between the zero and non-zero
             magnetic fields. While the zero magnetic field distribution
             is related to the well-known Porter-Thomas distribution of
             resonance widths in the scattering of neutrons from nuclei,
             the non-zero magnetic field distribution is completely new
             and previously unobserved. © 1997 Elsevier Science
             Ltd.},
   Key = {fds245777}
}

@article{chang:1695,
   Author = {Chang, AM and Baranger, HU and Pfeiffer, LN and West, KW and Chang,
             TY},
   Title = {Non-Gaussian distribution of Coulomb blockade peak heights
             in quantum dots.},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {76},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {1695-1698},
   Publisher = {APS},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10060494},
   Keywords = {QUANTUM DOTS; TUNNELING; IV CHARACTERISTIC; COULOMB FIELD;
             GALLIUM ARSENIDES; ALUMINIUM ARSENIDES},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.76.1695},
   Key = {chang:1695}
}

@article{fds245775,
   Author = {Alers, GB and Monroe, D and Krisch, KS and Weir, BE and Chang,
             AM},
   Title = {1/f noise in the tunneling current of thin gate
             oxides},
   Journal = {Materials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings},
   Volume = {428},
   Pages = {311-315},
   Year = {1996},
   Abstract = {We have observed fluctuations in the tunneling current
             through 3.5 nm gate oxides with a 1/f power spectrum where f
             is the frequency. For voltages in the direct tunneling
             regime we find an anomalous current dependence of the noise
             relative to previous observations of noise in thin oxides.
             We present a simplified model for the current noise in terms
             of fluctuations in a trap assisted tunneling current that
             exists in the oxide in addition to the direct tunneling
             current. Current noise appears to be a very sensitive probe
             of trap assisted tunneling and degradation in
             oxides.},
   Key = {fds245775}
}

@article{fds245776,
   Author = {Hallen, HD and Chang, AM and Miller, R and Pfeiffer, LN and West, K and Hess, HF},
   Title = {Penetration of laterally quantized flux lamina into a
             superconducting wire network},
   Journal = {Solid State Communications},
   Volume = {99},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {651-654},
   Year = {1996},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0038-1098(96)00123-8},
   Abstract = {We report direct, high resolution images of the magnetic
             field above a superconducting wire grid as applied flux
             penetrates into an initially empty state or into a state
             with half the plaquettes containing a magnetic quantum. We
             find two qualitatively different initial approaches to
             equilibrium: in wide structures for the former, or with
             long, linear structures for the latter case. In the approach
             to an empty state, we observe the formation of residual
             quasi-bound magnetic vortex/anti-vortex pairs. Copyright ©
             1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0038-1098(96)00123-8},
   Key = {fds245776}
}

@article{chang:2538,
   Author = {Chang, AM and Pfeiffer, LN and West, KW},
   Title = {Observation of chiral luttinger behavior in electron
             tunneling into fractional quantum hall edges},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {77},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {2538-2541},
   Publisher = {APS},
   Year = {1996},
   url = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v77/p2538},
   Keywords = {QUANTUM HALL EFFECT; TUNNEL EFFECT; CHIRALITY; ELECTRON GAS;
             MAGNETIC FIELDS; IV CHARACTERISTIC; GALLIUM
             ARSENIDES},
   Abstract = {We measure the tunneling conductance (G) and current-voltage
             (I-V) characteristics for electron tunneling from a bulk
             doped-GaAs normal metal into the abrupt edge of a fractional
             quantum Hall effect. We observe clear power law behavior for
             both the I-V relationship and the conductance versus
             temperature. For tunneling into the v = 1/3 edge the power
             law persists for one decade in V (T), and 2.7 (1.7) decades
             in / (G). This strongly indicates the 1/3 edge behaves like
             a chiral Luttinger liquid. In contrast, the v = 1 edge is
             essentially linear, while the 2/3 edge is slightly
             nonlinear.},
   Key = {chang:2538}
}

@article{alers:2885,
   Author = {Alers, GB and Krisch, KS and Monroe, D and Weir, BE and Chang,
             AM},
   Title = {Tunneling current noise in thin gate oxides},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {69},
   Number = {19},
   Pages = {2885-2887},
   Publisher = {AIP},
   Year = {1996},
   url = {http://link.aip.org/link/?APL/69/2885/1},
   Keywords = {INTEGRATED CIRCUITS; SI JUNCTIONS; TUNNEL EFFECT; GATES; IV
             CHARACTERISTIC; NOISE; TRANSIENTS; SILICON},
   Abstract = {We have examined fluctuations in the tunneling current of
             3.5 nm SiO2 barriers for voltages in the direct tunneling
             regime. We find a 1/f power law for the spectral density of
             the fluctuations where f is the frequency. This 1/f noise
             can be attributed to fluctuations of a trap assisted
             tunneling current through the oxide that causes current
             noise but is not evident in the I-V curves. We suggest that
             this noise may be a more sensitive probe of trap assisted
             tunneling and degradation in thin oxides than other
             measures. At voltages above a threshold of 2.5 V, we observe
             the reversible onset of non-Gaussian current transients in
             the noise. The onset of these current transients can be
             related to a transition in the spacial uniformity of the
             tunneling current density that may result in eventual
             breakdown of the oxide. © 1996 American Institute of
             Physics.},
   Key = {alers:2885}
}

@article{chang:2111,
   Author = {Chang, AM and Baranger, HU and Pfeiffer, LN and West,
             KW},
   Title = {Weak localization in chaotic versus nonchaotic cavities: A
             striking difference in the line shape.},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {73},
   Number = {15},
   Pages = {2111-2114},
   Publisher = {APS},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10056974},
   Keywords = {TRANSPORT PROCESSES; CHAOTIC SYSTEMS; SCATTERING; CAVITY
             RESONATORS; MAGNETORESISTANCE; AHARONOV – BOHM EFFECT;
             QUANTUM WELLS; COHERENCE LENGTH},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.73.2111},
   Key = {chang:2111}
}

@article{hallen:3007,
   Author = {Hallen, HD and Seshadri, R and Chang, AM and Miller, RE and Pfeiffer,
             LN and West, KW and Murray, CA and Hess, HF},
   Title = {Direct spatial imaging of vortices in a superconducting wire
             network},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {71},
   Number = {18},
   Pages = {3007-3010},
   Publisher = {APS},
   Year = {1993},
   url = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v71/p3007},
   Keywords = {SUPERCONDUCTING WIRES; NETWORK STRUCTURE; GRIDS; TWO –
             DIMENSIONAL SYSTEMS; VORTICES; SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION; IMAGES;
             MICROSCOPY; HALL EFFECT; GROUND STATES; DOMAIN STRUCTURE;
             HOPPING; TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE; GRAIN BOUNDARIES;
             SUPERCONDUCTING COMPOSITES; NIOBIUM},
   Abstract = {We report direct observations of vortices in a square
             superconducting wire grid imaged using scanning Hall probe
             microscopy. Real space images of vortex configurations are
             obtained as a function of the flux per unit cell f by
             measuring the local magnetic field just above the sample. At
             f = 1/2 we observe domains of the checkerboard ground state.
             As f is reduced from 1/2 to 1/3 vacancies first penetrate
             the grain boundaries and then the checkerboard domains. Near
             f = 1/3 we observe domains of the 1/3 staircase ground
             state. Heating the sample close to Tc produces correlated
             vortex hopping.},
   Key = {hallen:3007}
}

@article{fds328561,
   Author = {HALLEN, HD and HESS, HF and CHANG, AM and PFEIFFER, LN and WEST, KW and MITZI, DB},
   Title = {HIGH-RESOLUTION SCANNING HALL PROBE MICROSCOPY},
   Journal = {SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPIES II},
   Volume = {1855},
   Pages = {152-157},
   Year = {1993},
   ISBN = {0-8194-1081-0},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.146371},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.146371},
   Key = {fds328561}
}

@article{fds245756,
   Author = {Chang, AM and Hallen, HD and Hess, HF and Kao, HL and Kwo, J and Sudbo, A and Chang, TY},
   Title = {Scanning Hall-Probe Microscopy of a Vortex and Field
             Fluctuations in La1.85Sr0.15CuO4 Films},
   Journal = {EPL (Europhysics Letters)},
   Volume = {20},
   Number = {645},
   Publisher = {European Physical Society},
   Year = {1992},
   ISSN = {1286-4854},
   Key = {fds245756}
}

@article{chang:1974,
   Author = {Chang, AM and Hallen, HD and Harriott, L and Hess, HF and Kao, HL and Kwo,
             J and Miller, RE and Wolfe, R and Ziel, JVD and Chang,
             TY},
   Title = {Scanning Hall probe microscopy},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {61},
   Number = {16},
   Pages = {1974-1976},
   Publisher = {AIP},
   Year = {1992},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://link.aip.org/link/?APL/61/1974/1},
   Keywords = {MAGNETOMETERS; MICROSCOPY; HALL EFFECT; MAGNETIC PROBES;
             SURFACE MAGNETISM; SPATIAL RESOLUTION; SCANNING TUNNELING
             MICROSCOPY; SENSITIVITY; POSITIONING; DOMAIN STRUCTURE;
             MAGNETIC FLUX; FLUX–LINE LATTICES},
   Abstract = {We describe the implementation of a scanning Hall probe
             microscope of outstanding magnetic field sensitivity (∼0.1
             G) and unprecedented spatial resolution (∼0.35 μm) to
             detect surface magnetic fields at close proximity to a
             sample. Our microscope combines the advantages of a
             submicron Hall probe fabricated on a GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As
             heterostructure chip and the scanning tunneling microscopy
             technique for precise positioning. We demonstrate its
             usefulness by imaging individual vortices in high Tc
             La1.85Sr0.15CuO4 films and superconducting networks, and
             magnetic bubble domains.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.108334},
   Key = {chang:1974}
}

@article{rong:3646,
   Author = {Rong, ZY and Chang, A and Wolf, EL},
   Title = {A flexible implementation of scanning tunneling spectroscopy
             utilizing C-language on the personal computer},
   Journal = {Rev. Sci. Instr.},
   Volume = {63},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {3646-3651},
   Publisher = {AIP},
   Year = {1992},
   url = {http://link.aip.org/link/?RSI/63/3646/1},
   Keywords = {ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; PERSONAL COMPUTERS; COMPUTER
             CALCULATIONS; ALGORITHMS; DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEMS;
             COMPUTERIZED CONTROL SYSTEMS; DESIGN; ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS;
             SCANNING TUNNELING MICROSCOPY; IV CHARACTERISTIC},
   Key = {rong:3646}
}

@article{chang:5692,
   Author = {Chang, A and Rong, ZY and Ivanchenko, YM and Lu, F and Wolf,
             EL},
   Title = {Observation of large tunneling-conductance variations in
             direct mapping of the energy gap of single-crystal Bi[sub
             2]Sr[sub 2]CaCu[sub 2]O[sub 8 - x]},
   Journal = {Phys. Rev. B (Condensed Matter)},
   Volume = {46},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {5692-5698},
   Publisher = {APS},
   Year = {1992},
   url = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v46/p5692},
   Keywords = {COPPER OXIDES; CALCIUM OXIDES; STRONTIUM OXIDES; BISMUTH
             OXIDES; HIGH – TC SUPERCONDUCTORS; MONOCRYSTALS; ENERGY
             GAP; TUNNEL EFFECT; ELECTRIC CONDUCTIVITY; PROXIMITY EFFECT;
             MULTI – ELEMENT COMPOUNDS},
   Key = {chang:5692}
}

@article{tao:10622,
   Author = {Tao, HJ and Chang, A and Lu, F and Wolf, EL},
   Title = {Electron tunneling spectroscopy of single-crystal Bi[sub
             2]Sr[sub 2]CaCu[sub 2]O[sub 8]},
   Journal = {Phys. Rev. B (Condensed Matter)},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {18},
   Pages = {10622-10632},
   Publisher = {APS},
   Year = {1992},
   url = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v45/p10622},
   Keywords = {HIGH – TC SUPERCONDUCTORS; BISMUTH OXIDES; STRONTIUM
             OXIDES; CALCIUM OXIDES; COPPER OXIDES; MONOCRYSTALS; ENERGY
             GAP; TEMPERATURE EFFECTS; BCS THEORY; TRANSITION
             TEMPERATURE; MULTI – ELEMENT COMPOUNDS},
   Key = {tao:10622}
}

@article{kurdak:6846,
   Author = {Kurdak, Ç and Chang, AM and Chin, A and Chang, TY},
   Title = {Quantum interference effects and spin-orbit interaction in
             quasi-one-dimensional wires and rings},
   Journal = {Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials
             Physics},
   Volume = {46},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {6846-6856},
   Publisher = {APS},
   Year = {1992},
   ISSN = {0163-1829},
   url = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v46/p6846},
   Keywords = {QUANTUM WIRES; GALLIUM ARSENIDES; ALUMINIUM ARSENIDES;
             BINARY COMPOUNDS; TERNARY COMPOUNDS; HETEROJUNCTIONS;
             AHARONOV – BOHM EFFECT; TEMPERATURE RANGE 0000 –
             0013 K; INTERFERENCE; COHERENCE LENGTH},
   Abstract = {We study two kinds of quantum interference effects in
             transportthe Aharonov-Bohm effect and the weak-localization
             effectin quasi-one-dimensional wires and rings to address
             issues concerning the phase-coherence length, spin-orbit
             scattering, and the flux cancellation mechanism which is
             predicted to be present when the elastic mean free path
             exceeds the sample width. Our devices are fabricated on
             GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs and pseudomorphic GaxIn1-xAs/AlxIn1- xAs
             heterostructure materials and the experiments carried out at
             0.420 K temperatures. In the GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs devices which
             exhibit no significant spin-orbit scattering, we were able
             to extract a phase-coherence length l from the amplitude of
             the Aharonov-Bohm magnetoresistance oscillations in
             different sized rings. We find it to be in agreement with l
             deduced from the weak-localization data in parallel wires
             when the one-dimensional weak-localization theory including
             the flux cancellation mechanism is used to fit the data. We
             therefore unambiguously establish that the same l governs
             the behavior of the two quantum interference phenomena of
             Aharonov-Bohm oscillations and weak localization, and that
             the flux cancellation is in force. In the pseudomorphic
             GaxIn1-xAs/AlxIn1-xAs heterostructure devices which exhibit
             strong spin-orbit interaction effects, l exceeds the
             spin-orbit-scattering length at low temperatures. The
             amplitude of Aharonov-Bohm oscillations can only be
             explained by introducing reduction factors due to spin-orbit
             scattering. © 1992 The American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.46.6846},
   Key = {kurdak:6846}
}

@article{chang:2114,
   Author = {Chang, AM and Cunningham, JE},
   Title = {Transport evidence for phase separation into spatial regions
             of different fractional quantum Hall fluids near the
             boundary of a two-dimensional electron gas},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {69},
   Number = {14},
   Pages = {2114-2117},
   Publisher = {APS},
   Year = {1992},
   ISSN = {0031-9007},
   url = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v69/p2114},
   Keywords = {HETEROJUNCTIONS; ELECTRON GAS; TRANSPORT PROCESSES; QUANTUM
             HALL EFFECT; BOUNDARY CONDITIONS; PHASE SEPARATION; IV
             CHARACTERISTIC},
   Abstract = {Near the boundary, a 2D electron gas can phase separate into
             fractional quantum Hall fluid regions of successively lower
             filling factors (ν), in the case of a slowly increasing
             boundary potential. We present experimental evidence in the
             ν=1/3, 2/3, and 1 quantum Hall regimes on a four-lead Hall
             junction showing that by side gating the junction boundary,
             the Hall resistance can be made to approach the quantized
             value of the lower ν fluids in the top-gated leads, rather
             than the higher-ν fluid at the junction center. This
             implies the presence of the lower-ν fluids near the
             junction boundary. © 1992 The American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.69.2114},
   Key = {chang:2114}
}

@article{fds245755,
   Author = {CHANG, AM},
   Title = {QUENCHING OF THE HALL RESISTANCE IN A NOVEL
             GEOMETRY},
   Journal = {Modern Physics Letters B},
   Volume = {05},
   Number = {01},
   Pages = {21-37},
   Year = {1991},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0217-9849},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0217984991000046},
   Doi = {10.1142/S0217984991000046},
   Key = {fds245755}
}

@article{fds245751,
   Author = {Chang, AM},
   Title = {The Hall Effect in Quantum Wires},
   Volume = {4},
   Booktitle = {Electronic Structure and Properties of Semiconductors},
   Publisher = {VCH Verlagsgesellshaft},
   Editor = {Schroter, W},
   Year = {1991},
   Key = {fds245751}
}

@article{fds245772,
   Author = {Chin, A and Chang, TY and Ourmazd, A and Monberg, EM and Chang, AM and Kurdak, C},
   Title = {Effects of substrate orientation, pseudomorphic growth and
             superlattice on alloy scattering in modulation doped
             GaInAs},
   Journal = {Journal of Crystal Growth},
   Volume = {111},
   Number = {1-4},
   Pages = {466-469},
   Year = {1991},
   ISSN = {0022-0248},
   Abstract = {The possibility of reducing alloy scattering in MBE
             Ga1-xInxAs has been studied experimentally by growing
             modulation doped heterostructures (A) with an InAs/GaInAs
             superlattice 2DEG channel, (B) on a vicinal (110) InP
             substrate, and (C) with a strain compensated pseudomorphic
             channel. The maximum 77 K mobility obtained in each case is
             (A) 60,600, (B) 69,300, and (C) 123,100 cm2/V⋯s, using
             x=0.50, 0.53, and 0.80, respectively. Partial alloy ordering
             is observed in case (B). Cyclotron resonance measurements
             indicate that the reduction of m* contributes much less to
             the enhancement of mobility in case (C) than the alloy
             composition factor x(1-x). Alloy ordering may also be
             important. © 1991.},
   Key = {fds245772}
}

@article{fds245771,
   Author = {Chang, AM and Cunningham, JE},
   Title = {Transmission and reflection probabilities between the ν=1
             and the ν= 2 3 quantum hall effects},
   Journal = {Surface Science},
   Volume = {229},
   Number = {1-3},
   Pages = {216-218},
   Year = {1990},
   ISSN = {0039-6028},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0039-6028(90)90874-8},
   Abstract = {We report a transport experiment in the quantum Hall regime
             on the transmission of electron waves from a region
             exhibiting the ν=1 integral quantum Hall effect, through a
             barrier region exhibiting the ν= 2 3 fractional quantum
             Hall effect. Our work represents the first transport study
             across an interface between an integral and a fractional
             quantum Hall effect. We analyze our data in terms of the
             Büttiker-Landauer formalism and conduction via Landau edge
             states. We find a transmission probability of 2 3 (0.999 ±
             0.002) and a reflection probability of 1 3 (0.995 ± 0.003).
             These results can be interpreted in two ways: (1) they yield
             a quasi-particle charge of ( -e 3) ± 0.5% in the 2 3
             effect, and (2) the single-particle electronic density of
             states is reduced to 2 3 the value for a non-interacting
             electron system. © 1990.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0039-6028(90)90874-8},
   Key = {fds245771}
}

@article{fds245773,
   Author = {Chang, AM},
   Title = {A unified transport theory for the integral and fractional
             quantum hall effects: Phase boundaries, edge currents, and
             transmission/reflection probabilities},
   Journal = {Solid State Communications},
   Volume = {74},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {871-876},
   Year = {1990},
   ISSN = {0038-1098},
   Abstract = {We propose a unified transport theory for the fractional
             (FQHE) and integral quantum Hall effect (IQHE) of the
             Buttiker-Landauer type in the presence of smooth confinement
             and impurity potentials, where resistances are expressed in
             terms of transmission and reflection probabilities of edge
             channels in the incompressible fluid states.
             Electron-electron interaction is taken into account in the
             FQHE by writing down a Laughlin type wave function for a
             pure phase, and in the compressible fluids at non-special
             filling factors by a self-consistent screening of the
             background potential. Our theory is able to explain recent
             experimental observations. © 1990.},
   Key = {fds245773}
}

@article{fds245774,
   Author = {Chang, AM and Chang, TY},
   Title = {Quenching of the Hall effect in a novel geometry},
   Journal = {Surface Science},
   Volume = {229},
   Number = {1-3},
   Pages = {209-211},
   Year = {1990},
   ISSN = {0039-6028},
   Abstract = {We study the Hall effect at low magnetic fields in ballistic
             GaAs-AlxGa1 - xAs heterostructure Hall junctions that
             contain four, three, two, or one narrow constrictions in the
             junction region. These geometries are investigated to
             determine the necessary condition for observation of the
             quenching of the Hall effect. We find that only the four
             constriction geometry shows a genuine quenching. By applying
             a backgate bias, quenching is produced within a finite
             electron density range. Our results are interpreted within
             the framework of the Büttiker-Landauer formulas in terms of
             junction scattering of the electrons. ©
             1990.},
   Key = {fds245774}
}

@article{fds245788,
   Author = {Chang, AM and Chang, TY and Baranger, HU},
   Title = {Quenching of the Hall resistance in a novel
             geometry.},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {63},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {996-999},
   Year = {1989},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10041242},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.63.996},
   Key = {fds245788}
}

@article{fds245769,
   Author = {Cunningham, JE and Timp, G and Chang, AM and Chiu, TH and Jan, W and Schubert, EF and Tsung, WT},
   Title = {Spatial localization of Si in selectively δ-doped
             AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs heterostructures for
             high mobility and density realization},
   Journal = {Journal of Crystal Growth},
   Volume = {95},
   Number = {1-4},
   Pages = {253-256},
   Year = {1989},
   ISSN = {0022-0248},
   Abstract = {We report on a new type of structure formed by δ-doping the
             barrier of an AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs heterostructure. We
             investigate transport in these structures which reveal that
             very high quality fractional quantum hall structure occurs
             as well as systematically high density and mobility
             (2.2×106 cm2/V·s). The dependence of mobility and density
             on spacer layer thickness is explored. We show that the
             observed improvements in 2DEG properties are expected from
             the spatial localization of the Si dopant. ©
             1989.},
   Key = {fds245769}
}

@article{fds245770,
   Author = {Chang, AM and Cunningham, JE},
   Title = {Transmission and reflection probabilities between ν=1 and
             ν= 2 3 quantum Hall effects and between ν= 2 3 and ν= 1 3
             effects},
   Journal = {Solid State Communications},
   Volume = {72},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {651-655},
   Year = {1989},
   ISSN = {0038-1098},
   Abstract = {We perform transport experiments in the quantum Hall regime
             on transmission through a barrier region exhibiting a
             fractional quantum Hall effect. For transmission from the
             ν=1 effect through a barrier at the 2 3 effect, the
             transmission probability is 2 3(0.998±.005) and the
             reflection is 1 3(.983±.010). Interpreted in terms of
             conduction via edge states, our results yield a
             quasi-particle charge of -e 3±2% in the 2 3 effect in one
             picture, and a reduction in the single-particle density of
             states in another. Data on transmission from the 2 3 effect
             through a barrier at 1 3 are consistent with these
             interpretations. © 1989.},
   Key = {fds245770}
}

@article{chang:2695,
   Author = {Chang, AM and Chang, TY and Baranger, HU},
   Title = {Erratum: Quenching of the Hall resistance in a novel
             geometry [Phys. Rev. Lett. [bold 63], 996
             (1989)]},
   Journal = {Phys. Rev. Lett.},
   Volume = {63},
   Number = {24},
   Pages = {2695-2695},
   Publisher = {APS},
   Year = {1989},
   ISSN = {0031-9007},
   url = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v63/p2695/s4},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.63.2695.4},
   Key = {chang:2695}
}

@article{fds304529,
   Author = {Chang, AM and Chang, TY and Baranger, HU},
   Title = {Erratum: Quenching of the Hall resistance in a novel
             geometry (Physical Review Letters (1989) 63, 996
             (2695))},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {63},
   Number = {24},
   Pages = {2695-},
   Year = {1989},
   ISSN = {0031-9007},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.63.2695.4},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.63.2695.4},
   Key = {fds304529}
}

@booklet{Chang88d,
   Author = {Chang, AM and Timp, G and Cunningham, JE and Mankiewich, PM and Behringer, RE and Howard, RE and Baranger, HU},
   Title = {Real-space and magnetic-field correlation of
             quantum-resistance fluctuations in the ballistic regime in
             narrow GaAs-AlxGa},
   Journal = {Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials
             Physics},
   Volume = {37},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {2745-2748},
   Year = {1988},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0163-1829},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9944842},
   Key = {Chang88d}
}

@booklet{Mankiewich88,
   Author = {Mankiewich, PM and Behringer, RE and Howard, RE and Chang, AM and Chang,
             TY and Chelluri, B and Cunningham, J and Timp, G},
   Title = {Observation of aharonov-bohm effect in quasi-one-dimensional
             gaas/algaas rings},
   Journal = {J. Vacuum Sci. & Tech. B},
   Volume = {6},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {131-133},
   Year = {1988},
   Key = {Mankiewich88}
}

@booklet{Chang88a,
   Author = {Chang, AM and Timp, G and Howard, RE and Behringer, RE and Mankeiwich,
             PM and Cunningham, JE and Chang, TY and Chelluri,
             B},
   Title = {Quantum transport in quasi-one-dimensional
             GaAsAlxGa1-xAs heterostructure
             devices},
   Journal = {Superlattices and Microstructures},
   Volume = {4},
   Number = {4-5},
   Pages = {515-520},
   Year = {1988},
   ISSN = {0749-6036},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0749-6036(88)90229-7},
   Abstract = {We study quantum transport properties of narrow
             GaAsAlxGa1-xAs wires and rings made by electron beam
             lithography. At low temperatures, clear signatures of
             Ah́aronov-Bohm quantum interference effects are observed
             due to the application of a perpendicular magnetic field.
             The ring devices show large amplitude (-5%) resistance
             oscillations periodic in magnetic flux penetrating the ring,
             which diminish in amplitude above -3kG. The wire devices
             show aperiodic resistance fluctuations as large as 100%,
             which persist into the quantum Hall regime. The large
             amplitudes observed result from the small number of
             transverse channels occupied below the Fermi level. ©
             1988.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0749-6036(88)90229-7},
   Key = {Chang88a}
}

@booklet{Owususekyere88,
   Author = {Owusu-Sekyere, K and Chang, AM and Chang, TY},
   Title = {Fabrication of gatable submicron channels in
             AlxGa 1-xAs-GaAs heterostructures},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {52},
   Number = {15},
   Pages = {1246-1248},
   Year = {1988},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.99170},
   Abstract = {A new, simplified process has been developed for fabricating
             submicron AlxGa1-xAs-GaAs heterostructure devices for
             low-temperature transport studies, with the advantage of
             gatability. This process utilizes electron beam lithography,
             photolithography, and wet etching techniques to laterally
             confine the two-dimensional electron gas, and possesses the
             unique feature that the metal etch mask for the electron
             beam defined narrow section is deposited directly on top of
             the heterostructure surface, allowing for use as a gate.
             Devices of lithographic widths from 0.4 to 2.0 μm have been
             successfully fabricated, where the 0.4 μm devices of both
             enhancement and depletion modes have been demonstrated to
             function down to 0.35 K in temperature.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.99170},
   Key = {Owususekyere88}
}

@booklet{Timp88,
   Author = {Timp, G and Chang, AM and DeVegvar, P and Howard, RE and Behringer, R and Cunningham, JE and Mankiewich, P},
   Title = {Quantum transport in one-dimensional GaAs/AlGaAs
             microstructures},
   Journal = {Surface Science},
   Volume = {196},
   Number = {1-3},
   Pages = {68-78},
   Year = {1988},
   ISSN = {0039-6028},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0039-6028(88)90666-8},
   Abstract = {We have observed the Aharonov-Bohm effect in the
             magnetoresistance of doubly connected geometries fabricated
             in high mobility GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures. Periodic
             oscillations in the resistance associated with the magnetic
             fluxes θ0 = hc/e, θ0/2, and θ0/3 penetrating the annulus
             are suppressed for fields above √hc/eH ≈ W/2 where W is
             the width of the wire comprising the annulus, corresponding
             to ωc⊥ &gt;1 where ωc is the cyclotron frequency and ⊥
             ist the scattering time. Correlated fluctuations in the
             resistance as a function of magnetic field associated with
             the flux penetrating the wires comprising the annuli are
             observed for 0&lt;ωc⊥&lt;300, concomitantly with
             Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations and the Hall effect. ©
             1987.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0039-6028(88)90666-8},
   Key = {Timp88}
}

@booklet{Chang88b,
   Author = {Chang, AM and Timp, G and Chang, TY and Cunningham, JE and Mankiewich,
             PM and Behringer, RE and Howard, RE},
   Title = {Deviation of the quantum hall effect from exact quantization
             in narrow GaAs-AlxGa1-xAs
             heterostructure devices},
   Journal = {Solid State Communications},
   Volume = {67},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {769-772},
   Year = {1988},
   ISSN = {0038-1098},
   Abstract = {We report the first observation of deviaton of the i=4
             quantum Hall plateau from its quantized value, in narrow
             GaAs-AlxGa1-xAs quasi-1-d wires of width 2000A. The
             deviation arises in the form of aperiodic fluctuations as
             the magnetic field is varied, even though a deep minimum
             developes in longitudinal resistance. The fluctuation size
             grows with decreasing temperature and can be as large as
             250Ω at 50mK. We suggest the observations arise from a
             combination of localization and Aharonov-Bohm quantum
             interference effects. © 1988.},
   Key = {Chang88b}
}

@booklet{Cunningham88,
   Author = {Cunningham, JE and Tsang, WT and Timp, G and Schubert, EF and Chang, AM and Owusu-Sekyere, K},
   Title = {Quantum size effect in monolayer-doped heterostructures},
   Journal = {Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials
             Physics},
   Volume = {37},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {4317-4320},
   Year = {1988},
   ISSN = {0163-1829},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.37.4317},
   Abstract = {We report molecular-beam-epitaxial growth of a new structure
             formed by monolayer doping the barrier of an AlxGa1-xAs-GaAs
             heterojunction. Our investigations of these structures
             include the quantum Hall effect and variable temperature
             mobility measurements, which reveal enhancements in
             interface densities are achievable along with very high
             mobility. © 1988 The American Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.37.4317},
   Key = {Cunningham88}
}

@booklet{Chang88c,
   Author = {Chang, AM and Timp, G and Chang, TY and Cunningham, JE and Chelluri, B and Mankiewich, PM and Behringer, RE and Howard, RE},
   Title = {Magneto-quantum transport in a quasi-one-dimensional
             GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs ring},
   Journal = {Surface Science},
   Volume = {196},
   Number = {1-3},
   Pages = {46-51},
   Year = {1988},
   ISSN = {0039-6028},
   Abstract = {We study the magneto-transport properties of a quasi-ID
             GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs ring of mobility 40 000 cm2/V·a at 4 K. The
             inelastic scattering length is about 4000 Å while the
             sample length is of the order of 3 μm, so that we are in
             the diffusive regime. A variety of quantum interference
             phenomena are observed, including negative
             magneto-resistance, hole Aharonov-Bohm effect, and
             aperiodic/quasiperiodic resistance fluctuations. This rich
             variety enables us to estimate the sample conducting width
             and electron phase coherence length, lθ, so that we may
             attempt to obtain a consistent picture of these related
             phenomena. In addition, we obtain a magnetic field scale on
             which the hole oscillations disappear. ©
             1987.},
   Key = {Chang88c}
}

@booklet{Chang88,
   Author = {Chang, AM and Owusu-Sekyere, K and Chang, TY},
   Title = {Observation of phase-shift locking of the Aharonov-Bohm
             effect in doubly connected GaAsAlxGa1-xAs
             heterostructure devices},
   Journal = {Solid State Communications},
   Volume = {67},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {1027-1030},
   Year = {1988},
   ISSN = {0038-1098},
   Abstract = {We have observed a tendency toward locking of the
             Aharonov-Bohm effect phase shift, in doubly connected,
             quasi-one-dimensional GaAsAlxGa1-xAs devices. The
             resistances of adjacent segments within a device exhibit
             periodic modulations, due to magnetic flux penetrating the
             area enclosed by the doubly connected geometry, which are
             phase-shifted from each other by a value of close to 180°.
             This phase shift value persists over a range of 200 periods
             (∼4kGauss in magnetic field), and is observed for various
             current-voltage configurations. © 1988.},
   Key = {Chang88}
}

@article{fds245750,
   Author = {Chang, AM},
   Title = {The Fractional Quantum Hall Effect: Experimental
             Aspects},
   Booktitle = {THE QUANTUM HALL EFFECT},
   Publisher = {Springer Verlag},
   Editor = {Prange, RE and Girvin, SM},
   Year = {1987},
   Key = {fds245750}
}

@booklet{Timp87a,
   Author = {Timp, G and Chang, AM and Cunningham, JE and Chang, TY and Mankiewich,
             P and Behringer, R and Howard, RE},
   Title = {Observation of the Aharonov-Bohm effect for
             c>1},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {58},
   Number = {26},
   Pages = {2814-2817},
   Year = {1987},
   ISSN = {0031-9007},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.58.2814},
   Abstract = {We have observed the Aharonov-Bohm effect in the
             magnetoresistance of doubly connected geometries fabricated
             in high-mobility GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures. Periodic
             oscillations in the resistance associated with the fluxs
             penetrating the annulus are suppressed above c5, where c is
             the cyclotron frequency and is the scattering time, while
             fluctuations in the resistance as a function of magnetic
             field are observed for 0&lt;c&lt;300, superimposed upon
             Shubnikov-deHaas oscillations. © 1987 The American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.58.2814},
   Key = {Timp87a}
}

@booklet{Devegvar87,
   Author = {Vegvar, PGND and Chang, AM and Timp, G and Mankiewich, PM and Cunningham, JE and Behringer, R and Howard, RE},
   Title = {Critical currents of the quantum Hall effect in the
             mesoscopic regime},
   Journal = {Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials
             Physics},
   Volume = {36},
   Number = {17},
   Pages = {9366-9369},
   Year = {1987},
   ISSN = {0163-1829},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.36.9366},
   Abstract = {The critical currents associated with the breakdown of the
             quantum Hall effect have been measured in high-mobility,
             one-dimensional channels fabricated in GaAs-AlxGa1-xAs
             heterostructures. The results differ in several respects
             from the breakdown in macroscopic samples. The on-set of
             dissipation shows little hysteresis and depends on the
             direction of the current with respect to the magnetic field.
             The value of the critical current is also independent of the
             filling factor across a large fraction of the Hall plateau.
             These observations indicate that mesoscopic considerations
             must be included in any theory of breakdown on this size
             scale. © 1987 The American Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.36.9366},
   Key = {Devegvar87}
}

@booklet{Timp87,
   Author = {Timp, G and Chang, AM and Mankiewich, P and Behringer, R and Cunningham,
             JE and Chang, TY and Howard, RE},
   Title = {Quantum transport in an electron-wave guide},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {59},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {732-735},
   Year = {1987},
   ISSN = {0031-9007},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.59.732},
   Abstract = {We have fabricated high-mobility, one dimensional wires in
             GaAs-AlGaAs heterostructures and measured the resistance as
             a function of magnetic field and temperature. Because of the
             size of the devices and the high mobility, only a few
             channels carry the current at 35 mK with minimal scattering.
             Fluctuations in the resistance as a function of magnetic
             field due to quantum interference are observed for
             0&lt;c&lt;300, where c is the cyclotron frequency and is the
             scattering time, superimposed upon Shubnikov "de Haas
             oscillations and the Hall effect. © 1987 The American
             Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.59.732},
   Key = {Timp87}
}

@booklet{Boebinger87,
   Author = {Boebinger, GS and Stormer, HL and Tsui, DC and Chang, AM and Hwang, JCM and Cho, AY and Tu, CW and Weimann, G},
   Title = {Activation energies and localization in the fractional
             quantum Hall effect},
   Journal = {Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials
             Physics},
   Volume = {36},
   Number = {15},
   Pages = {7919-7929},
   Year = {1987},
   ISSN = {0163-1829},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.36.7919},
   Abstract = {This paper summarizes an extensive study of the temperature
             dependence of magnetotransport in the fractional quantum
             Hall effect in GaAs-AlxGa1-xAs heterostructure devices of
             varying mobility and density. For devices with electron
             mobility 400 000 1 000 000 cm2/V s, we find a single
             activation energy, /23, in the longitudinal transport
             coefficients, xx and xx, for Landau-level filling
             factors=(1/3, (2/3, (4/3, and (5/3, with a magnetic field
             dependence which is vanishingly small for B 5.5 T and
             increases to 63.8 K at B=30 T. The observed 3 is smaller by
             more than a factor of 3 than either the unbound
             quasiparticle-quasihole pair-creation energy gap or the
             magneto-roton energy gap, calculated for an ideal
             two-dimensional electron system. Observations for devices of
             mobility 0 300 000 cm2/V s yield even smaller 3. Adequate
             fitting of all our results requires inclusion of finite
             electron layer thickness and disorder, with the effect of
             decreasing the energy gaps and providing a finite magnetic
             field threshold. At low temperatures and high magnetic
             fields, deviations from activated conduction are observed.
             These deviations are attributed to two-dimensional hopping
             conduction in a magnetic field. Samples of sufficiently low
             mobility, 0150 000 cm2/V s exhibit no evidence of activated
             conduction. Rather, the transport is qualitatively
             consistent with two-dimensional hopping alone. Studies at
             Landau-level filling factors =(2/5 and (3/5 also yield a
             single activation energy, /25, with a weak magnetic field
             dependence. Experimentally, we find 35 0.4, compared with an
             expected ratio of 0.28 from simple theoretical
             considerations. © 1987 The American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.36.7919},
   Key = {Boebinger87}
}

@booklet{Wei86,
   Author = {Wei, HP and Chang, AM and Tsui, DC and Pruisken, AMM and Razeghi,
             M},
   Title = {An experimental test of two-parameter scaling of integral
             quantum Hall effect},
   Journal = {Surface Science},
   Volume = {170},
   Number = {1-2},
   Pages = {238-242},
   Year = {1986},
   ISSN = {0039-6028},
   Abstract = {Detailed measurements are made of the temperature and
             magnetic field dependences of the magneto-transport
             coefficients, σxx and σxy, in an In0.53Ga0.47AsInP
             heterostructure to test the (two-parameter) renormalization
             group theory of the integral quantum Hall effect. ©
             1986.},
   Key = {Wei86}
}

@booklet{Tsang86,
   Author = {Tsang, WT and Chang, AM and Ditzenberger, JA and Tabatabaie,
             N},
   Title = {Two-dimensional electron gas in a Ga0.47In0.53As/InP
             heterojunction grown by chemical beam epitaxy},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {49},
   Number = {15},
   Pages = {960-962},
   Year = {1986},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.97495},
   Abstract = {Shubnikov-de Haas, quantum Hall effect, and cyclotron
             resonance measurements revealed the existence of a high
             mobility, two-dimensional electron gas at the
             Ga0.47In0.53As/InP heterointerface grown by chemical beam
             epitaxy. Enhanced electron mobilities were as high as
             ∼130×103 cm2/V s at 4.2 K. A striking feature in the data
             which also indicates that the sample is of high quality is
             the large number of Shubnikov-de Haas oscillation periods
             observed. Oscillations were observable up to a Landau
             filling factor of around 50, corresponding to a Landau level
             index of 25.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.97495},
   Key = {Tsang86}
}

@booklet{Boebinger86,
   Author = {Boebinger, GS and Chang, AM and Störmer, HL and Tsui, DC and Hwang,
             JCM and Cho, A and Tu, C and Weimann, G},
   Title = {Activation energies of fundamental and higher order states
             in the fractional quantum Hall effect},
   Journal = {Surface Science},
   Volume = {170},
   Number = {1-2},
   Pages = {129-135},
   Year = {1986},
   ISSN = {0039-6028},
   Abstract = {We report a systematic study of activation energies for the
             fundamental states in the fractional quantum Hall effect at
             Landau level filling factors v = 1 3, 2 3, and 5 3 in
             magnetic fields to 28 T. We also present activation energies
             for the higher order states at v = 2 5 and 3 5. ©
             1986.},
   Key = {Boebinger86}
}

@article{fds245754,
   Author = {Chang, AM},
   Title = {Fractional Quantum Hall Effect},
   Booktitle = {Festkorper Probleme XXV (Advances in Solid State
             Physics)},
   Publisher = {Vieweg},
   Editor = {Grosse, P},
   Year = {1985},
   Key = {fds245754}
}

@article{fds245757,
   Author = {Austin, RH and Gerstman, B and Chang, AM and Rokshar,
             D},
   Title = {Introduction to Tunneling in Biology},
   Journal = {Comments on Molecular and Cellular Biology},
   Volume = {2},
   Number = {295},
   Year = {1985},
   Key = {fds245757}
}

@article{fds245767,
   Author = {Stoermer, HL and Chang, AM and Tsui, DC and Hwang,
             JCM},
   Title = {BREAKDOWN OF THE INTEGRAL QUANTUM HALL EFFECT.},
   Pages = {267-270},
   Year = {1985},
   Abstract = {We report experimental results on the breakdown of the
             low-dissipation currents in the integral quantum Hall effect
             at temperatures from 6 to 0. 5K, and in magnetic fields up
             to 28T using Corbino-ring geometry. The Hall current at
             which the abrupt breakdown occurs is the same for the center
             of the i equals 1, 2, and 4 resistance minima. The critical
             current decreases rapidly away from this central position.
             We discuss three possible models to explain our
             observations.},
   Key = {fds245767}
}

@booklet{Chang85,
   Author = {Chang, AM and Tsui, DC},
   Title = {Experimental observation of a striking similarity between
             quantum hall transport coefficients},
   Journal = {Solid State Communications},
   Volume = {56},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {153-154},
   Year = {1985},
   ISSN = {0038-1098},
   Abstract = {The derivative of the Quantum Hall resistance, ρxy, with
             respect to the carrier density, n, has been measured for a
             two-dimensional electron gas in a GaAs-AlxGa1-xAs
             heterostructure, as a function of magnetic field. dρxy/dn
             exhibits a remarkable similarity to the diagonal
             resistivity, ρxy, to the extent that one is almost directly
             proportional to the other. Our result suggests the
             possibility of a fundamental connection between the two
             quantities. © 1985.},
   Key = {Chang85}
}

@booklet{Zheng85,
   Author = {Zheng, HZ and Tsui, DC and Chang, AM},
   Title = {Distribution of the quantized Hall potential in
             GaAs-AlxGa1-xAs heterostructures},
   Journal = {Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials
             Physics},
   Volume = {32},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {5506-5509},
   Year = {1985},
   ISSN = {0163-1829},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.32.5506},
   Abstract = {We report measurements of the Hall potential distribution in
             the interior of the two-dimensional electron gas in
             GaAs-AlxGa1-xAs heterostructures. In the quantized Hall
             regime, our data provide direct evidence for the existence
             of extended states in the bulk of a two-dimensional system.
             Bunching of the potential distribution is observed as a
             function of the quantizing magnetic field and is attributed
             to the presence of density gradients as the dominant
             macroscopic inhomogeneities. © 1985 The American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.32.5506},
   Key = {Zheng85}
}

@booklet{Wei85,
   Author = {Wei, HP and Chang, AM and Tsui, DC and Razeghi, M},
   Title = {Temperature dependence of the quantized Hall
             effect},
   Journal = {Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials
             Physics},
   Volume = {32},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {7016-7019},
   Year = {1985},
   ISSN = {0163-1829},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.32.7016},
   Abstract = {We reported detailed measurements of the temperature
             dependence of the quantized Hall effect from 4.2 to 50 K in
             the i=2 plateau region in InGaAs-InP. We deduce from the
             data that there is a significant density of localized states
             between the two Landau levels, with a value of 1×1010 cm-2
             meV-1 at the middle of the mobility gap. We also found that
             the correlations between xx and xy show the trend predicted
             by the recent two-parameter scaling theory of localization
             in quantized Hall effect. © 1985 The American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.32.7016},
   Key = {Wei85}
}

@booklet{Boebinger85,
   Author = {Boebinger, GS and Chang, AM and Stormer, HL and Tsui,
             DC},
   Title = {Magnetic field dependence of activation energies in the
             fractional quantum hall effect},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {55},
   Number = {15},
   Pages = {1606-1609},
   Year = {1985},
   ISSN = {0031-9007},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.55.1606},
   Abstract = {We have studied the temperature dependence of the fractional
             quantum Hall effect at Landaulevel filling factors =13, 23,
             43, 53, 25, and 35 in magnetic fields up to 28 T to
             determine the magnitude of the associated energy gaps. The
             data suggest a single activation energy for =13, 23, 43, and
             35. Its magnitude, much smaller than predicted by current
             theories, vanishes for B6 T and saturates at B18 T. The data
             also suggest a single activation energy for =25 and 35 which
             is smaller than predicted. © 1985 The American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.55.1606},
   Key = {Boebinger85}
}

@booklet{Boebinger85a,
   Author = {Boebinger, GS and Chang, AM and Stormer, HL and Tsui,
             DD},
   Title = {Competition between neighboring minima in the fractional
             quantum Hall effect},
   Journal = {Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials
             Physics},
   Volume = {32},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {4268-4271},
   Year = {1985},
   ISSN = {0163-1829},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.32.4268},
   Abstract = {We report observations of a temperature-dependent
             competition in the fractional quantum Hall effect in
             GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures. Two pairs of neighboring
             minima in the diagonal resistance xx versus magnetic field
             exhibit a competition by which the stronger minimum engulfs
             the weaker minimum as the temperature is decreased. This
             competition is observed at fractional Landau filling factor
             between the minima at =(7/5) and (4/3), and the minima at
             =(8/5) and 3. The strength of the minima at =(4/3) and (5/3)
             relative to one another contrasts with the strength of the
             =(1/3) and (2/3) minima. © 1985 The American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.32.4268},
   Key = {Boebinger85a}
}

@booklet{Chang84a,
   Author = {Chang, AM and Paalanen, MA and Störmer, HL and Hwang, JCM and Tsui,
             DC},
   Title = {Fractional quantum hall effect at low temperatures},
   Journal = {Surface Science},
   Volume = {142},
   Number = {1-3},
   Pages = {173-178},
   Year = {1984},
   ISSN = {0039-6028},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.28.6133},
   Abstract = {We report results of low temperature (65 mK to 770 mK)
             magneto-transport measurements of the 2 3 quantum Hall
             plateau in an n-type GaAsAlxGa1-x As heterostructure. Both
             the diagonal resistivity ρ{variant}xx and the deviation of
             the Hall resistivity ρ{variant}xy, from the quantized value
             show thermally activated behavior. The thermal activation
             energy was measured as a function of the Landau level
             filling factor, ν, at fixed magnetic fields, B, by varying
             the density of the two-dimensional electrons with a
             back-gate bias. The activation energy Δ of ρ{variant}xx is
             maximum at the center of the Hall plateau, when ν = 2 3,
             and decreases on either side of it, as ν moves away from 2
             3. This resonance-like dependence on ν is characterized by
             a maximum activation energy, Δm = 830 mK and Δν ν = 8%
             at B = 92.5 kG. In addition, we have verified that the Hall
             conductance is quantized to ( 2 3) e2 h to an accuracy of 3
             parts in 104. The I-V relation is linear down to an electric
             field of less than 10 -5 V cm, indicating that the current
             carrying state is not pinned. © 1984.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.28.6133},
   Key = {Chang84a}
}

@booklet{Chang84,
   Author = {Chang, AM and Berglund, P and Tsui, DC and Stormer, HL and Hwang,
             JCM},
   Title = {Higher-order states in the multiple-series, fractional,
             quantum hall effect},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {53},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {997-1000},
   Year = {1984},
   ISSN = {0031-9007},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.53.997},
   Abstract = {We report results on the fractional quantum Hall effect in
             GaAs-AlxGa1-xAs heterostructures at fractional Landau-level
             filling factor 1/2=pq obtained with the combination of a
             dilution refrigerator and the National Magnet Laboratory
             hybrid magnet. We establish conclusively the quantiztation
             of the higher-order states p in the series q. The Hall
             resistance is accurately quantized to 2.3 parts in 104 for
             the 25 state and 1.3 in 103 for the 35 state. New structures
             are observed near 1/2=37, 47, 49, and 59. © 1984 The
             American Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.53.997},
   Key = {Chang84}
}

@article{fds245764,
   Author = {Stormer, HL and Schlesinger, Z and Chang, A and Tsui, DC and Gossard,
             AC and Wiegmann, W},
   Title = {Energy structure and quantized hall effect of
             two-dimensional holes},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {51},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {126-129},
   Year = {1983},
   ISSN = {0031-9007},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.51.126},
   Abstract = {Combined magnetotransport and cyclotron-resonance
             experiments in a two-dimensional hole system at a
             modulation-doped GaAs-(AlGa)As heterojunction show that the
             Kramers degeneracy of the lowest subband is lifted for
             finite k giving rise to two cyclotron masses m1*=0.38m0 and
             m2*=0.60m0 at EF=2.4 meV. The observation of plateaus in ρx
             y shows that the quantized Hall effect is independent of the
             details of the host band structure. © 1983 The American
             Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.51.126},
   Key = {fds245764}
}

@article{fds245766,
   Author = {Stormer, HL and Chang, A and Tsui, DC and Hwang, JCM and Gossard, AC and Wiegmann, W},
   Title = {Fractional quantization of the hall effect},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {50},
   Number = {24},
   Pages = {1953-1956},
   Year = {1983},
   ISSN = {0031-9007},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.50.1953},
   Abstract = {Magnetotransport of two-dimensional electrons and holes was
             studied in magnetic fields up to 300 kG and temperatures
             down to 0.5 K. In addition to previously reported structures
             at Landau-level filling factors =13 and 23, new structures
             were resolved at =43, 53, 25, 35, 45, and 27. The results
             suggest that fractional quantization of the Hall effect
             exists in multiple series, each based on the inverse of an
             odd integer. © 1983 The American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.50.1953},
   Key = {fds245766}
}

@article{fds318412,
   Author = {Chang, AM and Paalanen, MA and Tsui, DC and Störmer, HL and Hwang,
             JCM},
   Title = {Fractional quantum Hall effect at low temperatures},
   Journal = {Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials
             Physics},
   Volume = {28},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {6133-6136},
   Year = {1983},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.28.6133},
   Abstract = {We report a systematic study of the 23 fractional quantum
             Hall effect at low temperatures (65-770 mK) for a
             GaAs-AlxGa1-xAs sample of very high mobility (106 cm2/V
             sec). We find the 23 Hall plateau to be accurately
             quantized. The diagonal and Hall resistivities are observed
             to be activated at each given filling factor ν=nheB around
             23. The activation energy has a maximum value, Δmax, at
             ν=23 and decreases to each side as ν moves away. By
             varying the sample mobility and density simultaneously with
             a backgate bias, we find Δmax strongly mobility and
             magnetic field dependent. © 1983 The American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.28.6133},
   Key = {fds318412}
}

@article{fds245762,
   Author = {Chang, AM and Austin, RH},
   Title = {Electron tunneling in cytochrome c},
   Journal = {Journal of Chemical Physics},
   Volume = {77},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {5272-5283},
   Year = {1982},
   ISSN = {0021-9606},
   Abstract = {An upper limit for the extinction coefficient of the charge
             transfer band in the ferrohexacyanide-ferricytochrome c
             redox couple has been determined from 800 to 1800 nm. We
             obtain ε≤0.003 M-1 cm-1 between 800-1400 nm, ε≤0.02
             M-1 cm-1 between 1400-1800 nm. Prompt transfer of charge due
             to excitation in the heme absorption bands occurs with a
             quantum yield of approximately 10-4. Simple vibronically
             assisted tunneling theories and appropriate choice of highly
             localized wave functions have been used to show that
             tunneling theory can give a reasonable fit to all aspects of
             charge transfer between cytochrome c and iron hexacyanide,
             including the small value of the charge transfer band
             extinction coefficient. © 1982 American Institute of
             Physics.},
   Key = {fds245762}
}

@article{fds245763,
   Author = {Chang, AM and Pritchard, DE},
   Title = {Effects of interatomic attraction on total cross sections in
             curve crossing collisions},
   Journal = {Journal of Chemical Physics},
   Volume = {70},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {4524-4533},
   Year = {1978},
   ISSN = {0021-9606},
   Abstract = {We consider the influence of long range forces on the total
             cross section for a two-state curve crossing process. If the
             upper potential curve V 22(R) is attractive and behaves as R
             -n for R beyond the crossing point, a centrifugal barrier
             will arise which affects the cross section. Using the
             Landau-Zener approximation, we derive cross sections
             accounting for this which can be expressed in terms of a
             simple dimensionless integral for both radial and rotational
             coupling. Results for suitably reduced cross sections are
             presented in a form which facilitates comparison with
             experiments for n = 4, 5, and 6. Analytic expressions for
             the threshold behavior are also presented. We show that the
             low energy behavior of the cross section is very sensitive
             to the type of coupling, the value of n, and the potential
             at the crossing point. © 1979 American Institute of
             Physics.},
   Key = {fds245763}
}


%% Papers Submitted   
@article{fds225724,
   Author = {Hao Zhang and Phillip M. Wu and A. M. Chang},
   Title = {Novel Differential Conductance Oscillations in Asymmetric
             Quantum Point Contacts},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Year = {2014},
   Abstract = {Small differential conductance oscillations as a function of
             source-drain bias were observed and systematically studied
             in an asymmetric quantum point contact (QPC). These
             oscillations become significantly suppressed in a small
             in-plane magnetic field (~ 0.7T) or at higher temperatures
             (800mK). Qualitatively, their temperature evolution can be
             simulated numerically based on smearing of the Fermi
             distribution, whereas features near zero-bias cannot.
             Several simple single particle pictures have been considered
             and ruled out to interpret these oscillations, which
             suggests that these oscillations may be related to electron
             and spin correlations.},
   Key = {fds225724}
}

@article{fds225725,
   Author = {Runan Shang and Hai-Ou Li and Gang Cao and Guodong Yu and Ming Xiao and Tao
             Tu, Guang-Can Guo and Hongwen Jiang and A.M.Chang and Guo-Ping
             Guo},
   Title = {Observation of the Kondo Effect in a Quadruple-Quantum-Dots},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Year = {2014},
   Abstract = {We investigate the Kondo effect in a quadruple quantum dot
             device of coupled-double quantum dots (DQDs), which
             simultaneously contains intra-DQDs and inter-DQDs coupling.
             A variety of novel behaviors are observed. The differential
             conductance dI/dV is measured in the upper DQDs as a
             function of source drain bias. It is found to exhibit
             multiple peaks, including a zero-bias peak, where the number
             of peaks exceeds five. Alternatively, tuning the lower DQDs
             yielded regions of four peaks. In addition, a Kondo-effect
             switcher is demonstrated, using the lower DQDs as the
             controller.},
   Key = {fds225725}
}


%% Preprints   
@article{fds152839,
   Author = {A. Bove and F. Altomare and N. B. Kundtz and Albert M. Chang and Y. J.
             Cho and X. Liu and J. Furdyna},
   Title = {A novel technique to make Ohmic contact to a buried
             two-dimensional electron gas in a molecular-beam-epitaxy
             grown $GaAs/Al_{0.3}Ga_{0.7}As$ heterostructure with Mn
             $\delta$-doping},
   Year = {2008},
   Abstract = {We report on the growth and characterization of a new
             Diluted Magnetic Semiconductor (DMS) heterostructure that
             presents a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas (2DEG) with a
             carrier density $n \sim 1.08 \times 10^{12} cm^{-2}$ and a
             mobility $\mu \sim 600 cm^{2} / (Vs)$ at T $\sim$ 4.2K. As
             far as we know this is the highest mobility value reported
             in the literature for GaMnAs systems. A novel technique was
             developed to make Ohmic contact to the buried 2DEG without
             destroying the magnetic properties of our
             crystal.},
   Key = {fds152839}
}