Publications of Jungsang Kim    :chronological  alphabetical  by type listing:

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@article{fds330033,
   Author = {Islam, NT and Cahall, C and Aragoneses, A and Lim, CCW and Allman, MS and Verma, V and Nam, SW and Kim, J and Gauthier, DJ},
   Title = {Discrete-variable time-frequency quantum key
             distribution},
   Journal = {2016 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO
             2016},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {December},
   ISBN = {9781943580118},
   Abstract = {© 2016 OSA. We demonstrate a setup for realizing a
             four-dimensional time-frequency quantum key distribution
             protocol, where discrete temporal states are secured using
             discrete frequency states. The high-dimensional frequency
             states are detected using a tree of passively stabilized
             time-delay interferometers.},
   Key = {fds330033}
}

@article{fds324103,
   Author = {Cahall, CT and Gauthier, DJ and Kim, J},
   Title = {Cryogenic amplifiers for a superconducting nanowire single
             photon detector system},
   Journal = {2016 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO
             2016},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {December},
   ISBN = {9781943580118},
   Abstract = {© 2016 OSA. We study an electrical readout scheme for
             superconducting nanowire single photon detectors using
             commercial off-the-shelf amplifiers operating at cryogenic
             temperatures. Low power consumption and improved noise
             performance enable multichannel readout circuit solution
             with high timing resolution.},
   Key = {fds324103}
}

@article{fds321499,
   Author = {Mount, E and Gaultney, D and Vrijsen, G and Adams, M and Baek, S-Y and Hudek, K and Isabella, L and Crain, S and van Rynbach, A and Maunz, P and Kim, J},
   Title = {Scalable digital hardware for a trapped ion quantum
             computer},
   Journal = {Quantum Information Processing},
   Volume = {15},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {5281-5298},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11128-015-1120-z},
   Doi = {10.1007/s11128-015-1120-z},
   Key = {fds321499}
}

@article{fds323301,
   Author = {Van Rynbach and A and Maunz, P and Kim, J},
   Title = {An integrated mirror and surface ion trap with a tunable
             trap location},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {109},
   Number = {22},
   Pages = {221108-221108},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4970542},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.4970542},
   Key = {fds323301}
}

@article{fds323302,
   Author = {Namiki, R and Jiang, L and Kim, J and Lütkenhaus,
             N},
   Title = {Role of syndrome information on a one-way quantum repeater
             using teleportation-based error correction},
   Journal = {Physical Review A},
   Volume = {94},
   Number = {5},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.94.052304},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevA.94.052304},
   Key = {fds323302}
}

@article{fds323303,
   Author = {Luong, D and Jiang, L and Kim, J and Lütkenhaus,
             N},
   Title = {Overcoming lossy channel bounds using a single quantum
             repeater node},
   Journal = {Applied Physics B},
   Volume = {122},
   Number = {4},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00340-016-6373-4},
   Doi = {10.1007/s00340-016-6373-4},
   Key = {fds323303}
}

@article{fds324104,
   Author = {Islam, NT and Cahall, C and Aragoneses, A and Lim, CCW and Allman, MS and Verma, V and Nam, SW and Kim, J and Gauthier, DJ},
   Title = {Enhancing the secure key rate in a quantum-key-distribution
             system using discrete-variable, high-dimensional,
             time-frequency states},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical
             Engineering},
   Volume = {9996},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9781510603967},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2241429},
   Abstract = {© 2016 SPIE. High-dimensional (dimension d > 2) quantum key
             distribution (QKD) protocols that encode information in the
             temporal degree of freedom promise to overcome some of the
             challenges of qubit-based (d = 2) QKD systems. In
             particular, the long recovery time of single-photon
             detectors and large channel noise at long distance both
             limit the rate at which a final secure key can be generated
             in a low-dimension QKD system. We propose and demonstrate a
             practical discrete-variable time-frequency protocol with d =
             4 at a wavelength of 1550 nm, where the temporal states are
             secured by transmitting and detecting their dual states
             under Fourier transformation, known as the frequency-basis
             states, augmented by a decoy-state protocol. We show that
             the discrete temporal and frequency states can be generated
             and detected using commercially-available equipment with
             high timing and spectral efficiency. In our initial
             experiments, we only have access to detectors that have low
             efficiency (1%) at 1550 nm. Together with other component
             losses, our system is equivalent to a QKD system with ideal
             components and a 50-km-long optical-fiber quantum channel.
             We find that our system maintains a spectral visibility of
             over 99.0% with a quantum bit error rate of 2.3%, which is
             largely due to the finite extinction ratio of the intensity
             modulators used in the transmitter. The estimated secure key
             rate of this system is 7.7×10 4 KHz, which should improve
             drastically when we use detectors optimized for 1550
             nm.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.2241429},
   Key = {fds324104}
}

@article{fds323304,
   Author = {Muralidharan, S and Li, L and Kim, J and Lütkenhaus, N and Lukin, MD and Jiang, L},
   Title = {Optimal architectures for long distance quantum
             communication.},
   Journal = {Scientific Reports},
   Volume = {6},
   Pages = {20463},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep20463},
   Abstract = {Despite the tremendous progress of quantum cryptography,
             efficient quantum communication over long distances (≥
             1000 km) remains an outstanding challenge due to fiber
             attenuation and operation errors accumulated over the entire
             communication distance. Quantum repeaters (QRs), as a
             promising approach, can overcome both photon loss and
             operation errors, and hence significantly speedup the
             communication rate. Depending on the methods used to correct
             loss and operation errors, all the proposed QR schemes can
             be classified into three categories (generations). Here we
             present the first systematic comparison of three generations
             of quantum repeaters by evaluating the cost of both temporal
             and physical resources, and identify the optimized quantum
             repeater architecture for a given set of experimental
             parameters for use in quantum key distribution. Our work
             provides a roadmap for the experimental realizations of
             highly efficient quantum networks over transcontinental
             distances.},
   Doi = {10.1038/srep20463},
   Key = {fds323304}
}

@article{fds302229,
   Author = {Ahsan, M and Meter, RV and Kim, J},
   Title = {Designing a Million-Qubit Quantum Computer Using a Resource
             Performance Simulator},
   Journal = {ACM Journal on Emerging Technologies in Computing
             Systems},
   Volume = {12},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1-25},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {1550-4832},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/11508 Duke open
             access},
   Doi = {10.1145/2830570},
   Key = {fds302229}
}

@article{fds302230,
   Author = {Mount, E and Kabytayev, C and Crain, S and Harper, R and Baek, S-Y and Vrijsen, G and Flammia, ST and Brown, KR and Maunz, P and Kim,
             J},
   Title = {Error compensation of single-qubit gates in a
             surface-electrode ion trap using composite
             pulses},
   Journal = {Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical
             Physics},
   Volume = {92},
   Number = {6},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {1050-2947},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/11507 Duke open
             access},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevA.92.060301},
   Key = {fds302230}
}

@article{fds323305,
   Author = {Crain, S and Mount, E and Baek, SY and Kim, J and Maunz,
             P},
   Title = {Application of OMEMS technology in trapped ion quantum
             computing},
   Journal = {International Conference on Optical MEMS and
             Nanophotonics},
   Volume = {02-05-August-2015},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {October},
   ISBN = {9781467368346},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/OMN.2015.7288890},
   Abstract = {© 2015 IEEE. Scalability is one of the main challenges of
             trapped ion based quantum computation, partly limited by the
             ability to manipulate the increasing number of quantum bits
             (qubits). For individual addressing of qubits,
             microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology allows one
             to design movable micromirrors to focus laser beams on
             individual ions and steer the focal point in two dimensions.
             This system is able to scale to multiple beams, has
             switching speeds comparable to typical single qubit gate
             times, and has negligible crosstalk on neighboring
             ions.},
   Doi = {10.1109/OMN.2015.7288890},
   Key = {fds323305}
}

@article{fds264573,
   Author = {Kim, J and Hudek, K and Isabella, L and Mount, E and Crain, S and Gaultney,
             D and Vrijsen, G and Van Rynbach and A},
   Title = {Integrated optical systems approach to ion trap quantum
             repeaters},
   Journal = {Integrated Photonics Research, Silicon and Nanophotonics,
             IPRSN 2015},
   Pages = {371p},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {A quantum communication node with high quality quantum
             memories and photonic interfaces capable of quantum logic
             operations provide a technology platform for realizing
             quantum repeaters. We will discuss a viable implementation
             in trapped ion systems. © 2015 OSA.},
   Key = {fds264573}
}

@article{fds323306,
   Author = {Ahsan, M and Kim, J},
   Title = {Optimization of quantum computer architecture using a
             resource-performance simulator},
   Journal = {Design, Automation and Test in Europe Conference and
             Exhibition , IEEE},
   Volume = {2015-April},
   Pages = {1108-1113},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9783981537048},
   Abstract = {© 2015 EDAA. The hardware technology characterized by the
             device parameters (DPs) often drives the architectural
             optimization in a novel computer design such as the quantum
             computer. We highlight the role of DPs by quantifying the
             performance of a fully error-corrected 1024-bit quantum
             carry look-ahead adder on a modular, reconfigurable
             architecture based on trapped ions. We develop a simulation
             tool that estimates the performance and resource
             requirements for running a quantum circuit on various
             quantum architectures as a function of the underlying DPs.
             Using this tool, we found that (1) the latency of the adder
             circuit execution due to slow entanglement generation
             process for qubit communication can be adequately eliminated
             with a small increase in entangling qubits, and (2) the
             failure probability of the circuit is ultimately determined
             by the qubit coherence time, which needs to be improved in
             order to reliably execute the adders comprising core of the
             Shor's algorithm.},
   Key = {fds323306}
}

@article{fds264572,
   Author = {Crain, S and Mount, E and Baek, S and Kim, J},
   Title = {Individual addressing of trapped 171 Yb + ion qubits using a
             microelectromechanical systems-based beam steering
             system},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {105},
   Number = {18},
   Pages = {181115-181115},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4900754},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.4900754},
   Key = {fds264572}
}

@article{fds302228,
   Author = {Kim, J},
   Title = {Trapped Ions Make Impeccable Qubits},
   Journal = {Physics - Spotlighting Exceptional Research},
   Volume = {7},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/11509 Duke open
             access},
   Doi = {10.1103/Physics.7.119},
   Key = {fds302228}
}

@article{fds264579,
   Author = {Muralidharan, S and Kim, J and Lütkenhaus, N and Lukin, MD and Jiang,
             L},
   Title = {Ultrafast and fault-tolerant quantum communication across
             long distances.},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {112},
   Number = {25},
   Pages = {250501},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0031-9007},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.112.250501},
   Abstract = {Quantum repeaters (QRs) provide a way of enabling long
             distance quantum communication by establishing entangled
             qubits between remote locations. In this Letter, we
             investigate a new approach to QRs in which quantum
             information can be faithfully transmitted via a noisy
             channel without the use of long distance teleportation, thus
             eliminating the need to establish remote entangled links.
             Our approach makes use of small encoding blocks to
             fault-tolerantly correct both operational and photon loss
             errors. We describe a way to optimize the resource
             requirement for these QRs with the aim of the generation of
             a secure key. Numerical calculations indicate that the
             number of quantum memory bits at each repeater station
             required for the generation of one secure key has favorable
             polylogarithmic scaling with the distance across which the
             communication is desired.},
   Doi = {10.1103/physrevlett.112.250501},
   Key = {fds264579}
}

@article{fds264576,
   Author = {Marks, DL and Llull, PR and Phillips, Z and Anderson, JG and Feller, SD and Vera, EM and Son, HS and Youn, S-H and Kim, J and Gehm, ME and Brady, DJ and Nichols, JM and Judd, KP and Duncan, MD and Waterman, JR and Stack, RA and Johnson, A and Tennill, R and Olson, CC},
   Title = {Characterization of the AWARE 10 two-gigapixel
             wide-field-of-view visible imager.},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {53},
   Number = {13},
   Pages = {C54-C63},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0003-6935},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/ao.53.000c54},
   Abstract = {System requirements for many military electro-optic and IR
             camera systems reflect the need for both wide-field-of-view
             situational awareness as well as high-resolution imaging for
             target identification. In this work we present a new imaging
             system architecture designed to perform both functions
             simultaneously and the AWARE 10 camera as an example at
             visible wavelengths. We first describe the basic system
             architecture and user interface followed by a laboratory
             characterization of the system optical performance. We then
             describe a field experiment in which the camera was used to
             identify several maritime targets at varying range. The
             experimental results indicate that users of the system are
             able to correctly identify ~10 m targets at between 4 and 6
             km with 70% accuracy.},
   Doi = {10.1364/ao.53.000c54},
   Key = {fds264576}
}

@article{fds264592,
   Author = {Cho, J and Salleh, N and Blanco, C and Yang, S and Lee, C-J and Kim, Y-W and Kim, J and Liu, J},
   Title = {Novel synthetic methodology for controlling the orientation
             of zinc oxide nanowires grown on silicon oxide
             substrates.},
   Journal = {Nanoscale},
   Volume = {6},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {3861-3867},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {2040-3364},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c3nr03694d},
   Abstract = {This study presents a simple method to reproducibly obtain
             well-aligned vertical ZnO nanowire arrays on silicon oxide
             (SiOx) substrates using seed crystals made from a mixture of
             ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) and zinc acetate (Zn(O2CCH3)2)
             solution. In comparison, high levels of OH(-) concentration
             obtained using NaOH or KOH solutions lead to incorporation
             of Na or K atoms into the seed crystals, destroying the
             c-axis alignment of the seeds and resulting in the growth of
             misaligned nanowires. The use of NH4OH eliminates the
             metallic impurities and ensures aligned nanowire growth in a
             wide range of OH(-) concentrations in the seed solution. The
             difference of crystalline orientations between NH4OH- and
             NaOH-based seeds is directly observed by lattice-resolved
             images and electron diffraction patterns using a
             transmission electron microscope (TEM). This study obviously
             suggests that metallic impurities incorporated into the ZnO
             nanocrystal seeds are one of the factors that generates the
             misaligned ZnO nanowires. This method also enables the use
             of silicon oxide substrates for the growth of vertically
             aligned nanowires, making ZnO nanostructures compatible with
             widely used silicon fabrication technology.},
   Doi = {10.1039/c3nr03694d},
   Key = {fds264592}
}

@article{fds264594,
   Author = {Monroe, C and Raussendorf, R and Ruthven, A and Brown, KR and Maunz, P and Duan, L-M and Kim, J},
   Title = {Large-scale modular quantum-computer architecture with
             atomic memory and photonic interconnects},
   Journal = {Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical
             Physics},
   Volume = {89},
   Number = {2},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {1050-2947},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.89.022317},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevA.89.022317},
   Key = {fds264594}
}

@article{fds264598,
   Author = {Youn, SH and Son, HS and Marks, DL and Shaw, JM and McLaughlin, PO and Feller, SD and Brady, DJ and Kim, J},
   Title = {Optical performance test and validation of microcameras in
             multiscale, gigapixel imagers.},
   Journal = {Optics express},
   Volume = {22},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {3712-3723},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/oe.22.003712},
   Abstract = {Wide field-of-view gigapixel imaging systems capable of
             diffraction-limited resolution and video-rate acquisition
             have a broad range of applications, including sports event
             broadcasting, security surveillance, astronomical
             observation, and bioimaging. The complexity of the system
             integration of such devices demands precision optical
             components that are fully characterized and qualified before
             being integrated into the final system. In this work, we
             present component and assembly level characterizations of
             microcameras in our first gigapixel camera, the AWARE-2.
             Based on the results of these measurements, we revised the
             optical design and assembly procedures to construct the
             second generation system, the AWARE-2 Retrofit, which shows
             significant improvement in image quality.},
   Doi = {10.1364/oe.22.003712},
   Key = {fds264598}
}

@article{fds264577,
   Author = {Hudek, KM and Vrijsen, G and Isabella, L and Gaultney, D and Lütkenhaus, N and Jiang, L and Kim, J},
   Title = {Trapped ion implementation of memory-assisted extended
             quantum key distribution},
   Journal = {Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe - Technical
             Digest},
   Volume = {2014-January},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {2162-2701},
   Abstract = {© 2014 Optical Society of America. We discuss a practical
             scheme to implement memory-assisted measurementdevice-
             independent quantum key distribution protocol using trapped
             ion systems with the potential to extend the range of
             conventional QKD by a factor of 2.},
   Key = {fds264577}
}

@article{fds264578,
   Author = {Vrijsen, G and Gaultney, D and Hudek, KM and Isabella, L and Kim,
             J},
   Title = {Measuring the photonic frequency qubit generated by an
             171Yb+ ion in a surface
             trap},
   Journal = {Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe - Technical
             Digest},
   Volume = {2014-January},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {2162-2701},
   Abstract = {© 2014 Optical Society of America. We propose a novel qubit
             state measurement method for photonic frequency qubits using
             a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with unequal path lengths. A
             practical implementation for photons generated by 171 Yb +
             ions in a surface trap is described.},
   Key = {fds264578}
}

@article{fds264589,
   Author = {Kim, J and Mount, E and Baek, SY and Crain, S and Gaultney, D and Noek, R and Vrijsen, G and van Rynbach, A and Ahn, BH and Hudek, K and Isabella, L and Maunz, P},
   Title = {Scalable quantum information processing with trapped
             ions},
   Journal = {Optics InfoBase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {2162-2701},
   Abstract = {We present a scalable approach to quantum information
             processing utilizing trapped ions and photons. Ions trapped
             in microfabricated surface traps provide a practical
             platform for realizing quantum networks of distributed
             computing nodes and quantum repeaters. © OSA
             2014.},
   Key = {fds264589}
}

@article{fds319195,
   Author = {Vrijsen, G and Gaultney, D and Hudek M and KM and Isabella, L and Kim,
             J},
   Title = {Measuring the photonic frequency qubit generated by an
             171yb+ ion in a surface trap},
   Journal = {Optics InfoBase Conference Papers},
   Volume = {2014-January},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {We propose a novel qubit state measurement method for
             photonic frequency qubits using a Mach-Zehnder
             interferometer with unequal path lengths. A practical
             implementation for photons generated by 171 Yb + ions in a
             surface trap is described. © 2014 Optical Society of
             America.},
   Key = {fds319195}
}

@article{fds319196,
   Author = {Hudek M and KM and Vrijsen, G and Isabella, L and Gaultney, D and Lütkenhaus, N and Jiang, L and Kim, J},
   Title = {Trapped ion implementation of memory-assisted extended
             quantum key distribution},
   Journal = {Optics InfoBase Conference Papers},
   Volume = {2014-January},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {We discuss a practical scheme to implement memory-assisted
             measurementdevice- independent quantum key distribution
             protocol using trapped ion systems with the potential to
             extend the range of conventional QKD by a factor of 2. ©
             2014 OSA.},
   Key = {fds319196}
}

@article{fds264571,
   Author = {Jiang, L and Muralidharan, S and Kim, J and Lutkenhaus, N and Lukin,
             M},
   Title = {Ultrafast and fault-tolerant quantum communication over long
             distance},
   Journal = {Frontiers in Optics, FiO 2014},
   Year = {2014},
   Abstract = {© OSA 2014.We investigate quantum repeaters using small
             encoding blocks to correct both operational and photon loss
             errors, which can send quantum information over long
             distances at a rate only limited by local gate
             speed.},
   Key = {fds264571}
}

@article{fds264575,
   Author = {Kim, J and Crain, S and Mount, E and Baek, S},
   Title = {Individual addressing of trapped 171Yb+ ion qubits using a
             microelectromechanical systems-based beam steering
             system},
   Journal = {Appl. Phys. Lett.},
   Volume = {105},
   Number = {181115},
   Year = {2014},
   Key = {fds264575}
}

@article{fds264588,
   Author = {Baek, SY and Mount, E and Maunz, P and Crain, S and Gaultney, D and Noek,
             R and Kim, J},
   Title = {Long-lived ion qubits in a microfabricated trap for scalable
             quantum computation},
   Journal = {Optics InfoBase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {2162-2701},
   Abstract = {We report state detection, single qubit coherent operations
             and Raman sideband cooling to near the motional ground state
             by trapping a single 171 Yb + ion in a surface trap designed
             and fabricated at Sandia National Laboratories. © 2013
             Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {fds264588}
}

@article{fds264604,
   Author = {Noek, R and Vrijsen, G and Gaultney, D and Mount, E and Kim, T and Maunz,
             P and Kim, J},
   Title = {High speed, high fidelity detection of an atomic hyperfine
             qubit},
   Journal = {Optics Letters},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {22},
   Pages = {4735-4738},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0146-9592},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.38.004735},
   Abstract = {Fast and efficient detection of the qubit state in trapped
             ion systems is critical for implementing quantum error
             correction and performing fundamental tests such as a
             loophole-free Bell test. In this work we present a simple
             qubit state detection protocol for a 171 Yb + hyperfine
             atomic qubit trapped in a microfabricated surface trap,
             enabled by high collection efficiency of the scattered
             photons and low background photon count rate. We demonstrate
             average detection times of 10.5, 28.1, and 99.8 μs,
             corresponding to state detection fidelities of 99%,
             99.856(8)%, and 99.915(7)%, respectively. © 2013 Optical
             Society of America.},
   Doi = {10.1364/OL.38.004735},
   Key = {fds264604}
}

@article{fds264603,
   Author = {Son, HS and Marks, DL and Hahn, J and Kim, J and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Design of a spherical focal surface using close-packed relay
             optics: erratum},
   Journal = {Optics express},
   Volume = {21},
   Number = {22},
   Pages = {27284-27285},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {1094-4087},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000327007800186&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1364/OE.21.027284},
   Key = {fds264603}
}

@article{fds264608,
   Author = {Mount, E and Baek, S-Y and Blain, M and Stick, D and Gaultney, D and Crain,
             S and Noek, R and Kim, T and Maunz, P and Kim, J},
   Title = {Single qubit manipulation in a microfabricated surface
             electrode ion trap},
   Journal = {New Journal of Physics},
   Volume = {15},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {1367-2630},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000324292600002&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1088/1367-2630/15/9/093018},
   Key = {fds264608}
}

@article{fds264607,
   Author = {Noek, R and Kim, T and Mount, E and Baek, S-Y and Maunz, P and Kim,
             J},
   Title = {Trapping and cooling of Yb-174(+) ions in a microfabricated
             surface trap},
   Journal = {The journal of the Korean Physical Society},
   Volume = {63},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {907-913},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0374-4884},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000324127200009&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.3938/jkps.63.907},
   Key = {fds264607}
}

@article{fds264612,
   Author = {Kittle, DS and Marks, DL and Son, HS and Kim, J and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {A testbed for wide-field, high-resolution, gigapixel-class
             cameras.},
   Journal = {Review of Scientific Instruments},
   Volume = {84},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {053107},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23742532},
   Abstract = {The high resolution and wide field of view (FOV) of the
             AWARE (Advanced Wide FOV Architectures for Image
             Reconstruction and Exploitation) gigapixel class cameras
             present new challenges in calibration, mechanical testing,
             and optical performance evaluation. The AWARE system
             integrates an array of micro-cameras in a multiscale design
             to achieve gigapixel sampling at video rates. Alignment and
             optical testing of the micro-cameras is vital in compositing
             engines, which require pixel-level accurate mappings over
             the entire array of cameras. A testbed has been developed to
             automatically calibrate and measure the optical performance
             of the entire camera array. This testbed utilizes
             translation and rotation stages to project a ray into any
             micro-camera of the AWARE system. A spatial light modulator
             is projected through a telescope to form an arbitrary object
             space pattern at infinity. This collimated source is then
             reflected by an elevation stage mirror for pointing through
             the aperture of the objective into the micro-optics and
             eventually the detector of the micro-camera. Different
             targets can be projected with the spatial light modulator
             for measuring the modulation transfer function (MTF) of the
             system, fiducials in the overlap regions for registration
             and compositing, distortion mapping, illumination profiles,
             thermal stability, and focus calibration. The mathematics of
             the testbed mechanics are derived for finding the positions
             of the stages to achieve a particular incident angle into
             the camera, along with calibration steps for alignment of
             the camera and testbed coordinate axes. Measurement results
             for the AWARE-2 gigapixel camera are presented for MTF,
             focus calibration, illumination profile, fiducial mapping
             across the micro-camera for registration and distortion
             correction, thermal stability, and alignment of the camera
             on the testbed.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.4804199},
   Key = {fds264612}
}

@article{fds264613,
   Author = {Zhu, Y and Kim, J and Gauthier, DJ},
   Title = {Aberration-corrected quantum temporal imaging
             system},
   Journal = {Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical
             Physics},
   Volume = {87},
   Number = {4},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {1050-2947},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000317193600009&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevA.87.043808},
   Key = {fds264613}
}

@article{fds264615,
   Author = {Son, HS and Johnson, A and Stack, RA and Shaw, JM and McLaughlin, P and Marks, DL and Brady, DJ and Kim, J},
   Title = {Optomechanical design of multiscale gigapixel digital
             camera.},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {52},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {1541-1549},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23478755},
   Abstract = {Recent developments in multiscale imaging systems have
             opened up the possibility for commercially viable wide-field
             gigapixel cameras. While multiscale design principles allow
             tremendous simplification of the optical design, they place
             increased emphasis on optomechanics and system level
             integration of the camera as a whole. In this paper we
             present the optomechanical design of a prototype
             two-gigapixel system (AWARE-2) that has been constructed and
             tested.},
   Key = {fds264615}
}

@article{fds264614,
   Author = {Monroe, C and Kim, J},
   Title = {Scaling the Ion Trap Quantum Processor},
   Journal = {Science},
   Volume = {339},
   Number = {6124},
   Pages = {1164-1169},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0036-8075},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000315709900037&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1126/science.1231298},
   Key = {fds264614}
}

@article{fds264600,
   Author = {Ahsan, M and Choi, BS and Kim, J},
   Title = {Performance simulator based on hardware resources
             constraints for ion trap quantum computer},
   Journal = {2013 IEEE 31st International Conference on Computer Design,
             ICCD 2013},
   Pages = {411-418},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICCD.2013.6657073},
   Abstract = {Efforts to build quantum computers using ion-traps have
             demonstrated all elementary qubit operations necessary for
             scalable implementation. Modular architectures have been
             proposed to construct modest size quantum computers with up
             to 10 4 - 10 6 qubits using technologies that are available
             today (MUSIQC architecture). Concrete scheduling procedure
             to execute a given quantum algorithm on such a hardware is a
             significant task, but existing quantum CAD tools generally
             do not account for the underlying connectivity of the qubits
             or the limitation on the hardware resources available for
             the scheduling. We present a scheduler and performance
             simulator that fully accounts for these resource
             constraints, capable of estimating the execution time and
             error performances of executing a quantum circuit on the
             hardware. We outline the construction of tool components,
             and describe the process of mapping the qubits to ions and
             scheduling the physical gates in the MUSIQC architecture.
             Using this tool, we quantify the trade-off between hardware
             resource constraints and performance of the computer and
             show that at an expense of x fold increase in latency, a
             minimum of 1.6x resource reduction is possible for executing
             a three-qubit Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm encoded using
             Steane code. © 2013 IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/ICCD.2013.6657073},
   Key = {fds264600}
}

@article{fds264601,
   Author = {Kim, J and Clark, R and Gauthier, D},
   Title = {Low-noise frequency downconversion for long-distance
             distribution of entangled atomic qubits},
   Journal = {2013 IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series,
             PSSTMS 2013},
   Pages = {183-184},
   Year = {2013},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/PHOSST.2013.6614563},
   Abstract = {Distribution of quantum resources such as entanglement over
             distances beyond a few fiber attenuation lengths requires
             realization of quantum repeaters that utilize entanglement
             swapping to extend the distance between the entangled qubit
             pairs [1]. A quantum repeater is a small quantum computer
             capable of generating entangled qubit pairs with its
             neighboring repeaters and storing them in stable quantum
             memories. Once the entangled pairs are generated, it will
             perform Bell basis measurements, classical communication
             with appropriate repeaters, and single qubit gates necessary
             for entanglement swapping. For high fidelity operation, it
             might perform local operations and classical communications
             (LOCC) such as entanglement distillation [2] and/or quantum
             error correction [3,4]. Generation of remote entangled ion
             pairs mediated by photonic qubits has been demonstrated [5]
             but their reach is limited since the photons used in the
             experiment are in the UV part of the spectrum. Coherent
             conversion of the photons emitted by Yb ion at 369.5nm to a
             photon at 1310 nm would enable entanglement generation over
             long distances [6]. © 2013 IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/PHOSST.2013.6614563},
   Key = {fds264601}
}

@article{fds264602,
   Author = {Kim, J and McKay, KS and Kwiat, PG and Zielnicki, K and Gansen,
             EJ},
   Title = {Novel Semiconductor Single-Photon Detectors},
   Journal = {Experimental Methods in the Physical Sciences},
   Volume = {45},
   Pages = {147-183},
   Year = {2013},
   ISSN = {1079-4042},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-387695-9.00005-6},
   Abstract = {In this Chapter, we summarize the current status and future
             prospects of a number of novel semiconductor-based
             single-photon detectors, including visible-light photon
             counters (VLPCs), solid-state photo-multipliers (SSPMs), and
             quantum-dot-based detectors. SSPMs and VLPCs utilize the
             gain produced by impact ionization of the impurity band to
             detect single photons over a wide wavelength range between
             0.4 and 28. μm. Quantum-dot-based single-photon detectors
             use photoconductive gain associated with photogenerated
             carriers trapped in quantum dots. We cover the basic
             operating principles of these devices, describe experimental
             results that demonstrate their unique attributes, present
             mathematical models that quantify their performance, and
             discuss the future of these novel detector technologies. ©
             2013 Elsevier Inc.},
   Doi = {10.1016/B978-0-12-387695-9.00005-6},
   Key = {fds264602}
}

@article{fds264605,
   Author = {Son, HS and Marks, DL and Youn, SH and Brady, DJ and Kim,
             J},
   Title = {Alignment and assembly strategies for AWARE-10
             gigapixel-scale cameras},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical
             Engineering},
   Volume = {8836},
   Year = {2013},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000325488100010&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.2023370},
   Key = {fds264605}
}

@article{fds264606,
   Author = {Son, HS and Marks, DL and Brady, DJ and Kim, J},
   Title = {Oversampled triangulation of AWARE-10 monocentric ball lens
             using an auto-stigmatic microscope},
   Journal = {Optics express},
   Volume = {21},
   Number = {19},
   Pages = {22206-22214},
   Year = {2013},
   ISSN = {1094-4087},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.022206},
   Abstract = {In our development of multiscale, gigapixel camera
             architectures, there is a need for an accurate
             three-dimensional position alignment of large monocentric
             lenses relative to hemispherical dome structures. In this
             work we describe a method for estimating the position of the
             objective lens in our AWARE-10 four-gigapixel camera using
             the retro-reflected signal of a custom-designed
             auto-stigmatic microscope. We show that although the
             physical constraints of the system limit the numerical
             aperture of the microscope probe beam to around 0.016, which
             results in poor sensitivity in the axial direction, the
             lateral sensitivity is more than sufficient to verify that
             the position of the objective is within optical tolerances.
             © 2013 Optical Society of America.},
   Doi = {10.1364/OE.21.022206},
   Key = {fds264606}
}

@article{fds264610,
   Author = {Youn, SH and Marks, DL and McLaughlin, PO and Brady, DJ and Kim,
             J},
   Title = {Efficient testing methodologies for microcameras in a
             gigapixel imaging system},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical
             Engineering},
   Volume = {8788},
   Year = {2013},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2020739},
   Abstract = {Multiscale parallel imaging - based on a monocentric optical
             design - promises revolutionary advances in diverse imaging
             applications by enabling high resolution, real-time image
             capture over a wide field-of-view (FOV), including sport
             broadcast, wide-field microscopy, astronomy, and security
             surveillance. Recently demonstrated AWARE-2 is a gigapixel
             camera consisting of an objective lens and 98 microcameras
             spherically arranged to capture an image over FOV of 120 by
             50, using computational image processing to form a composite
             image of 0.96 gigapixels. Since microcameras are capable of
             individually adjusting exposure, gain, and focus, true
             parallel imaging is achieved with a high dynamic range. From
             the integration perspective, manufacturing and verifying
             consistent quality of microcameras is a key to successful
             realization of AWARE cameras. We have developed an efficient
             testing methodology that utilizes a precisely fabricated dot
             grid chart as a calibration target to extract critical
             optical properties such as optical distortion, veiling glare
             index, and modulation transfer function to validate imaging
             performance of microcameras. This approach utilizes an AWARE
             objective lens simulator which mimics the actual objective
             lens but operates with a short object distance, suitable for
             a laboratory environment. Here we describe the principles of
             the methodologies developed for AWARE microcameras and
             discuss the experimental results with our prototype
             microcameras. Reference Brady, D. J., Gehm, M. E., Stack, R.
             A., Marks, D. L., Kittle, D. S., Golish, D. R., Vera, E. M.,
             and Feller, S. D., "Multiscale gigapixel photography,"
             Nature 486, 386 - 389 (2012). © 2013 SPIE.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.2020739},
   Key = {fds264610}
}

@article{fds264611,
   Author = {Marks, DL and Youn, SH and Son, HS and Kim, J and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Wide-field microscopy using microcamera arrays},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE},
   Volume = {8589},
   Year = {2013},
   ISSN = {1605-7422},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2002860},
   Abstract = {A microcamera is a relay lens paired with image sensors.
             Microcameras are grouped into arrays to relay overlapping
             views of a single large surface to the sensors to form a
             continuous synthetic image. The imaged surface may be curved
             or irregular as each camera may independently be dynamically
             focused to a different depth. Microcamera arrays are akin to
             microprocessors in supercomputers in that both join
             individual processors by an optoelectronic routing fabric to
             increase capacity and performance. A microcamera may image
             ten or more megapixels and grouped into an array of several
             hundred, as has already been demonstrated by the DARPA AWARE
             Wide-Field program with multiscale gigapixel photography. We
             adapt gigapixel microcamera array architectures to
             wide-field microscopy of irregularly shaped surfaces to
             greatly increase area imaging over 1000 square millimeters
             at resolutions of 3 microns or better in a single snapshot.
             The system includes a novel relay design, a sensor
             electronics package, and a FPGA-based networking fabric.
             Biomedical applications of this include screening for skin
             lesions, wide-field and resolution-agile microsurgical
             imaging, and microscopic cytometry of millions of cells
             performed in situ. © 2013 Copyright SPIE.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.2002860},
   Key = {fds264611}
}

@article{fds264596,
   Author = {Noek, R and Mount, E and Baek, SY and Crain, S and Gaultney, D and Rynbach,
             AV and Kim, T and Maunz, P and Kim, J},
   Title = {An ion trap photonic interface for efficient remote
             entanglement},
   Journal = {Optics InfoBase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {Efficient entanglement of remote quantum memories is a key
             resource for distributed quantum information processing. We
             present a surface ion trap designed for efficient coupling
             of a single ion to the mode of a cavity. © OSA
             2012.},
   Key = {fds264596}
}

@article{fds264597,
   Author = {Marks, DL and Son, HS and McLaughlin, PO and Feller, SD and Kim, J and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {A common scalable microcamera design for 2, 10, and 40
             gigapixel class multiscale cameras},
   Journal = {Frontiers in Optics, FIO 2012},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {Gigapixel camera economics favors reutilization of design
             components including optics, optomechanics, and electronics.
             We show microcamera designs for multiscale architectures
             that only change optical surface profiles that span orders
             of magnitude of gigapixels. © OSA 2012.},
   Key = {fds264597}
}

@article{fds264609,
   Author = {Marks, DL and Son, HS and Kim, J and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Engineering a gigapixel monocentric multiscale
             camera},
   Journal = {Optical Engineering},
   Volume = {51},
   Number = {8},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0091-3286},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000309913000023&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1117/1.OE.51.8.083202},
   Key = {fds264609}
}

@article{fds264616,
   Author = {Jones, NC and Van Meter and R and Fowler, AG and McMahon, PL and Kim, J and Ladd, TD and Yamamoto, Y},
   Title = {Layered Architecture for Quantum Computing},
   Journal = {Physical Review X},
   Volume = {2},
   Number = {3},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {2160-3308},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000310514300003&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevX.2.031007},
   Key = {fds264616}
}

@article{fds264654,
   Author = {McKay, K and Wolter, S and Kim, J},
   Title = {A ultra-high-vacuum wafer-fusion-bonding
             system.},
   Journal = {Review of Scientific Instruments},
   Volume = {83},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {055108},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22667658},
   Abstract = {The design of heterojunction devices is typically limited by
             material integration constraints and the energy band
             alignment. Wafer bonding can be used to integrate material
             pairs that cannot be epitaxially grown together due to large
             lattice mismatch. Control of the energy band alignment can
             be provided by formation of interface dipoles through
             control of the surface chemistry. We have developed an
             ultra-high-vacuum system for wafer-fusion-bonding
             semiconductors with in situ control and measurement of
             surface properties relevant to interface dipoles. A
             wafer-fusion-bonding chamber with annealing capabilities was
             integrated into an ultra-high-vacuum system with a
             sputtering chamber and an x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
             system for preparing and measuring the surface chemistry of
             wafers prior to bonding. The design of the system along with
             initial results for the fusion-bonded InGaAs/Si
             heterojunction is presented.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.4718357},
   Key = {fds264654}
}

@article{fds264653,
   Author = {Knoernschild, C and Kim, T and Maunz, P and Crain, SG and Kim,
             J},
   Title = {Stable optical phase modulation with micromirrors.},
   Journal = {Optics express},
   Volume = {20},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {3261-3267},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22330564},
   Abstract = {We measure the motional fluctuations of a micromechanical
             mirror using a Michelson interferometer, and demonstrate its
             interferometric stability. The position stability of the
             micromirror is dominated by the thermal mechanical noise of
             the structure. With this level of stability, we utilize the
             micromirror to realize an optical phase modulator by simply
             reflecting light off the mirror and modulating its position.
             The resonant frequency of the modulator can be tuned by
             applying a voltage between the mirror and an underlying
             electrode. Full modulation depth of ±π is achieved when
             the mirror resonantly excited with a sinusoidal voltage at
             an amplitude of 11 V.},
   Key = {fds264653}
}

@article{fds264651,
   Author = {Scherer, DR and Hensley, JM and Parameswaran, KR and Bamford, DJ and Mount, E and Crain, S and Kim, J},
   Title = {UV laser beam switching system for Yb trapped ion quantum
             information processing},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical
             Engineering},
   Volume = {8272},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.906780},
   Abstract = {Qubits based on trapped ions are being investigated as a
             promising platform for scalable quantum information
             processing. One challenge associated with the scalability of
             such a multi-qubit trapped ion system is the need for an
             ultraviolet (UV) laser beam switching and control system to
             independently modulate and address large qubit arrays. In
             this work, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel
             architecture for a laser beam control system for trapped ion
             quantum computing based on fast electro-optic amplitude
             switching and high-fidelity electromechanical beam
             shuttering using a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)
             deflector coupled into a single-mode optical fiber. We
             achieve a rise/fall time of 5 ns, power extinction of -31
             dB, and pulse width repeatability of > 99.95% using an
             electrooptic switch based on a β-BaB 2O 4 (BBO) Pockels
             cell. A tilting MEMS mirror fabricated using a commercial
             foundry was used to steer UV light into a single-mode
             optical fiber, resulting in an electromechanical beam
             shutter that demonstrated a power extinction of -52 dB and a
             switching time of 2 μs. The combination of these two
             technologies allows for high-fidelity power extinction using
             a platform that does not suffer from temperature-induced
             beam steering due to changes in modulation duty cycle. The
             overall system is capable of UV laser beam switching to
             create the resolved sideband Raman cooling pulses, algorithm
             pulses, and read-out pulses required for quantum computing
             applications. © 2012 SPIE.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.906780},
   Key = {fds264651}
}

@article{fds264652,
   Author = {Cho, J and Lin, Q and Yang, S and Jr, JGS and Cheng, Y and Lin, E and Yang, J and Foreman, JV and Everitt, HO and Yang, W and Kim, J and Liu,
             J},
   Title = {Sulfur-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) Nanostars: Synthesis and
             simulation of growth mechanism},
   Journal = {Nano Research},
   Volume = {5},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {20-26},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {1998-0124},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12274-011-0180-3},
   Abstract = {We present a bottom-up synthesis, spectroscopic
             characterization, and ab initio simulations of star-shaped
             hexagonal zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires. The ZnO nanostructures
             were synthesized by a low-temperature hydrothermal growth
             method. The cross-section of the ZnO nanowires transformed
             from a hexagon to a hexagram when sulfur dopants from
             thiourea [SC(NH 2) 2] were added into the growth solution,
             but no transformation occurred when urea (OC(NH 2) 2) was
             added. Comparison of the X-ray photoemission and
             photoluminescence spectra of undoped and sulfur-doped ZnO
             confirmed that sulfur is responsible for the novel
             morphology. Large-scale theoretical calculations were
             conducted to understand the role of sulfur doping in the
             growth process. The ab initio simulations demonstrated that
             the addition of sulfur causes a local change in charge
             distribution that is stronger at the vertices than at the
             edges, leading to the observed transformation from hexagon
             to hexagram nanostructures. © 2012 Tsinghua University
             Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s12274-011-0180-3},
   Key = {fds264652}
}

@article{fds264658,
   Author = {McKay, KS and Lu, FP and Kim, J and Yi, C and Brown, AS and Hawkins,
             AR},
   Title = {Erratum: Band discontinuity measurements of the wafer bonded
             InGaAs/Si heterojunction (Applied Physics Letters (2007) 90
             (222111))},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {100},
   Number = {12},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3696305},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.3696305},
   Key = {fds264658}
}

@article{fds264667,
   Author = {Noek, R and Mount, E and Baek, S-Y and Crain, S and Gaultney, D and Rynbach, AV and Kim, T and Maunz, P and Kim, J},
   Title = {An ion trap photonic interface for efficient remote
             entanglement},
   Journal = {2012 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO
             2012},
   Year = {2012},
   Abstract = {Efficient entanglement of remote quantum memories is a key
             resource for distributed quantum information processing. We
             present a surface ion trap designed for efficient coupling
             of a single ion to the mode of a cavity. © 2012
             OSA.},
   Key = {fds264667}
}

@article{fds264669,
   Author = {Korenblit, S and Kafri, D and Campbell, WC and Islam, R and Edwards, EE and Gong, Z-X and Lin, G-D and Duan, L-M and Kim, J and Kim, K and Monroe,
             C},
   Title = {Quantum simulation of spin models on an arbitrary lattice
             with trapped ions},
   Journal = {New Journal of Physics},
   Volume = {14},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {1367-2630},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1367-2630/14/9/095024},
   Abstract = {A collection of trapped atomic ions represents one of the
             most attractive platforms for the quantum simulation of
             interacting spin networks and quantum magnetism.
             Spin-dependent optical dipole forces applied to an ion
             crystal create long-range effective spin-spin interactions
             and allow the simulation of spin Hamiltonians that possess
             nontrivial phases and dynamics. Here we show how the
             appropriate design of laser fields can provide for arbitrary
             multidimensional spin-spin interaction graphs even for the
             case of a linear spatial array of ions. This scheme uses
             currently available trap technology and is scalable to
             levels where the classical methods of simulation are
             intractable. © IOP Publishing Ltd and Deutsche
             Physikalische Gesellschaft.},
   Doi = {10.1088/1367-2630/14/9/095024},
   Key = {fds264669}
}

@article{fds264595,
   Author = {Son, HS and Marks, DL and Tremblay, E and Ford, JE and Hahn, J and Stack,
             RA and Johnson, A and McLaughlin, P and Shaw, JM and Kim, J and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {A multiscale, wide field, gigapixel camera},
   Journal = {Optics InfoBase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {Recent investigations into high pixel count imaging using
             multiscale optics have led to a novel optical design for a
             wide field, gigapixel camera. We review the mechanical
             design and optical performance of this imager. © 2011
             OSA.},
   Key = {fds264595}
}

@article{fds264599,
   Author = {Marks, DL and Son, HS and Tremblay, EJ and Ford, JE and McLaughlin, PO and Gehm, ME and Stack, RA and Feller, SD and Kim, J and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Optical testing of the AWARE wide field 2-gigapixel
             multiscale camera},
   Journal = {Optics InfoBase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {Testing a 2-Gigapixel 8 arcsec IFOV, 120° FOV camera
             requires integration of precision mechanical automation,
             optical instrumentation, image diagnostics, electronics and
             networking hardware. We detail the ongoing AWARE Wide Field
             Camera efforts. © 2011 OSA.},
   Key = {fds264599}
}

@article{fds264664,
   Author = {Son, HS and Marks, DL and Hahn, J and Kim, J and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Design of a spherical focal surface using close-packed relay
             optics.},
   Journal = {Optics express},
   Volume = {19},
   Number = {17},
   Pages = {16132-16138},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21934976},
   Abstract = {This paper presents a design strategy for close-packing
             circular finite-conjugate optics to create a spherical focal
             surface. Efficient packing of circles on a sphere is
             commonly referred to as the Tammes problem and various
             methods for packing optimization have been investigated,
             such as iterative point-repulsion simulations. The method
             for generating the circle distributions proposed here is
             based on a distorted icosahedral geodesic. This has the
             advantages of high degrees of symmetry, minimized variations
             in circle separations, and computationally inexpensive
             generation of configurations with N circles, where N is the
             number of vertices on the geodesic. These properties are
             especially beneficial for making a continuous focal surface
             and results show that circle packing densities near
             steady-state maximum values found with other methods can be
             achieved.},
   Key = {fds264664}
}

@article{fds264574,
   Author = {Son, HS and Marks, DL and Tremblay, E and Ford, JE and Hahn, J and Stack,
             RA and Johnson, A and McLaughlin, P and Shaw, JM and Kim, J and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {A multiscale, wide field, gigapixel camera},
   Journal = {Optics InfoBase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9781557529145},
   Abstract = {Recent investigations into high pixel count imaging using
             multiscale optics have led to a novel optical design for a
             wide field, gigapixel camera. We review the mechanical
             design and optical performance of this imager. © 2011
             OSA.},
   Key = {fds264574}
}

@article{fds264591,
   Author = {Son, HS and Marks, DL and Tremblay, E and Ford, JE and Hahn, J and Stack,
             RA and Johnson, A and McLaughlin, P and Shaw, JM and Kim, J and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {A multiscale, wide field, gigapixel camera},
   Journal = {Optics InfoBase Conference Papers},
   Publisher = {Optical Society of America},
   Year = {2011},
   Abstract = {Recent investigations into high pixel count imaging using
             multiscale optics have led to a novel optical design for a
             wide field, gigapixel camera. We review the mechanical
             design and optical performance of this imager. © 2011
             OSA.},
   Key = {fds264591}
}

@article{fds264593,
   Author = {Son, HS and Marks, DL and Tremblay, E and Ford, JE and Hahn, J and Stack,
             RA and Johnson, A and McLaughlin, P and Shaw, JM and Kim, J and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {A multiscale, wide field, gigapixel camera},
   Journal = {Optics InfoBase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {2162-2701},
   Key = {fds264593}
}

@article{fds264646,
   Author = {Kim, J and McKay, KS and Stapelbroek, MG and Hogue,
             HH},
   Title = {Opportunities for single photon detection using visible
             light photon counters},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical
             Engineering},
   Volume = {8033},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.887130},
   Abstract = {Visible light photon counters (VLPCs) are solid-state
             devices providing high quantum efficiency (QE) photon
             detection (>88%) with photon number resolving capability
             and low timing jitter (∼250 ps). VLPC features high QE in
             the 0.4-1.0μm wavelength range, as the main photon
             absorption mechanism is provided by electron-hole pair
             generation across the silicon bandgap. In this paper, we
             will discuss the optical and electrical operating principles
             of VLPCs, and propose a range of device optimization paths
             that improves various aspects of VLPC for advanced quantum
             optics and quantum information processing experiments, both
             in the UV and the telecom wavelength range. © 2011
             SPIE.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.887130},
   Key = {fds264646}
}

@article{fds264647,
   Author = {Maunz, P and Kim, T and Knoernschild, C and Noek, R and Mount, E and Kim,
             J},
   Title = {Scaling quantum information processing using distributed
             remote entanglement},
   Journal = {2011 IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting
             Series},
   Pages = {29-30},
   Year = {2011},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/PHOSST.2011.6000028},
   Abstract = {Entanglement of remote quantum memories provides an
             alternative way to scale quantum information processing. We
             present progress toward improved remote entanglement
             generation, useful for distributed quantum computing. ©
             2011 IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/PHOSST.2011.6000028},
   Key = {fds264647}
}

@article{fds264648,
   Author = {Clark, R and Kim, T and Kim, J},
   Title = {Double-stage frequency down-conversion system for
             distribution of ion-photon entanglement over long
             distances},
   Journal = {2011 IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting
             Series},
   Pages = {45-46},
   Year = {2011},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/PHOSST.2011.6000036},
   Abstract = {Generating entangled states of quantum memories over a long
             distance is an essential component for scalable quantum
             communication and its application such as quantum key
             distribution. Generation of entangled ion pairs mediated by
             photonic qubits has been demonstrated with trapped ytterbium
             (Yb) ions [1] and is a promising approach. However the
             wavelength of a single photon emitted by most trapped ions
             is in the ultraviolet (UV) or short-wavelength visible range
             where the maximum distribution distance of the photons is
             severely limited due to high absorption coefficient in a
             single mode optical fiber. To overcome this limitation, we
             are currently developing a frequency down-conversion scheme
             [2,3] which can coherently transfer a qubit stored in a 370
             nm photon emitted by a Yb ion to another photon at 1310 nm
             which coincides with the low loss window of a telecom fiber.
             © 2011 IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/PHOSST.2011.6000036},
   Key = {fds264648}
}

@article{fds264649,
   Author = {Kim, J and Maunz, P and Kim, T and Hussman, J and Noek, R and Mehta, A and Monroe, C},
   Title = {Modular universal scalable ion-trap quantum computer
             (MUSIQC)},
   Journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings},
   Volume = {1363},
   Pages = {190-193},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {0094-243X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3630178},
   Abstract = {We describe a scalable architecture for general-purpose
             quantum computation based on trapped ions and photonic
             interconnect network. The quantum computer is made up of
             several elementary logic units (ELUs) each containing a
             modest number of trapped ions representing physical qubits.
             Each ELU is provided with an optical communication port
             through which a photon entangled with a communication ion is
             extracted. Quantum entanglement is distributed between an
             arbitrary pair of ELUs through a reconfigurable photonic
             network, which can be utilized to perform two-qubit quantum
             logic operation between any pair of physical qubits in the
             entire quantum computer. We show that this architecture can
             support universal, fault-tolerant quantum computation. ©
             2011 American Institute of Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.3630178},
   Key = {fds264649}
}

@article{fds264650,
   Author = {Kim, T and Maunz, P and Kim, J},
   Title = {Efficient collection of single photons emitted from a
             trapped ion into a single-mode fiber for scalable
             quantum-information processing},
   Journal = {Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical
             Physics},
   Volume = {84},
   Number = {6},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {1050-2947},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.84.063423},
   Abstract = {Interference and coincidence detection of two photons
             emitted by two remote ions can lead to an entangled state,
             which is a critical resource for scalable
             quantum-information processing. Currently the success
             probabilities of experimental realizations of this protocol
             are mainly limited by low coupling efficiency of a photon
             emitted by an ion into a single-mode fiber. Here we consider
             two strategies to enhance the collection probability of a
             photon emitted from a trapped Yb + ion, using analytic
             methods that can be easily applied to other types of ions or
             neutral atoms. Our analysis shows that we can achieve fiber
             coupling efficiency of over 30% with an optical cavity made
             of a flat fiber tip and a spherical mirror. We also
             investigate ways to increase the fiber coupling efficiency
             using high-numerical-aperture optics, and show that
             collection probability of over 15% is possible with proper
             control of aberration. © 2011 American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevA.84.063423},
   Key = {fds264650}
}

@article{fds264655,
   Author = {Zhu, Y and Kim, J and Gauthier, DJ},
   Title = {Selective phase-matched bragg scattering for single-photon
             frequency conversion in a nonlinear waveguide},
   Journal = {2011 IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting
             Series},
   Pages = {47-48},
   Year = {2011},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/PHOSST.2011.6000037},
   Abstract = {We describe a design for phase-matched Bragg scattering for
             single-photon conversion between two arbitrary frequencies.
             The bandwidth of the Bragg scattering process is calculated
             and immunity against competing processes is discussed. ©
             2011 IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/PHOSST.2011.6000037},
   Key = {fds264655}
}

@article{fds264643,
   Author = {Noek, R and Knoernschild, C and Migacz, J and Kim, T and Maunz, P and Merrill, T and Hayden, H and Pai, CS and Kim, J},
   Title = {Multiscale optics for enhanced light collection from a point
             source.},
   Journal = {Optics Letters},
   Volume = {35},
   Number = {14},
   Pages = {2460-2462},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20634863},
   Abstract = {High-efficiency collection of photons emitted by a point
             source over a wide field of view (FoV) is crucial for many
             applications. Multiscale optics offer improved light
             collection by utilizing small optical components placed
             close to the optical source, while maintaining a wide FoV
             provided by conventional imaging optics. In this work, we
             demonstrate collection efficiency of 26% of photons emitted
             by a pointlike source using a micromirror fabricated in
             silicon with no significant decrease in collection
             efficiency over a 10 mm object space.},
   Doi = {10.1364/ol.35.002460},
   Key = {fds264643}
}

@article{fds264642,
   Author = {Baek, B and McKay, KS and Stevens, MJ and Kim, J and Hogue, HH and Nam,
             SW},
   Title = {Single-photon detection timing jitter in a visible light
             photon counter},
   Journal = {IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics},
   Volume = {46},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {991-995},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {0018-9197},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JQE.2010.2042141},
   Abstract = {Visible light photon counters (VLPCs) offer many attractive
             features as photon detectors, such as high quantum
             efficiency and photon number resolution. We report
             measurements of the single-photon timing jitter in a VLPC, a
             critical performance factor in a time-correlated
             single-photon counting measurement, in a fiber-coupled
             closed-cycle cryocooler. The measured timing jitter is 240
             ps full-width-at-half-maximum at a wavelength of 550 nm,
             with a dark count rate of 25×103 counts per second. The
             timing jitter increases modestly at longer wavelengths to
             300 ps at 1000 nm, and increases substantially at lower bias
             voltages as the quantum efficiency is reduced. © 2010
             IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/JQE.2010.2042141},
   Key = {fds264642}
}

@article{fds264644,
   Author = {Knoernschild, C and Kim, C and Gregory, CW and Lu, FP and Kim,
             J},
   Title = {Investigation of optical power tolerance for MEMS
             mirrors},
   Journal = {Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems},
   Volume = {19},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {640-646},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {1057-7157},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JMEMS.2010.2045736},
   Abstract = {Optical power tolerance on micromirrors is a critical aspect
             of many high-power optical systems. Absorptive heating can
             negatively impact the performance of an optical system by
             altering the micromirror's curvature during operation. This
             can lead to shifts in the beam waist locations or imaging
             planes within a system. This paper describes a scheme to
             measure the impact of mirror heating by optical power and
             determine the power tolerances of micromirrors with gold and
             aluminum coatings using a 532-nm laser. Results are compared
             with an analytical model of thermally induced stress and
             optical absorptive heating. Experimental data shows that
             gold-coated mirrors are able to handle 40 mW of optical
             power with a beam waist displacement of less than 20% of the
             output Rayleigh length, while aluminum-coated mirrors can
             tolerate 125 mW. Measured data along with modeling suggest
             that, with proper metal coating, optical powers greater than
             1 W should not adversely affect the system performance. ©
             2010 IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/JMEMS.2010.2045736},
   Key = {fds264644}
}

@article{fds264645,
   Author = {Kim, TH and Herskind, PF and Kim, T and Kim, J and Chuang,
             IL},
   Title = {Surface-electrode point Paul trap},
   Journal = {Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical
             Physics},
   Volume = {82},
   Number = {4},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {1050-2947},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/3346 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {We present a model as well as experimental results for a
             surface electrode radiofrequency Paul trap that has a
             circular electrode geometry well suited for trapping single
             ions and two-dimensional planar ion crystals. The trap
             design is compatible with microfabrication and offers a
             simple method by which the height of the trapped ions above
             the surface may be changed in situ. We demonstrate trapping
             of single Sr88+ ions over an ion height range of 200-1000
             μm for several hours under Doppler laser cooling and use
             these to characterize the trap, finding good agreement with
             our model. © 2010 The American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevA.82.043412},
   Key = {fds264645}
}

@article{fds264666,
   Author = {Ybarra, GA and Collins, LM and Huettel, LG and Coonley, KD and Massoud,
             HZ and Board, JA and Cummer, SA and Choudhury, RR and Gustafson, MR and Jokerst, NM and Brooke, MA and Willett, RM and Kim, J and Absher,
             MS},
   Title = {Integrated sensing and information processing theme-based
             redesign of the undergraduate electrical and computer
             engineering curriculum at Duke University},
   Journal = {Advances in Engineering Education},
   Volume = {2},
   Number = {4},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {1941-1766},
   Abstract = {The field of electrical and computer engineering has evolved
             significantly in the past two decades. This evolution has
             broadened the field of ECE, and subfields have seen deep
             penetration into very specialized areas. Remarkable devices
             and systems arising from innovative processes, exotic
             materials, high speed computer simulations, and complex
             algorithms make ECE an exciting career field. These
             fascinating developments present greater opportunities for
             undergraduates to explore the field of ECE as well as
             greater challenges for them to navigate the curriculum
             because of the myriad of course and areas of concentration
             choices they have to make. Reflecting innovations in the
             field and capitalizing on the collective faculty research
             expertise, the Department of Electrical and Computer
             Engineering at Duke University has redesigned its
             undergraduate curriculum around the theme of Integrated
             Sensing and Information Processing. This paper presents
             details of the ECE curriculum redesign at Duke University
             including its philosophy and implementation as well as
             elements of the redesign that are transferable to other
             universities. Evidence of increased student ability to
             design a system or component and to work effectively in
             teams is presented through statistical analyses of student
             end-of-course course evaluations. Student design project
             complexity evolution as the curriculum redesign unfolded is
             also presented, and this provides further evidence that
             design and teamwork have enhanced student learning
             throughout the new curriculum.},
   Key = {fds264666}
}

@article{fds264668,
   Author = {Knoernschild, C and Zhang, XL and Isenhower, L and Gill, AT and Lu, FP and Saffman, M and Kim, J},
   Title = {Independent individual addressing of multiple neutral atom
             qubits with a micromirror-based beam steering
             system},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {97},
   Number = {13},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/3312 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {We demonstrate a scalable approach to addressing multiple
             atomic qubits for use in quantum information processing.
             Individually trapped 87Rb atoms in a linear array are
             selectively manipulated with a single laser guided by a
             microelectromechanical beam steering system. Single qubit
             oscillations are shown on multiple sites at frequencies of
             ≃3.5 MHz with negligible crosstalk to neighboring sites.
             Switching times between the central atom and its closest
             neighbor were measured to be 6-7 μs while moving between
             the central atom and an atom two trap sites away took 10-14
             μs. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.3494526},
   Key = {fds264668}
}

@article{fds264639,
   Author = {Knoernschild, C and Kim, C and Lu, FP and Kim, J},
   Title = {Multiplexed broadband beam steering system utilizing high
             speed MEMS mirrors.},
   Journal = {Optics express},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {7233-7244},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19399100},
   Abstract = {We present a beam steering system based on
             micro-electromechanical systems technology that features
             high speed steering of multiple laser beams over a broad
             wavelength range. By utilizing high speed micromirrors with
             a broadband metallic coating, our system has the flexibility
             to simultaneously incorporate a wide range of wavelengths
             and multiple beams. We demonstrate reconfiguration of two
             independent beams at different wavelengths (780 and 635 nm)
             across a common 5x5 array with 4 micros settling time. Full
             simulation of the optical system provides insights on the
             scalability of the system. Such a system can provide a
             versatile tool for applications where fast laser
             multiplexing is necessary.},
   Key = {fds264639}
}

@article{fds264640,
   Author = {McKay, KS and Kim, J and Hogue, HH},
   Title = {Enhanced quantum efficiency of the visible light photon
             counter in the ultraviolet wavelengths.},
   Journal = {Optics express},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {7458-7464},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19399124},
   Abstract = {The visible light photon counter (VLPC) is a very high
             quantum efficiency (QE, 88% at 694 nm) single photon
             detector in the visible wavelengths. The QE in the
             ultraviolet (UV) wavelenghths is poor in these devices due
             to absorption in the degenerate front contact. We introduce
             the ultraviolet photon counter (UVPC), where the QE in the
             near UV wavelength range (300-400 nm) is dramatically
             enhanced. The degenerate Si front contact of the VLPC is
             replaced with a Ti Schottky contact, which reduces the
             absorption of incident photons within the contact layer. We
             demonstrate a system QE of 5.3% at 300 nm and 11% at 370 nm
             for a UVPC with a Ti Schottky contact and a single layer
             MgF(2) antireflection coating.},
   Key = {fds264640}
}

@article{fds264590,
   Author = {Noek, R and Migacz, J and Knoernschild, C and Kim, T and Kim,
             J},
   Title = {Enhanced light collection from a point fluorescent source
             using multiscale optics},
   Journal = {Optics InfoBase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {We have demonstrated enhancement of point source light
             collection by a factor of 18 over a traditional f/2.55
             imaging system (~17%) across a 15 mm object space by
             integrating a high numerical aperture micromirror. © 2009
             Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {fds264590}
}

@article{fds264638,
   Author = {Kim, J and Kim, C},
   Title = {Integrated optical approach to trapped ion quantum
             computation},
   Journal = {Quantum Information and Computation},
   Volume = {9},
   Number = {3-4},
   Pages = {181-202},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {1533-7146},
   Abstract = {Recent experimental progress in quantum information
             processing with trapped ions have demonstrated most of the
             fundamental elements required to realize a scalable quantum
             computer. The next set of challenges lie in realization of a
             large number of qubits and the means to prepare, manipulate
             and measure them, leading to error - protected qubits and
             fault tolerant architectures. The integration of qubits
             necessarily require integrated optical approach as most of
             these operations involve interaction with photons. In this
             paper, we discuss integrated optics technologies and
             concrete optical designs needed for the physical realization
             of scalable quantum computer. © Rinton Press.},
   Key = {fds264638}
}

@article{fds264641,
   Author = {Kim, J and Kim, C},
   Title = {Integrated optical approach to trapped ion quantum
             computation},
   Journal = {Quantum Information and Computation},
   Volume = {9},
   Number = {5-6},
   Pages = {181-202},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {1533-7146},
   Abstract = {Recent experimental progress in quantum information
             processing with trapped ions have demonstrated most of the
             fundamental elements required to realize a scalable quantum
             computer. The next set of challenges lie in realization of a
             large number of qubits and the means to prepare, manipulate
             and measure them, leading to error-protected qubits and
             fault tolerant architectures. The integration of qubits
             necessarily require integrated optical approach as most of
             these operations involve interaction with photons. In this
             paper, we discuss integrated optics technologies and
             concrete optical designs needed for the physical realization
             of scalable quantum computer. © Rinton Press.},
   Key = {fds264641}
}

@article{fds264663,
   Author = {Uttam, S and Goodman, NA and Neifeld, MA and Kim, C and John, R and Kim, J and Brady, D},
   Title = {Optically multiplexed imaging with superposition space
             tracking},
   Journal = {Optics express},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {1691-1713},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {1094-4087},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.17.001691},
   Abstract = {We describe a novel method to track targets in a large field
             of view. This method simultaneously images multiple, encoded
             sub-fields of view onto a common focal plane. Sub-field
             encoding enables target tracking by creating a unique
             connection between target characteristics in superposition
             space and the target's true position in real space. This is
             accomplished without reconstructing a conventional image of
             the large field of view. Potential encoding schemes include
             spatial shift, rotation, and magnification. We discuss each
             of these encoding schemes, but the main emphasis of the
             paper and all examples are based on one-dimensional spatial
             shift encoding. System performance is evaluated in terms of
             two criteria: average decoding time and probability of
             decoding error. We study these performance criteria as a
             function of resolution in the encoding scheme and
             signal-to-noise ratio. Finally, we include simulation and
             experimental results demonstrating our novel tracking
             method. © 2009 Optical Society of America.},
   Doi = {10.1364/OE.17.001691},
   Key = {fds264663}
}

@article{fds264637,
   Author = {Kim, C and Kim, J},
   Title = {Organic photovoltaic cell in lateral-tandem configuration
             employing continuously-tuned microcavity
             sub-cells.},
   Journal = {Optics express},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {24},
   Pages = {19987-19994},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19030085},
   Abstract = {We propose a lateral-tandem organic photovoltaic system
             consisting of a dispersive-focusing element and
             continuously-tuned, series-connected sub-cells. The proposed
             system overcomes the efficiency limitation of organic
             photovoltaic devices by spectral re-distribution of incoming
             solar photons and their delivery to the wavelength-matched,
             resonant sub-cells. By numerical simulations, we demonstrate
             that optical resonance in a microcavity sub-cell with a
             metal/organic multilayer/metal structure can be tuned over a
             broad spectrum by varying the thickness of the organic
             multilayer. We show that the power-conversion efficiency
             exceeding 18% can be obtained in a lateral-tandem system
             employing an ideal dispersive-focusing element and the
             microcavity sub-cells.},
   Key = {fds264637}
}

@article{fds264662,
   Author = {Marcia, RF and Kim, C and Eldeniz, C and Kim, J and Brady, DJ and Willett,
             RM},
   Title = {Superimposed video disambiguation for increased field of
             view.},
   Journal = {Optics express},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {21},
   Pages = {16352-16363},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18852741},
   Abstract = {Many infrared optical systems in wide-ranging applications
             such as surveillance and security frequently require large
             fields of view (FOVs). Often this necessitates a focal plane
             array (FPA) with a large number of pixels, which, in
             general, is very expensive. In a previous paper, we proposed
             a method for increasing the FOV without increasing the pixel
             resolution of the FPA by superimposing multiple sub-images
             within a static scene and disambiguating the observed data
             to reconstruct the original scene. This technique, in
             effect, allows each sub-image of the scene to share a single
             FPA, thereby increasing the FOV without compromising
             resolution. In this paper, we demonstrate the increase of
             FOVs in a realistic setting by physically generating a
             superimposed video from a single scene using an optical
             system employing a beamsplitter and a movable mirror.
             Without prior knowledge of the contents of the scene, we are
             able to disambiguate the two sub-images, successfully
             capturing both large-scale features and fine details in each
             sub-image. We improve upon our previous reconstruction
             approach by allowing each sub-image to have slowly changing
             components, carefully exploiting correlations between
             sequential video frames to achieve small mean errors and to
             reduce run times. We show the effectiveness of this improved
             approach by reconstructing the constituent images of a
             surveillance camera video.},
   Key = {fds264662}
}

@article{fds264636,
   Author = {Tanouchi, Y and Tu, D and Kim, J and You, L},
   Title = {Noise reduction by diffusional dissipation in a minimal
             quorum sensing motif.},
   Journal = {PLoS computational biology},
   Volume = {4},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {e1000167},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18769706},
   Abstract = {Cellular interactions are subject to random fluctuations
             (noise) in quantities of interacting molecules. Noise
             presents a major challenge for the robust function of
             natural and engineered cellular networks. Past studies have
             analyzed how noise is regulated at the intracellular level.
             Cell-cell communication, however, may provide a
             complementary strategy to achieve robust gene expression by
             enabling the coupling of a cell with its environment and
             other cells. To gain insight into this issue, we have
             examined noise regulation by quorum sensing (QS), a
             mechanism by which many bacteria communicate through
             production and sensing of small diffusible signals. Using a
             stochastic model, we analyze a minimal QS motif in
             Gram-negative bacteria. Our analysis shows that diffusion of
             the QS signal, together with fast turnover of its
             transcriptional regulator, attenuates low-frequency
             components of extrinsic noise. We term this unique mechanism
             "diffusional dissipation" to emphasize the importance of
             fast signal turnover (or dissipation) by diffusion. We
             further show that this noise attenuation is a property of a
             more generic regulatory motif, of which QS is an
             implementation. Our results suggest that, in a QS system, an
             unstable transcriptional regulator may be favored for
             regulating expression of costly proteins that generate
             public goods.},
   Doi = {10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000167},
   Key = {fds264636}
}

@booklet{Knoernschild08,
   Author = {Knoernschild, C and Kim, C and Liu, B and Lu, FP and Kim,
             J},
   Title = {MEMS-based optical beam steering system for quantum
             information processing in two-dimensional atomic
             systems.},
   Journal = {Optics Letters},
   Volume = {33},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {273-275},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0146-9592},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18246152},
   Abstract = {To provide scalability to quantum information processors
             utilizing trapped atoms or ions as quantum bits (qubits),
             the capability to address multiple individual qubits in a
             large array is needed. Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)
             technology can be used to create a flexible and scalable
             optical system to direct the necessary laser beams to
             multiple qubit locations. We developed beam steering optics
             using controllable MEMS mirrors that enable one laser beam
             to address multiple qubit locations in a two-dimensional
             trap lattice. MEMS mirror settling times of approximately 10
             micros were demonstrated, which allow for fast access time
             between qubits.},
   Key = {Knoernschild08}
}

@article{fds264587,
   Author = {Kim, J and Knoernschild, CW and Kim, C and Migacz, J and McKay, KS and Lu,
             F},
   Title = {Optical MEMS technology for scalable quantum information
             processor},
   Journal = {Optics InfoBase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {2162-2701},
   Abstract = {We describe microsystems approach to realizing a scalable
             quantum information processor in trapped ions and atoms. A
             flexible, MEMS-based beam steering system is demonstrated
             that enables random access of qubits in a 2D array. © 2008
             Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {fds264587}
}

@article{fds264635,
   Author = {Kim, C and Lee, J-Y and Peumans, P and Kim, J},
   Title = {Surface plasmon polariton assisted organic solar
             cells},
   Journal = {Technical Proceedings of the 2008 NSTI Nanotechnology
             Conference and Trade Show, NSTI-Nanotech, Nanotechnology
             2008},
   Volume = {1},
   Pages = {533-536},
   Year = {2008},
   ISBN = {978-1-4200-8502-0},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000282341400044&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Abstract = {We propose a lateral tandem cell system consisting of
             organic thin-film photovoltaic devices. The crucial element
             of the system is a surface plasmon polariton (SPP) assisted
             organic solar cell employing a metallic grating electrode.
             In the SPP-assisted solar cell, the incident light
             resonantly excites an SPP mode to increase the optical field
             intensity in the absorption layer. As a result, a high
             absorption efficiency is maintained when the thickness of
             the absorption layer is decreased below the exciton
             diffusion length, thereby overcoming the 'exciton diffusion
             bottleneck' present in conventional organic solar cells. For
             a model structure, where an organic multilayer is sandwiched
             by a planar cathode and a grating anode, both consisting of
             Ag, we show, using the finite element method, that the
             absorption efficiency of a 10-nm-thick absorption layer with
             the absorption coefficient of 105 cm -1 exceeds 80% for
             TM-polarized incident light with a wavelength of 765 nm. We
             show that the resonance can be tuned by varying the grating
             period. We also discuss design guidelines for the lateral
             tandem cell system, and estimate its performance.},
   Key = {fds264635}
}

@article{fds264660,
   Author = {Uttam, S and Goodman, NA and Neifeld, MA and Changsoon, K and Jungsang,
             K and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Optically multiplexed imaging with superposition space
             tracking},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical
             Engineering},
   Volume = {7096},
   Year = {2008},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.795150},
   Abstract = {We describe a novel method to track targets in a large field
             of view. This method simultaneously images multiple, encoded
             sub-fields of view onto a common focal plane. Sub-field
             encoding enables target tracking by creating a unique
             connection between target characteristics in superposition
             space and the target's true position in real space. This is
             accomplished without reconstructing a conventional image of
             the large field of view. Potential encoding schemes include
             spatial shift, rotation, and magnification. We briefly
             discuss each of these encoding schemes, but the main
             emphasis of the paper and all examples are based on
             one-dimensional spatial shift encoding. Simulation results
             are included to show the efficacy of the proposed sub-field
             encoding scheme.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.795150},
   Key = {fds264660}
}

@article{fds264661,
   Author = {Marcia, RF and Kim, C and Kim, J and Brady, DJ and Willett,
             RM},
   Title = {Fast disambiguation of superimposed images for increased
             field of view},
   Journal = {Proceedings / ICIP ... International Conference on Image
             Processing},
   Pages = {2620-2623},
   Year = {2008},
   ISSN = {1522-4880},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICIP.2008.4712331},
   Abstract = {Many infrared optical systems in wide-ranging applications
             such as surveillance and security frequently require large
             fields of view. Often this necessitates a focal plane array
             (FPA) with a large number of pixels, which, in general, is
             very expensive. In this paper, we propose a method for
             increasing the field of view without increasing the pixel
             resolution of the FPA by superimposing the multiple
             subimages within a scene and disambiguating the observed
             data to reconstruct the original scene. This technique, in
             effect, allows each subimage of the scene to share a single
             FPA, thereby increasing the field of view without
             compromising resolution. To disambiguate the subimages, we
             develop wavelet regularized reconstruction methods which
             encourage sparsity in the solution. We present results from
             numerical experiments that demonstrate the effectiveness of
             this approach. © 2008 IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/ICIP.2008.4712331},
   Key = {fds264661}
}

@article{fds319197,
   Author = {Kim, C and Lee, J-Y and Peumans, P and Kim, J},
   Title = {Surface Plasmon Polariton Assisted Organic Solar
             Cells},
   Journal = {CLEAN TECHNOLOGY 2008: BIO ENERGY, RENEWABLES, GREEN
             BUILDING, SMART GRID, STORAGE, AND WATER},
   Pages = {166-169},
   Year = {2008},
   ISBN = {978-1-4200-8502-0},
   Key = {fds319197}
}

@article{fds264583,
   Author = {Kim, C and Knoernschild, CW and Liu, B and McKay, KS and Lu, F and Kim,
             J},
   Title = {Integrated optics technology for quantum information
             processing in atomic systems},
   Journal = {Optics InfoBase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {2162-2701},
   Abstract = {Scalable quantum information processing in ion traps or
             neutral atoms requires highly integrated and functional
             optical systems for qubit manipulation and detection. We
             discuss and demonstrate integrated optics technologies that
             are relevant for this application. © 2007 Optical Society
             of America.},
   Key = {fds264583}
}

@article{fds264584,
   Author = {McKay, KS and Lu, F and Kim, J and Hogue, HH},
   Title = {Compact high quantum efficiency single photon detector in
             the ultraviolet wavelengths},
   Journal = {Optics InfoBase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {2162-2701},
   Abstract = {We demonstrate a high quantum efficiency single photon
             detector with operating wavelength extended into the
             ultraviolet range (250nm-1μm). Quantum efficiency of 6% is
             demonstrated at 300 nm, with estimated internal efficiency
             of 24%. © 2007 Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {fds264584}
}

@article{fds264585,
   Author = {McKay, KS and Lu, F and Kim, J and Hogue, HH},
   Title = {Compact high quantum efficiency single photon detector in
             the ultraviolet wavelengths},
   Journal = {Optics InfoBase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {2162-2701},
   Abstract = {We demonstrate a high quantum efficiency single photon
             detector with operating wavelength extended into the
             ultraviolet range (250nm-1μm). Quantum efficiency of 6% is
             demonstrated at 300 nm, with estimated internal efficiency
             of 24%. © 2007 Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {fds264585}
}

@article{fds264586,
   Author = {McKay, KS and Lu, F and Kim, J and Hogue, HH},
   Title = {Compact high quantum efficiency single photon detector in
             the ultraviolet wavelengths},
   Journal = {Optics InfoBase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {2162-2701},
   Abstract = {We demonstrate a high quantum efficiency single photon
             detector with operating wavelength extended into the
             ultraviolet range (250nm-1μm). Quantum efficiency of 6% is
             demonstrated at 300 nm, with estimated internal efficiency
             of 24%. © 2007 Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {fds264586}
}

@article{fds264581,
   Author = {Kim, C and Knoernschild, CW and Liu, B and McKay, KS and Lu, F and Kim,
             J},
   Title = {Integrated optics technology for quantum information
             processing in atomic systems},
   Journal = {Optics InfoBase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {2162-2701},
   Abstract = {Scalable quantum information processing in ion traps or
             neutral atoms requires highly integrated and functional
             optical systems for qubit manipulation and detection. We
             discuss and demonstrate integrated optics technologies that
             are relevant for this application. © 2007 Optical Society
             of America.},
   Key = {fds264581}
}

@article{fds264582,
   Author = {Kim, C and Knoernschild, CW and Liu, B and McKay, KS and Lu, F and Kim,
             J},
   Title = {Integrated optics technology for quantum information
             processing in atomic systems},
   Journal = {Optics InfoBase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {2162-2701},
   Abstract = {Scalable quantum information processing in ion traps or
             neutral atoms requires highly integrated and functional
             optical systems for qubit manipulation and detection. We
             discuss and demonstrate integrated optics technologies that
             are relevant for this application. © 2007 Optical Society
             of America.},
   Key = {fds264582}
}

@article{fds264632,
   Author = {Justice, BJ and Nguyen, VN and Yönak, SH and Kim, J and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Electric-field-coupled metamaterials for microwave beam
             formation},
   Journal = {International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation
             (APSURSI)},
   Pages = {2566-2569},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {1522-3965},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/APS.2007.4396058},
   Abstract = {Microwave propagation through an eleetrie-field-coupled
             metamaterial lens with a refractive index gradient is
             experimentally investigated. A gradient in the refractive
             index of the metamaterial is introduced by continuous tuning
             of a single parameter in the metamaterial elements.
             Experimental field maps, acquired in a planar waveguide,
             demonstrate that the planar gradient index lens can be used
             to collimate radiation from a line source, thereby forming a
             beam. © 2007 IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/APS.2007.4396058},
   Key = {fds264632}
}

@article{fds264633,
   Author = {Kim, C and Knoernschild, CW and Liu, B and McKay, KS and Lu, F and Kim,
             J},
   Title = {Integrated optics technology for quantum information
             processing in atomic systems},
   Journal = {Conference on Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (QELS) -
             Technical Digest Series},
   Year = {2007},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/QELS.2007.4431252},
   Abstract = {Scalable quantum information processing in ion traps or
             neutral atoms requires highly integrated and functional
             optical systems for qubit manipulation and detection. We
             discuss and demonstrate integrated optics technologies that
             are relevant for this application. © 2006 Optical Society
             of America.},
   Doi = {10.1109/QELS.2007.4431252},
   Key = {fds264633}
}

@article{fds264634,
   Author = {Kim, C and Knoernschild, CW and Liu, B and McKay, KS and Lu, F and Kim,
             J},
   Title = {Integrated optics technology for quantum information
             processing in atomic systems},
   Journal = {Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 2007, CLEO
             2007},
   Year = {2007},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/CLEO.2007.4453475},
   Abstract = {Scalable quantum information processing in ion traps or
             neutral atoms requires highly integrated and functional
             optical systems for qubit manipulation and detection. We
             discuss and demonstrate integrated optics technologies that
             are relevant for this application. © 2007 Optical Society
             of America.},
   Doi = {10.1109/CLEO.2007.4453475},
   Key = {fds264634}
}

@article{fds264656,
   Author = {Huettel, L and Coonley, K and Gustafson, M and Kim, J and Ybarra, G and Collins, L},
   Title = {Experiment, explore, design: A sensor-based introductory ECE
             laboratory},
   Journal = {ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Conference
             Proceedings},
   Year = {2007},
   Abstract = {A new introductory course, Fundamentals of Electrical and
             Computer Engineering (ECE), has been designed to provide a
             rigorous, integrated introduction to the ECE field. The
             course laboratory, described in this paper, both promotes
             concept integration and provides a mechanism by which
             students can explore applications. Consistent with the
             curricular theme of Integrated Sensing and Information
             Processing (ISIP), a microcontroller-based robotic platform
             that includes a suite of sensors was selected as the
             foundation of all laboratory exercises. To develop both the
             students' conceptual understanding and their design skills,
             each laboratory session includes an initial, guided
             experimental component, in which basic concepts are
             investigated, and a subsequent open-ended exploration
             component, during which students are challenged to design a
             robot that completes a real-world task. After students
             complete a series of eight such laboratory sessions, the
             experience culminates in a five-week Integrated Design
             Challenge (IDC). To successfully complete the IDC, students
             have to go beyond the knowledge developed in previous weekly
             laboratory activities, assimilating new knowledge and using
             new sensors or processing data in new ways. The IDC is
             structured to not only emphasize technical accomplishments,
             but also to promote the development of project management,
             team organization, and communication skills. This paper
             elaborates on the philosophy behind the design of the
             laboratory experience, describes specific laboratory
             activities (including the IDC), and provides an assessment
             of the course based on data from several semesters. These
             data indicate that the more integrative, design-oriented,
             sensor-based approach benefits students in a variety of ways
             such as reinforcing fundamental concepts, motivating the
             study of ECE, and providing an opportunity to develop
             creative problem solving skills. In addition, the laboratory
             experience has been shown to have a significant positive
             impact on the achievement of several ABET criteria. ©
             American Society for Engineering Education,
             2007.},
   Key = {fds264656}
}

@article{fds264659,
   Author = {Goodwin, S and Carlson, J and Rogers, S and Kim, J and Kim, C and Brady, D and Stoner, BR},
   Title = {Dynamic aperture optical arrays based on polymeric MEMS
             actuators for large scale coding elements with application
             in visible to MWIR},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical
             Engineering},
   Volume = {6714},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.736074},
   Abstract = {Extension of coded apertures to the MWIR introduces the
             effects of diffraction and other distortions not observed in
             shorter wavelength systems. A new approach is being
             developed under the DARPA/SPO funded LACOSTE (Large Area
             Coverage Optical search-while Track and Engage) program,
             that addresses the effects of diffraction while gaining the
             benefits of coded apertures, thus providing flexibility to
             vary resolution, possess sufficient light gathering power,
             and achieve a wide field of view (WFOV). The photonic MEMS
             "eyelid" array technology is currently being instantiated in
             this DARPA Surveillance program study as the "heart",
             mediating the flow of the incoming signal. However, speed,
             lifetime, packaging and scalability are critical factors for
             the MEMS "eyelid" technology which will determine system
             efficacy as well as military and commercial usefulness. The
             electronic eyelid array is the fundamental addressable unit
             for adaptive code generation and will allow the system to
             multiplex in time for increased resolution. The binary code
             which determines whether a 500μm eyelid is open or closed
             is referred to as the "eyelid code." Groups of eyelids can
             work together as a "super aperture" by virtue of a
             "macro-code." A macro code becomes relevant to describe how
             dispersed eyelids across the 0.19m × 0.19m aperture will
             function together. Dynamic aperture arrays were fabricated
             on both quartz and sapphire substrates for operation in the
             visible to MWIR. Both 8×8 and 40×40 element arrays were
             designed, fabricated, and tested with macro-codes consisting
             of 4, 8, and 16 unique combinations. The die were packaged
             and tested in ambient for robust eyelid operations. The
             point spread function was also measured in an optical setup
             with the eyelid arrays located in the aperture
             plane.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.736074},
   Key = {fds264659}
}

@article{9585692,
   Author = {McKay, KS and Lu, FP and Kim, J and Yi, C and Brown, AS and Hawkins,
             AR},
   Title = {Band discontinuity measurements of the wafer bonded InGaAsSi
             heterojunction},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {90},
   Number = {22},
   Pages = {222111 - 1},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2745254},
   Keywords = {chemical interdiffusion;conduction bands;elemental
             semiconductors;gallium arsenide;III-V semiconductors;indium
             compounds;interface states;semiconductor
             heterojunctions;silicon;thermionic electron emission;valence
             bands;},
   Abstract = {p -type InGaAsSi heterojunctions were fabricated through a
             wafer fusion bonding process. The relative band alignment
             between the two materials at the heterointerface was
             determined using current-voltage (I-V) measurements and
             applying thermionic emission-diffusion theory. The valence
             and conduction band discontinuities for the InGaAsSi
             interface were determined to be 0.48 and -0.1 eV,
             respectively, indicating a type-II band alignment. © 2007
             American Institute of Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.2745254},
   Key = {9585692}
}

@article{073510793305,
   Author = {Huettel, LG and Brown, AS and Coonley, KD and Gustafson, MR and Kim, J and Ybarra, GA and Collins, LM},
   Title = {Fundamentals of ECE: A rigorous, integrated introduction to
             electrical and computer engineering},
   Journal = {IEEE Transactions on Education},
   Volume = {50},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {174-181},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {0018-9359},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TE.2007.900020},
   Keywords = {Curricula;Electronics engineering;Robotics;Students;Teaching;},
   Abstract = {The Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE) Department at
             Duke University, Durham, NC, is undergoing extensive
             curriculum revisions that incorporate novel content,
             organization, and teaching methods. The cornerstone of the
             new curriculum is a theme-based introductory course,
             Fundamentals of ECE. To introduce students to the major
             areas of ECE in their first year of study, this course is
             organized around three concepts: 1) how to interface with
             the physical world; 2) how to transmit energy and
             information; and 3) how to extract, interpret, and analyze
             information. To provide insight and motivation, the course
             is designed to introduce multiple areas of ECE, emphasizing
             how they are interrelated and how they contribute to the
             design and functioning of real-world applications. Also, the
             course must engage its students, many of whom are evaluating
             ECE as a prospective major and career. To achieve these
             goals, the course adopts a unifying theme, tightly couples
             lecture and laboratory exercises, and includes a laboratory
             experience that emphasizes design, integration, and real
             applications. The interactive classroom content and
             laboratory exercises are developed iteratively so that each
             course component supports the other, rather than one being
             dominant and driving the other. As the context focus of the
             laboratory, a robotic platform enables the exploration of a
             broad range of ECE concepts, both independently and
             integrated into an entire system. For their final design
             project, students form small groups, which in turn combine
             into larger teams, to create robots that work together to
             overcome realistic challenges. This paper describes the
             curricular objectives and key course elements that guide
             course development, the resulting content and structure of
             the course, and the assessment data that indicate successful
             achievement of the curricular goals. © 2007
             IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/TE.2007.900020},
   Key = {073510793305}
}

@article{071810582115,
   Author = {Kim, C and Knoernschild, C and Liu, B and Kim, J},
   Title = {Design and characterization of MEMS micromirrors for
             ion-trap quantum computation},
   Journal = {IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum
             Electronics},
   Volume = {13},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {322-329},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {1077-260X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JSTQE.2007.893561},
   Keywords = {Computational methods;Laser beams;Mirrors;Natural
             frequencies;Optical design;Optical materials;Optimization;Quantum
             optics;Transient analysis;},
   Abstract = {To build a large-scale quantum information processor (QIP)
             based on trapped ions or neutral atoms, integrated optical
             systems capable of delivering laser beams to multiple target
             locations are necessary. We consider a beam-shifting element
             consisting of a tilting micromirror located at the focal
             point of a lens, as a fundamental building block for such a
             system. We explore the design space of the micromirrors and
             characterize their dc, frequency, and transient responses.
             The fastest mirror features the resonant frequency of 113
             kHz and the 98% settling time of 11 μs. The design
             tradeoffs are discussed to facilitate further optimization
             of the mirror performance for this application. © 2007
             IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/JSTQE.2007.893561},
   Key = {071810582115}
}

@booklet{Kim07,
   Author = {C. Kim and C. Knoernschild and B. Liu and J.
             Kim},
   Title = {Design and characterization of MEMS micromirrors for
             ion-trap quantum computation},
   Journal = {Ieee Journal Of Selected Topics In Quantum
             Electronics},
   Volume = {13},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {322 -- 329},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {1077-260X},
   Abstract = {To build a large-scale quantum information processor (QIP)
             based on trapped ions or neutral atoms, integrated optical
             systems capable of delivering laser beams to multiple target
             locations are necessary. We consider a beam-shifting element
             consisting of a tilting,micromirror located at the focal
             point of a lens, as a fundamental building block for such a
             system. We explore the design space of the micromirrors and
             characterize their dc, frequency, and transient responses.
             The fastest mirror features the resonant frequency of 113
             kHz and the 98\% settling time of 11 mu s. The design
             tradeoffs are discussed to facilitate further optimization
             of the mirror performance for this application.},
   Key = {Kim07}
}

@article{fds264580,
   Author = {Kim, J and Kim, C and Knoernschild, CW and Liu, B and McKay,
             KS},
   Title = {Integrated optics technology for ion trap based large-scale
             quantum information processor},
   Journal = {Optics InfoBase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {2162-2701},
   Abstract = {Realizing ion trap based large-scale quantum information
             processor requires integrated optics technologies. We design
             and characterize basic optical beam steering system using
             micromirrors as a first step towards constructing
             high-quality functional integrated optics. © 2005 Optical
             Society of America.},
   Key = {fds264580}
}

@article{fds264657,
   Author = {Huettel, L and Brown, A and Collins, L and Coonley, K and Gustafson, M and Kim, J and Ybarra, G},
   Title = {A novel introductory course for teaching the fundamentals of
             electrical and computer engineering},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {The Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE) department at
             Duke University is undergoing extensive curriculum revisions
             incorporating both new content and organization and
             innovative teaching methods. The cornerstone of the new
             curriculum is a theme-based introductory course entitled
             Fundamentals of ECE. To introduce students to the major
             areas of ECE in their first year of study, this course has
             been organized around three concepts: 1) how to interface
             with the physical world, 2) how to transfer/transmit
             energy/information, and 3) how to extract/analyze/interpret
             information. Other goals include illustrating how various
             areas of ECE contribute to the design and functioning of an
             entire system, emphasizing the relevance of course material
             to realworld applications, and capturing the students'
             imagination and creativity. To achieve these goals, the
             course adopts a unifying theme, tightly couples lecture and
             laboratory exercises, and includes a laboratory experience
             that emphasizes design, integration, and real applications.
             The course content and laboratory exercises were developed
             iteratively such that each component supported the other,
             rather than one being dominant and driving the other. A
             robotic platform was selected as the foundation of the
             laboratory experience. This platform enables the exploration
             of a broad range of ECE concepts, both independently and
             integrated into an entire system, is flexible, to encourage
             creative solutions, is capable of being applied to
             real-world challenges, and is easily connected to the
             curricular theme. This paper describes the curricular
             objectives and key course elements which guided the
             development of this course, the process by which the course
             was created, and the resulting content and structure. ©
             American Society for Engineering Education,
             2006.},
   Key = {fds264657}
}

@inproceedings{9274292,
   Author = {Kim, C and Knoernschild, C and Liu, B and Kim, J},
   Title = {Design and characterization of MEMS micromirrors for ion
             trap quantum computation},
   Journal = {IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS and Their
             Applications Conference, 2006},
   Pages = {96-97},
   Address = {Big Sky, MT, USA},
   Year = {2006},
   Keywords = {micro-optomechanical devices;micromirrors;particle
             traps;quantum computing;},
   Abstract = {Quantum computation provides non-trivial advantages over
             classical computation, by enabling fundamentally more
             efficient algorithms for important problems like factoring
             and database search. Free space Gaussian beams controlled by
             MEMS micromirrors were proposed as a means to precisely
             address the ions on a chip. Here, we investigate the design
             space of such elements based on an existing ion-trap
             experimental setup and characterize their performance. This
             design approach can be readily adapted to meet the
             requirements for a variety of other trapped ion or neutral
             atom experiments},
   Key = {9274292}
}

@inproceedings{05319271476,
   Author = {Collins, LM and Huettel, LG and Brown, AS and Ybarra, GA and Holmes, JS and Board, JA and Cummer, SA and Gustafson, MR and Kim, J and Massoud,
             HZ},
   Title = {Theme-based redesign of the duke university ECE curriculum:
             The first steps},
   Journal = {ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Conference
             Proceedings},
   Pages = {14313-14326},
   Address = {Portland, OR, United States},
   Year = {2005},
   Keywords = {Students;Curricula;Planning;Data processing;Electronic
             equipment;Benchmarking;},
   Abstract = {Undergraduates in Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE)
             at Duke University have benefited from the combination of
             curricular flexibility and rigorous coursework. The current
             curriculum is further limited in that the core courses do
             not offer a vertically integrated thematic introduction to
             ECE as a discipline nor are they reflective of the broader
             scope of ECE field of study. The course has streamlined
             structure, which is consistent with an educational theme.
             Results from Educational BEnchmark Inc. (EBI) survey of
             students confirmed that they too perceive the oppurtinities
             for improvement in curriculum.},
   Key = {05319271476}
}

@article{8841853,
   Author = {Kim, J and Pau, S and Ma, Z and McLellan, HR and Gates, JV and Kornblit, A and Slusher, RE and Jopson, RM and Kang, I and Dinu, M},
   Title = {System design for large-scale ion trap quantum information
             processor},
   Journal = {Quantum Information and Computation},
   Volume = {5},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {515-537},
   Year = {2005},
   ISSN = {1533-7146},
   Keywords = {hardware-software codesign;parallel processing;particle
             traps;quantum computing;},
   Abstract = {We present a detailed system design and available technology
             choices for building a large scale (> 100 qubits) ion
             trap quantum information processor (QIP). The system design
             is based on technologies that are within reach today, and
             utilizes single-instruction-on-multiple-data (SIMD)
             principles to re-use resources that cannot be duplicated
             easily. The system engineering principles adopted highlight
             various design tradeoffs in the QIP design and serve as a
             guideline to find design spaces for a much larger QIP. ©
             Rinton Press.},
   Key = {8841853}
}

@article{fds264630,
   Author = {Kim, J and Nuzman, CJ and Kumar, B and Lieuwen, DF and Kraus, JS and Weiss,
             A and Lichtenwalner, CP and Papazian, AR and Frahm, RE and Gates,
             JV},
   Title = {Training 1100 × 1100-port MEMS-based optical crossconnect
             switches},
   Journal = {OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series},
   Volume = {96 A},
   Pages = {1269-},
   Year = {2004},
   ISSN = {1094-5695},
   Abstract = {We report 1100 × 1100-port optical crossconnect switch
             using micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology. The
             challenge of generating the database for each connection was
             addressed by advanced mathematical modeling, streamlined
             learning process and efficient hill-climbing
             algorithm.},
   Key = {fds264630}
}

@article{04318292916,
   Author = {Neilson, DT and Frahm, R and Kolodner, P and Bolle, CA and Ryf, R and Kim,
             J and Papazian, AR and Nuzman, CJ and Gasparyan, A and Basavanhally, NR and Aksyuk, VA and Gates, JV},
   Title = {256 × 256 port optical cross-connect subsystem},
   Journal = {Journal of Lightwave Technology},
   Volume = {22},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1499-1508},
   Year = {2004},
   ISSN = {0733-8724},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JLT.2004.829223},
   Keywords = {Optical interconnects;Optical communication
             equipment;Microelectromechanical devices;Optical design;Fits
             and tolerances;Computer simulation;Crosstalk;Microlenses;Photoresists;Insertion
             losses;Laser beams;Optical switches;},
   Abstract = {This paper describes the subsystem design and performance of
             a 256 × 256-port micromechanical beam-steering optical
             cross-connect with 1.33-dB average loss, which can provide
             238 × 238-port cross-connect with a maximum loss of less
             than 2 dB. This paper describes the design chosen and
             analyzes the tolerance ranges required to produce low loss
             and simulate the expected loss distribution of the fabric.
             The method of establishing and testing the connections is
             also described. The simulation is compared with the measured
             system, and the expected and measured static and dynamic
             crosstalk are compared. © 2004 IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/JLT.2004.829223},
   Key = {04318292916}
}

@article{04058002599,
   Author = {Kozhevnikov, M and Ryf, R and Neilson, DT and Kolodner, P and Bolle, CA and Papazian, AR and Kim, J and Gates, JV},
   Title = {Micromechanical Optical Crossconnect with 4-F Relay Imaging
             Optics},
   Journal = {IEEE Photonics Technology Letters},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {275-277},
   Year = {2004},
   ISSN = {1041-1135},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LPT.2003.819416},
   Keywords = {Composite micromechanics;Optical interconnects;Imaging
             techniques;Optical switches;Bandwidth;Optical fibers;Optical
             collimators;Optical instrument lenses;Mirrors;Arrays;},
   Abstract = {We describe a novel optical configuration for a
             microelectromechanical system (MEMS)-based beam-steering
             optical crossconnect. It incorporates 4-F imaging optics to
             relay light to the MEMS chip. This makes the system more
             tolerant to fiber-microlens misalignment. The use of a relay
             plus Fourier lens and patterned mirror removes the skew
             angle on the MEMS array and reduces the maximum angle for
             the MEMS mirror. A prototype 110 × 110 crossconnect
             employing imaging optics was constructed to validate the
             approach. This achieved a mean fiber-to-fiber insertion loss
             of 2.9 dB.},
   Doi = {10.1109/LPT.2003.819416},
   Key = {04058002599}
}

@article{04158110679,
   Author = {Olkhovets, A and Phanaphat, P and Nuzman, C and Shin, DJ and Lichtenwalner, C and Kozhevnikov, M and Kim, J},
   Title = {Performance of an Optical Switch Based on 3-D MEMS
             Crossconnect},
   Journal = {IEEE Photonics Technology Letters},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {780-782},
   Year = {2004},
   ISSN = {1041-1135},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LPT.2004.823703},
   Keywords = {Microelectromechanical devices;Feedback control;Switching;Synchronization;Optical
             communication equipment;Optical fibers;Internet;Network
             protocols;Electric potential;Integration;Algorithms;},
   Abstract = {We demonstrate a fully functional microelectrome-chanical
             system-based optical crossconnect switch with advanced
             close-loop feedback control architecture for the mirrors.
             The system architecture was designed for handling multiple
             connections in parallel. The switch features rapid
             restoration of multiple connections at the switching element
             level opening up the path to synchronous optical
             network-like performance for mesh networks, and power
             equalization capability for each port.},
   Doi = {10.1109/LPT.2004.823703},
   Key = {04158110679}
}

@article{fds323307,
   Author = {Gasparyan, A and Shea, H and Arney, S and Aksyuk, V and Simon, ME and Pardo, F and Chan, HB and Kim, J and Gates, J and Kraus, JS and Goyal, S and Carr, D and Kleiman, R},
   Title = {Drift-Free, 1000 G mechanical shock tolerant single-crystal
             silicon two-axis MEMS tilting mirrors in a 1000x1000-port
             optical crossconnect},
   Journal = {Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, Technical Digest
             Series},
   Volume = {2003-January},
   Pages = {PD36.1-PD36.3},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {1557527466},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/OFC.2003.316014},
   Abstract = {© 2003 OSA. We report drift-free two-axis tilting MEMS
             mirrors fabricated from single crystal silicon. These
             micromirrors survive 1000 G mechanical shocks and exhibit
             angular stability better than 4 millidegrees under simulated
             office vibrations. Two hermetically sealed mirror arrays
             were used to build a low-loss nonblocking 1000x1000-port
             optical cross-connect switch.},
   Doi = {10.1109/OFC.2003.316014},
   Key = {fds323307}
}

@inproceedings{8081197,
   Author = {Gasparyan, A and Shea, H and Arney, S and Aksyuk, V and Simon, ME and Pardo, F and Chan, HB and Kim, J and Gates, J and Goyal, S and Kleiman,
             R},
   Title = {On the road to reliable MEMS},
   Journal = {Conference Proceedings - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society
             Annual Meeting-LEOS},
   Volume = {2},
   Pages = {626-627},
   Address = {Tucson, AZ, USA},
   Year = {2003},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LEOS.2003.1252956},
   Keywords = {creep;electric properties;fatigue;micromechanical
             devices;micromirrors;optical films;optical materials;stress
             relaxation;vibrations;},
   Abstract = {Dielectric charging, mechanical creep and fatigue of
             materials, stresses in thin films, sensitivity to mechanical
             vibrations and shock is but a partial list of issues that
             may arise on the road to reliable MEMS. Major electrical and
             mechanical phenomenon that may limit the lifetime or
             functionality of MEMS devices will be discussed along with
             the design rules, materials choices and reliability vs.
             functionality tradeoffs that are required for designing MEMS
             for high performance and reliability.},
   Key = {8081197}
}

@inproceedings{7978743,
   Author = {Gasparyan, A and Shea, H and Arney, S and Aksyuk, V and Simon, ME and Pardo, F and Chan, HB and Kim, J and Gates, J and Kraus, JS and Goyal, S and Carr, D and Kleiman, R},
   Title = {Drift-Free, 1000G Mechanical Shock Tolerant Single-Crystal
             Silicon Two-Axis MEMS Tilting Mirrors in a 1000×1000-Port
             Optical Crossconnect},
   Journal = {Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, Technical Digest
             Series},
   Volume = {86},
   Pages = {908-910},
   Address = {Atlanta, GA, USA},
   Year = {2003},
   Keywords = {elemental semiconductors;hermetic seals;mechanical
             stability;micromechanical devices;micromirrors;optical
             arrays;optical design techniques;optical fabrication;optical
             materials;optical switches;silicon;},
   Abstract = {We report drift-free two-axis tilting MEMS mirrors
             fabricated from single crystal silicon. These micromirrors
             survive 1000G mechanical shocks and exhibit angular
             stability better than 4 millidegrees under simulated office
             vibrations. Two hermetically sealed mirror arrays were used
             to build a low-loss non-blocking 1000×1000-port optical
             cross-connect switch. © Optical Society of
             America.},
   Key = {7978743}
}

@article{03237496005,
   Author = {Aksyuk, VA and Pardo, F and Carr, D and Greywall, D and Chan, HB and Simon,
             ME and Gasparyan, A and Shea, H and Lifton, V and Bolle, C and Arney, S and Frahm, R and Paczkowski, M and Haueis, M and Ryf, R and Neilson, DT and Kim, J and Giles, CR and Bishop, D},
   Title = {Beam-steering micromirrors for large optical
             cross-connects},
   Journal = {Journal of Lightwave Technology},
   Volume = {21},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {634-642},
   Year = {2003},
   ISSN = {0733-8724},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JLT.2003.811792},
   Keywords = {Optical fibers;Optical switches;Light transmission;Microactuators;Micromachining;Fabrication;},
   Abstract = {This paper describes Si-micromachined two-axis beam-steering
             micromirrors and their performance in 256 × 256-and 1024 ×
             1024-port large optical cross-connects (OXCs). The
             high-reflectivity wavelength-independent mirrors are
             electrostatically actuated; capable of large, continuous,
             controlled, dc tilt in any direction at moderate actuation
             voltages; and allow setting times of a few milliseconds.
             Packaged two-dimensional (2-D) arrays containing
             independently addressable identical 256 and 1296 mirrors are
             used to build fully functional bitrate and
             wavelength-independent single-stage, low-insertion-loss,
             single-mode fiber OCX fabrics.},
   Doi = {10.1109/JLT.2003.811792},
   Key = {03237496005}
}

@inproceedings{7687146,
   Author = {Pardo, F and Aksyuk, VA and Arney, S and Bair, H and Basavanhally, NR and Bishop, DJ and Bogart, GR and Bolle, CA and Bower, JE and Carr, D and Chan,
             HB and Cirelli, R and Ferry, E and Frahm, R and Gasparyan, A and Gates, JV and Giles, CR and Gomez, L and Goyal, S and Greywall, DS and Haueis, M and Keller, RC and Kim, J and Klemens, FP and Kolodner, P and Kornblit, A and Kroupenkine, T and Lai, W and Lifton, V and Liu, JQ and Low, Y and Mansfield, W and Marom, D and Miner, JF and Neilson, DT and Paczkowski,
             M and Pai, C-S and Ramirez, A and Ramsey, D and Rogers, S and Ryf, R and Scotti, R and Shea, H and Simon, ME et al.},
   Title = {Optical MEMS devices for telecom systems},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical
             Engineering},
   Volume = {5116 II},
   Pages = {435-444},
   Address = {Maspalomas, Gran Canaria, Spain},
   Year = {2003},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.499075},
   Keywords = {micro-optics;micromachining;multiplexing equipment;optical
             communication equipment;optical fabrication;optical
             filters;optical switches;silicon;silicon-on-insulator;wavelength
             division multiplexing;},
   Abstract = {As telecom networks increase in complexity there is a need
             for systems capable of managing numerous optical signals.
             Many of the channel-manipulation functions can be done more
             effectively in optical domain. MEMS devices are especially
             well suited for these applications since they can offer a
             large number of degrees of freedom in a limited space, thus
             providing high levels of optical integration. We have
             designed, fabricated and tested optical MEMS devices at the
             core of optical cross connects, channelized filters and
             wavelength-selective switches based on different fabrication
             technologies such as polysilicon surface micromachining and
             single crystal SOI. We show specific examples of these
             devices, discussing design trade-offs between technologies,
             fabrication requirements and optical performance.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.499075},
   Key = {7687146}
}

@article{03467720156,
   Author = {Kim, J and Nuzman, CJ and Kumar, B and Lieuwen, DF and Kraus, JS and Weiss,
             A and Lichtenwalner, CP and Papazian, AR and Frahm, RE and Basavanhally,
             NR and Ramsey, DA and Aksyuk, VA and Pardo, F and Simon, ME and Lifton, V and Chan, HB and Haueis, M and Gasparyan, A and Shea, HR and Arney, S and Bolle, CA and Kolodner, PR and Ryf, R and Neilson, DT and Gates,
             JV},
   Title = {1100 × 1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB
             maximum loss},
   Journal = {IEEE Photonics Technology Letters},
   Volume = {15},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {1537-1539},
   Year = {2003},
   ISSN = {1041-1135},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LPT.2003.818653},
   Keywords = {Microelectromechanical devices;Insertion losses;Optical
             design;Optical fibers;Mirrors;Microlenses;Systems
             analysis;},
   Abstract = {We present a microelectromechanical systems-based beam
             steering optical crossconnect switch core with port count
             exceeding 1100, featuring mean fiber-to-fiber insertion loss
             of 2.1 dB and maximum insertion loss of 4.0 dB across all
             possible connections. The challenge of efficient measurement
             and optimization of all possible connections was met by an
             automated testing facility. The resulting connections
             feature optical loss stability of better than 0.2 dB over
             days, without any feedback control under normal laboratory
             conditions.},
   Doi = {10.1109/LPT.2003.818653},
   Key = {03467720156}
}

@article{03187452077,
   Author = {Aksyuk, VA and Arney, S and Basavanhally, NR and Bishop, DJ and Bolle,
             CA and Chang, CC and Frahm, R and Gasparyan, A and Gates, JV and George, R and Giles, CR and Kim, J and Kolodner, PR and Lee, TM and Neilson, DT and Nijander, C and Nuzman, CJ and Paczkowski, M and Papazian, AR and Pardo,
             F and Ramsey, DA and Ryf, R and Scotti, RE and Shea, H and Simon,
             ME},
   Title = {238 × 238 micromechanical optical cross
             connect},
   Journal = {IEEE Photonics Technology Letters},
   Volume = {15},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {587-589},
   Year = {2003},
   ISSN = {1041-1135},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LPT.2003.809261},
   Keywords = {Mirrors;Insertion losses;Microelectromechanical
             devices;Light propagation;Diffraction gratings;Optical
             design;Optical instrument lenses;Rayleigh scattering;Optical
             coatings;},
   Abstract = {This letter describes a 238 × 238 beam-steering optical
             cross connect constructed using surface micromachined
             mirrors. Its innovative optical configuration resulted in
             superior optical performance, achieving a mean
             fiber-to-fiber insertion loss of 1.33 dB and a maximum
             insertion loss for all 56 644 connections of 2
             dB.},
   Doi = {10.1109/LPT.2003.809261},
   Key = {03187452077}
}

@article{7756291,
   Author = {Jin, S and Mavoori, H and Kim, J and Aksyuk, VA},
   Title = {Control of microelectromechanical systems membrane curvature
             by silicon ion implantation},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {83},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {2321-2323},
   Year = {2003},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1611639},
   Keywords = {elemental semiconductors;gold;integrated circuit
             metallisation;ion implantation;micro-optics;micromechanical
             devices;micromirrors;silicon;},
   Abstract = {A study was performed on control of microelectromechanical
             systems (MEMS) membrane curvature by silicon ion
             implantation. The Si+ ion implantations were applied at dose
             levels of 0.4-5×1016/cm 2 into the gold metallization layer
             to reduce the mirror curvature. It was found that the
             curvature change as well as the temperature dependence were
             dependent on the implantation dose.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.1611639},
   Key = {7756291}
}

@article{03297551364,
   Author = {Kozhevnikov, M and Basavanhally, NR and Weld, JD and Low, YL and Kolodner, P and Bolle, CA and Ryf, R and Papazian, AR and Olkhovets, A and Pardo, F and Kim, J and Neilson, DT and Aksyuk, VA and Gates,
             JV},
   Title = {Compact 64 × 64 micromechanical optical cross
             connect},
   Journal = {IEEE Photonics Technology Letters},
   Volume = {15},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {993-995},
   Year = {2003},
   ISSN = {1041-1135},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LPT.2003.813408},
   Keywords = {Composite micromechanics;Micromachining;Mirrors;Arrays;Optical
             fibers;Fourier transforms;},
   Abstract = {This letter describes a 64 × 64 beam steering optical cross
             connect constructed using surface micromachined mirrors. It
             used a curved mirror as a Fourier transform element and to
             fold the optical system. Both micromechanical switches
             mirror arrays are fabricated on a single chip and packaged
             in a single package. The switch fabric size, at 100 × 120
             × 20 mm, is compatible with mounting on a standard circuit
             card. The cross connect achieves a mean fiber-to-fiber
             insertion loss of 1.9 dB.},
   Doi = {10.1109/LPT.2003.813408},
   Key = {03297551364}
}

@inproceedings{7581603,
   Author = {Ryf, R. and Neilson, D.T. and Kolodner, P.R. and Kim, J. and Hickey, J.P. and Carr, D. and Aksyuk, V. and Greywall, D.S. and Pardo, F. and Bolle, C. and Frahm, R. and Basavanhally,
             N.R. and Ramsey, D.A. and George, R. and Kraus, J. and Lichtenwalner, C. and Papazian, R. and Nuzman, C. and Weiss,
             A. and Kumar, B. and Lieuwen, D. and Gates, J. and Shea,
             H.R. and Gasparyan, A. and Lifton, V.A. and Prybyla, J.A. and Goyal, S. and Ruel, R. and Nijander, C. and Arney, S. and Bishop, D.J. and Giles, C.R. and Pau, S. and Mansfield,
             W.M. and Jin, S. and Lai, W.Y. and Barr, D.L. and Cirelli,
             R.A. and Bogart, G.R. and Teffeau, K. and Vella, R. and Ramirez, A. and Klemens, F.P. and Liu, J.Q. and Rosamilia,
             J.M. and Soh, H.T. and Lee, T.C.},
   Title = {Multi-service optical node based on low-loss MEMS optical
             crossconnect switch},
   Journal = {Optical Fiber Communications Conference. (OFC).
             Postconference Technical Digest (IEEE Cat.
             No.02CH37339)},
   Volume = {vol.1},
   Pages = {410 - 11},
   Address = {Anaheim, CA, USA},
   Year = {2002},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/OFC.2002.1036450},
   Keywords = {equalisers;micro-optics;micromechanical devices;microswitches;multiplexing
             equipment;optical losses;optical switches;telecommunication
             channels;},
   Abstract = {In summary, a multi-service node based on an optical MEMS
             crossconnect switch with 1.33 dB mean loss has been
             demonstrated. While a simple 16-wavelength,
             channel-equalizing add/drop multiplexer was demonstrated as
             a possible node configuration, a broad range of new
             functions can be implemented by connecting conventional and
             different optical components to the low-loss crossconnect
             switch},
   Key = {7581603}
}

@inproceedings{7596833,
   Author = {Aksyuk, V.A. and Arney, S. and Basavanhally, N.R. and Bishop, D.J. and Bolle, C.A. and Chang, C.C. and Frahm, R. and Gasparyan, A. and Gates, J.V. and George, R. and Giles,
             C.R. and Kim, J. and Kolodner, P.R. and Lee, T.M. and Neilson, D.T. and Nijander, C. and Nuzman, C.J. and Paczkowski, M. and Papazian, A.R. and Ryf, R. and Shea, H. and Simon, M.E.},
   Title = {238×238 surface micromachined optical crossconnect
             with 2dB maximum loss},
   Journal = {Optical Fiber Communications Conference. (OFC).
             Postconference Technical Digest. Postdeadline Papers (IEEE
             Cat. No.02CH37339)},
   Volume = {vol.2},
   Pages = {9 - 1},
   Address = {Anaheim, CA, USA},
   Year = {2002},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/OFC.2002.1036769},
   Keywords = {beam steering;micro-optics;micromachining;micromechanical
             devices;mirrors;optical communication equipment;optical
             fibre losses;optical interconnections;optical
             switches;},
   Abstract = {A fully provisioned 238×238 beam-steering optical
             crossconnect constructed using surface micromachined mirrors
             is described. The mean fiber-to-fiber insertion loss of the
             fabric is 1.33dB and the maximum insertion loss is
             2dB},
   Key = {7596833}
}

@article{fds264625,
   Author = {Ryf, R and Neilson, DT and Kolodner, PR and Kim, J and Hickey, JP and Carr,
             D and Aksyuk, V and Greywall, DS and Pardo, F and Bolle, C and Frahm, R and Basavanhally, NR and Ramsey, DA and George, R and Kraus, J and Lichtenwalner, C and Papazian, R and Nuzman, C and Weiss, A and Kumar,
             B and Lieuwen, D and Gates, J and Shea, HR and Gasparyan, A and Lifton, VA and Prybyla, JA and Goyal, S and Ruel, R and Nijander, C and Arney, S and Bishop, DJ and Giles, CR and Pau, S and Mansfield, WM and Jin, S and Lai,
             WY and Barr, DL and Cirelli, RA and Bogart, GR and Teffeau, K and Vella, R and Ramirez, A and Klemens, FP and Liu, JQ et al.},
   Title = {Multi-service optical node based on low-losers MEMS optical
             crossconnect switch},
   Journal = {Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, Technical Digest
             Series},
   Volume = {70},
   Pages = {410-411},
   Year = {2002},
   Abstract = {A multi-service node based on an optical
             microelectromechanical (MEMS) crossconnect switch with 1.33
             dB mean loss was demonstrated. Low loss optical switches
             could be combined with other optical components to build
             highly adaptable multiservice devices. A flexible Add/Drop
             multiplexer was implemented by connecting the output ports
             of two 16-channel freespace grating-based demultiplexing to
             switch ports.},
   Key = {fds264625}
}

@inproceedings{02517278614,
   Author = {Aksyuk, VA and Arney, S and Basavanhally, NR and Bishop, DJ and Bolle,
             CA and Chang, CC and Frahm, R and Gasparyan, A and Gates, JV and George, R and Giles, CR and Kim, J and Kolodner, PR and Lee, TM and Neilson, DT and Nijander, C and Nuzman, CJ and Paczkowski, M and Papazian, AR and Ryf,
             R and Shea, H and Simon, ME},
   Title = {238×238 surface micromachined optical crossconnect with 2dB
             maximum loss},
   Journal = {Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, Technical Digest
             Series},
   Volume = {70},
   Pages = {FB91-FB93},
   Address = {Anaheim, CA, United States},
   Year = {2002},
   Keywords = {Optical switches;Optical fibers;Micromachining;Mirrors;Microlenses;},
   Abstract = {A microelectromechanical system (MEMS)-based 238 x 238
             micromachined optical crossconnect switch was discussed. The
             switch utilizes surface micromachined two-axis tilt mirrors
             which exhibit a curvature-induced loss of < 0.3 dB. Two
             fiber arrays with attached collimating microlenses were used
             to project and receive beams from two 2-dimensional arrays
             of two-axis electrostatic micromirrors. The mean
             fiber-to-fiber insertion loss of the fabric was found to be
             1.33 dB and the maximum insertion loss to be 2
             dB.},
   Key = {02517278614}
}

@article{fds264627,
   Author = {Kim, J and Papazian, AR and Frahm, RE and Gates, JV},
   Title = {Performance of large scale MEMS-based optical crossconnect
             switches},
   Journal = {Conference Proceedings - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society
             Annual Meeting-LEOS},
   Volume = {2},
   Pages = {411-412},
   Year = {2002},
   Abstract = {A three-dimensional MEMS optical crossconnect (OXC) switch
             fabric is described. The fabric design has two critical
             performance characteristics, one is the insertion loss and
             loss variation across possible connections, and another is
             the stability of optical connections over time. The
             technology is scaleable to much larger size switch
             fabrics.},
   Key = {fds264627}
}

@inproceedings{7431699,
   Author = {Ryf, R. and Bernasconi, P. and Kolodner, P. and Kim, J. and Hickey, J.P. and Carr, D. and Pardo, F. and Bolle, C. and Frahm, R. and Basavanhally, N. and Yoh, C. and Ramsey, D. and George, R. and Kraus, J. and Lichtenwalner, C. and Papazian, R. and Gates, J. and Shea, H.R. and Gasparyan, A. and Muratov, V. and Griffith, J.E. and Prybyla, J.A. and Goyal, S. and White, C.D. and Lin, M.T. and Ruel, R. and Nijander, C. and Amey, S. and Neilson, D.T. and Bishop, D.J. and Pau, S. and Nuzman, C. and Weis, A. and Kumar, B. and Lieuwen, D. and Aksyuk, V. and Greywall, D.S. and Lee, T.C. and Soh, H.T. and Mansfield, W.M. and Jin, S. and Lai, W.Y. and Huggins, H.A. and Barr, D.L. and Cirelli, R.A. and Bogart, G.R. and Teffeau, K. and Vella, R. and Mavoori, H. and Ramirez, A. and Ciampa, N.A. and Klemens, F.P. and Morris, M.D. and Boone, T. and Liu, J.Q. and Rosamilia, J.M. and Giies, C.R.},
   Title = {Scalable wavelength-selective crossconnect switch based on
             MEMS and planar waveguides},
   Journal = {Proceedings - Post-Deadline Papers. 27th European Conference
             on Optical Communication (Cat. No.01TH8551)},
   Volume = {vol.6},
   Pages = {76 - 7},
   Address = {Amsterdam, Netherlands},
   Year = {2001},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ECOC.2001.989057},
   Keywords = {micro-optics;micromechanical devices;mirrors;multiplexing
             equipment;optical arrays;optical planar waveguides;photonic
             switching systems;silicon-on-insulator;},
   Abstract = {A 72×72 wavelength-selective crossconnect switch, that
             is scalable to 1296×1296 with current technology, is
             presented. Silica-on-silicon wavelength multiplexers with
             integrated monitoring taps and a MEMS micromirror array were
             assembled in a hybrid 3D beam steering crossconnect having
             20 dB insertion loss, 100 GHz channel spacing and 30 GHz
             passbands},
   Key = {7431699}
}

@book{KimBook2001,
   Author = {Kim, J. and Somani, S. and Yamamoto, Y.},
   Title = {Nonclassical Light from Semiconductor Lasers and
             LEDs},
   Publisher = {Springer-Verlag},
   Address = {Berlin Heidelberg},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {KimBook2001}
}

@inproceedings{7167731,
   Author = {Ryf, R and Kim, J and Hickey, JP and Gnauck, A and Carr, D and Pardo, F and Bolle, C and Frahm, R and Basavanhally, N and Yoh, C and Ramsey, D and Bole, R and George, R and Kraus, J and Lichtenwalner, C and Papazian, R and Gates, J and Shea, HR and Gasparyan, A and Muratov, V and Griffith, JE and Prybyla, JA and Goyal, S and White, CD and Lin, MT and Ruel, R and Nijander, C and Arney, S and Neilson, DT and Bishop, DJ and Kolodner, P and Pau, S and Nuzman, C and Wels, A and Kumar, B and Lieuwen, D and Aksyuk, V and Greywall, DS and Lee, TC and Soh, HT and Mansfield, WM and Jin, S and Lai,
             WY and Huggins, HA and Barr, DL et al.},
   Title = {1296-port MEMS transparent optical crossconnect with
             2.07Petabit/s switch capacity},
   Journal = {Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, Technical Digest
             Series},
   Volume = {54},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {PD28/1-PD28/3},
   Address = {Anaheim, CA, USA},
   Year = {2001},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/OFC.2001.927572},
   Keywords = {micro-optics;micromechanical devices;optical
             crosstalk;optical fibre losses;optical fibre
             networks;transparency;wavelength division
             multiplexing;},
   Abstract = {A 1296-port MEMS transparent optical crossconnect with
             5.1dB+/-1.1dB insertion loss at 1550nm is reported. Measured
             worst-case optical crosstalk in a fabric was ñ38dB and
             nominal switching rise/fall times were 5msec. A
             2.07Petabit/s switch capacity was verified upon
             cross-connecting a forty-channel by 40Gb/s DWDM data stream
             through a prototype fabric.},
   Key = {7167731}
}

@inproceedings{02287012762,
   Author = {Ryf, R and Bernasconi, P and Kolodner, P and Kim, J and Hickey, JP and Carr, D and Pardo, F and Bolle, C and Frahm, R and Basavanhally, N and Yoh,
             C and Ramsey, D and George, R and Kraus, J and Lichtenwalner, C and Papazian, R and Gates, J and Shea, HR and Gasparyan, A and Muratov, V and Griffith, JE and Prybyla, JA and Goyal, S and White, CD and Lin, MT and Ruel, R and Nijander, C and Arney, S and Neilson, DT and Bishop, DJ and Pau, S and Nuzman, C and Weis, A and Kumar, B and Lieuwen, D and Aksyuk, V and Greywall, DS and Lee, TC and Soh, HT and Mansfield, WM and Jin, S and Lai,
             WY and Huggins, HA and Barr, DL et al.},
   Title = {Scalable wavelength-selective crossconnect switch based on
             MEMS and planar waveguides},
   Journal = {European Conference on Optical Communication,
             ECOC},
   Volume = {6},
   Pages = {76-77},
   Address = {Amsterdam},
   Year = {2001},
   Keywords = {Optical switches;Microelectromechanical devices;Waveguides;Diffraction
             gratings;Microlenses;Silicon wafers;Mirrors;Silicon on
             insulator technology;Demultiplexing;Crosstalk;Routers;},
   Abstract = {A 72×72 wavelength-selective crossconnect switch that was
             scalable to 1296×1296 with available planar waveguide and
             MEMS technology, was demonstrated. Silica-on-silicon
             wavelength multiplexers with integrated monitoring taps and
             a MEMS micromirror array were assembled in a hybrid three
             dimensional beam steering crossconnects. The switch operated
             penalty free at 10 Gbit/s and provided integrated power
             monitoring taps.},
   Key = {02287012762}
}

@article{6693233,
   Author = {Benson, O and Kim, J and Kan, H and Yamamoto, Y},
   Title = {Simultaneous Coulomb blockade for electrons and holes in p-n
             junctions: observation of Coulomb staircase and turnstile
             operation},
   Journal = {Physica E: Low-Dimensional Systems and Nanostructures},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {5-12},
   Year = {2000},
   ISSN = {1386-9477},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1386-9477(00)00123-5},
   Keywords = {aluminium compounds;Coulomb blockade;gallium arsenide;III-V
             semiconductors;mesoscopic systems;Monte Carlo methods;p-n
             junctions;resonant tunnelling;semiconductor quantum
             wells;},
   Abstract = {The Coulomb blockade effect in a mesoscopic double-barrier
             p-i-n junction is reported. The electron and hole injection
             into the central QW of a p-n junction is achieved via
             resonant tunneling. We present a theoretical model that
             describes the device operation. When the device is biased
             with a constant voltage source the model predicts the
             observation of Coulomb staircase in the current-voltage
             characteristics. When an additional square wave modulation
             signal is applied, turnstile operation is achieved. The
             experimental evidence for Coulomb staircase effect and
             turnstile operation is presented.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S1386-9477(00)00123-5},
   Key = {6693233}
}

@inproceedings{6807787,
   Author = {Kim, J and Bolle, CA and Boie, RA and Gates, JV and Ramirez, AG and Jin, S and Bishop, DJ},
   Title = {Integration and packaging of MEMS relays},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical
             Engineering},
   Volume = {4019},
   Pages = {333-341},
   Address = {Paris, France},
   Year = {2000},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.382263},
   Keywords = {chip scale packaging;contact resistance;electrostatic
             actuators;flip-chip devices;microassembling;micromachining;relays;},
   Abstract = {Micromachined relays provide switching solutions that are
             advantageous over existing technology in many aspects of
             device performance. In order to fully benefit from the MEMS
             solution in switching, however, a general integration
             strategy to various integrated circuit (IC) electronics
             needs to be developed. We describe the design and test of
             such an integration scheme utilizing flip-chip bonding of
             MEMS relays onto another substrate carrying the remainder of
             the circuitry. Individual devices consist of cantilever-like
             mechanical structure carrying a mobile electrode that is
             electrostatically actuated. The presence of a second
             substrate in the flip-chip bonded geometry provides the
             unique possibility of placing electrostatic actuators on
             both sides of the cantilever, thereby allowing active
             turn-on and turn-off of the relay device. The fabricated
             relays show switching time as short as 10 μs, actuation
             voltages as low as 25 V, on-state DC resistance as low as 2
             Ω and open-state DC resistance as large as 1013 Ω. The
             device is assembled and packaged using a single-step
             flip-chip bonding process. Upon flip-chip bonding, the MEMS
             devices are completely enclosed in a small cavity between
             the two substrates that is sealed by a ring-type solder
             seal. Such technique provides the opportunity for the
             integrated chip to be further packaged using conventional
             cost-effective packaging techniques.},
   Key = {6807787}
}

@inproceedings{7245598,
   Author = {Oliver, WD and Liu, RC and Kim, J and Maitre, X and Di Carlo and L and Yamamoto, Y},
   Title = {Quantum electron optics and its applications},
   Journal = {Quantum Mesoscopic Phenomena and Mesoscopic Devices in
             Microelectronics},
   Pages = {457-466},
   Address = {Ankara, Turkey},
   Year = {2000},
   Keywords = {electron correlations;electron optics;electron-phonon
             interactions;mesoscopic systems;quantum interference
             phenomena;},
   Abstract = {We present two recent experiments that use current
             fluctuation measurements to probe the second-order electron
             correlation function (fourth-order in wavefunction
             amplitude): an intensity interferometry experiment called
             the Hanbury Brown and Twiss (1956) experiment, and an
             electron collision experiment. Finally, we discuss how these
             two experiments can be used to characterize the unique
             behavior of Bell's state entangled electrons in a proposed
             electron bunching experiment. Throughout the paper, we
             consider only ballistic systems, in which the inelastic
             phonon scattering and the elastic ionized impurity
             scattering lengths axe much longer than the characteristic
             size of the system at cryogenic temperatures (typically 1.5
             K in our experiments). The screening length (typically
             λsc≈5 nm) is assumed to be much smaller than the
             Fermi wavelength (typically λF≈40 mn) so that
             Coulomb interactions can be neglected. We assume ideal
             thermal reservoirs, independent transport channels, and
             transmission probabilities independent of the applied bias
             voltage. This approach directly follows the coherent
             scattering formalism},
   Key = {7245598}
}

@article{99034597454,
   Author = {Kim, J. and Benson, O. and Kan, H. and Yamamoto,
             Y.},
   Title = {Single-photon turnstile device},
   Journal = {Nature},
   Volume = {397},
   Number = {6719},
   Pages = {500 - 503},
   Year = {1999},
   ISSN = {0028-0836},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/17295},
   Abstract = {Quantum-mechanical interference between indistinguishable
             quantum particles profoundly affects their arrival time and
             counting statistics. Photons from a thermal source tend to
             arrive together (bunching) and their counting distribution
             is broader than the classical Poisson limit. Electrons from
             a thermal source, on the other hand, tend to arrive
             separately (anti-bunching) and their counting distribution
             is narrower than the classical Poisson limit. Manipulation
             of quantum-statistical properties of photons with various
             non-classical sources is at the heart of quantum optics:
             features normally characteristic of fermions - such as
             anti-bunching, sub-poissonian and squeezing (sub-shot-noise)
             behaviours - have now been demonstrated. A single-photon
             turnstile device was proposed to realize an effect similar
             to conductance quantization. Only one electron can occupy a
             single state owing to the Pauli exclusion principle and, for
             an electron waveguide that supports only one propagating
             transverse mode, this leads to the quantization of
             electrical conductance: the conductance of each propagating
             mode is then given by G<sub>Q</sub> = e<sup>2</sup>/h (where
             e is the charge of the electron and h is Planck's constant;
             ref. 9). Here we report experimental progress towards
             generation of a similar flow of single photons with a well
             regulated time interval.},
   Key = {99034597454}
}

@article{99044646399,
   Author = {Takeuchi, S and Kim, J and Yamamoto, Y and Hogue,
             HH},
   Title = {Development of a high-quantum-efficiency single-photon
             counting system},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {74},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {1063-1065},
   Year = {1999},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.123482},
   Abstract = {A high-quantum-efficiency single-photon counting system has
             been developed. In this system, single photons were detected
             by a visible light photon counter operated at 6.9 K. The
             visible light photon counter is a solid state device that
             makes use of avalanches across a shallow impurity conduction
             band in silicon. Threefold tight shielding and viewports
             that worked as infrared blocking filters were used to
             eliminate the dark count caused by room-temperature
             radiation. Corrected quantum efficiencies as high as
             88.2%±5% (at 694 nm) were observed, which we believe is the
             highest reported value for a single-photon detector. The
             dark count increased as the exponential of the quantum
             efficiency with changing temperature or bias voltage, and
             was 2.0×104 cps at the highest quantum efficiency. © 1999
             American Institute of Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.123482},
   Key = {99044646399}
}

@article{04057923563,
   Author = {Kim, J and Takeuchi, S and Yamamoto, Y and Hogue,
             HH},
   Title = {Multiphoton detection using visible light photon
             counter},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {74},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {902-904},
   Year = {1999},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.123404},
   Abstract = {Visible light photon counters feature noise-free avalanche
             multiplication and narrow pulse height distribution for
             single photon detection events. Such a well-defined pulse
             height distribution for a single photon detection event,
             combined with the fact that the avalanche multiplication is
             confined to a small area of the whole detector, opens up the
             possibility for the simultaneous detection of two photons.
             In this letter, we investigated this capability using twin
             photons generated by parametric down conversion, and present
             a high quantum efficiency (∼47%) detection of two photons
             with good time resolution (∼2 ns), which can be
             distinguished from a single-photon incidence with a small
             bit-error rate (∼0.63%). © 1999 American Institute of
             Physics.},
   Key = {04057923563}
}

@article{6213271,
   Author = {Kim, J and Benson, O and Kan, H and Yamamoto, Y},
   Title = {A single-photon turnstile device},
   Journal = {Nature},
   Volume = {397},
   Number = {6719},
   Pages = {500-503},
   Year = {1999},
   ISSN = {0028-0836},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/17295},
   Keywords = {Coulomb blockade;mesoscopic systems;p-n junctions;quantum
             interference phenomena;quantum optics;semiconductor quantum
             wells;},
   Abstract = {Quantum-mechanical interference between indistinguishable
             quantum particles profoundly affects their arrival time and
             counting statistics. Photons from a thermal source tend to
             arrive together (bunching) and their counting distribution
             is broader than the classical Poisson limit. Electrons from
             a thermal source, on the other hand, tend to arrive
             separately (anti- bunching) and their counting distribution
             is narrower than the classical Poisson limit. Manipulation
             of quantum-statistical properties of photons with various
             non-classical sources is at the heart of quantum optics:
             features normally characteristic of fermions - such as
             anti-bunching, sub-poissonian and squeezing (sub-shot-noise)
             behaviours - have now been demonstrated. A single-photon
             turnstile device was proposed to realize an effect similar
             to conductance quantization. Only one electron can occupy a
             single state owing to the Pauli exclusion principle and, for
             an electron waveguide that supports only one propagating
             transverse mode, this leads to the quantization of
             electrical conductance the conductance of each propagating
             mode is then given by G(Q) = e2/h (where e is the charge of
             the electron and h is Planck's constant; ref. 9). Here we
             report experimental progress towards generation of a similar
             flow of single photons with a well regulated time
             interval.},
   Doi = {10.1038/17295},
   Key = {6213271}
}

@article{6421268,
   Author = {Oliver, WD and Kim, J and Liu, RC and Yamamoto, Y},
   Title = {Hanbury Brown and Twiss-type experiment with
             electrons},
   Journal = {Science},
   Volume = {284},
   Number = {5412},
   Pages = {299-304},
   Year = {1999},
   ISSN = {0036-8075},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.284.5412.299},
   Keywords = {beam handling techniques;electron beams;},
   Abstract = {Fermion anti-bunching was directly observed by measuring the
             cross-covariance of the current fluctuations of partitioned
             electrons. A quantum point contact was used to inject
             single-mode electrons into a mesoscopic electron beam
             splitter device. The beam splitter output currents showed
             negative cross-covariance, indicating that the electrons
             arrived individually at the beam splitter and were randomly
             partitioned into two output channels. As the relative time
             delay between the outputs was changed, the observed ringing
             in the cross-covariance was consistent with the bandwidths
             used to monitor the fluctuations. The result demonstrates a
             fermion complement to the Hanbury Brown and Twiss experiment
             for photons},
   Doi = {10.1126/science.284.5412.299},
   Key = {6421268}
}

@inproceedings{98074270947,
   Author = {Yamamoto, Y. and Kim, J. and Benson, O. and Kan,
             H.},
   Title = {Single photonics: Turnstile device and solid-state
             photomultiplier},
   Journal = {IQEC, International Quantum Electronics Conference
             Proceedings},
   Pages = {172 -},
   Address = {San Francisco, CA, USA},
   Year = {1998},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IQEC.1998.680349},
   Keywords = {Semiconductor junctions;Tunnel junctions;Electron
             tunneling;Electron resonance;Photomultipliers;Ionization;Semiconducting
             silicon;Semiconducting gallium arsenide;Amplifiers
             (electronic);Quantum efficiency;Photons;},
   Abstract = {Two single-photonic devices are presented. A single-photon
             turnstile device is based on the simultaneous
             Coulomb-blockade effect for electrons and holes in a
             mesoscopic, double-barrier, pn-tunnel junction. By
             periodically modulating the bias voltage between electron
             and hole resonant tunneling, a single electron and a single
             hole can periodically be injected into the central island,
             followed by single-photon emission. A solid-state
             photomultiplier (SSPM) utilizes the impact ionization of
             shallow As donor levels in Si as the multiplication
             mechanism. A SSPM, combined with a cold GaAs cascode
             amplifier that operates at 4 K, achieves single-photon
             detection with high quantum efficiency, high gain, and short
             response time.},
   Key = {98074270947}
}

@inproceedings{6208507,
   Author = {Yamamoto, Y and Kim, J and Benson, O and Kan, H},
   Title = {Single photonics: Turnstile device and solid-state
             photomultiplier},
   Journal = {Technical Digest - European Quantum Electronics
             Conference},
   Pages = {172-},
   Address = {San Francisco, CA, USA},
   Year = {1998},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IQEC.1998.680349},
   Keywords = {aluminium compounds;gallium arsenide;III-V
             semiconductors;molecular beam epitaxial growth;p-n
             heterojunctions;photomultipliers;semiconductor
             growth;},
   Abstract = {Two single-photonic devices are presented. A single-photon
             turnstile device is based on the simultaneous
             Coulomb-blockade effect for electrons and holes in a
             mesoscopic, double-barrier, pn-tunnel junction. By
             periodically modulating the bias voltage between electron
             and hole resonant tunneling, a single electron and a single
             hole can periodically be injected into the central island,
             followed by single-photon emission. A solid-state
             photomultiplier (SSPM) utilizes the impact ionization of
             shallow As donor levels in Si as the multiplication
             mechanism. A SSPM, combined with a cold GaAs cascode
             amplifier that operates at 4 K, achieves single-photon
             detection with high quantum efficiency, high gain, and short
             response time.},
   Key = {6208507}
}

@inproceedings{6014306,
   Author = {Kim, J and Benson, O and Kan, H and Yamamoto, Y},
   Title = {Single-photon turnstile device: simultaneous Coulomb
             blockade for electrons and holes},
   Journal = {Semiconductor Science and Technology},
   Volume = {13},
   Number = {8A},
   Pages = {127-129},
   Address = {Maui, HI, USA},
   Year = {1998},
   ISSN = {0268-1242},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0268-1242/13/8A/037},
   Keywords = {aluminium compounds;gallium arsenide;III-V
             semiconductors;light emitting devices;mesoscopic
             systems;quantum interference phenomena;},
   Abstract = {Utilizing simultaneous Coulomb blockade for electrons and
             holes in a p-n junction, we can realize a device where a
             single electron and a single hole are injected into the
             active region to produce a single photon with well-regulated
             time interval. The photons emitted from such a device can be
             studied with single photon counting detectors using a Si
             solid-state photomultiplier. We report locking of the photon
             emission with external driving pulse, in the regime where
             one electron and one hole are injected into the active
             region on the average},
   Doi = {10.1088/0268-1242/13/8A/037},
   Key = {6014306}
}

@article{fds304883,
   Author = {Kim, J and Benson, O and Kan, H and Yamamoto, Y},
   Title = {Single-photon turnstile device: Simultaneous Coulomb
             blockade for electrons and holes},
   Journal = {Semiconductor Science and Technology},
   Volume = {13},
   Number = {8 SUPPL. A},
   Pages = {A127-A129},
   Year = {1998},
   Abstract = {Utilizing simultaneous Coulomb blockade for electrons and
             holes in a p-n junction, we can realize a device where a
             single electron and a single hole are injected into the
             active region to produce a single photon with well-regulated
             time interval. The photons emitted from such a device can be
             studied with single photon counting detectors using a Si
             solid-state photomultiplier. We report locking of the photon
             emission with external driving pulse, in the regime where
             one electron and one hole are injected into the active
             region on the average. © 1998 IOP Publishing
             Ltd.},
   Key = {fds304883}
}

@article{5608009,
   Author = {Kim, J and Yamamoto, Y},
   Title = {Theory of noise in p-n junction light emitters},
   Journal = {Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials
             Physics},
   Volume = {55},
   Number = {15},
   Pages = {9949-9959},
   Year = {1997},
   ISSN = {0163-1829},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.55.9949},
   Keywords = {carrier density;current fluctuations;light emitting
             diodes;semiconductor device models;semiconductor
             lasers;superconducting device noise;},
   Abstract = {The intensity noise of light generated by semiconductor
             lasers and light-emitting diodes is treated by semiclassical
             Langevin equations. An independent equation for the junction
             voltage dynamics is considered, and the non-Markoffian
             nature of the pump current is decomposed into Markoffian
             carrier injection and a regulation mechanism due to charging
             effect at the junction. The intensity noise power spectrum
             and squeezing bandwidth predicted by these equations agree
             well with recent experimental results. External current
             noise generated as a result of the internal noise process
             and subsequent relaxation process is calculated. Also,
             correlations between the carrier-number fluctuation and the
             junction-voltage fluctuation, and between the emitted photon
             flux fluctuation and the junction-voltage fluctuation are
             studied in detail.},
   Key = {5608009}
}

@article{5596507,
   Author = {Kim, J and Yamamoto, Y and Hogue, HH},
   Title = {Noise-free avalanche multiplication in Si solid state
             photomultipliers},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {70},
   Number = {21},
   Pages = {2852-2854},
   Year = {1997},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.119022},
   Keywords = {avalanche breakdown;elemental semiconductors;impact
             ionisation;impurity states;photodetectors;photomultipliers;semiconductor
             device noise;silicon;},
   Abstract = {Si solid state photomultipliers utilize impact ionization of
             shallow impurity donor levels to create an avalanche
             multiplication when triggered by a photoexcited hole. The
             distribution of pulse height from a single photon detection
             event shows narrow dispersion, which implies that the
             avalanche multiplication process in these devices is
             inherently noise-free. We have measured the excess noise
             factor using two different techniques, digital pulse height
             analysis and analog noise power measurement. The results
             demonstrate nearly noise-free avalanche multiplication
             accomplished in these devices. © 1997 American Institute of
             Physics.},
   Key = {5596507}
}

@article{97103862878,
   Author = {Yamamoto, Y and Liu, R and Kim, J and Imamoglu, A},
   Title = {Electron and photon noise suppression in mesoscopic systems
             - how to teach noisy photons to follow quiet
             electrons},
   Journal = {Materials Science and Engineering: B},
   Volume = {B48},
   Number = {1-2},
   Pages = {19-25},
   Address = {Karuizawa, Jpn},
   Year = {1997},
   ISSN = {0921-5107},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0921-5107(97)00075-5},
   Keywords = {Electron optics;Photons;Semiconductor lasers;Light emitting
             diodes;Shot noise;Electron transport properties;Semiconductor
             junctions;Statistical methods;Quantum optics;},
   Abstract = {Principles of squeezed state generation in semiconductor
             lasers and light emitting diodes (LEDs) are discussed. Shot
             noise suppression in electron transport in macroscopic
             conductors is ultimately due to Pauli exclusion principle
             for fermion particles, electrons. Shot noise suppression in
             electron injection in macroscopic pn junctions originates
             from collective Coulomb blockade effect for changed
             particles, electrons. Regulated single photon generation in
             mesoscopic pn junctions is also discussed.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0921-5107(97)00075-5},
   Key = {97103862878}
}

@inproceedings{5771511,
   Author = {Yamamoto, Y and Liu, R and Kim, J and Imamoǵlu, A},
   Title = {Electron and photon noise suppression in mesoscopic systems
             - How to teach noisy photons to follow quiet
             electrons},
   Journal = {Materials Science and Engineering B},
   Volume = {48},
   Number = {1-2},
   Pages = {19-25},
   Address = {Karuizawa, Japan},
   Year = {1997},
   ISSN = {0921-5107},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0921-5107(97)00075-5},
   Keywords = {digital simulation;light emitting diodes;mesoscopic
             systems;Monte Carlo methods;semiconductor device
             noise;semiconductor lasers;tunnelling;},
   Abstract = {Principles of squeezed state generation in semiconductor
             lasers and light emitting diodes (LEDs) are discussed. Shot
             noise suppression in electron transport in macroscopic
             conductors is ultimately due to Pauli exclusion principle
             for fermion particles, electrons. Shot noise suppression in
             electron injection in macroscopic pn junctions originates
             from collective Coulomb blockade effect for changed
             particles, electrons. Regulated single photon generation in
             mesoscopic pn junctions is also discussed. © 1997 Elsevier
             Science S.A.},
   Key = {5771511}
}

@inproceedings{5765860,
   Author = {Liu, R. and Odom, B. and Kim, J. and Yamamoto, Y. and Tarucha, S.},
   Title = {Partition noise in mesoscopic devices-experiments in quantum
             electron optics},
   Journal = {23rd International Conference on the Physics of
             Semiconductors},
   Volume = {vol.3},
   Pages = {2399 - 402},
   Address = {Berlin, Germany},
   Year = {1996},
   Keywords = {mesoscopic systems;quantum interference devices;quantum
             interference phenomena;quantum optics;random
             noise;},
   Abstract = {Recent improvements in the sensitivity of noise measurements
             make it possible to consider performing novel quantum
             electron optics types of experiments in mesoscopic physics.
             We discuss the progress towards measuring a quantum
             interference effect arising from the indistinguishability of
             the carriers rather than their wave nature. Such an
             experiment requires the development of a single mode
             electron beam splitter, a device which we have recently
             fabricated},
   Key = {5765860}
}

@inproceedings{5411826,
   Author = {Kim, J and Yamamoto, Y},
   Title = {Theory of pump-noise suppression in p-n junction light
             emitters},
   Journal = {Conference on Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (QELS) -
             Technical Digest Series},
   Volume = {9},
   Pages = {231-232},
   Address = {Anaheim, CA, USA},
   Year = {1996},
   Keywords = {laser theory;light emitting diodes;optical noise;quantum
             noise;semiconductor lasers;shot noise;stochastic
             processes;},
   Abstract = {Pump noise suppression in constant-current driven
             semiconductor laser or LED is known to be the key mechanism
             in generating sub-Poissonian light from these sources. The
             authors have developed a theoretical model that describes
             their pumping mechanism. Pumping is considered to be the
             injection of carriers into the active layer across the
             depletion region. An independent Poisson equation that
             describes the junction voltage dynamics is
             introduced.},
   Key = {5411826}
}

@article{5084581,
   Author = {Kim, J and Kan, H and Yamamoto, Y},
   Title = {Macroscopic Coulomb-blockade effect in a
             constant-current-driven light-emitting diode},
   Journal = {Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials
             Physics},
   Volume = {52},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {2008-2012},
   Year = {1995},
   ISSN = {0163-1829},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.52.2008},
   Keywords = {capacitance;light emitting diodes;optical squeezing;quantum
             interference phenomena;},
   Abstract = {The intensity squeezing bandwidth of a light-emitting diode
             was measured as functions of a driving current, junction
             capacitance, and operation temperature. It was found that
             the squeezing bandwidth was linearly proportional to the
             current and inversely proportional to the capacitance and
             the temperature in a low current regime. The experimental
             results provide evidence for a pump-noise-suppression
             mechanism in a constant-current-driven p-n junction due to a
             ''macroscopic Coulomb blockade effect'' [A. Imamoḡlu and
             Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3327 (1993)]. © 1995 The
             American Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.52.2008},
   Key = {5084581}
}

@inproceedings{94111440099,
   Author = {Kim, J and Richardson, WH and Yamamoto, Y},
   Title = {Influence of Coulomb blockade effects on the squeezing
             bandwidth of semiconductor lasers},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the International Quantum Electronics
             Conference (IQEC'94)},
   Pages = {172-173},
   Address = {Anaheim, CA, USA},
   Year = {1994},
   Keywords = {Light emission;Interference suppression;Light
             interference;Heterojunctions;Efficiency;Light emitting
             diodes;Silicon sensors;Light amplifiers;Electric
             currents;Spectroscopy;Pumping (laser);Capacitance;},
   Abstract = {The discovery of Coulomb blockade effects revised the noise
             models of several mesoscopic and macroscopic devices. To
             check the proper noise model for p-n junction, the bandwidth
             is measured over which the external field amplitude
             fluctuation of a semiconductor laser is reduced to below the
             standard quantum limit. For macroscopic p-i-n junction, the
             noise of the injected electron stream is sub-Poissonian only
             at frequencies below that given by the inverse of the
             thermionic emission line. This shows that optical squeezing
             bandwidth of semiconductor lasers and LEDs will be limited
             by rate of thermionic injection at high temperature and
             small current.},
   Key = {94111440099}
}

@article{fds323528,
   Author = {Kim, C and Kim, W and Shin, H and Rhee, K and Chung, H and Kim,
             K},
   Title = {Combined hierarchical placement algorithm for row-based
             layouts},
   Journal = {Electronics Letters},
   Volume = {29},
   Number = {17},
   Pages = {1508-1508},
   Year = {1993},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1049/el:19931005},
   Abstract = {A hierarchical placement algorithm which combines mincut
             partitioning and simulated annealing has been developed. The
             objective of mincut partitioning is to minimise the number
             of crossing nets, while the objective of placement by
             simulated annealing is usually to minimise the total
             estimated wire length. The combined placement algorithm can
             optimise both the routing density and the estimated wire
             length. For efficiency, the placement is performed using
             multiple levels of hierarchy in the top-down direction.
             Several standard-cell and sea-of-gates (SOG) circuits are
             placed using this algorithm and promising results are
             obtained. © 1993, The Institution of Electrical Engineers.
             All rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1049/el:19931005},
   Key = {fds323528}
}