## Publications of Steffen A. Bass    :recent first  alphabetical  combined listing:

%% Papers Published
@booklet{Bass93a,
Author = {Bass, SA and Mattiello, R and Stöcker, H and Greiner, W and Hartnack,
C},
Title = {Is collective pion flow anticorrelated to nucleon
flow?},
Journal = {Physics Letters B},
Volume = {302},
Number = {4},
Pages = {381-385},
Year = {1993},
ISSN = {0370-2693},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0370-2693(93)90413-C},
Abstract = {The in-plane transverse momentum of pions in Ne(2A GeV)Pb
and Au(2A GeV)Au collisions is analysed in the framework of
the Vlasov-Uehling-Uhlenbeck model. The rapidity dependence
of pion flow shows the opposite sign as the nucleon flow.
The anticorrelation of pions and nucleons can be explained
by multiple πN scattering. It turns out that the nonzero
transverse momentum for pions at target rapidities is no
proof for pion absorption in contrast to claims in previous
works. Pion absorption does not influence the angular
distribution of pions but plays an important role for the
absolute numbers of produced pions. © 1993.},
Doi = {10.1016/0370-2693(93)90413-C},
Key = {Bass93a}
}

@booklet{Bass93,
Author = {Bass, SA and Hartnack, C and Stöcker, H and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Out-of-plane pion emission in relativistic heavy-ion
collisions: Spectroscopy of Δ resonance
matter},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {71},
Number = {8},
Pages = {1144-1147},
Year = {1993},
Abstract = {Azimuthal correlations of pions are studied with the quantum
molecular dynamics model. Pions are preferentially emitted
perpendicular to the reaction plane. Our analysis shows that
this anisotropy is dominated by pion absorption on the
spectator matter in the reaction plane. Pions emitted
perpendicular to the reaction plane undergo less
rescattering than those emitted in the reaction plane and
might therefore be more sensitive to the early hot and dense
reaction phase.},
Key = {Bass93}
}

@booklet{Bass94,
Author = {Bass, SA and Hartnack, C and Stöcker, H and Greiner,
W},
Title = {High pt pions as probes of the dense phase of relativistic
heavy ion collisions},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {50},
Number = {4},
Pages = {2167-2172},
Year = {1994},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.50.2167},
Abstract = {The properties of pions from the hot and dense reaction
stage of relativistic heavy ion collisions are investigated
with the Quantum Molecular Dynamics model. Pions originating
from this reaction stage stem from resonance decay with
enhanced mass. They carry high transverse moments. The
calculation shows a direct correlation between high pt
pions, early freeze-out times, and high freeze-out
densities. A measurement of the mass distributions of p-
correlations (e.g., the ++) in different pt bins is proposed
to distinguish different reaction stages. © 1994 The
American Physical Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.50.2167},
Key = {Bass94}
}

@booklet{Bass94b,
Author = {Bass, SA and Bischoff, A and Hartnack, C and Maruhn, JA and Reinhardt,
J and Stocker, H and Greiner, W},
Title = {Neural networks for impact parameter determination},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {20},
Number = {1},
Pages = {L21-L26},
Year = {1994},
ISSN = {0954-3899},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0954-3899/20/1/004},
Abstract = {Accurate impact parameter determination in a heavy-ion
collision is crucial for almost all further analysis. We
investigate the capabilities of an artificial neural network
in that respect. First results show that the neural network
is capable of improving the accuracy of the impact parameter
determination based on observables such as the flow angle,
the average directed inplane transverse momentum and the
difference between transverse and longitudinal momenta.
However, further investigations are necessary to discover
the full potential of the neural network
approach.},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/20/1/004},
Key = {Bass94b}
}

@booklet{Bass94a,
Author = {Bass, SA and Hofmann, M and Hartnack, C and Stöcker, H and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Probing Δ resonance production in Au+Au collisions at 1
GeV/nucleon},
Journal = {Physics Letters B},
Volume = {335},
Number = {3-4},
Pages = {289-294},
Year = {1994},
ISSN = {0370-2693},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0370-2693(94)90352-2},
Abstract = {We investigate the possibility of creating a new form of
highly excited nuclear matter, Δ-matter, in heavy ion
collisions at 1 GeV/nucleon. Enough Δ-resonances are
produced to show collective effects. Maximum densities for
the resonances around 50% ground state density of nuclear
matter are reached. We propose two decisive experiments,
namely the resonance mass shift (nucleon-pion correlations)
and the Δ-flow, to investigate collective properties of the
Δ resonance in relativistic heavy ion collisions. ©
1994.},
Doi = {10.1016/0370-2693(94)90352-2},
Key = {Bass94a}
}

@booklet{Bass95a,
Author = {Bass, SA and Hartnack, C and Stöcker, H and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Azimuthal correlations of pions in relativistic heavy-ion
collisions at 1 GeV/nucleon},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {51},
Number = {6},
Pages = {3343-3356},
Year = {1995},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.51.3343},
Abstract = {Triple differential cross sections of pions in heavy ion
collisions at 1 GeV/nucleon are studied with the isospin
quantum molecular dynamics (IQMD) model. After discussing
general properties of Δ resonance and pion production we
focus on azimuthal correlations: At projectile- and
target-rapidities we observe an anticorrelation in the
in-plane transverse momentum between pions and protons. At
c.m.-rapidity, however, we find that high pt pions are being
preferentially emitted perpendicular to the event plane. We
investigate the causes of those correlations and their
sensitivity on the density and momentum dependence of the
real and imaginary part of the nucleon and pion optical
potential. © 1995 The American Physical
Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.51.3343},
Key = {Bass95a}
}

@booklet{Bass95b,
Author = {Bass, SA and Hartnack, C and Stöcker, H and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Nucleon and baryon densities in heavy ion collisions at 1
GeV/nucl},
Journal = {Zeitschrift Fur Physik A-Hadrons and Nuclei},
Volume = {351},
Number = {4},
Pages = {359-360},
Year = {1995},
ISSN = {0939-7922},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01291138},
Abstract = {The baryon density calculated at the collision center in
relativistic heavy ion collisions is not representative for
the density really probed by baryons in the high density
collision phase. A decomposition into nucleon- and
Δ-resonance densities yields average values of 1.25 ρN/ρo
and 0.25 ρΔ/ρ0 at the time of maximum compression. ©
1995 Springer-Verlag.},
Doi = {10.1007/BF01291138},
Key = {Bass95b}
}

@booklet{Bass95,
Author = {Bass, SA and Hartnack, C and Stöcker, H and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Transverse energy dependence of neutron squeeze-out in
relativistic heavy ion collisions},
Journal = {Zeitschrift Fur Physik A-Hadrons and Nuclei},
Volume = {352},
Number = {2},
Pages = {171-174},
Year = {1995},
ISSN = {0939-7922},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01298904},
Abstract = {We present a microscopic calculation of neutron squeeze-out
in relativistic heavy ion collisions at beam energies
betweeen 400 and 1000 MeV/nucleon. After demonstrating the
importance of the correct isospin treatment for the neutron
to proton ratio, our main emphasis is put on the
investigation of the properties of neutron squeeze-out. The
squeeze-out ratio increases monotonously with the transverse
momentum of the neutrons. This ratio is independent of the
incident beam energy if plotted versus pt/pproj. Most
importantly, we observe a strong dependence on the nuclear
equation of state and momentum dependent interaction. ©
1995 Springer-Verlag.},
Doi = {10.1007/BF01298904},
Key = {Bass95}
}

@booklet{Soff95,
Author = {Soff, S and Bass, SA and Hartnack, C and Stöcker, H and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Disappearance of flow},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {51},
Number = {6},
Pages = {3320-3325},
Year = {1995},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.51.3320},
Abstract = {We investigate the disappearance of collective flow in the
reaction plane in heavy-ion collisions within a microscopic
model (QMD). A systematic study of the impact parameter
dependence is performed for the system Ca+Ca. The balance
energy strongly increases with impact parameter. Momentum
dependent interactions reduce the balance energies for
intermediate impact parameters b4.5 fm. For the heavy system
Au+Au, dynamical negative flow is not visible in the
laboratory frame but does exist if the initial precontact
rotation of the system due to the Coulomb potential is
subtracted. For semiperipheral collisions of Ca+Ca with b6.5
fm a new two-component flow is discussed. Azimuthal
distributions exhibit strong collective flow signals, even
at the balance energy. © 1995 The American Physical
Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.51.3320},
Key = {Soff95}
}

@article{fds304516,
Author = {Bass, SA and Hartnack, C and Stöcker, H and Greiner,
W},
Title = {π-N correlations probe the nuclear equation of state in
relativistic heavy-ion collisions},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {51},
Number = {1},
Pages = {R12-R16},
Year = {1995},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.51.R12},
Abstract = {We investigate the sensitivity of pionic bounce-off and
squeeze-out on the density and momentum dependence of the
real part of the nucleon optical potential. For the in-plane
pion bounce-off we find a strong sensitivity on both the
density and momentum dependence whereas the out-of-plane
pion squeeze-out shows a strong sensitivity only towards the
momentum dependence but little sensitivity towards the
density dependence. We observe strong differences between
calculations including the nucleon optical potential and
CASCADE calculations. The question of validity of the
CASCADE approach in relativistic heavy-ion collisions can be
resolved experimentally on the basis of the predicted pion
nucleon correlations. © 1995 The American Physical
Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.51.R12},
Key = {fds304516}
}

@booklet{Bass95c,
Author = {Bass, SA and Hartnack, C and Stocker, H and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Pi-n correlations probe the nuclear-equation of state in
relativistic heavy-ion collisions},
Journal = {Phys. Rev. C},
Volume = {51},
Number = {1},
Pages = {R12-R16},
Year = {1995},
Month = {January},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.51.R12},
Abstract = {We investigate the sensitivity of pionic bounce-off and
squeeze-out on the density and momentum dependence of the
real part of the nucleon optical potential. For the in-plane
pion bounce-off we find a strong sensitivity on both the
density and momentum dependence whereas the out-of-plane
pion squeeze-out shows a strong sensitivity only towards the
momentum dependence but little sensitivity towards the
density dependence. We observe strong differences between
calculations including the nucleon optical potential and
CASCADE calculations. The question of validity of the
CASCADE approach in relativistic heavy-ion collisions can be
resolved experimentally on the basis of the predicted pion
nucleon correlations. Â© 1995 The American Physical
Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.51.R12},
Key = {Bass95c}
}

@booklet{Bass96,
Author = {Bass, SA and Bischoff, A and Maruhn, JA and Stöcker, H and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Neural networks for impact parameter determination},
Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
Volume = {53},
Number = {5},
Pages = {2358-2363},
Year = {1996},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.53.2358},
Abstract = {An accurate impact parameter determination in a heavy ion
collision is crucial for almost all further analysis. The
capabilities of an artificial neural network are
investigated in that respect. A novel input generation for
the network is proposed, namely, the transverse and
longitudinal momentum distributions of all outgoing (or
actually detectable) particles. The neural network approach
yields an improvement in performance of a factor of 2 as
compared to classical techniques. To achieve this
improvement simple network architectures and a 5×5 input
grid in (pt,pz) space are sufficient.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.53.2358},
Key = {Bass96}
}

@booklet{Winckelmann96,
Author = {Winckelmann, LA and Bass, SA and Bleicher, M and Brandstetter, M and Dumitru, A and Ernst, C and Gerland, L and Konopka, J and Soff, S and Spieles, C and Weber, H and Hartnack, C and Aichelin, J and Amelin, N and Stöcker, H and Greiner, W},
Title = {Microscopic calculations of stopping, flow and
160AGeV},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {610},
Pages = {116-123},
Year = {1996},
Month = {December},
ISSN = {0375-9474},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0375-9474(96)00347-8},
Abstract = {The behavior of hadronic matter at high baryon densities is
studied within Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics
(UQMD). Baryonic stopping is observed for Au+Au collisions
from SIS up to SPS energies. The excitation function of flow
shows strong sensitivities to the underlying equation of
state (EOS), allowing for systematic studies of the EOS.
Effects of a density dependent pole of the ρ-meson
propagator on dilepton spectra are studied for different
systems and centralities at CERN energies.},
Doi = {10.1016/S0375-9474(96)00347-8},
Key = {Winckelmann96}
}

@booklet{Soff97,
Author = {Soff, S and Ardouin, D and Spieles, C and Bass, SA and Stöcker, H and Gourio, D and Schramm, S and Greiner, C and Lednicky, R and Lyuboshitz,
VL and Coffin, J-P and Kuhn, C},
Title = {Search for the production of strangelets in quark matter
using particle correlations},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {23},
Number = {12},
Pages = {2095-2105},
Year = {1997},
ISSN = {0954-3899},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0954-3899/23/12/035},
Abstract = {We present a new technique for observing the strangelet
production in quark matter based on unlike particle
correlations. A simulation is presented with a two-phase
thermodynamical model.},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/23/12/035},
Key = {Soff97}
}

@booklet{Soff97a,
Author = {Soff, S and Bass, SA and Belkacem, M and Bleicher, M and Brandstetter,
M and Ernst, C and Gerland, L and Greiner, W and Konopka, J and Schramm, S and Spieles, C and Stoecker, H and Weber, H},
Title = {Thermodynamic properties of heavy ion collisions.},
Journal = {Abstracts Of Papers Of The American Chemical
Society},
Volume = {214},
Pages = {81-NUCL},
Year = {1997},
Month = {September},
Key = {Soff97a}
}

@booklet{Stoecker97,
Author = {Stoecker, H and Bass, SA and Greiner, W},
Title = {Critical review on Quark Gluon Plasma signals.},
Journal = {Abstracts Of Papers Of The American Chemical
Society},
Volume = {214},
Pages = {96-NUCL},
Year = {1997},
Month = {September},
Key = {Stoecker97}
}

@article{fds318407,
Author = {Weber, H and Ernst, C and Bass, SA and Spieles, C and Bleicher, M and Belkacem, M and Bravina, L and Stöcker, H and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Excitation function of energy density and partonic degrees
of freedom in relativistic heavy ion collisions},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {642},
Number = {1-2},
Pages = {121C-129C},
Year = {1998},
Abstract = {We estimate the energy density ∈ pile-up at mid-rapidity
in central Pb+Pb collisions from 1 - 200 GeV/nucleon. ∈ is
decomposed into hadronic and partonic contributions. A
detailed analysis of the collision dynamics in the framework
of a microscopic transport model shows the importance of
partonic degrees of freedom and rescattering of leading
(di)quarks in the early phase of the reaction for Elab ≥
30 GeV/nucleon. The energy density reaches up to 4 GeV/fm3,
95% of which are contained in partonic degrees of freedom.
It is shown that cells of hadronic matter, after t ≈
2.R/γ, can be viewed as nearly chemically equilibrated.
This matter never exceeds energy densities of ∼ 1
GeV/fm-3, i.e. a density above which the notion of separated
Key = {fds318407}
}

@article{fds245225,
Author = {Bass, SA and Soff, S and Belkacem, M and Brandstetter, M and Bleicher,
M and Gerland, L and Konopka, J and Neise, L and Spieles, C and Weber, H and Stocker, H and Greiner, W},
Title = {Hadrochemical vs. microscopic analysis of particle
production and freeze-out in ultrarelativistic heavy ion
collisions},
Journal = {ADVANCES IN NUCLEAR DYNAMICS 4},
Pages = {13-24},
Year = {1998},
ISBN = {0-306-46036-X},
Key = {fds245225}
}

@article{fds245278,
Author = {Spieles, C and Gerland, L and Hammon, N and Bleicher, M and Bass, SA and Stöcker, H and Greiner, W and Lourenço, C and Vogt,
R},
Title = {Intermediate mass dileptons from secondary Drell-Yan
processes},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {638},
Number = {1-2},
Pages = {507c-510c},
Year = {1998},
Abstract = {Recent reports on enhancements of intermediate and high mass
muon pairs produced in heavy ion collisions have attracted
much attention. To gain a better understanding of the
content of the dilepton continuum, we study Drell-Yan
production from secondary hadron interactions in
nucleus-nucleus collisions. We show that meson-baryon
interactions can be an important source of m ∼ 2 GeV
dileptons. We also discuss the effects of preresonance
parton collisions.},
Key = {fds245278}
}

@article{fds245279,
Author = {Bleicher, M and Gerland, L and Spieles, C and Dumitru, A and Bass, S and Belkacem, M and Brandstetter, M and Ernst, C and Neise, L and Soff, S and Weber, H and Stöcker, H and Greiner, W},
Title = {Fluctuations and inhomogenities of energy density and
isospin in Pb+Pb at the SPS},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {638},
Number = {1-2},
Pages = {391c-394c},
Year = {1998},
Key = {fds245279}
}

@article{fds245352,
Author = {Spieles, C and Gerland, L and Hammon, N and Bleicher, M and Bass, SA and Stöcker, H and Greiner, W and Lourenço, C and Vogt,
R},
Title = {A microscopic calculation of secondary Drell-Yan production
in heavy ion collisions},
Journal = {European Physical Journal C},
Volume = {5},
Number = {2},
Pages = {349-355},
Year = {1998},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/9706525},
Abstract = {A study of secondary Drell-Yan production in nuclear
collisions is presented for SPS energies. In addition to the
lepton pairs produced in the initial collisions of the
projectile and target nucleons, we consider the potentially
high dilepton yield from hard valence antiquarks in produced
mesons and antibaryons. We calculate the secondary Drell-Yan
contributions taking the collision spectrum of hadrons from
the microscopic model URQMD. The contributions from
interactions, are found to be substantial in nucleus-nucleus
collisions at low dilepton masses. Preresonance collisions
of partons may further increase the yields.},
Key = {fds245352}
}

@article{fds245353,
Author = {Ernst, C and Bass, SA and Belkacem, M and Stöcker, H and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Intermediate mass excess of dilepton production in heavy ion
collisions at relativistic energies},
Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
Volume = {58},
Number = {1},
Pages = {447-456},
Year = {1998},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/9712069},
Abstract = {Dielectron mass spectra are examined for various nuclear
reactions recently measured by the DLS Collaboration. A
detailed description is given of all dilepton channels
included in the transport model UrQMD 1.0, i.e., Dalitz
decays of π0, η, ω, η′ mesons and of the Δ(1232)
resonance, direct decays of vector mesons and pn
bremsstrahlung. The microscopic calculations reproduce data
for light systems fairly well, but tend to underestimate the
data in pp at high energies and in pd at low energies. These
conventional sources, however, cannot explain the recently
reported enhancement for nucleus-nucleus collisions in the
mass region 0.15 GeV≤Me+e-≤0.6 GeV. Chiral scaling and
ω meson broadening in the medium are investigated as a
source of this mass excess. They also cannot explain the
recent DLS data.},
Key = {fds245353}
}

@article{fds245354,
Author = {Bass, SA and Belkacem, M and Bleicher, M and Brandstetter, M and Bravina, L and Ernst, C and Gerland, L and Hofmann, M and Hofmann, S and Konopka, J and Mao, G and Neise, L and Soff, S and Spieles, C and Weber, H and Winckelmann, LA and Stöcker, H and Greiner, W and Hartnack, C and Aichelin, J and Amelin, N},
Title = {Microscopic Models for Ultrarelativistic Heavy Ion
Collisions},
Journal = {Prog. Part. & Nucl. Phys.},
Volume = {41},
Pages = {225-370},
Year = {1998},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/9803035},
Abstract = {In this paper, the concepts of microscopic transport theory
are introduced and the features and shortcomings of the most
commonly used ansatzes are discussed. In particular, the
Ultrarelativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD)
transport model is described in great detail. Based on the
same principles as QMD and RQMD, it incorporates a vastly
extended collision term with full baryon-antibaryon
symmetry, 55 baryon and 32 meson species. Isospin is
explicitly treated for all hadrons. The range of
applicability stretches from $E_{lab} 200$ GeV/nucleon,
allowing for a consistent calculation of excitation
functions from the intermediate energy domain up to
ultrarelativistic energies. The main physics topics under
discussion are stopping, particle production and collective
flow.},
Key = {fds245354}
}

@article{fds245355,
Author = {Bleicher, M and Belkacem, M and Ernst, C and Weber, H and Gerland, L and Spieles, C and Bass, SA and Stöcker, H and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Can momentum correlations prove kinetic equilibration in
heavy ion collisions at 160 AGeV?},
Journal = {Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and
High-Energy Physics},
Volume = {435},
Number = {1-2},
Pages = {9-12},
Year = {1998},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/9803345},
Abstract = {We perform an event-by-event analysis of the transverse
momentum distribution of final state particles in central
Pb(160 AGeV) + Pb collisions within a microscopic
non-equilibrium transport model (UrQMD). Strong influence of
rescattering is found. The extracted momentum distributions
show less fluctuations in A + A collisions than in p + p
reactions. This is in contrast to simplified p + p
extrapolations and random walk models. © 1998 Elsevier
Key = {fds245355}
}

@article{fds245356,
Author = {Belkacem, M and Brandstetter, M and Bass, SA and Bleicher, M and Bravina, L and Gorenstein, MI and Konopka, J and Neise, L and Spieles,
C and Soff, S and Weber, H and Stöcker, H and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Equation of state, spectra, and composition of hot and dense
infinite hadronic matter in a microscopic transport
model},
Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
Volume = {58},
Number = {3},
Pages = {1727-1733},
Year = {1998},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/9804058},
Abstract = {Equilibrium properties of infinite relativistic hadron
matter are investigated using the ultrarelativistic quantum
molecular dynamics (UrQMD) model. The simulations are
performed in a box with periodic boundary conditions.
Equilibration times depend critically on energy and baryon
densities. Energy spectra of various hadronic species are
shown to be isotropic and consistent with a single
temperature in equilibrium. The variation of energy density
versus temperature shows a Hagedorn-like behavior with a
limiting temperature of 130±10 MeV. Comparison of
abundances of different particle species to ideal hadron gas
model predictions show good agreement only if detailed
balance is implemented for all channels. At low energy
densities, high mass resonances are not relevant; however,
their importance rises with increasing energy density. The
relevance of these different conceptual frameworks for any
interpretation of experimental data is questioned.},
Key = {fds245356}
}

@article{fds245358,
Author = {Weber, H and Ernst, C and Bleicher, M and Bravina, L and Stöcker, H and Greiner, W and Spieles, C and Bass, SA},
Title = {Excitation function of energy density and partonic degrees
of freedom in relativistic heavy ion collisions},
Journal = {Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and
High-Energy Physics},
Volume = {442},
Number = {1-4},
Pages = {443-448},
Year = {1998},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/9808021},
Abstract = {We estimate the energy density ε pile-up at mid-rapidity in
central Pb + Pb collisions from 2-200 GeV/nucleon. ε is
decomposed into hadronic and partonic contributions. A
detailed analysis of the collision dynamics in the framework
of a microscopic transport model shows the importance of
partonic degrees of freedom and rescattering of leading
(di)quarks in the early phase of the reaction for Elab ≥
30 GeV/nucleon. In Pb + Pb collisions at 160 GeV/nucleon the
energy density reaches up to 4 GeV/fm3, 95% of which are
contained in partonic degrees of freedom. © 1998 Elsevier
Key = {fds245358}
}

@article{fds245397,
Author = {Bass, SA and Belkacem, M and Brandstetter, M and Bleicher, M and Gerland, L and Konopka, J and Neise, L and Spieles, C and Soff, S and Weber, H and Stoecker, H and Greiner, W},
Title = {Are we close to the QGP? - Hadrochemical vs. microscopic
analysis of particle production in ultrarelativistic heavy
ion collisions},
Journal = {Phys. Rev. Lett.},
Volume = {81},
Number = {19},
Pages = {4092-4095},
Year = {1998},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/9711032},
Abstract = {Ratios of hadronic abundances are analyzed for pp and
nucleus-nucleus collisions at sqrt(s)=20 GeV using the
microscopic transport model UrQMD. Secondary interactions
significantly change the primordial hadronic cocktail of the
system. A comparison to data shows a strong dependence on
rapidity. Without assuming thermal and chemical equilibrium,
predicted hadron yields and ratios agree with many of the
data, the few observed discrepancies are
discussed.},
Key = {fds245397}
}

@article{fds245398,
Author = {Dumitru, A and Bleicher, M and Bass, SA and Spieles, C and Neise, L and Stocker, H and Greiner, W},
Title = {Direct photons in Pb+Pb at CERN-SPS from microscopic
transport theory},
Journal = {Phys. Rev. C},
Volume = {57},
Number = {6},
Pages = {3271-3275},
Year = {1998},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/9709487},
Abstract = {Direct photon production in central Pb+Pb collisions at
CERN-SPS energy is calculated within the relativistic
microscopic transport model UrQMD, and within distinctly
different versions of relativistic hydrodynamics. We find
that in UrQMD the local momentum distributions of the
secondaries are strongly elongated along the beam axis
initially. Therefore, the pre-equilibrium contribution
dominates the photon spectrum at transverse momenta above
$\approx 1.5$ GeV. The hydrodynamics prediction of a strong
correlation between the temperature and radial expansion
velocities on the one hand and the slope of the transverse
momentum distribution of direct photons on the other hand
thus is not recovered in UrQMD. The rapidity distribution of
direct photons in UrQMD reveals that the initial conditions
for the longitudinal expansion of the photon source (the
meson fluid'') resemble rather boostinvariance than
Landau-like flow.},
Key = {fds245398}
}

@article{fds304517,
Author = {Bass, S},
Title = {Microscopic models for ultrarelativistic heavy ion
collisions},
Journal = {Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics},
Volume = {41},
Pages = {255-369},
Year = {1998},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0146-6410(98)00058-1},
Doi = {10.1016/S0146-6410(98)00058-1},
Key = {fds304517}
}

@article{fds304518,
Author = {Dumitru, A and Bleicher, M and Bass, SA and Spieles, C and Neise, L and Stöcker, H and Greiner, W},
Title = {Nonthermal direct photons in Pb+Pb at 160A GeV from
microscopic transport theory},
Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
Volume = {57},
Number = {6},
Pages = {3271-3275},
Year = {1998},
Abstract = {Direct photon production in central Pb+Pb collisions at
CERN-SPS energy is calculated within the ultrarelativistic
quantum molecular dynamics model (UrQMD), and within
distinctly different versions of relativistic hydrodynamics.
We find that in UrQMD the local momentum distributions of
the secondaries are strongly elongated along the beam axis
initially. Therefore, the pre-equilibrium contribution
dominates the photon spectrum at transverse momenta above
≈1.5 GeV. The hydrodynamics prediction of a strong
correlation between the temperature and radial expansion
velocities on the one hand, and the slope of the transverse
momentum distribution of direct photons on the other hand
thus is not recovered in UrQMD. The rapidity distribution of
direct photons in UrQMD reveals that the initial conditions
for the longitudinal expansion of the photon source (the
meson "fluid") resemble boost invariance rather than
Landau-like flow.},
Key = {fds304518}
}

@article{fds304519,
Author = {Bass, SA and Belkacem, M and Brandstetter, M and Bleicher, M and Gerland, L and Konopka, J and Neise, L and Spieles, C and Soff, S and Weber, H and Stöcker, H and Greiner, W},
Title = {Are we close to an equilibrated quark-gluon plasma?
Nonequilibrium analysis of particle production in
ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {81},
Number = {19},
Pages = {4092-4095},
Year = {1998},
Abstract = {Ratios of hadronic abundances are analyzed for pp and
nucleus-nucleus collisions at √s ≈ 20 GeV using the
microscopic ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics
transport model. Secondary interactions significantly change
the primordial hadronic composition of the system. A strong
dependence on rapidity is predicted. Without assuming
thermal and chemical equilibrium, predicted hadron yields
and ratios agree with many of the data (π/p, d/p, p̄/p,
Λ̄/Λ, Ξ̄/Λ̄, etc.).},
Key = {fds304519}
}

@article{fds245351,
Author = {Hartnack, C and Puri, RK and Aichelin, J and Konopka, J and Bass, SA and Stöcker, H and Greiner, W},
Title = {Modelling the many-body dynamics of heavy ion collisions:
Present status and future perspective},
Journal = {The European Physical Journal A},
Volume = {1},
Number = {2},
Pages = {151-169},
Year = {1998},
Month = {February},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/9811015},
Abstract = {Basic problems of the semiclassical microscopic modelling of
strongly interacting systems are discussed within the
framework of Quantum Molecular Dynamics (QMD). This model
allows to study the influence of several types of nucleonic
interactions on a large variety of observables and phenomena
occurring in heavy ion collisions at relativistic energies.
It is shown that the same predictions can be obtained with
several - numerically completely different and independently
written - programs as far as the same model parameters are
employed and the same basic approximations are made. Many
observables are robust against variations of the details of
the model assumptions used. Some of the physical results,
however, depend also on rather technical parameters like the
preparation of the initial configuration in phase space.
This crucial problem is connected with the description of
the ground state of single nuclei, which differs among the
various approaches. An outlook to an improved molecular
dynamics scheme for heavy ion collisions is
given.},
Doi = {10.1007/s100500050045},
Key = {fds245351}
}

@article{fds245357,
Author = {Bravina, LV and Gorenstein, MI and Belkacem, M and Bass, SA and Bleicher, M and Brandstetter, M and Hofmann, M and Soff, S and Spieles,
C and Weber, H and Stöcker, H and Greiner, W},
Title = {Local thermodynamical equilibrium and the equation of state
of hot, dense matter created in Au+Au collisions at
AGS},
Journal = {Physics Letters B},
Volume = {434},
Number = {3-4},
Pages = {379-387},
Year = {1998},
Month = {August},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/9804008},
Abstract = {Local kinetic and chemical equilibration is studied for Au +
Au collisions at 10.7 AGeV in the microscopic
Ultrarelativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics model (UrQMD).
The UrQMD model exhibits dramatic derivations from
equilibrium during the high density phase of the collision.
Thermal and chemical equilibration of the hadronic matter
seems to be established in the later stages during a
quasi-isentropic expansion, observed in the central reaction
cell with volume 125 fm3. For t ≥ 10 fm/c the hadron
energy spectra in the cell are nicely reproduced by
Boltzmann distributions with a common rapidly dropping
temperature. Hadron yields change drastically and at the
late expansion stage follow closely those of an ideal gas
statistical model. The equation of state seems to be simple
at late times: P ≅ 0.12ε. The time evolution of other
thermodynamical variables in the cell is also presented. ©
Doi = {10.1016/S0370-2693(98)00624-8},
Key = {fds245357}
}

@article{fds304507,
Author = {Bass, SA and Hofmann, M and Bleicher, M and Bravina, L and Zabrodin, E and Stöcker, H and Greiner, W},
Title = {Analysis of reaction dynamics at ultrarelativistic energies
in a combined parton-hadron transport approach},
Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
Volume = {60},
Number = {2},
Pages = {219011-219015},
Year = {1999},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.60.021901},
Abstract = {We introduce a transport approach which combines partonic
and hadronic degrees of freedom on an equal footing and
discuss the resulting reaction dynamics. The initial parton
dynamics is modeled in the framework of the parton cascade
model, hadronization is performed via a cluster
hadronization model and configuration space coalescence, and
transport approach. The resulting reaction dynamics indicate
a strong influence of hadronic rescattering on the
space-time pattern of hadronic freeze-out and on the shape
of transverse mass spectra. Freeze-out times and transverse
species.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.60.021901},
Key = {fds304507}
}

@article{fds245282,
Author = {Ardouin, D and Soff, S and Spieles, C and Bass, SA and Stöcker, H and Gourio, D and Schramm, S and Greiner, C and Lednicky, R and Lyuboshitz,
VL and Coffin, J-P and Kühn, C},
Title = {Unlike particle correlations and the strange quark matter
distillation process},
Journal = {Physics Letters B},
Volume = {446},
Number = {3-4},
Pages = {191-196},
Year = {1999},
ISSN = {0370-2693},
Abstract = {We present a new technique for observing the strange quark
matter distillation process based on unlike particle
correlations. A simulation is presented based on the
scenario of a two-phase thermodynamical evolution mode. ©
reserved.},
Key = {fds245282}
}

@article{fds245284,
Author = {Bleicher, M and Spieles, C and Ernst, C and Gerland, L and Soff, S and Neise, L and Stöcker, H and Greiner, W and Bass,
SA},
Title = {The origin of transverse flow at the SPS},
Journal = {Physics Letters B},
Volume = {447},
Number = {3-4},
Pages = {227-232},
Year = {1999},
ISSN = {0370-2693},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/9803346},
Abstract = {We study the transverse expansion in central Pb + Pb
collisions at the CERN SPS. Strong collective motion of
hadrons can be created. This flow is mainly due to meson
baryon rescattering. It allows to study the angular
distribution of intermediate mass meson baryon interactions.
reserved.},
Key = {fds245284}
}

@article{fds245359,
Author = {Bass, SA and Müller, B and Pöschl, W},
Title = {Lattice gauge description of colliding nuclei},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {25},
Number = {11},
Pages = {L109-L115},
Year = {1999},
ISSN = {0954-3899},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/9808011},
Abstract = {We propose a novel formalism for simultaneously describing
both the hard and soft parton dynamics in ultrarelativistic
collisions of nuclei. The emission of gluons from the
initially coherent parton configurations of the colliding
nuclei and low-p1 colour coherence effects are treated in
the framework of a Yang-Mills transport equation on a
coupled lattice-particle system. A collision term is added
to the transport equation to account for the remaining
intermediate and high-p1 interactions in an infrared finite
manner.},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/25/11/101},
Key = {fds245359}
}

@article{fds245360,
Author = {Bass, SA and Weber, H and Ernst, C and Bleicher, M and Belkacem, M and Bravina, L and Soff, S and Stöcker, H and Greiner, W and Spieles,
C},
Title = {Reaction dynamics in Pb + Pb at the CERN/SPS: From partonic
degrees of freedom to freeze-out},
Journal = {Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics},
Volume = {42},
Pages = {313-322},
Year = {1999},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/9810077},
Abstract = {We analyze the reaction dynamics of central Pb+Pb collisions
at 160 GeV/nucleon. First we estimate the energy density ∈
pile-up at mid-rapidity and calculate its excitation
function: ∈ is decomposed into hadronic and partonic
contributions. A detailed analysis of the collision dynamics
in the framework of a microscopic transport model shows the
importance of partonic degrees of freedom and rescattering
of leading (di)quarks in the early phase of the reaction for
Elab ≥ 30 GeV/nucleon. The energy density reaches up to 4
GeV/fm3, 95% of which are contained in partonic degrees of
freedom. It is shown that cells of hadronic matter, after t
≈ 2R/γυcm, can be viewed as nearly chemically
equilibrated. This matter never exceeds energy densities of
∼ 0.4 GeV/fm3, i.e. a density above which the notion of
separated hadrons loses its meaning. The final reaction
stage is analyzed in terms of hadron ratios, freeze-out
distributions and a source analysis for final state
pions.},
Key = {fds245360}
}

@article{fds245361,
Author = {Spieles, C and Vogt, R and Gerland, L and Bass, SA and Bleicher, M and Stoecker, H and Greiner, W},
Title = {Dissociation rates of J/psi's with comoving mesons - thermal
vs. nonequilibrium scenario},
Journal = {J. Phys. G},
Volume = {25},
Number = {12},
Pages = {2351-2359},
Year = {1999},
ISSN = {0954-3899},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/9809441},
Abstract = {We study J/psi dissociation processes in hadronic
environments. The validity of a thermal meson gas ansatz is
tested by confronting it with an alternative, nonequilibrium
scenario. Heavy ion collisions are simulated in the
framework of the microscopic transport model UrQMD, taking
into account the production of charmonium states through
hard parton-parton interactions and subsequent rescattering
with hadrons. The thermal gas and microscopic transport
scenarios are shown to be very dissimilar. Estimates of
J/psi survival probabilities based on thermal models of
comover interactions in heavy ion collisions are therefore
not reliable.},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/25/12/305},
Key = {fds245361}
}

@article{fds245362,
Author = {Bravina, LV and Brandstetter, M and Gorenstein, MI and Zabrodin, EE and Belkacem, M and Bleicher, M and Bass, SA and Ernst, C and Hofmann, M and Soff, S and Stöcker, H and Greiner, W},
Title = {Local thermal and chemical equilibration and the equation of
state in relativistic heavy ion collisions},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {25},
Number = {2},
Pages = {351-361},
Year = {1999},
ISSN = {0954-3899},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/9810036},
Abstract = {Thermodynamical variables and their time evolution are
studied for central relativistic heavy ion collisions from
10.7 to 160 A GeV in the microscopic ultrarelativistic
quantum molecular dynamics model (UrQMD). The UrQMD model
exhibits drastic deviations from equilibrium during the
early high density phase of the collision. Local thermal and
chemical equilibration of the hadronic matter seems to be
established only at later stages of the quasi-isentropic
expansion in the central reaction cell with volume 125 fm3.
Baryon energy spectra in this cell are reproduced by
Boltzmann distributions at all collision energies for t ≥
10 fm/c with a unique rapidly dropping temperature. At these
times the equation of state has a simple form: P ≅
(0.12-0.15)ε. At SPS energies the strong deviation from
chemical equilibrium is found for mesons, especially pions,
even at the late stage of the reaction. The final
enhancement of pions is supported by experimental
data.},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/25/2/024},
Key = {fds245362}
}

@article{fds245364,
Author = {Bleicher, M and Reiter, M and Dumitru, A and Brachmann, J and Spieles,
C and Bass, SA and Stöcker, H and Greiner, W},
Pb(160A GeV) + Pb reactions by impact parameter
variation},
Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
Volume = {59},
Number = {4},
Pages = {R1844-R1845},
Year = {1999},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/9811459},
Abstract = {We propose to study the impact parameter dependence of the
Λ̄/p̄ ratio in Pb(160A GeV) + Pb reactions. The Λ̄/p̄
ratio is a sensible tool to distinguish between hadronic
cascade models and hydrodynamical models, which assume
chemical equilibrium and incorporate a possible phase
transition to a quark-gluon plasma.},
Key = {fds245364}
}

@article{fds245366,
Author = {Spieles, C and Vogt, R and Gerland, L and Bass, SA and Bleicher, M and Frankfurt, L and Strikman, M and Stöcker, H and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Dissociation of expanding cc̄ states in heavy ion
collisions},
Journal = {Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and
High-Energy Physics},
Volume = {458},
Number = {1},
Pages = {137-142},
Year = {1999},
Abstract = {We study J/ψ suppression in AB collisions assuming that the
charmonium states evolve from small, color transparent
configurations. Their interaction with nucleons and
nonequilibrated, secondary hadrons is simulated using the
microscopic model UrQMD. The Drell-Yan lepton pair yield and
the J/ψ/Drell-Yan ratio are calculated as a function of the
neutral transverse energy in Pb + Pb collisions at 160 GeV
and found to be in reasonable agreement with existing data.
reserved.},
Key = {fds245366}
}

@article{fds245367,
Author = {Dumitru, A and Bass, SA and Bleicher, M and Stöcker, H and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Direct emission of multiple strange baryons in
ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions from the phase
boundary},
Journal = {Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and
High-Energy Physics},
Volume = {460},
Number = {3-4},
Pages = {411-416},
Year = {1999},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/9901046},
Abstract = {We discuss a model for the space-time evolution of
ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions which employs
relativistic hydrodynamics within one region of the forward
light-cone, and microscopic transport theory (i.e. UrQMD) in
the complement. Our initial condition consists of a
quark-gluon plasma which expands hydrodynamically and
changes from expansion in local equilibrium to free
streaming, as determined selfconsistently by the interaction
rates between the hadrons and the local expansion rate. We
show that in such a scenario the inverse slopes of the
mT-spectra of multiple strange baryons (Ξ, Ω) are
practically unaffected by the purely hadronic stage of the
reaction, while the flow of p's and Λ's increases.
Moreover, we find that the rather "soft" transverse
expansion at RHIC energies (due to a first-order phase
transition) is not washed out by strong rescattering in the
hadronic stage. The earlier kinetic freeze-out as compared
to SPS-energies results in similar inverse slopes (of the
mT-spectra of the hadrons in the final state) at RHIC and
rights reserved.},
Key = {fds245367}
}

@article{fds245368,
Author = {Bass, SA and Dumitru, A and Bleicher, M and Bravina, L and Zabrodin, E and Stöcker, H and Greiner, W},
phase transition in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion
collisions},
Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
Volume = {60},
Number = {2},
Pages = {219021-219025},
Year = {1999},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
Abstract = {We analyze the hadronic freeze-out in ultrarelativistic
heavy-ion collisions at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider
(RHIC) in a transport approach that combines hydrodynamics
for the early, dense, deconfined stage of the reaction with
a microscopic nonequilibrium model for the later hadronic
stage at which the hydrodynamic equilibrium assumptions are
not valid. With this ansatz we are able to self-consistently
calculate the freeze-out of the system and determine
space-time hypersurfaces for individual hadron species. The
space-time domains of the freeze-out for several hadron
species are found to be actually four dimensional, and
differ drastically for the individual hadrons species.
Freeze-out radii distributions are similar in width for most
hadron species, even though the Ω- is found to be emitted
rather close to the phase boundary and shows the smallest
freeze-out radii and times among all baryon species. The
total lifetime of the system does not change by more than
10% when going from CERN Super Proton Synchrotron to RHIC
energies.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.60.021902},
Key = {fds245368}
}

@article{fds245369,
Author = {Bass, SA and Hofmann, M and Bleicher, M and Bravina, L and Zabrodin, E and Stoecker, H and Greiner, W},
Title = {Analysis of reaction dynamics at RHIC in a combined
Journal = {Phys. Rev. C},
Volume = {60},
Number = {2},
Pages = {021901},
Year = {1999},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/9902055},
Abstract = {We introduce a transport approach which combines partonic
and hadronic degrees of freedom on an equal footing and
discuss the resulting reaction dynamics. The initial parton
dynamics is modeled in the framework of the parton cascade
model, hadronization is performed via a cluster
hadronization model and configuration space coalescence, and
transport approach. The resulting reaction dynamics
indicates a strong influence of hadronic rescattering on the
space-time pattern of hadronic freeze-out and on the shape
of transverse mass spectra. Freeze-out times and transverse
radii increase by factors of 2 - 3 depending on the hadron
species.},
Key = {fds245369}
}

@article{fds245370,
Author = {Spieles, C and Vogt, R and Gerland, L and Bass, SA and Bleicher, M and Stöcker, H and Greiner, W},
Title = {Modeling J/ψ production and absorption in a microscopic
nonequilibrium approach},
Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
Volume = {60},
Number = {5},
Pages = {549011-5490115},
Year = {1999},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
Abstract = {Charmonium production and absorption in heavy ion collisions
is studied with the ultrarelativisitic quantum molecular
dynamics model. We compare the scenario of universal and
time-independent color-octet dissociation cross sections
with one of distinct color-singlet J/ψ, ψ′, and χc
states, evolving from small, color transparent
configurations to their asymptotic sizes. Both purely
hadronic scenarios are compared with the pA and AB data at
SPS energies. The predicted rapidity dependence of Jlψ
suppression can be used to discriminate between the two
scenarios experimentally. The importance of interactions
with secondary hadrons and the applicability of thermal
reaction kinetics to Jlψ absorption are investigated. We
discuss the effect of nuclear stopping and the role of
the model assumptions and the possible influence of
refeeding processes are also studied.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.60.054901},
Key = {fds245370}
}

@article{fds245371,
Author = {Monreal, B and Bass, SA and Bleicher, M and Esumi, S and Greiner, W and Li,
Q and Liu, H and Llope, WJ and Mattiello, R and Panitkin, S and Sakrejda,
I and Snellings, R and Sorge, H and Spieles, C and Stöcker, H and Thomas,
J and Voloshin, S and Wang, F and Xu, N},
Title = {Deuterons and space-momentum correlations in high energy
nuclear collisions},
Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
Volume = {60},
Number = {3},
Pages = {319011-319014},
Year = {1999},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
Abstract = {Using a microscopic transport model together with a
coalescence afterburner, we study the formation of deuterons
in Au+Au central collisions at √s = 200A GeV. It is found
that the deuteron transverse momentum distributions are
strongly affected by the nucleon space-momentum
correlations, at the moment of freeze-out, which are mostly
determined by the number of rescatterings. This feature is
useful for studying collision dynamics at ultrarelativistic
energies.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.60.031901},
Key = {fds245371}
}

@article{fds245372,
Author = {Bass, SA and Bleicher, M and Cassing, W and Dumitru, A and Drescher, HJ and Eskola, KJ and Gyulassy, M and Kharzeev, D and Kovchegov, YV and Lin, Z and Molnar, D and Ollitrault, JY and Pratt, S and Schlei, BR and Sorge, H and Rafelski, J and Rapp, R and Rischke, DH and Schaffner, JB and Snigirev,
AM and Srivastava, DK and Stachel, J and Teaney, D and Thews, R and Vance,
SE and Vitev, I and Vogt, R and Wang, XN and Zhang, B and Zimányi,
J},
Title = {Last call for RHIC predictions},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {661},
Number = {1-4},
Pages = {205c-260c},
Year = {1999},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/9907090},
Abstract = {This paper contains the individual contributions of all
speakers of the session on 'Last Call for RHIC Predictions'
at Quark Matter 99, and a summary by the
convenor.},
Key = {fds245372}
}

@article{fds245374,
Author = {Bravina, LV and Zabrodin, EE and Gorenstein, MI and Bass, SA and Belkacem, M and Bleicher, M and Brandstetter, M and Ernst, C and Hofmann, M and Neise, L and Soff, S and Weber, H and Stöcker, H and Greiner, W},
Title = {Local equilibrium in heavy ion collisions: Microscopic model
versus statistical model analysis},
Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
Volume = {60},
Number = {2},
Pages = {249041-2490414},
Year = {1999},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
Abstract = {The assumption of local equilibrium in relativistic heavy
ion collisions at energies from 10.7A GeV (AGS) up to 160A
GeV (SPS) is checked in the microscopic transport model.
Dynamical calculations performed for a central cell in the
reaction are compared to the predictions of the thermal
statistical model. We find that kinetic, thermal, and
chemical equilibration of the expanding hadronic matter are
nearly approached late in central collisions at AGS energy
for t ≥ 10 fm/c in a central cell. At these times the
equation of state may be approximated by a simple dependence
P ≅ (0.12-0.15)ε. Increasing deviations of the yields and
the energy spectra of hadrons from statistical model values
are observed for increasing energy, 40A GeV and 160A GeV.
These violations of local equilibrium indicate that a fully
equilibrated state is not reached, not even in the central
cell of heavy ion collisions at energies above 10A GeV. The
origin of these findings is traced to the multiparticle
decays of strings and many-body decays of
resonances.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.60.024904},
Key = {fds245374}
}

@article{fds245375,
Author = {Soff, S and Bass, SA and Bleicher, M and Bravina, L and Gorenstein, M and Zabrodin, E and Stöcker, H and Greiner, W},
Title = {Strangeness enhancement in heavy ion collisions - Evidence
for quark-gluon matter?},
Journal = {Physics Letters B},
Volume = {471},
Number = {1},
Pages = {89-96},
Year = {1999},
ISSN = {0370-2693},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/9907026},
Abstract = {The centrality dependence of (multi-)strange hadron
abundances is studied for Pb(158 A GeV)Pb reactions and
compared to p(158 GeV)Pb collisions. The microscopic
transport model UrQMD is used for this analysis. The
predicted Λ/π-, Ξ-/π- and Ω-/π- ratios are enhanced
due to rescattering in central Pb-Pb collisions as compared
to peripheral Pb-Pb or p-Pb collisions. However, the
enhancement is substantially smaller than observed
experimentally. The enhancement depends strongly on the
kinematical cuts. The maximum enhancement is predicted
around midrapidity. For A's, strangeness suppression is
predicted at projectile/target rapidity. For Λ's, the
predicted enhancement can be as large as one order of
magnitude. Comparisons of Pb-Pb data to proton induced
asymmetric (p-A) collisions are hampered due to the
predicted strong asymmetry in the various rapidity
distributions of the different (strange) particle species.
In p-Pb collisions, strangeness is locally (in rapidity) not
conserved. The present comparison to the data of the WA97
and NA49 Collaborations clearly supports the suggestion that
conventional (free) hadronic scenarios are unable to
describe the observed high (anti-)hyperon yields in central
collisions. A reduction of the constituent quark masses to
the current quark masses m(s) ~ 230 Me V, m(q) ~ 10 MeV, as
motivated by chiral symmetry restoration, yields hyperon
production close to the experimentally observed high values.
An ad hoc overall increase of the color electric field
strength (effective string tension of κ = 3 Ge V/fm) yields
similar results. It has been suggested that these findings
might be interpreted as a signal of a phase of nearly
B.V.},
Doi = {10.1016/S0370-2693(99)01318-0},
Key = {fds245375}
}

@article{fds245376,
Author = {Bass, SA and Müller, B},
Title = {K-factors in parton cascades at RHIC and
SPS},
Journal = {Physics Letters B},
Volume = {471},
Number = {2-3},
Pages = {108-112},
Year = {1999},
ISSN = {0370-2693},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/9908014},
Abstract = {Different treatments for the inclusion of higher-order
perturbative QCD corrections in parton based transport
models of relativistic heavy-ion collisions are studied and
their influence on experimental observables is investigated.
At RHIC, particle multiplicities may vary by more than 30%,
depending on the correction scheme. A detailed analysis of
the squared relative momentum transfers Q2 to be expected in
parton (re)scatterings at RHIC casts doubt on the
applicability of pQCD based transport approaches at the SPS
and rules out the application of higher-order correction
schemes based on a rescaling of Q2 in the running coupling
Elsevier Science B.V.},
Doi = {10.1016/S0370-2693(99)01364-7},
Key = {fds245376}
}

@article{fds304508,
Author = {Spieles, C and Vogt, R and Gerland, L and Bass, SA and Bleicher, M and Stöcker, H and Greiner, W},
Title = {Dissociation of J/ψ by mesons: Thermal versus
nonequilibrium scenario},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {25},
Number = {12},
Pages = {2351-2359},
Year = {1999},
ISSN = {0954-3899},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0954-3899/25/12/305},
Abstract = {We study J/ψ reaction kinetics in hadronic environments.
The validity of a thermal meson gas ansatz is tested by
confronting it with an alternative, nonequilibrium scenario.
Heavy-ion collisions are simulated in the framework of the
microscopic transport model, the ultrarelativistic quantum
molecular dynamics model, taking into account the production
of charmonium states through hard parton-parton interactions
and subsequent rescattering with secondary hadrons assuming
constant dissociation cross sections. The thermal gas and
microscopic transport scenarios are shown to be very
dissimilar. Estimates of J/ψ survival probabilities based
on thermal models of co-mover interactions in heavy-ion
collisions are therefore questionable.},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/25/12/305},
Key = {fds304508}
}

@article{fds245283,
Author = {Scherer, S and Bass, SA and Bleicher, M and Belkacem, M and Bravina, L and Brachmann, J and Dumitru, A and Ernst, C and Gerland, L and Hofmann, M and Neise, L and Reiter, M and Soff, S and Spieles, C and Weber, H and Zabrodin, E and Zschiesche, D and Maruhn, JA and Stöcker, H and Greiner, W},
Title = {Critical review of quark gluon plasma signatures},
Journal = {Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics},
Volume = {42},
Pages = {279-293},
Year = {1999},
Month = {January},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0146-6410(99)00083-6},
Abstract = {Nonequilibrium models (three-fluid hydrodynamics and UrQMD)
are used to discuss the uniqueness of often proposed
experimental signatures for quark matter formation in
relativistic heavy ion collisions. It is demonstrated that
these two models - although they do treat the most
interesting early phase of the collisions quite differently
(thermalizing QGP vs. coherent color fields with virtual
particles) - both yield a reasonable agreement with a large
variety of the available heavy ion data. Hadron/hyperon
yields, including J/Ψ meson production/suppression, strange
matter formation, dileptons, and directed flow (bounce-off
and squeeze-out) are investigated. Observations of
interesting phenomena in dense matter are reported. However,
we emphasize the need for systematic future measurements to
search for simultaneous irregularities in the excitation
functions of several observables in order to come close to
pinning the properties of hot, dense QCD matter from
data.},
Doi = {10.1016/S0146-6410(99)00083-6},
Key = {fds245283}
}

@article{fds245363,
Author = {Bass, SA and Gyulassy, M and Stöcker, H and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Signatures of quark-gluon plasma formation in high energy
heavy-ion collisions: a critical review},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {25},
Number = {3},
Pages = {R1-R57},
Year = {1999},
Month = {March},
ISSN = {0954-3899},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/9810281},
Abstract = {A critical review on signatures of quark-gluon plasma (QGP)
formation is given and the current (1998) experimental
status is discussed. After giving an introduction to the
properties of QCD matter in both, equilibrium and
non-equilibrium theories, we focus on observables which may
yield experimental evidence for QGP formation. For each
individual observable the discussion is divided into three
sections: first the connection between the respective
observable and QGP formation in terms of the underlying
theoretical concepts is given, then the relevant
experimental results are reviewed and finally the current
status concerning the interpretation of both, theory and
experiment, is discussed. A comprehensive summary including
an outlook towards RHIC is given in the final
section.},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/25/3/013},
Key = {fds245363}
}

@article{fds303612,
Author = {Scherer, S and Bass, SA and Belkacem, M and Bleicher, M and Brachmann,
J and Dumitru, A and Ernst, C and Gerland, L and Hammon, N and Hofmann, M and Konopka, J and Neise, L and Reiter, M and Schramm, S and Soff, S and Spieles, C and Weber, H and Zschiesche, D and Maruhn, JA and Stöcker,
H and Greiner, W},
Title = {Physics opportunities at RHIC and LHC},
Year = {1999},
Month = {March},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/9903392v1},
Abstract = {Nonequilibrium models (three-fluid hydrodynamics, UrQMD, and
quark molecular dynamics) are used to discuss the uniqueness
of often proposed experimental signatures for quark matter
formation in relativistic heavy ion collisions from the SPS
via RHIC to LHC. It is demonstrated that these models --
although they do treat the most interesting early phase of
the collisions quite differently (thermalizing QGP vs.
coherent color fields with virtual particles) -- all yield a
reasonable agreement with a large variety of the available
heavy ion data. Hadron/hyperon yields, including $J/\Psi$
meson production/suppression, strange matter formation,
dileptons, and directed flow (bounce-off and squeeze-out)
are investigated. Observations of interesting phenomena in
dense matter are reported. However, we emphasize the need
for systematic future measurements to search for
simultaneous irregularities in the excitation functions of
several observables in order to come close to pinning the
properties of hot, dense QCD matter from data. The role of
future experiments with the STAR and ALICE detectors is
pointed out.},
Doi = {10.1063/1.59576},
Key = {fds303612}
}

@article{fds303613,
Author = {Soff, S and Bass, SA and Bleicher, M and Stoecker, H and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Directed and Elliptic Flow},
Year = {1999},
Month = {March},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/9903061v1},
Abstract = {We compare microscopic transport model calculations to
recent data on the directed and elliptic flow of various
hadrons in 2 - 10 A GeV Au+Au and Pb (158 A GeV) Pb
collisions. For the Au+Au excitation function a transition
from the squeeze-out to an in-plane enhanced emission is
consistently described with mean field potentials
corresponding to one incompressibility. For the Pb (158 A
GeV) Pb system the elliptic flow prefers in-plane emission
both for protons and pions, the directed flow of protons is
opposite to that of the pions, which exhibit anti-flow.
Strong directed transverse flow is present for protons and
Lambdas in Au (6 A GeV) Au collisions as well. Both for the
SPS and the AGS energies the agreement between data and
calculations is remarkable.},
Key = {fds303613}
}

@article{fds245365,
Author = {Bravina, LV and Gorenstein, MI and Zabrodin, EE and Bass, SA and Belkacem, M and Bleicher, M and Brandstetter, M and Hofmann, M and Soff,
S and Spieles, C and Weber, H and Stöckerand, H and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Equilibrium and non-equilibrium effects in nucleus–nucleus
collisions},
Journal = {Physics Letters B},
Volume = {459},
Number = {4},
Pages = {660-666},
Year = {1999},
Month = {July},
ISSN = {0370-2693},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0370-2693(99)00692-9},
Abstract = {Local thermal and chemical equilibration is studied for
central A + A collisions at 10.7-160 AGeV in the
Ultrarelativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics model (UrQMD).
The UrQMD mode exhibits strong deviations from local
equilibrium at the high density hadron-string phase formed
during the early stage of the collision. Equilibration of
the hadron-resonance matter is established in the central
cäl of volume V = 125 fmat later stages, t &gt; 10 fm/c, of
the resulting quasi-isentropic expansion. The
thermodynamical functions in the cell and their time
evolution are presented. Deviations of the UrQMD
quasi-equilibrium state from the statistical mechanics
equilibrium are found. They increase with energy per baryon
and lead to a strong enhancement of the pion number density
as compared to statistical mechanics estimates at SPS
rights reserved.},
Doi = {10.1016/S0370-2693(99)00692-9},
Key = {fds245365}
}

@article{fds245377,
Author = {Bleicher, M and Zabrodin, E and Spieles, C and Bass, SA and Ernst, C and Soff, S and Bravina, L and Belkacem, M and Weber, H and Stöcker, H and Greiner, W},
ultra-relativistic quantum molecular dynamics
model},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {25},
Number = {9},
Pages = {1859-1896},
Year = {1999},
Month = {September},
ISSN = {0954-3899},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/9909407},
investigated in the ultra-relativistic quantum molecular
dynamics (UrQMD) approach. This microscopic transport model
describes the phenomenology of hadronic interactions at low
and intermediate energies (√s &lt; 5 GeV) in terms of
interactions between known hadrons and their resonances. At
higher energies, √s &gt; 5 GeV, the excitation of colour
strings and their subsequent fragmentation into hadrons
dominates the multiple production of particles in the UrQMD
model. The model shows a fair overall agreement with a large
body of experimental h-h data over a wide range of h-h
centre-of-mass energies. Hadronic reaction data with higher
precision would be useful to support the use of the UrQMD
model for relativistic heavy-ion collisions.},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/25/9/308},
Key = {fds245377}
}

@article{fds245373,
Author = {Bravina, LV and Zabrodin, EE and Gorenstein, MI and Bass, SA and Belkacem, M and Bleicher, M and Brandstetter, M and Ernst, C and Faessler, A and Greiner, W and Soff, S and Stöcker, H and Weber,
H},
Title = {Equilibrium and non-equilibrium effects in relativistic
heavy ion collisions.},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {661},
Number = {1-4},
Pages = {600-603},
Year = {1999},
Month = {December},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/9907062},
Abstract = {The hypothesis of local equilibrium (LE) in relativistic
heavy ion collisions at energies from AGS to RHIC is checked
in the microscopic transport model. We find that kinetic,
thermal, and chemical equilibration of the expanding
hadronic matter is nearly reached in central collisions at
AGS energy for t ≥ 10 fm/c in a central cell. At these
times the equation of state may be approximated by a simple
dependence P ≅ (0.12 - 0.15) ε. Increasing deviations of
the yields and the energy spectra of hadrons from
statistical model values are observed for increasing
bombarding energies. The origin of these deviations is
traced to the irreversible multiparticle decays of strings
and many-body (N ≥ 3) decays of resonances. The violations
of LE indicate that the matter in the cell reaches a steady
state instead of idealized equilibrium. The entropy density
in the cell is only about 6% smaller than that of the
equilibrium state.},
Doi = {10.1016/S0375-9474(99)85097-0},
Key = {fds245373}
}

@article{fds245378,
Author = {Bleicher, MJ and Bass, SA and Bravina, LV and Greiner, W and Soff, S and Stöcker, H and Xu, N and Zabrodin, EE},
Title = {Global observables and secondary interactions in central
Au+Au reactions at √s = 200A GeV},
Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
Volume = {62},
Number = {2},
Pages = {249041-249047},
Year = {2000},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
Abstract = {The ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics model
(UrQMD) is used to study global observables in central
reactions of Au+Au at √s = 200A GeV at the Relativistic
Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Strong stopping governed by
massive particle production is predicted if secondary
interactions are taken into account. The underlying string
dynamics and the early hadronic decoupling implies only
small transverse expansion rates. However, rescattering with
mesons is found to act as a source of pressure leading to
additional flow of baryons and kaons, while cooling down
pions.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.62.024904},
Key = {fds245378}
}

@article{fds245382,
Author = {Bravina, LV and Zabrodin, EE and Bass, SA and Bleicher, M and Brandstetter, M and Soff, S and Stöcker, H and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Local equilibrium in heavy-ion collisions: Microscopic
analysis of a central cell versus infinite
matter},
Journal = {Phys. Rev. C},
Volume = {62},
Number = {6},
Pages = {064906},
Year = {2000},
Abstract = {We study the local equilibrium in the central V = 125 fm3
cell in heavy-ion collisions at energies from 10.7A GeV
(AGS) to 160A GeV (SPS) calculated in the microscopic
transport model. In the present paper the hadron yields and
energy spectra in the cell are compared with those of
infinite nuclear matter, as calculated within the same
model. The agreement between the spectra in the two systems
is established for times t [>=] 10 fm/c in the central cell.
The cell results do not deviate noticeably from the infinite
matter calculations with rising incident energy, in contrast
to the apparent discrepancy with predictions of the
statistical model (SM) of an ideal hadron gas. The entropy
of this state is found to be very close to the maximum
entropy, while hadron abundances and energy spectra differ
significantly from those of the SM.},
Key = {fds245382}
}

@article{fds245399,
Author = {Bleicher, M and Belkacem, M and Bass, SA and Soff, S and Stöcker,
H},
Title = {Enhanced antiproton production in Pb(160 A GeV) + Pb
reactions: Evidence for quark gluon matter?},
Journal = {Physics Letters B},
Volume = {485},
Number = {1-3},
Pages = {133-138},
Year = {2000},
ISSN = {0370-2693},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/0004045},
Abstract = {The centrality dependence of the antiproton per participant
ratio is studied in Pb(160 A GeV) + Pb reactions. Antiproton
production in collisions of heavy nuclei at the CERN/SPS
seems considerably enhanced as compared to conventional
hadronic physics, given by the antiproton production rates
in pp and antiproton annihilation in pp reactions. This
enhancement is consistent with the observation of strong
in-medium effects in other hadronic observables and may be
an indication of partial restoration of chiral symmetry. (C)
Doi = {10.1016/S0370-2693(00)00643-2},
Key = {fds245399}
}

@article{fds245409,
Author = {Bass, SA and Dumitru, A},
Title = {Dynamics of hot bulk QCD matter: From the quark-gluon plasma
Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
Volume = {61},
Number = {6},
Pages = {649091-6490924},
Year = {2000},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
Abstract = {We introduce a combined macroscopic-microscopic transport
approach employing relativistic hydrodynamics for the early,
dense, deconfined stage of the reaction and a microscopic
nonequilibrium model for the later hadronic stage where the
equilibrium assumptions are not valid anymore. Within this
approach we study the dynamics of hot, bulk QCD matter,
which is expected to be created in ultrarelativistic
heavy-ion collisions at the Super Proton Synchrotron, the
Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, and the Large Hadron
Collider. Our approach is capable of self-consistently
calculating the freeze-out of the hadronic system, while
accounting for the collective flow on the hadronization
hypersurface generated by the QGP expansion. In particular,
we perform a detailed analysis of the reaction dynamics,
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.61.064909},
Key = {fds245409}
}

@article{fds304509,
Author = {Bravina, LV and Zabrodin, EE and Bass, SA and Bleicher, M and Brandstetter, M and Soff, S and Stöcker, H and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Local equilibrium in heavy-ion collisions: Microscopic
analysis of a central cell versus infinite
matter},
Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
Volume = {62},
Number = {6},
Pages = {649061-6490610},
Year = {2000},
Abstract = {We study the local equilibrium in the central V = 125 fm3
cell in heavy-ion collisions at energies from 10.7/4 GeV
(AGS) to 160A GeV (SPS) calculated in the microscopic
transport model. In the present paper the hadron yields and
energy spectra in the cell are compared with those of
infinite nuclear matter, as calculated within the same
model. The agreement between the spectra in the two systems
is established for times t ≥ 10 fm/c in the central cell.
The cell results do not deviate noticeably from the infinite
matter calculations with rising incident energy, in contrast
to the apparent discrepancy with predictions of the
statistical model (SM) of an ideal hadron gas. The entropy
of this state is found to be very close to the maximum
entropy, while hadron abundances and energy spectra differ
significantly from those of the SM.},
Key = {fds304509}
}

@article{fds245410,
Author = {Bass, SA and Danielewicz, P and Pratt, S},
Title = {Clocking Hadronization in Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions
with Balance Functions},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {85},
Number = {13},
Pages = {2689-2692},
Year = {2000},
Month = {September},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0005044},
Abstract = {Several experimental measurement were proposed as signals to
the quark-gluon plasma is presented. Among these signals is
an expected enhancement in strange-quark production which
should take place 5-10 fm/c into the collision when the
local temperature has dropped to near 160 MeV, but the
system is still far from freeze-out. Strangeness enhancement
was observed in heavy-ion collisions but alternative
hadronic explanations were also been put forward assuming
early-stage hadronization with medium junctions. The use of
balance functions is proposed as a means to determine
whether quark production occurred at early time, τ&lt;1
fm/c, or according to a late-stage hadronization
scenario.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.85.2689},
Key = {fds245410}
}

@article{fds318406,
Author = {Bass, SA and Dumitru, A and Danielewicz, P and Pratt,
S},
Title = {Probing hadronization with strangeness},
Journal = {Aip Conference Proceedings},
Volume = {597},
Pages = {54-63},
Year = {2001},
ISBN = {0-7354-0041-5},
Key = {fds318406}
}

@article{fds245379,
Author = {Soff, S and Zschiesche, D and Bleicher, M and Hartnack, C and Belkacem,
M and Bravina, L and Zabrodin, E and Bass, SA and Stöcker, H and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Enhanced strange particle yields - Signal of a phase of
massless particles?},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {27},
Number = {3},
Pages = {449-457},
Year = {2001},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0010103},
Abstract = {The yields of strange particles are calculated with the
ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics model for p,
Pb(158 A GeV)Pb collisions and compared with experimental
data. The yields are enhanced in central collisions compared
with proton-induced or peripheral Pb + Pb collisions. The
enhancement is due to secondary interactions. Nevertheless,
only a reduction of the quark masses or equivalently an
increase of the string tension provides an adequate
description of the large observed enhancement factors (WA97
and NA49). Furthermore, the yields of unstable strange
resonances such as the A* or the φ are considerably
affected by hadronic rescattering of the decay
products.},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/27/3/324},
Key = {fds245379}
}

@article{fds245380,
Author = {Wong, SMH and Belkacem, M and Kapusta, JI and Bass, SA and Bleicher, M and Stöcker, H},
Title = {Bremsstrahlung from a Microscopic Model of Relativistic
Heavy Ion Collisions},
Journal = {Phys. Rev. C},
Volume = {63},
Number = {1},
Pages = {014903},
Year = {2001},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/0008119},
Abstract = {We compute bremsstrahlung arising from the acceleration of
individual charged baryons and mesons during the time
evolution of high-energy Au+Au collisions at the
Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider using a microscopic
transport model. We elucidate the connection between
bremsstrahlung and charge stopping by colliding artificial
pure proton on pure neutron nuclei. From the intensity of
low energy bremsstrahlung, the time scale and the degree of
stopping could be accurately extracted without measuring any
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.63.014903},
Key = {fds245380}
}

@article{fds245381,
Author = {Bravina, LV and Zabrodin, EE and Bass, SA and Bleicher, M and Brandstetter, M and Faessler, A and Fuchs, C and Greiner, W and Soff, S and Stoecker, H},
Title = {Equation of state of resonance-rich matter in the central
cell in heavy-ion collisions at $\sqrt{s}$=200
AGeV},
Journal = {Phys. Rev. C},
Volume = {63},
Number = {6},
Pages = {064902},
Year = {2001},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/0010172},
Abstract = {The equilibration of hot and dense nuclear matter produced
in the central cell of central Au+Au collisions at RHIC
($\sqrt{s}=200$ AGeV) energies is studied within a
microscopic transport model. The pressure in the cell
becomes isotropic at $t\approx 5$ fm/$c$ after beginning of
the collision. Within the next 15 fm/$c$ the expansion of
matter in the cell proceeds almost isentropically with the
entropy per baryon ratio $S/A \approx 150$, and the equation
of state in the $(P,\epsilon)$ plane has a very simple form,
$P=0.15\epsilon$. Comparison with the statistical model of
an ideal hadron gas indicates that the time $t \approx 20$
fm/c may be too short to reach the fully equilibrated state.
Particularly, the creation of long-lived resonance-rich
matter in the cell decelerates the relaxation to chemical
equilibrium. This resonance-abundant state can be detected
experimentally after the thermal freeze-out of
particles.},
Key = {fds245381}
}

@article{fds245383,
Author = {Soff, S and Bass, SA and Dumitru, A},
Title = {Pion interferometry at RHIC: Probing a thermalized
quark-gluon plasma?},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {86},
Number = {18},
Pages = {3981-3984},
Year = {2001},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0012085},
Abstract = {The Gaussian radius parameters of the pion-emitting source
in high-energy heavy-ion collisions were calculated. It was
found that the radii depend minimally on the thermalization
time, the critical temperature, and the specific entropy of
the quark-gluon plasma (QGP).},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.86.3981},
Key = {fds245383}
}

@article{fds245384,
Author = {Bass, SA and Danielewicz, P and Dumitru, A and Pratt,
S},
Title = {Probing hadronization with strangeness},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {27},
Number = {3},
Pages = {635-644},
Year = {2001},
ISBN = {0-7354-0041-5},
ISSN = {0094-243X},
Abstract = {A novel state of matter has been hypothesized to exist
during the early stage of relativistic heavy-ion collisions,
with normal hadrons not appearing until several fin c-1
after the start of the reaction. Radial flow of
multi-strange baryons is shown to be a sensitive probe of
the expansion of the deconfined phase prior to
transport model we show that if at hadronization the system
has been significantly out of chemical equilibrium, hadronic
rescattering cannot drive the system towards full chemical
equilibration. Furthermore, we suggest a novel
model-independent observable, balance functions, to evaluate
correlations between charges and their associated
anticharges It is shown that balance functions are extremely
sensitive to the time-scale of hadronization: late-stage
hadronization is characterized by tightly correlated
charge/anticharge pairs when measured as a function of
relative rapidity.},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/27/3/348},
Key = {fds245384}
}

@article{fds245411,
Author = {Bravina, LV and Zabrodin, EE and Bleicher, M and Bass, SA and Brandstetter, M and Faessler, A and Fuchs, C and Greiner, W and Gorenstein, MI and Soff, S and Stöcker, H},
Title = {Transition to resonance-rich matter in heavy-ion collisions
at RHIC energies},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {27},
Number = {3},
Pages = {421-426},
Year = {2001},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0010088},
Abstract = {The equilibration of hot and dense nuclear matter produced
in the central region in central Au + Au collisions at √s
= 200 A GeV is studied within the microscopic transport
model UrQMD. The pressure here becomes isotropic at t ≈ 5
fm c-1. Within the next 15 fm c-1 the expansion of the
matter proceeds almost isentropically with the entropy per
baryon ratio S/A ≈ 150. During this period the equation of
state in the (P, ε)-plane has a very simple form, P =
0.15ε. Comparison with the statistical model (SM) of an
ideal hadron gas reveals that the time of ≈ 20 fm c-1 may
be too short to attain the fully equilibrated state. In
particular, the fractions of resonances are overpopulated in
contrast with the SM values. The creation of such a
long-lived resonance-rich state slows down the relaxation to
chemical equilibrium and can be detected
experimentally.},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/27/3/321},
Key = {fds245411}
}

@article{fds304510,
Author = {Wong, SMH and Belkacem, M and Kapusta, JI and Bass, SA and Bleicher, M and Stöcker, H},
Title = {Bremsstrahlung from a microscopic model of relativistic
heavy ion collisions},
Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
Volume = {63},
Number = {1},
Pages = {149031-149039},
Year = {2001},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.63.014903},
Abstract = {We compute bremsstrahlung arising from the acceleration of
individual charged baryons and mesons during the time
evolution of high-energy Au + Au collisions at the
Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider using a microscopic
transport model. We elucidate the connection between
bremsstrahlung and charge stopping by colliding artificial
pure proton on pure neutron nuclei. From the intensity of
low energy bremsstrahlung, the time scale and the degree of
stopping could be accurately extracted without measuring any
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.63.014903},
Key = {fds304510}
}

@article{fds304511,
Author = {Bravina, LV and Zabrodin, EE and Bass, SA and Bleicher, M and Brandstetter, M and Faessler, A and Fuchs, C and Greiner, W and Soff, S and Stöcker, H},
Title = {Equation of state of resonance-rich matter in the central
cell in heavy-ion collisions at √s = 200A
GeV},
Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
Volume = {63},
Number = {6},
Pages = {649021-649028},
Year = {2001},
Abstract = {The equilibration of hot and dense nuclear matter produced
in the central cell of central Au+Au collisions at √s=200A
GeV is studied within a microscopic transport model. The
pressure in the cell becomes isotropic at t≈5 fm/c after
beginning of the collision. Within the next 15 fm/c the
expansion of matter in the cell proceeds almost
isentropically with the entropy per baryon ratio S/A≅150,
and the equation of state in the (P,ε) plane has a very
simple form, P=0.15ε. Comparison with the statistical model
of an ideal hadron gas indicates that the time t≈20 fm/c
may be too short to reach the fully equilibrated state.
Particularly, the creation of long-lived resonance-rich
matter in the cell decelerates the relaxation to chemical
equilibrium. This resonance-abundant state can be detected
experimentally after the thermal freeze out of
particles.},
Key = {fds304511}
}

@article{fds245236,
Author = {Zschiesche, D and Bass, S and Bleicher, M},
Title = {Current Status of Quark –Gluon Plasma Signals},
Journal = {Acta Physica Hungarica A) Heavy Ion Physics},
Volume = {14},
Number = {1-4},
Pages = {425-438},
Year = {2001},
Month = {September},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/APH.14.2001.1-4.40},
Abstract = {Compelling evidence for the creation of a new form of matter
has been claimed to be found in Pb+Pb collisions at SPS. We
discuss the uniqueness of often proposed experimental
signatures for quark matter formation in relativistic heavy
ion collisions. It is demonstrated that so far none of the
proposed signals like J/ψ meson production/suppression,
strangeness enhancement, dileptons, and directed flow
unambiguously show that a phase of deconfined matter has
been formed in SPS Pb+Pb collisions. We emphasize the need
for systematic future measurements to search for
simultaneous irregularities in the excitation functions of
several observables in order to come close to pinning the
properties of hot, dense QCD matter from
data.},
Doi = {10.1556/APH.14.2001.1-4.40},
Key = {fds245236}
}

@article{fds245242,
Author = {Bass, SA and Müller, B and Srivastava, DK},
Title = {Semihard scattering of partons at √s=17 vs 200 GeV: A
study in contrast},
Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
Volume = {66},
Number = {6},
Pages = {619021-619024},
Year = {2002},
Abstract = {We analyze the contribution of perturbative QCD based
semihard parton (re)scattering to the reaction dynamics of
relativistic heavy-ion collisions at SPS and RHIC. While
such processes are able to account for the measured yield of
high-momentum direct photons at SPS energies, the conditions
necessary for jet quenching are not fulfilled. The situation
changes dramatically at RHIC energies.},
Key = {fds245242}
}

@article{fds245385,
Author = {Bass, SA},
Title = {Microscopic reaction dynamic at SPC and RHIC},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {698},
Number = {1-4},
Pages = {164c-170c},
Year = {2002},
ISSN = {0375-9474},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0104040},
Abstract = {The current status of transport theoretical models
applicable to the physics of the Relativistic Heavy-Ion
Collider is reviewed. The time evolution of microscopic
reaction dynamics - from early, hard, partonic rescattering
up to soft hadronic interactions close to freeze-out is
analyzed and key observables linked to the different
reaction stages are discussed.},
Key = {fds245385}
}

@article{fds245388,
Author = {Bleicher, M and Liu, FM and Keränen, A and Aichelin, J and Bass, SA and Becattini, F and Redlich, K and Werner, K},
Title = {Overpopulation of Ω̄ in pp collisions: A way to
dynamics},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {88},
Number = {20},
Pages = {2025011-2025014},
Year = {2002},
ISSN = {0031-9007},
Abstract = {The ω̄/ω ≡ ω+/ω- ratio in elementary proton-proton
collisions in an unambiguous and sensitive probe for
distinguishing particle production through the breakup of a
color flux tube from statistical hadronization was
presented. Results showed that the antiomega dominance
increased with the decrasing beam energy. The behavior was
caused by the combinatorics of quark-antiquark production in
small and low-mass strings.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.88.202501},
Key = {fds245388}
}

@article{fds287561,
Author = {Bleicher, MJ and Bass, SA},
Title = {Anti-ω dominance in pp interactions at intermediate
energies},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {28},
Number = {7},
Pages = {1965-1969},
Year = {2002},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0954-3899/28/7/354},
Abstract = {The Ω+/Ω- ratio originating from string decays is
predicted to be &gt;1 in pp interaction at SPS energies. The
anti-Ω dominance increases with decreasing beam energy.
This surprising behaviour is caused by the combinatorics of
quark-antiquark production in small, finite strings. Since
hadron production in pp collisions, it may serve as a potent
observable to probe the hadronization mechanism in such
collisions.},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/28/7/354},
Key = {fds287561}
}

@article{fds245389,
Author = {Bass, SA},
Title = {Strangeness production in microscopic transport
models},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {28},
Number = {7},
Pages = {1543-1551},
Year = {2002},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0112046},
Abstract = {Strangeness production in microscopic transport models for
relativistic heavyion collisions from SIS to RHIC is
reviewed: after a brief introduction into elementary
strangeness production processes, the main emphasis is put
on strangeness as an indicator of the nuclear equation of
state, the excitation function of the K+/π+ ratio and
strangeness as a deconfinement indicator.},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/28/7/304},
Key = {fds245389}
}

@article{fds245391,
Author = {Soff, S and Bass, SA and Hardtke, DH and Panitkin,
SY},
Title = {(Strange) meson interferometry at RHIC},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {28},
Number = {7},
Pages = {1885-1893},
Year = {2002},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0202019},
Abstract = {We make predictions for the kaon interferometry measurements
in Au+Au collisions at the relativistic heavy ion collider
(RHIC). A first-order phase transition from a thermalized
quark-gluon plasma (QGP) to a gas of hadrons is assumed for
the transport calculations. The fraction of kaons that are
directly emitted from the phase boundary is considerably
enhanced at large transverse momenta KT ∼ 1 GeV/c. In this
kinematic region, the sensitivity of the Rout/Aside ratio to
the QGP properties is enlarged. The results of the
one-dimensional correlation analysis are presented. The
extracted interferometry radii, depending on KT, are not
unusually large and are strongly affected by finite momentum
resolution effects.},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/28/7/343},
Key = {fds245391}
}

@article{fds245386,
Author = {Bravina, LV and Zabrodin, EE and Bass, SA and Faessler, A and Fuchs, C and Gorenstein, MI and Greiner, W and Soff, S and Stöcker, H and Weber,
H},
Title = {Chemical freeze-out parameters at RHIC from microscopic
model calculations},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {698},
Number = {1-4},
Pages = {383-386},
Year = {2002},
Month = {February},
ISSN = {0375-9474},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0104023},
Abstract = {The relaxation of hot nuclear matter to an equilibrated
state in the central zone of heavy-ion collisions at
energies from AGS to RHIC is studied within the microscopic
UrQMD model. It is found that the system reaches the
(quasi)equilibrium stage for the period of 10-15 fm/$c$.
Within this time the matter in the cell expands nearly
isentropically with the entropy to baryon ratio $S/A = 150 - 170$. Thermodynamic characteristics of the system at AGS and
at SPS energies at the endpoints of this stage are very
close to the parameters of chemical and thermal freeze-out
extracted from the thermal fit to experimental data.
Predictions are made for the full RHIC energy $\sqrt{s} = 200$ AGeV. The formation of a resonance-rich state at RHIC
energies is discussed.},
Doi = {10.1016/S0375-9474(01)01385-9},
Key = {fds245386}
}

@article{fds245387,
Author = {Soff, S and Bass, SA and Hardtke, DH and Panitkin,
SY},
Title = {Kaon interferometry: A sensitive probe of the QCD equation
of state?},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {88},
Number = {7},
Pages = {723011-723014},
Year = {2002},
Month = {February},
ISSN = {0031-9007},
Abstract = {The kaon-interferometry radius parameters for high-energy
heavy-ion collisions were calculated. The first-order phase
transition was assumed from a thermalized quark-gluon plasma
(QGP) to a gas of hadrons. Large radii (Ri ≤ 9 fm) were
not obtained from the calculations of the QGP + hadronic
rescattering transport model.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.88.072301},
Key = {fds245387}
}

@article{fds245390,
Author = {Bleicher, MJ and Bass, SA},
Title = {Anti-Omega dominance in pp interactions at intermediate
energies},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {28},
Number = {7},
Pages = {1965-1969},
Year = {2002},
Month = {July},
ISSN = {0954-3899},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/28/7/354},
Key = {fds245390}
}

@article{fds245408,
Author = {S A Bass and BM and uuml, and ller, DKS},
Title = {Semihard scattering of partons at SPS and RHIC: A Study in
contrast.},
Journal = {Phys. Rev. C, Rapid Communication},
Volume = {66},
Pages = {061902(R)},
Year = {2002},
Month = {December},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0210042},
Abstract = {We analyze the contribution of pQCD based semi-hard parton
(re)scattering to the reaction dynamics of relativistic
heavy-ion collisions at SPS and RHIC. While such processes
are able to account for the measured yield of high momentum
direct photons at SPS energies, the conditions necessary for
jet-quenching are not fulfilled. The situation changes
dramatically at RHIC energies.},
Key = {fds245408}
}

@article{fds245243,
Author = {Bass, SA and Müller, B and Srivastava, DK},
Title = {Parton rescattering and colour screening in Au+Au collisions
at RHIC},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {715},
Pages = {813c-816c},
Year = {2003},
ISSN = {0375-9474},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0375-9474(02)01501-4},
Abstract = {We study the microscopic dynamics of quarks and gluons in
relativistic heavy ion collisions in the framework of the
Parton Cascade Model. We use lowest order perturbative QCD
cross sections with fixed lower momentum cutoff p Tmin. We
calculate the time evolution of the Debye-screening mass μD
for Au+Au collisions at √s = 200 GeV per nucleon pair. We
also determine the energy density reached through hard and
semi-hard processes at RHIC and analyze the extent of
perturbative rescattering among partons. © 2003 Elsevier
Doi = {10.1016/S0375-9474(02)01501-4},
Key = {fds245243}
}

@article{fds245244,
Author = {Bass, SA},
Title = {QGP theory: Status and perspectives},
Journal = {Pramana - Journal of Physics},
Volume = {60},
Number = {4},
Pages = {593-612},
Year = {2003},
Abstract = {The current status of quark gluon plasma theory was
reviewed. The ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions
offered a unique opportunity to probe highly excited dense
nuclear matter under controlled laboratory conditions. It
was found that the development of a transport theory based
on QCD treated both hard and soft processes
consistently.},
Key = {fds245244}
}

@article{fds245348,
Author = {Bass, SA and Müller, B and Srivastava, DK},
Title = {Net baryon density in Au + Au collisions at the relativistic
heavy ion collider},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {91},
Number = {5},
Pages = {523021-523024},
Year = {2003},
ISSN = {0031-9007},
url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12906590},
Abstract = {The net-baryon multiplicity density distributions in Au + Au
collisions were calculated at 130 and 200 GeV center-of-mass
energy per nucleon pair. The parton cascade model predicted
a net-baryon excess at midrapidity in Au + Au collisions,
which was in agreement with measured values. The transport
of partons to midrapidity, caused by rescattering among
partons, was found to increase the net-baryon number
density.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.91.052302},
Key = {fds245348}
}

@article{fds245349,
Author = {Soff, S and Bass, SA and Hardtke, DH and Panitkin,
SY},
Title = {Particle correlations at RHIC - Scrutiny of a
puzzle},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {715},
Pages = {801c-804c},
Year = {2003},
ISSN = {0375-9474},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0209055},
Abstract = {We present calculations of two-pion and two-kaon correlation
functions in relativistic heavy ion collisions from a
relativistic transport model that includes explicitly a
first-order phase transition from a thermalized quark-gluon
plasma to a hadron gas. We compare the obtained correlation
agree with data while the R_out and R_long radii are
overestimated. We also address the impact of in-medium
modifications, for example, a broadening of the rho-meson,
on the correlation radii. In particular, the longitudinal
correlation radius R_long is reduced, improving the
comparison to data.},
Doi = {10.1016/S0375-9474(02)01492-6},
Key = {fds245349}
}

@article{fds245350,
Author = {Bass, SA and Müller, B and Srivastava, DK},
Title = {Parton rescattering and screening in Au + Au collisions at
RHIC},
Journal = {Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and
High-Energy Physics},
Volume = {551},
Number = {3-4},
Pages = {277-283},
Year = {2003},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0207042},
Abstract = {We study the microscopic dynamics of quarks and gluons in
relativistic heavy ion collisions in the framework of the
Parton Cascade Model. We use lowest order perturbative QCD
cross sections with fixed lower momentum cutoff PTmin. We
calculate the time-evolution of the Debye-screening mass μD
for Au + Au collisions at √s = 200 GeV per nucleon pair.
The screening mass is used to determine a lower limit for
the allowed range of PTmin. We also determine the energy
density reached through hard and semi-hard processes at
RHIC, obtain a lower bound for the rapidity density of
charged hadrons produced by semi-hard interactions, and
analyze the extent of perturbative rescattering among
partons. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights
reserved.},
Doi = {10.1016/S0370-2693(02)03068-X},
Key = {fds245350}
}

@article{fds245405,
Author = {Fries, RJ and Müller, B and Nonaka, C and Bass, SA},
Title = {Hadron production in heavy ion collisions: Fragmentation and
recombination from a dense parton phase},
Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
Volume = {68},
Number = {4},
Pages = {449021-4490223},
Year = {2003},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
Abstract = {We discuss hadron production in heavy ion collisions at the
Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). We argue that
hadrons at transverse momenta P T&lt;5 GeV are formed by
recombination of partons from the dense parton phase created
in central collisions at RHIC. We provide a theoretical
description of the recombination process for PT&gt;2 GeV.
Below PT=2 GeV our results smoothly match a purely
statistical description. At high transverse momentum hadron
production is well described in the language of perturbative
QCD by the fragmentation of partons. We give numerical
results for a variety of hadron spectra, ratios, and nuclear
suppression factors. We also discuss the anisotropic flow v2
and give results based on a flow in the parton phase. Our
results are consistent with the existence of a parton phase
at RHIC hadronizing at a temperature of 175 MeV and a radial
flow velocity of 0.55c.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.68.044902},
Key = {fds245405}
}

@article{fds245407,
Author = {Bass, SA and Müller, B and Srivastava, DK},
Title = {Light from cascading partons in relativistic heavy-ion
collisions.},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {90},
Number = {8},
Pages = {082301},
Year = {2003},
Month = {February},
ISSN = {0031-9007},
url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12633418},
Abstract = {We calculate the production of high energy photons from
Compton and annihilation processes as well as fragmentation
off quarks in the parton cascade model. The multiple
scattering of partons is seen to lead to a substantial
production of high energy photons, which rises further when
parton multiplication due to final state radiation is
included. The photon yield is found to be directly
proportional to the number of hard collisions and thus
provides valuable information on the preequilibrium reaction
dynamics.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.90.082301},
Key = {fds245407}
}

@article{fds245406,
Author = {Fries, RJ and Müller, B and Nonaka, C and Bass, SA},
Title = {Hadronization in heavy-ion collisions: recombination and
fragmentation of partons.},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {90},
Number = {20},
Pages = {202303},
Year = {2003},
Month = {May},
ISSN = {0031-9007},
url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12785886},
Abstract = {We argue that the emission of hadrons with transverse
momentum up to about 5 GeV/c in central relativistic heavy
ion collisions is dominated by recombination, rather than
fragmentation of partons. This mechanism provides a natural
explanation for the observed constant baryon-to-meson ratio
of about one and the apparent lack of a nuclear suppression
of the baryon yield in this momentum range. Fragmentation
becomes dominant at higher transverse momentum, but the
transition point is delayed by the energy loss of fast
partons in dense matter.},
Doi = {10.1103/physrevlett.90.202303},
Key = {fds245406}
}

@article{fds245347,
Author = {Bass, SA and M ller, B and Srivastava, DK},
Title = {Transverse momentum distribution of net baryon number at
RHIC},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {29},
Number = {10},
Pages = {L51-L58},
Year = {2003},
Month = {October},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0307027},
Abstract = {We calculate the transverse momentum distribution of net
quarks (quarks minus antiquarks) in Au+Au collisions at the
Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider in the framework of the
parton cascade model at two different rapidities. Parton
re-scattering and fragmentation are seen to lead to a
substantial difference in the slopes of these distributions
between mid- and forward-rapidities, in qualitative
agreement with the corresponding data for the net baryon
distribution.},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/29/10/101},
Key = {fds245347}
}

@article{fds245221,
Author = {Bass, SA and Fries, RJ and Nonaka, C},
Title = {Hadronization at RHIC: Interplay of recombination and
fragmentation},
Volume = {166},
Pages = {225-237},
Year = {2004},
ISBN = {1-4020-2445-2},
ISSN = {1568-2609},
Key = {fds245221}
}

@article{fds245246,
Author = {Bass, SA and Müller, B and Stephans, GSF and Ullrich,
T},
Title = {Preface: The 7th International Conference on Strangeness in
Quark Matter},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {30},
Number = {1},
Pages = {i-ii},
Year = {2004},
Key = {fds245246}
}

@article{fds245345,
Author = {Fries, RJ and Müller, B and Nonaka, C and Bass, SA},
Title = {Hadronization in heavy-ion collisions: Recombination or
fragmentation?},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {30},
Number = {1},
Pages = {S223-S228},
Year = {2004},
Month = {Summer},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0305079},
Abstract = {We show that hadron production in relativistic heavy-ion
collisions at transverse momenta larger than 2 GeV/c can be
explained by the competition of two different hadronization
mechanisms. Above 5 GeV/c hadron production can be described
by fragmentation of partons that are created perturbatively.
Below 5 GeV/c recombination of partons from the dense and
hot fireball dominates. This can explain some of the
surprising features of RHIC data such as the constant
baryon-to-meson ratio of about one and the small nuclear
suppression for baryons between 2 to 4 GeV/c.},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/30/1/025},
Key = {fds245345}
}

@article{fds245346,
Author = {Nonaka, C and Fries, RJ and Bass, SA},
Title = {Elliptic flow of multi-strange particles: Fragmentation,
recombination and hydrodynamics},
Journal = {Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and
High-Energy Physics},
Volume = {583},
Number = {1-2},
Pages = {73-78},
Year = {2004},
url = {http:////arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0308051},
Abstract = {We study the elliptic flow v2 of multi-strange hadrons such
as the φ, Ξ and Ω as a function of transverse momentum in
the recombination and fragmentation model and compare to a
standard hydrodynamic calculation. We find that the
measurement of v2 for the φ and Ω will allow for the
unambiguous distinction between parton recombination and
statistical hadro-chemistry to be the dominant process in
Doi = {10.1016/j.physletb.2003.12.034},
Key = {fds245346}
}

@article{fds245400,
Author = {Nonaka, C and Asakawa, M and Bass, SA},
Title = {Charge fluctuation observables at RHIC},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {30},
Number = {1},
Pages = {S243-S249},
Year = {2004},
Month = {Summer},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0954-3899/30/1/028},
Abstract = {We discuss net charge event-by-event fluctuations in
microscopic transport models with emphasis on hadronization
schemes and rescattering effects.},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/30/1/028},
Key = {fds245400}
}

@article{fds245401,
Author = {Chang, DY and Bass, SA and Srivastava, DK},
Title = {Strangeness production at RHIC in the perturbative
regime},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {30},
Number = {7},
Pages = {L7-L15},
Year = {2004},
Month = {Summer},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0954-3899/30/7/L02},
Abstract = {We investigate strange quark production in Au-Au collisions
at RHIC in the framework of the parton cascade model (PCM).
The yields of (anti-) strange quarks for three production
scenarios - primary-primary scattering, full scattering, and
full production - are compared to a proton-proton baseline.
The enhancement of the strange quark yield in central Au-Au
collisions compared to scaled p - p collisions increases
with the number of secondary interactions. The centrality
dependence of strangeness production for the three
production scenarios is studied as well. For all production
mechanisms, the strangeness yield increases with (Npart)4/3.
The perturbative QCD regime described by the PCM is able to
account for up to 50% of the observed strangeness at
RHIC.},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/30/7/L02},
Key = {fds245401}
}

@article{fds304512,
Author = {Nonaka, C and Müller, B and Asakawa, M and Bass, SA and Fries,
RJ},
Title = {Elliptic flow of resonances in relativistic heavy ion
collisions: Probing final state interactions and the
structure of resonances},
Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
Volume = {69},
Number = {3},
Pages = {031902-031901},
Year = {2004},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.69.031902},
Abstract = {We propose the measurement of the elliptic flow of hadron
resonances at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider as a tool
to probe the amount of hadronic final state interactions for
resonances at intermediate and large transverse momenta.
This can be achieved by looking at systematic deviations of
the measured flow coefficient ν2 from the scaling law given
by the quark recombination formalism. Our method can be
generalized to explore the structure of exotic particles,
such as the recently found pentaquark Θ+(1540).},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.69.031902},
Key = {fds304512}
}

@article{fds245223,
Author = {Bass, SA and Muller, B and Stephans, GSF and Urich,
T},
Title = {The 7th International Conference on Strangeness in Quark
Matter},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {30},
Number = {1},
Year = {2004},
Month = {January},
ISSN = {0954-3899},
Key = {fds245223}
}

@article{fds245404,
Author = {Nonaka, C and Mueller, B and Asakawa, M and Bass, SA and Fries,
RJ},
Title = {Elliptic flow of resonances at RHIC: Probing final state
interactions and the structure of resonances},
Journal = {Phys. Rev. C},
Volume = {69},
Number = {3},
Pages = {031902},
Year = {2004},
Month = {Spring},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.69.031902},
Abstract = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0312081},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.69.031902},
Key = {fds245404}
}

@article{fds245403,
Author = {Bratkovskaya, EL and Bleicher, M and Reiter, M and Soff, S and Stöcker,
H and van Leeuwen, M and Bass, SA and Cassing, W},
Title = {Strangeness dynamics and transverse pressure in relativistic
nucleus-nucleus collisions},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {69},
Number = {5},
Pages = {054907-054901},
Year = {2004},
Month = {Summer},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.69.054907},
Abstract = {We investigate hadron production as well as transverse
hadron spectra from proton-proton, proton-nucleus, and
nucleus-nucleus collisions from 2A GeV to 21.3A TeV within
two independent transport approaches, i.e., hadron-string
dynamics (HSD) and ultrarelativistic quantum molecular
dynamics (UrQMD) that are based on quark, diquark, string,
and hadronic degrees of freedom. The comparison to
experimental data on transverse mass spectra from pp, pA,
and C+C (or Si+Si) reactions shows the reliability of the
transport models for light systems. For central Au+Au
(Pb+Pb) collisions at bombarding energies above ∼5A GeV,
furthermore, the measured K± transverse mass spectra have a
larger inverse slope parameter than expected from the
default calculations. We investigate various scenarios to
explore their potential effects on the K± spectra. In
particular the initial state Cronin effect is found to play
a substantial role at top Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) and
Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) energies. However,
the maximum in the K+/π+ ratio at 20-30 A GeV is missed by
40% and the approximately constant slope of the K± spectra
at SPS energies is not reproduced either. Our systematic
analysis suggests that the additional pressure - as expected
from lattice QCD calculations at finite quark chemical
potential μq and temperature T - should be generated by
strong interactions in the early prehadronic/partonic phase
of central Au+Au (Pb+Pb) collisions.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.69.054907},
Key = {fds245403}
}

@article{fds245402,
Author = {Bass, SA and Müller, B and Srivastava, DK},
Title = {RHIC physics with the parton cascade model},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {30},
Number = {8},
Pages = {S1283-S1286},
Year = {2004},
Month = {Summer},
ISSN = {1219-7580},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0954-3899/30/8/109},
Abstract = {We discuss the Parton Cascade Model and it's application to
RHIC physics. In particular, we focus on an analysis of the
net-baryon nurnber rapidity distribution and on direct
Budapest.},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/30/8/109},
Key = {fds245402}
}

@article{fds245344,
Author = {Bass, SA and Müller, B and Srivastava, DK},
Title = {Photon interferometry of Au+Au collisions at the BNL
Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider.},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {93},
Number = {16},
Pages = {162301},
Year = {2004},
Month = {Fall},
ISSN = {0031-9007},
url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15524982},
Abstract = {We calculate the two-body correlation function of direct
photons produced in central Au+Au collisions at the
Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider. Our calculation includes
contributions from the early preequilibrium phase in which
photons are produced via hard parton scatterings as well as
radiation of photons from a thermalized quark-gluon plasma
and the subsequent expanding hadron gas. We find that high
energy photon interferometry provides a faithful probe of
the details of the space-time evolution and of the early
reaction stages of the system.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.93.162301},
Key = {fds245344}
}

@article{fds245226,
Author = {Bass, SA and Fries, RJ and Nonaka, C and Muller, B},
Title = {Hadronization at RHIC: Interplay of recombination and
fragmentation},
Journal = {ICHEP 2005: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 32ND INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE
HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS VOLS 1 AND 2},
Pages = {347-351},
Year = {2005},
ISBN = {981-256-110-2},
Key = {fds245226}
}

@article{fds245249,
Author = {Bleicher, M and Bandyopadhyay, D and Bratkovskaya, EL and Reiter, M and Soff, S and Stöcker, H and Leeuwen, MV and Bass, SA and Cassing,
W},
Title = {Transverse pressure in relativistic nuclear collisions:
Evidence for partonic interactions?},
Journal = {Acta Physica Hungarica A) Heavy Ion Physics},
Volume = {24},
Number = {1-4},
Pages = {181-188},
Year = {2005},
ISSN = {1219-7580},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/APH.24.2005.1-4.25},
Abstract = {Transverse hadron spectra from proton-proton, proton-nucleus
and nucleus-nucleus collisions from 2 A·GeV to 21.3 A·TeV
are investigated within two independent transport approaches
(HSD and UrQMD). For central Au+Au (Pb+Pb) collisions at
energies above Elab ∼ 5 A·GeV, the measured K±
transverse mass spectra have a larger inverse slope
parameter than expected from the default calculations. The
additional pressure - as supported by lattice QCD
calculations at finite quark chemical potential μq and
temperature T - might be generated by strong interactions in
the early pre-hadronic/partonic phase of central Au+Au
Budapest.},
Doi = {10.1556/APH.24.2005.1-4.25},
Key = {fds245249}
}

@article{fds245251,
Author = {Nonaka, C and Fries, RJ and Müller, B and Bass, SA and Asakawa,
M},
Title = {Hadronization at RHIC: Interplay of recombination and
fragmentation},
Journal = {Acta Physica Hungarica A) Heavy Ion Physics},
Volume = {24},
Number = {1-4},
Pages = {227-233},
Year = {2005},
ISSN = {1219-7580},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/APH.24.2005.1-4.31},
Abstract = {We discuss the hadron production in heavy ion collisions by
the recombination and fragmentation model. We propose the
elliptic flow as the useful tool for exploring final
interactions for resonances, hadron structure for exotic
Budapest.},
Doi = {10.1556/APH.24.2005.1-4.31},
Key = {fds245251}
}

@article{fds245252,
Author = {Nonaka, C and Müller, B and Bass, SA and Asakawa,
M},
Title = {Possible resolutions of the D-puzzle},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {71},
Number = {5},
Year = {2005},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.71.051901},
Abstract = {We explore possible ways of explaining the net charge
event-by-event fluctuations in Au+Au collisions observed in
experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider within a
quark recombination model. We estimate the number of quarks
at recombination and their implications for the predicted
net charge fluctuations. We also discuss the consequences of
diquark and quark-antiquark clustering above the
deconfinement temperature. © 2005 The American Physical
Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.71.051901},
Key = {fds245252}
}

@article{fds245328,
Author = {Fries, RJ and Bass, SA and Müller, B},
Title = {Correlated emission of hadrons from recombination of
correlated partons},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {94},
Number = {12},
Pages = {122301},
Year = {2005},
Month = {Spring},
ISSN = {0031-9007},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.94.122301},
Abstract = {We discuss different sources of hadron correlations in
relativistic heavy ion collisions. We show that correlations
among partons in a quasithermal medium can lead to the
correlated emission of hadrons by quark recombination and
argue that this mechanism offers a plausible explanation for
the dihadron correlations in the few GeV/c momentum range
observed in Au + Au collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy
Ion Collider. © 2005 The American Physical
Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.94.122301},
Key = {fds245328}
}

@article{fds245329,
Author = {Nonaka, C and Fries, RJ and Müller, B and Bass, SA and Asakawa,
M},
Title = {Recombination plus fragmentation model at RHIC: Elliptic
flow},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {31},
Number = {4},
Pages = {S429-S435},
Year = {2005},
Month = {Summer},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0954-3899/31/4/053},
Abstract = {We discuss hadron production in relativistic heavy-ion
collisions in the framework of the recombination and
fragmentation model. We propose elliptic flow as a useful
tool for exploring final interactions of resonances, the
hadron structure of exotic particles and the phase structure
of the reaction. © 2005 IOP Publishing Ltd.},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/31/4/053},
Key = {fds245329}
}

@article{fds245330,
Author = {Bass, SA},
Title = {What do we learn from strangeness at RHIC?},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {31},
Number = {6},
Pages = {S733-S740},
Year = {2005},
Month = {Summer},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0954-3899/31/6/014},
Abstract = {I discuss strangeness as a tool for studying the reaction
and hadronization dynamics of relativistic heavy-ion
collisions at RHIC. In particular, I focus on quark-number
scaling of elliptic flow as a tool to determine the nature
of hadronization as well as to quantify the amount of
collective flow the strange quarks carry and discuss the use
characterizing the collective expansion and emitting source
Publishing Ltd.},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/31/6/014},
Key = {fds245330}
}

@article{fds245331,
Author = {Chang, DY and Bass, SA and Srivastava, DK},
Title = {Perturbative dynamics of strangeness production at
RHIC},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {31},
Number = {6},
Pages = {S1005-S1010},
Year = {2005},
Month = {Spring},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0954-3899/31/6/047},
Abstract = {Strange quark production in Au-Au collisions at RHIC is
studied in the framework of the parton cascade model (PCM).
The yields of (anti-) strange quarks for three production
scenarios - primary-primary scattering full scattering and
full production - are compared to a proton-proton baseline.
Enhancement of strange quark yields in central Au-Au
collisions compared to scaled p-p collisions increases with
the number of secondary interactions. The centrality
dependence of strangeness production for the three
production scenarios is studied as well. For all production
mechanisms, the strangeness yield increases with (Npart)4/3.
The perturbative QCD regime described by the PCM is able to
account for up to 50% of the observed strangeness at RHIC.
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/31/6/047},
Key = {fds245331}
}

@article{fds245332,
Author = {Müller, B and Fries, RJ and Bass, SA},
Title = {Thermal recombination: Beyond the valence quark
approximation},
Journal = {Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and
High-Energy Physics},
Volume = {618},
Number = {1-4},
Pages = {77-83},
Year = {2005},
Month = {Summer},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0503003},
Abstract = {Quark counting rules derived from recombination models agree
well with data on hadron production at intermediate
transverse momenta in relativistic heavy-ion collisions.
They convey a simple picture of hadrons consisting only of
valence quarks. We discuss the inclusion of higher Fock
structure. We show that, when recombination occurs from a
thermal medium, hadron spectra remain unaffected by the
inclusion of higher Fock states. However, the quark number
scaling for elliptic flow is somewhat affected. We discuss
the implications for our understanding of data from the
Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All
rights reserved.},
Doi = {10.1016/j.physletb.2005.05.025},
Key = {fds245332}
}

@article{fds245333,
Author = {Nonaka, C and uuml, M and ller, B and Bass, SA and Asakawa,
M},
Title = {Possible resolution of the D-paradox},
Journal = {Phys. Rev. C},
Volume = {71},
Pages = {051901},
Year = {2005},
Month = {Spring},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0501028},
Key = {fds245333}
}

@article{fds245224,
Author = {Antinori, F and Bass, SA and Bellwied, R and Ullrich, T and Velkovska,
J and Wiedemann, U},
Title = {Preface - Hot Quarks 2004},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {31},
Number = {4},
Year = {2005},
Month = {April},
ISSN = {0954-3899},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/31/4/000},
Key = {fds245224}
}

@article{fds245253,
Author = {Bass, SA and Nonaka, C},
Title = {Transport theory for RHIC},
Journal = {Aip Conference Proceedings},
Volume = {870},
Pages = {699-702},
Year = {2006},
ISSN = {0094-243X},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2402733},
Abstract = {We present the results of a novel macroscopic/microscopic
hybrid model, using a fully 3D non-boostinvariant
hydrodynamic calculation for the deconfined phase coupled
with with a non-equilibrium microscopic transport model
novel approach compared to pure hydrodynamics include the
treatment of viscous effects in the hadronic phase as well
as a fully self-consistent calculation of the hadronic
freeze-out. © 2006 American Institute of
Physics.},
Doi = {10.1063/1.2402733},
Key = {fds245253}
}

@article{fds245254,
Author = {Asakawa, M and Bass, SA and Müller, B},
Title = {The flavours of the quark-gluon plasma},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {32},
Number = {12},
Year = {2006},
ISSN = {0954-3899},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0954-3899/32/12/S50},
Abstract = {Flavour probes depend on the transport properties of the
quark-gluon plasma. An expanding quark-gluon plasma has an
anomalous viscosity, which arises from interactions with
dynamically generated colour fields. The anomalous viscosity
dominates over the collisional viscosity for weak coupling
and at not too late times. In addition to possibly providing
an explanation for the apparent nearly 'perfect' liquidity
of the matter produced in nuclear collisions at RHIC,
similar anomalous effects can affect the rate of flavour
equilibration and the diffusion constant of heavy quarks. ©
2006 IOP Publishing Ltd.},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/32/12/S50},
Key = {fds245254}
}

@article{fds245255,
Author = {Bass, SA},
Title = {Review of parton recombination models},
Journal = {Journal of Physics: Conference Series},
Volume = {50},
Number = {1},
Pages = {279-288},
Year = {2006},
ISSN = {1742-6588},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/50/1/033},
Abstract = {Parton recombination models have been very successful in
explaining data taken at RHIC on hadron spectra and emission
patterns in Au+Au collisions at transverse momenta above 2
GeV/c, which have exhibited features which could not be
understood in the framework of basic perturbative QCD. In
recombination models and outline which future challenges
need to be addressed by this class of models. © 2006 IOP
Publishing Ltd.},
Doi = {10.1088/1742-6596/50/1/033},
Key = {fds245255}
}

@article{fds245323,
Author = {Bass, SA},
Title = {SQM 2006: Theory summary and perspectives},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {32},
Number = {12},
Pages = {S15-S27},
Year = {2006},
Month = {Fall},
ISSN = {0954-3899},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0607056},
Abstract = {In this write-up of my SQM 2006 Theory Summary talk I focus
on a selection of key contributions which I consider to have
a large impact on the current status of the field of
strangeness physics or which may have the potential to
significantly advance strangeness - or in general flavour
physics - in the near future. © 2006 IOP Publishing
Ltd.},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/32/12/S02},
Key = {fds245323}
}

@article{fds245325,
Author = {Renk, T and Bass, SA and Srivastava, DK},
Title = {Dynamics of the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect in Au + Au
collisions at √s=200 A GeV},
Journal = {Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and
High-Energy Physics},
Volume = {632},
Number = {5-6},
Pages = {632-637},
Year = {2006},
Month = {Spring},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0505059},
Abstract = {We study the role played by the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal
(LPM) effect in relativistic collisions of hadrons and heavy
nuclei, within a parton cascade model. We find that the LPM
effect strongly affects the gluon multiplication due to
radiation and considerably alters the spacetime evolution of
the dynamics of the collision. It ensures a multiplicity
distribution of hadrons in agreement with the experimental
proton-proton data. We study the production of single
photons in relativistic heavy ion collisions and find that
the inclusion of LPM suppression leads to a reduction in the
single photon yield at small and intermediate transverse
momenta. The parton cascade calculation of the single photon
yield including the LPM effect is shown to be in good
agreement with the recent PHENIX data taken at the
Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All
rights reserved.},
Doi = {10.1016/j.physletb.2005.11.026},
Key = {fds245325}
}

@article{fds245326,
Author = {Nonaka, C and Bass, SA},
Title = {3-D hydro + cascade model at RHIC},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {774},
Number = {1-4},
Pages = {873-876},
Year = {2006},
Month = {Spring},
ISSN = {0375-9474},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0510038},
Abstract = {We present a 3-D hydro + cascade model in which viscosity
and a realistic freezeout process for the hadronic phase are
taken into account. We compare our results to experimental
data and discuss the finite state interaction effects on
physical observables. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights
reserved.},
Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2006.06.155},
Key = {fds245326}
}

@article{fds245327,
Author = {Bass, SA and Fries, RJ and Müller, B},
Title = {Correlations in the Parton Recombination
Model},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {774},
Number = {1-4},
Pages = {635-638},
Year = {2006},
Month = {Spring},
ISSN = {0375-9474},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0510084},
Abstract = {We describe how parton recombination can address the recent
measurement of dynamical jet-like two particle correlations.
In addition we discuss the possible effect realistic
light-cone wave-functions including higher Fock-states may
have on the well-known elliptic flow valence-quark number
scaling law. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights
reserved.},
Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2006.06.103},
Key = {fds245327}
}

@article{fds245324,
Author = {Asakawa, M and Bass, SA and Müller, B},
Title = {Anomalous viscosity of an expanding quark-gluon
plasma.},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {96},
Number = {25},
Pages = {252301},
Year = {2006},
Month = {Summer},
ISSN = {0031-9007},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/0603092},
Abstract = {We argue that an expanding quark-gluon plasma has an
anomalous viscosity, which arises from interactions with
dynamically generated color fields. We derive an expression
for the anomalous viscosity in the turbulent plasma domain
and apply it to the hydrodynamic expansion phase, when the
quark-gluon plasma is near equilibrium. The anomalous
viscosity dominates over the collisional viscosity for weak
coupling and not too late times. This effect may provide an
explanation for the apparent "nearly perfect" liquidity of
the matter produced in nuclear collisions at the
Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider without the assumption that
it is a strongly coupled state.},
Doi = {10.1103/physrevlett.96.252301},
Key = {fds245324}
}

@article{fds245322,
Author = {Asakawa, M and Bass, SA and Muller, B},
Title = {Anomalous Transport Processes in Anisotropically Expanding
Quark-Gluon Plasmas},
Journal = {Progress of Theoretical Physics},
Volume = {116},
Number = {4},
Pages = {725-755},
Year = {2006},
Month = {Fall},
ISSN = {0033-068X},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/0608270},
Abstract = {We derive an expression for the anomalous viscosity in an
anisotropically expanding quark-gluon-plasma, which arises
from interactions of thermal partons with dynamically
generated color fields. The anomalous viscosity dominates
over the collisional viscosity for large velocity gradients
or weak coupling. This effect may provide an explanation for
the apparent "nearly perfect" liquidity of the matter
produced in nuclear collisions at RHIC without the
assumption that it is a strongly coupled
state.},
Doi = {10.1143/PTP.116.725},
Key = {fds245322}
}

@article{fds245256,
Author = {Nonaka, C and Bass, SA},
Title = {Space-time evolution of bulk QCD matter at
RHIC},
Journal = {The European Physical Journal C},
Volume = {49},
Number = {1},
Pages = {97-102},
Year = {2007},
ISSN = {1434-6044},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjc/s10052-006-0062-0},
Abstract = {We introduce a combined fully three-dimensional
macroscopic/microscopic transport approach employing
relativistic 3D-hydrodynamics for the early, dense,
deconfined stage of the reaction and a microscopic
non-equilibrium model for the later hadronic stage where the
equilibrium assumptions are not valid anymore. Within this
approach we study the dynamics of hot, bulk QCD matter,
which is being created in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion
collisions at RHIC. In particular, we perform a detailed
analysis of the reaction dynamics, hadronic freeze-out,
transverse flow and elliptic flow. © Springer-Verlag Berlin
Heidelberg 2007.},
Doi = {10.1140/epjc/s10052-006-0062-0},
Key = {fds245256}
}

@article{fds245257,
Author = {Antinori, F and Bass, S and Falco, AD and Kuhn, C and Nardi, M and Peitzmann, T and Ullrich, T and Velkovska, J and Wiedemann,
UA},
Title = {European Physical Journal C: Preface},
Journal = {The European Physical Journal C},
Volume = {49},
Number = {1},
Pages = {1-},
Year = {2007},
ISSN = {1434-6044},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjc/s10052-006-0190-6},
Doi = {10.1140/epjc/s10052-006-0190-6},
Key = {fds245257}
}

@article{fds245258,
Author = {Renk, T and Ruppert, J and Nonaka, C and Bass, SA},
Title = {Jet quenching in a three-dimensional hydrodynamic
medium},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {75},
Number = {3},
Year = {2007},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.75.031902},
Abstract = {We study the radiative energy loss of hard partons in a soft
medium in the multiple soft scattering approximation. The
soft medium is described by a 3D hydrodynamical model and we
treat the averaging over all possible parton paths through
the medium without approximation. While the nuclear
suppression factor RAA does not reflect the high quality of
the medium description (except in a reduced systematic
uncertainty in extracting the quenching power of the
medium), the hydrodynamical model also allows to study
different centralities and in particular the angular
variation of RAA with respect to the reaction plane,
allowing for a controlled variation of the in-medium
path-length. We study the angular dependence of RAA for
different centralities, discuss the influence of
hydrodynamical expansion and flow and comment on the
comparison with preliminary data. © 2007 The American
Physical Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.75.031902},
Key = {fds245258}
}

@article{fds245259,
Author = {Bass, SA and Nonaka, C},
Title = {Modeling of heavy-ion collisions at the relativistic
heavy-ion collider},
Journal = {International Journal of Modern Physics E},
Volume = {16},
Number = {3},
Pages = {729-741},
Year = {2007},
ISSN = {0218-3013},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S021830130700623X},
Abstract = {In summary, we have introduced a hybrid macroscopic/microscopic
transport approach, combining a newly developed relativistic
3+1 dimensional hydrodynamic model for the early deconfined
stage of the reaction and the hadronization process with a
microscopic non-equilibrium model for the later hadronic
stage at which the hydrodynamic equilibrium assumptions are
not valid anymore. Within this approach we have
self-consistently calculated the freeze-out of the hadronic
system, accounting for the collective flow on the
hadronization hypersurface generated by the QGP expansion.
We have compared the results of our hybrid model and of a
calculation utilizing our hydrodynamic model for the full
evolution of the reaction to experimental data. This
comparison has allowed us to quantify the strength of
dissipative effects prevalent in the later hadronic phase of
the reaction, which cannot be properly treated in the
framework of ideal hydrodynamics. Overall, the improved
treatment of the hadronic phase provides a far better
agreement between transport calculation and data, in
particular concerning the flavor dependence of radial flow
observables and the collective behavior of matter at
forward/backward rapidities. We find that the hadronic phase
of the heavy-ion reaction at top RHIC energy is of
significant duration (at least 10 fm/c) and that hadronic
freeze-out is a continuous process, strongly depending on
hadron flavor and momenta. With this work we have
established a base-line - both for the regular 3+1
dimensional hydrodynamic model as well as for the hybrid
hydro+micro approach. In forthcoming publications we shall
expand on this baseline by investigating the effects of a
realistic lattice-QCD motivated equation of state containing
a tri-cricital point and by performing an analysis of two
particle correlations (HBT interferometry). We also plan to
use our model as the medium for the propagation of jets and
heavy quarks and to study the modification of our medium due
to the passage of these hard probes. © World Scientific
Publishing Company.},
Doi = {10.1142/S021830130700623X},
Key = {fds245259}
}

@article{fds245316,
Author = {Bass, SA and Renk, T and Srivastava, DK},
Title = {Photon Production in the Parton Cascade Model},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {783},
Number = {1-4 SPEC. ISS.},
Pages = {367-378},
Year = {2007},
Month = {Summer},
ISSN = {0375-9474},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2006.11.029},
Abstract = {We calculate the production of high energy photons from
Compton and annihilation processes as well as fragmentation
off quarks in the Parton Cascade Model. The multiple
scattering of partons is seen to lead to substantial
production of high energy photons, which rises further when
parton multiplication due to final state radiation is
included. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights
reserved.},
Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2006.11.029},
Key = {fds245316}
}

@article{fds245317,
Author = {Bass, SA and Renk, T and Ruppert, J and Nonaka, C},
Title = {Hard and soft probe-medium interactions in a 3D hydro+micro
approach at RHIC},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {34},
Number = {8},
Pages = {S979-S983},
Year = {2007},
ISSN = {0954-3899},
url = {http://arXiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0702079},
Abstract = {We utilize a 3D hybrid hydro+micro model for a comprehensive
and consistent description of soft and hard particle
production in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions at
RHIC. In the soft sector we focus on the dynamics of
(multi-) strange baryons, where a clear strangeness
dependence of their collision rates and freeze-out is
observed. In the hard sector we study the radiative energy
loss of hard partons in a soft medium in the multiple soft
scattering approximation. While the nuclear suppression
factor RAA does not reflect the high quality of the medium
description (except in a reduced systematic uncertainty in
extracting the quenching power of the medium), the
hydrodynamical model also allows us to study different
centralities and in particular the angular variation of RAA
with respect to the reaction plane, allowing for a
controlled variation of the in-medium path length. © 2007
IOP Publishing Ltd.},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/34/8/S139},
Key = {fds245317}
}

@article{fds245318,
Author = {Asakawa, M and Bass, SA and Müller, B},
Title = {Anomalous viscosity of an expanding quark-gluon
plasma},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {34},
Number = {8},
Pages = {S839-S842},
Year = {2007},
Month = {Fall},
ISSN = {0954-3899},
url = {http://arXiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0702007},
Abstract = {We argue that an expanding quark-gluon plasma has an
anomalous viscosity, which arises from interactions with
dynamically generated colour fields. The anomalous viscosity
dominates over the collisional viscosity for large velocity
gradients or weak coupling. This effect may provide an
explanation for the apparent near-perfect liquidity of the
matter produced in nuclear collisions at RHIC without the
assumption that it is a strongly coupled state. © 2007 IOP
Publishing Ltd.},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/34/8/S108},
Key = {fds245318}
}

@article{fds245319,
Author = {Majumder, A and Nonaka, C and Bass, SA},
Title = {Jet modification in three dimensional fluid dynamics at
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {76},
Number = {4},
Pages = {041902},
Year = {2007},
Month = {Summer},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://arXiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0703019},
Abstract = {The modification of the single inclusive spectrum of high
transverse momentum (pT) pions emanating from an
ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collision is investigated. The
deconfined sector is modeled using a full three-dimensional
(3-D) ideal fluid dynamics simulation. Energy loss of high
pT partons and the ensuing modification of their
fragmentation is calculated within perturbative QCD at
next-to-leading twist, where the magnitude of the higher
twist contribution is modulated by the entropy density
extracted from the 3-D fluid dynamics simulation. The
nuclear modification factor (RAA) for pions with a pT≥8
GeV as a function of centrality as well as with respect to
the reaction plane is calculated. The magnitude of
contributions to the differential RAA within small angular
ranges, from various depths in the dense matter, is
extracted from the calculation and demonstrates the
correlation of the length integrated density and the RAA
from a given depth. The significance of the mixed and
hadronic phase to the overall magnitude of energy loss is
explored. © 2007 The American Physical Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.76.041902},
Key = {fds245319}
}

@article{fds245321,
Author = {Nonaka, C and Bass, SA},
Title = {Space-time evolution of bulk QCD matter},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {75},
Number = {1},
Pages = {014902},
Year = {2007},
Month = {Winter},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0607018},
Abstract = {We introduce a combined, fully three-dimensional
macroscopic/microscopic transport approach employing
relativistic 3D hydrodynamics for the early, dense,
deconfined stage of the reaction and a microscopic
nonequilibrium model for the later hadronic stage where the
equilibrium assumptions are no longer valid. Within this
approach, we study the dynamics of hot bulk QCD matter,
which is being created in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion
collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider. Our
work is an extension of the well-known hybrid macro+micro
approach in 1+1 and 2+1 dimensions, which is capable of
self-consistently calculating the freeze-out of the hadronic
system while accounting for the collective flow on the
hadronization hypersurface generated by the quark-gluon
plasma expansion. In particular, we perform a detailed
analysis of the reaction dynamics, hadronic freeze-out, and
transverse flow. © 2007 The American Physical
Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.75.014902},
Key = {fds245321}
}

@article{fds304513,
Author = {Qin, G-Y and Ruppert, J and Turbide, S and Gale, C and Nonaka, C and Bass,
SA},
Title = {Radiative jet energy loss in a three-dimensional
hydrodynamical medium and high pT azimuthal asymmetry of π0
suppression at mid and forward rapidity in Au+Au collisions
at sNN=200 GeV},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {76},
Number = {6},
Year = {2007},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.76.064907},
Abstract = {The nuclear modification factor RAA for π0 production in
Au+Au collisions at s=200A GeV is calculated and studied at
high transverse momenta pT. The soft thermalized nuclear
medium is described within the framework of relativistic
ideal three-dimensional hydrodynamics. The energy loss of
partonic jets is evaluated in the context of gluon
bremsstrahlung in the thermalized partonic matter. We
provide a systematic analysis of the azimuthal asymmetry of
π0 suppression at high pT in central and noncentral
collisions at mid and forward rapidity. The determination of
RAA as a function of pT at different azimuthal angles and
different rapidities makes for a stringent test of our
theoretical understanding of jet energy loss over a variety
of in-medium path lengths, temperatures, and initial
partonic jet energies. This lays the groundwork for a
tomography of the nuclear medium. © 2007 The American
Physical Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.76.064907},
Key = {fds304513}
}

@article{fds245320,
Author = {Majumder, A and Müller, B and Bass, SA},
Title = {Longitudinal broadening of quenched jets in turbulent color
fields.},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {99},
Number = {4},
Pages = {042301},
Year = {2007},
Month = {Spring},
url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17678353},
Abstract = {The nearside distribution of particles at intermediate
transverse momentum, associated with a high momentum trigger
hadron produced in a high energy heavy-ion collision, is
broadened in rapidity compared with the jet cone. This
broadened distribution is thought to contain the energy lost
by the progenitor parton of the trigger hadron. We show that
the broadening can be explained as the final-state
deflection of the gluons radiated from the hard parton
inside the medium by soft, transversely oriented, turbulent
color fields that arise in the presence of plasma
instabilities. The magnitude of the effect is found to grow
with medium size and density and diminish with increasing
Doi = {10.1103/physrevlett.99.042301},
Key = {fds245320}
}

@article{fds245314,
Author = {Qin, GY and Ruppert, J and Turbide, S and Gale, C and Nonaka, C and Bass,
SA},
Title = {Radiative jet energy loss in a three-dimensional
hydrodynamical medium and high $p_T$ azimuthal asymmetry of
pi-zero suppression at mid and forward rapidity at
RHIC},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {76},
Number = {6},
Pages = {064907},
Year = {2007},
Month = {Winter},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/0705.2575},
Abstract = {The nuclear modification factor RAA for Ï€0 production in
Au+Au collisions at s=200A GeV is calculated and studied at
high transverse momenta pT. The soft thermalized nuclear
medium is described within the framework of relativistic
ideal three-dimensional hydrodynamics. The energy loss of
partonic jets is evaluated in the context of gluon
bremsstrahlung in the thermalized partonic matter. We
provide a systematic analysis of the azimuthal asymmetry of
Ï€0 suppression at high pT in central and noncentral
collisions at mid and forward rapidity. The determination of
RAA as a function of pT at different azimuthal angles and
different rapidities makes for a stringent test of our
theoretical understanding of jet energy loss over a variety
of in-medium path lengths, temperatures, and initial
partonic jet energies. This lays the groundwork for a
tomography of the nuclear medium. Â© 2007 The American
Physical Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.76.064907},
Key = {fds245314}
}

@article{fds245315,
Author = {Renk, T and Ruppert, J and Nonaka, C and Bass, SA},
Title = {Jet-quenching in a 3D hydrodynamic medium},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {75},
Pages = {031902},
Year = {2007},
Month = {Winter},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0611027},
Key = {fds245315}
}

@article{fds245261,
Author = {Nonaka, C and Asakawa, M and Bass, SA},
Title = {The 3D hydro+UrQMD model with the QCD critical
point},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {35},
Number = {10},
Year = {2008},
ISSN = {0954-3899},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0954-3899/35/10/104099},
Abstract = {Using a combined fully three-dimensional
macroscopic/microscopic transport approach, we discuss the
existence of the QCD critical point and how to find its
consequences in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. © 2008
IOP Publishing Ltd.},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/35/10/104099},
Key = {fds245261}
}

@article{fds245312,
Author = {Bass, SA and Gale, C and Majumder, A and Nonaka, C and Qin, G-Y and Renk,
T and Ruppert, J},
Title = {Systematic comparison of jet energy-loss schemes in a 3D
hydrodynamic medium},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {35},
Number = {10},
Pages = {104064},
Year = {2008},
Month = {Fall},
ISSN = {0954-3899},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0954-3899/35/10/104064},
Abstract = {We utilize a 3D hydrodynamic model to provide the medium
evolution for a systematic comparison of jet energy-loss
calculations in the BDMPS/ASW, HT and AMY approaches. We
find that the parameters of all three calculations can be
adjusted to provide a good description of inclusive data on
RAA versus transverse momentum. However, we do observe
slight differences in their predictions for the azimuthal
angular dependence of RAA versus p T. We also note that the
value of the transport coefficient needed in the three
approaches to describe the data differs significantly. ©
2008 IOP Publishing Ltd.},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/35/10/104064},
Key = {fds245312}
}

@article{fds152134,
Author = {M. Asakawa and S.A. Bass and B. Mueller and C.
Nonaka},
Title = {Transverse Rapidity Dependence of the Proton-Antiproton
Ratio as a Signature of the QCD Critical
Endpoint},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {101},
Pages = {122302},
Year = {2008},
Month = {Summer},
Key = {fds152134}
}

@article{fds245313,
Author = {Asakawa, M and Bass, SA and Müller, B and Nonaka,
C},
Title = {Transverse velocity dependence of the proton-antiproton
ratio as a signature of the QCD critical
point.},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {101},
Number = {12},
Pages = {122302},
Year = {2008},
Month = {September},
ISSN = {0031-9007},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.101.122302},
Abstract = {The presence of a critical point in the QCD phase diagram
can deform the trajectories describing the evolution of the
expanding fireball in the mu_B-T phase diagram. If the
average emission time of hadrons is a function of transverse
velocity, as microscopic simulations of the hadronic
freeze-out dynamics suggest, the deformation of the
hydrodynamic trajectories will change the transverse
velocity (beta_T) dependence of the proton-antiproton ratio
when the fireball passes in the vicinity of the critical
point. An unusual beta_T dependence of the [over]p/p ratio
in a narrow beam energy window would thus signal the
presence of the critical point.},
Doi = {10.1103/physrevlett.101.122302},
Key = {fds245313}
}

@article{fds245262,
Author = {Lee, KS and Bass, S and Müller, B and Nonaka, C},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {36},
Number = {6},
Year = {2009},
ISSN = {0954-3899},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0954-3899/36/6/064034},
Abstract = {The recombination model as a model for hadronization from a
quark-gluon plasma has been recently revived since it has
advantages in explaining several important features of the
final state produced in heavy-ion collisions at the RHIC,
such as the constituent quark number scaling of the elliptic
coefficient versus the transverse energy of identified
near 5 GeV/c, and the measured large value of
baryon-to-meson ratio (of the order of unity) in the same pT
range. We have developed a dynamic simulation model of
heavy-ion collisions in which a quark-gluon plasma, starting
from a certain initial condition, evolves hydrodynamically
until it reaches the phase boundary, and then hadronizes by
valence quark recombination. Rescattering after
hadronization is described by UrQMD. We discuss some details
of the model and report first, preliminary results. © 2009
IOP Publishing Ltd.},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/36/6/064034},
Key = {fds245262}
}

@article{fds245263,
Author = {Bass, SA},
Title = {Modeling of relativistic heavy-ion collisions with 3+1D
hydrodynamic and hybrid models},
Journal = {Acta Physica Polonica B},
Volume = {40},
Number = {4},
Pages = {951-961},
Year = {2009},
ISSN = {0587-4254},
Abstract = {The current status of the modeling of relativistic heavy-ion
collisions with 3+1D hydrodynamic and hybrid models is
reviewed. Particular emphasis is placed in the use of
hydrodynamics as a "standard medium", enabling the
calculation of rare probe - medium interactions in a way
consistent with the bulk evolution of the
medium.},
Key = {fds245263}
}

@article{fds245265,
Author = {Bass, S and Caines, H and Sanchez, MCDLB and Falco, AD and Kuhn, C and Nagle, J and Nardi, M and Salgado, C and Velkovska,
J},
Title = {European Physical Journal C: Editorial},
Journal = {The European Physical Journal C},
Volume = {62},
Number = {1},
Pages = {1-},
Year = {2009},
ISSN = {1434-6044},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjc/s10052-009-1041-z},
Doi = {10.1140/epjc/s10052-009-1041-z},
Key = {fds245265}
}

@article{fds245307,
Author = {Demir, N and Bass, SA},
Title = {η / s of a Relativistic Hadron Gas at RHIC: Approaching the
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {830},
Number = {1-4},
Pages = {733c-736c},
Year = {2009},
Month = {Fall},
ISSN = {0375-9474},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2009.10.120},
Abstract = {Ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions at the Relativistic
Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are thought to have produced a
state of matter called the quark-gluon plasma, characterized
by a very small shear-viscosity to entropy-density ratio η
/ s, near the lower bound predicted for that quantity by
AdS/CFT methods. As the produced matter expands and cools,
it evolves through a phase described by a hadron gas with
rapidly increasing η / s. We calculate η / s as a function
of temperature in this phase both in and out of chemical
equilibrium and find that its value poses a challenge for
viscous relativistic hydrodynamics, which requires small
values of η / s in order to successfully describe the
collective flow observables at RHIC. We therefore conclude
that the origin of the low viscosity matter at the RHIC must
be in the partonic phase of the reaction. © 2009 Elsevier
B.V.},
Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2009.10.120},
Key = {fds245307}
}

@article{fds245308,
Author = {Nonaka, C and Asakawa, M and Bass, SA and Müller,
B},
Title = {Signals of the QCD Critical Point in Hydrodynamic
Evolutions},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {830},
Number = {1-4},
Pages = {291c-294c},
Year = {2009},
Month = {Fall},
ISSN = {0375-9474},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2009.10.025},
Abstract = {The presence of a critical point in the QCD phase diagram
can deform the trajectories describing the evolution of the
expanding fireball in the μB - T phase diagram. The
deformation of the hydrodynamic trajectories will change the
transverse velocity (βT) dependence of the
proton-antiproton ratio when the fireball passes in the
vicinity of the critical point. An unusual βT dependence of
the over(p, -) / p ratio in a narrow beam energy window
would thus signal the presence of the critical point. ©
2009.},
Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2009.10.025},
Key = {fds245308}
}

@article{fds245309,
Author = {Demir, N and Bass, SA},
Title = {Extracting hadronic viscosity from microscopic transport
models},
Journal = {The European Physical Journal C},
Volume = {62},
Number = {1},
Pages = {63-68},
Year = {2009},
Month = {Summer},
ISSN = {1434-6044},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjc/s10052-009-1000-8},
Abstract = {Ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions at the Relativistic
Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) are thought to have created a
Quark-Gluon Plasma, characterized by a very small shear
viscosity to entropy density ratio η/s, close to the lower
bound predicted for that quantity by string theory. However,
due to the dynamics of the collision, the produced matter
passes through a phase characterized by an expanding and
rapidly cooling hadron gas with strongly increasing η/s.
Such a rise in η/s would not be compatible with the success
of (viscous) hydrodynamics, which requires a very small
value of η/s throughout the full evolution of the reaction
in order to successfully describe the collective flow seen
in the experiments. Here we show that the inclusion of a
pion-chemical potential, which is bound to arise due to the
separation of chemical and kinetic freeze-out during the
collision evolution, will reduce the value of η/s, and
argue that introduction of other chemical potentials could
ensure the successful application of (viscous) hydrodynamics
to collisions at RHIC. © 2009 Springer-Verlag / Società
Italiana di Fisica.},
Doi = {10.1140/epjc/s10052-009-1000-8},
Key = {fds245309}
}

@article{fds245310,
Author = {Bass, SA and Gale, C and Majumder, A and Nonaka, C and Qin, G-Y and Renk,
T and Ruppert, J},
Title = {Systematic comparison of jet energy-loss schemes in a
realistic hydrodynamic medium},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {79},
Number = {2},
Pages = {024901},
Year = {2009},
Month = {Spring},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://scitation.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal&id=PRVCAN000079000002024901000001&idtype=cvips&gifs=yes},
Abstract = {We perform a systematic comparison of three different jet
energy-loss approaches. These include the
Armesto-Salgado-Wiedemann scheme based on the approach of
Baier-Dokshitzer-Mueller-Peigne-Schiff and Zakharov
(BDMPS-Z/ASW), the higher twist (HT) approach and a scheme
based on the Arnold-Moore-Yaffe (AMY) approach. In this
comparison, an identical medium evolution will be utilized
for all three approaches: this entails not only the use of
the same realistic three-dimensional relativistic fluid
dynamics (RFD) simulation, but also the use of identical
initial parton-distribution functions and final
fragmentation functions. We are, thus, in a unique position
to not only isolate fundamental differences between the
various approaches but also make rigorous calculations for
different experimental measurements using state of the art
components. All three approaches are reduced to versions
containing only one free tunable parameter, this is then
related to the well-known transport parameter q. We find
that the parameters of all three calculations can be
adjusted to provide a good description of inclusive data on
RAA vs transverse momentum. However, we do observe slight
differences in their predictions for the centrality and
azimuthal angular dependence of RAA vs pT. We also note that
the values of the transport coefficient q in the three
approaches to describe the data differ significantly. ©
2009 The American Physical Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.79.024901},
Key = {fds245310}
}

@article{fds245311,
Author = {Demir, N and Bass, SA},
Title = {Shear-Viscosity to Entropy Density Ratio of a Relativistic
bound?},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {102},
Number = {17},
Pages = {172302},
Year = {2009},
Month = {Spring},
ISSN = {0031-9007},
url = {http://scitation.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal&id=PRLTAO000102000017172302000001&idtype=cvips&gifs=yes},
Abstract = {http://arXiv.org/abs/0812.2422},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.172302},
Key = {fds245311}
}

@article{fds304514,
Author = {Demir, N and Bass, SA},
Title = {Shear-viscosity to entropy-density ratio of a relativistic
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {102},
Number = {17},
Pages = {172302},
Year = {2009},
Month = {May},
ISSN = {0031-9007},
url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19518776},
Abstract = {Ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions at the Brookhaven
National Laboratory Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)
are thought to have produced a state of matter called the
quark-gluon plasma, characterized by a very small
shear-viscosity to entropy-density ratio eta/s, near the
lower bound predicted for that quantity by anti-de Sitter
space/conformal field theory methods. As the produced matter
expands and cools, it evolves through a phase described by a
hadron gas with rapidly increasing eta/s. We calculate eta/s
as a function of temperature in this phase both in and out
of chemical equilibrium and find that its value poses a
challenge for viscous relativistic hydrodynamics, which
requires small values of eta/s in order to successfully
describe the collective flow observables at the RHIC. We
therefore conclude that the origin of the low viscosity
matter at the RHIC must be in the partonic phase of the
reaction.},
Doi = {10.1103/physrevlett.102.172302},
Key = {fds304514}
}

@article{fds245305,
Author = {Shin, GR and Bass, SA and Müller, B},
Title = {Transport theoretical description of collisional energy loss
in infinite quark-gluon matter},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {37},
Number = {10},
Pages = {105112},
Year = {2010},
Month = {Spring},
ISSN = {0954-3899},
url = {http://iopscience.iop.org/0954-3899/37/10/105112/},
Abstract = {We study the time evolution of a high-momentum gluon or
quark propagating through an infinite, thermalized, partonic
medium utilizing a Boltzmann equation approach. We calculate
the collisional energy loss of the parton, study its
temperature and flavor dependence as well as the momentum
broadening incurred through multiple interactions. Our
transport calculations agree well with analytic calculations
of collisional energy loss where available, but offer the
unique opportunity to address the medium response as well in
a consistent fashion. © 2010 IOP Publishing
Ltd.},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/37/10/105112},
Key = {fds245305}
}

@article{fds245306,
Author = {Xie, Z and Ning, P and Bass, SA},
Title = {The freeze-out properties of hyperons in a microscopic
transport model},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {37},
Number = {4},
Pages = {045002},
Year = {2010},
Month = {Spring},
ISSN = {0954-3899},
url = {http://arXiv.org/abs/0911.4410},
Abstract = {The excitation function of freeze-out time, average
freeze-out temperature and freeze-out energy density of
(multi-) strange baryons created in relativistic heavy-ion
collisions is investigated in the framework of a microscopic
transport model. We find that the Ω on average freezes out
earlier than the nucleon, Λ and Ξ. The average freeze-out
temperature and energy density, as well as the spread
between the different baryonic states, increase
monotonically with increasing beam energy and should
approach a universal value in the case of a hadronizing
quark-gluon plasma. © 2010 IOP Publishing
Ltd.},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/37/4/045002},
Key = {fds245306}
}

@article{fds245304,
Author = {Petersen, H and Qin, G-Y and Bass, SA and Müller,
B},
Title = {Triangular flow in event-by-event ideal hydrodynamics in Au
Au collisions at GeV},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {82},
Number = {4},
Pages = {041901},
Year = {2010},
Month = {Summer},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/4268 Duke open
access},
Abstract = {The first calculation of triangular flow ν3 in Au+Au
collisions at √sNN = 200A GeV from an event-by-event (3 +
1) d transport+hydrodynamics hybrid approach is presented.
As a response to the initial triangularity Ie{cyrillic,
ukrainian}3 of the collision zone, ν3 is computed in a
similar way to the standard event-plane analysis for
elliptic flow ν2. It is found that the triangular flow
exhibits weak centrality dependence and is roughly equal to
elliptic flow in most central collisions. We also explore
the transverse momentum and rapidity dependence of ν2 and
ν3 for charged particles as well as identified particles.
We conclude that an event-by-event treatment of the ideal
hydrodynamic evolution startingwith realistic initial
conditions generates the main features expected for
triangular flow. © 2010 The American Physical
Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.82.041901},
Key = {fds245304}
}

@article{fds245298,
Author = {Qin, G-Y and Petersen, H and Bass, SA and Müller,
B},
Title = {Translation of collision geometry fluctuations into momentum
anisotropies in relativistic heavy-ion collisions},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {82},
Number = {6},
Year = {2010},
Month = {December},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1009.1847},
Abstract = {We develop a systematic framework for the study of the
initial collision geometry fluctuations in relativistic
heavy-ion collisions and investigate how they evolve through
different stages of the fireball history and translate into
final-particle momentum anisotropies. We find in our
event-by-event analysis that only the few lowest momentum
anisotropy parameters survive after the hydrodynamical
evolution of the system. The geometry of the produced medium
is found to be affected by the pre-equilibrium evolution of
the medium and the thermal smearing of the discretized
event-by-event initial conditions, both of which tend to
smear out the spatial anisotropies. We find such effects to
be more prominent for higher moments than for lower moments.
The correlations between odd and even spatial anisotropy
parameters during the pre-equilibrium expansion are
quantitatively studied and found to be small. Our study
provides a theoretical foundation for the understanding of
initial-state fluctuations and the collective expansion
dynamics in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. © 2010 The
American Physical Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.82.064903},
Key = {fds245298}
}

@article{fds245290,
Author = {Cao, S and Bass, SA},
Title = {Thermalization of charm quarks in infinite and finite
quark-gluon plasma matter},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {84},
Number = {6},
Pages = {064902},
Year = {2011},
Month = {Winter},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1108.5101},
Abstract = {We study the thermalization process of charm quarks in hot
and dense matter. The diffusion of heavy quarks is
calculated via a Langevin equation, both for a static medium
as well as for a quark-gluon plasma (QGP) medium generated
by a (3+1)-dimensional hydrodynamic model. We define two
criteria for the thermalization of the heavy quarks and
observe thermalization times that are longer than the
lifetime of the QGP phase for reasonable values of the
diffusion constant. © 2011 American Physical
Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.84.064902},
Key = {fds245290}
}

@article{fds245291,
Author = {Bass, SA},
Title = {What do we know about the viscosity of QCD
matter?},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {862-863},
Number = {1},
Pages = {174-179},
Year = {2011},
Month = {Winter},
ISSN = {0375-9474},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2011.05.037},
Abstract = {This article provides an overview over the current state of
knowledge regarding the viscosity of QCD matter and on its
extraction via ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions at
the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider. © 2011 Elsevier
B.V.},
Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2011.05.037},
Key = {fds245291}
}

@article{fds245295,
Author = {Song, H and Bass, SA and Heinz, U and Hirano, T and Shen,
C},
Title = {Hadron spectra and elliptic flow for 200 A GeV Au+Au
collisions from viscous hydrodynamics coupled to a Boltzmann
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {83},
Number = {5},
Pages = {054910},
Year = {2011},
Month = {Summer},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1101.4638},
Abstract = {It is shown that the recently developed hybrid code VISHNU,
which couples a relativistic viscous fluid dynamical
description of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) with a
rescattering stage, yields an excellent description of
charged and identified hadron spectra and elliptic flow
measured in 200 A GeV Au+Au collisions at the Relativistic
Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC). Using initial conditions that
incorporate event-by-event fluctuations in the initial shape
and orientation of the collision fireball and values η/s
for the specific shear viscosity of the quark-gluon plasma
that were recently extracted from the measured centrality
dependence of the eccentricity-scaled, pT-integrated charged
hadron elliptic flow v2,ch/, we obtain universally good
agreement between theory and experiment for the pT spectra
and differential elliptic flow v2(pT) for both pions and
protons at all collision centralities. © 2011 American
Physical Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.83.054910},
Key = {fds245295}
}

@article{fds245296,
Author = {Coleman-Smith, CE and Bass, SA and Srivastava,
DK},
Title = {Implementing the LPM effect in a parton cascade
model},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {862-863},
Number = {1},
Pages = {275-278},
Year = {2011},
Month = {Summer},
ISSN = {0375-9474},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1101.4895},
Abstract = {Parton Cascade Models which describe the full time-evolution
of a system of quarks and gluons using pQCD interactions are
ideally suited for the description of jet production,
including the emission, evolution and energy-loss of the
full parton shower in a hot and dense QCD medium. The
Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal (LPM) effect the quantum
interference of parton wave functions due to repeated
scatterings against the background medium, is likely the
dominant in-medium effect affecting jet suppression. We have
implemented a probabilistic implementation of the LPM effect
within the PCM which can be validated against previously
derived analytical calculations by Baier et al (BDMPS-Z)
Presented at the 6th International Conference on Physics and
Astrophysics of Quark Gluon Plasma (ICPAQGP 2010). © 2011
Elsevier B.V.},
Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2011.05.071},
Key = {fds245296}
}

@article{fds245300,
Author = {Song, H and Bass, SA and Heinz, U},
Title = {Viscous QCD matter in a hybrid hydrodynamic+Boltzmann
approach},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {83},
Number = {2},
Pages = {024912},
Year = {2011},
Month = {Spring},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1012.0555},
Abstract = {A hybrid transport approach for the bulk evolution of
viscous QCD matter produced in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion
collisions is presented. The expansion of the dense
deconfined phase of the reaction is modeled with viscous
hydrodynamics, while the dilute late hadron gas stage is
described microscopically by the Boltzmann equation. The
advantages of such a hybrid approach lie in the improved
capability of handling large dissipative corrections in the
late dilute phase of the reaction, including a realistic
treatment of the nonequilibrium hadronic chemistry and
kinetic freeze-out. By varying the switching temperature at
which the hydrodynamic output is converted to particles for
further propagation with the Boltzmann cascade we test the
ability of the macroscopic hydrodynamic approach to emulate
the microscopic evolution during the hadronic stage and
extract the temperature dependence of the effective shear
viscosity of the hadron resonance gas produced in the
collision. We find that the extracted values depend on the
prior hydrodynamic history and hence do not represent
fundamental transport properties of the hadron resonance
gas. We conclude that viscous fluid dynamics does not
provide a faithful description of hadron resonance gas
dynamics with predictive power, and that both components of
the hybrid approach are needed for a quantitative
description of the fireball expansion and its freeze-out. ©
2011 American Physical Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.83.024912},
Key = {fds245300}
}

@article{fds245303,
Author = {III, JF and Demir, NS and Srivastava, DK and Bass,
SA},
Title = {Shear viscosity in a perturbative quark-gluon
plasma},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {38},
Number = {1},
Pages = {015004},
Year = {2011},
Month = {Spring},
ISSN = {0954-3899},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0954-3899/38/1/015004},
Abstract = {Among the key features of hot and dense QCD matter produced
in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC is its
very low shear viscosity, indicative of the properties of a
near-ideal fluid, and a large opacity demonstrated by jet
energy loss measurements. In this work, we utilize a
microscopic transport model based on the Boltzmann equation
with quark and gluon degrees of freedom and cross sections
calculated from perturbative quantum chromodynamics to
simulate an ideal quark-gluon plasma in full thermal and
chemical equilibrium. We then use the Kubo formalism to
calculate the shear viscosity to entropy-density ratio of
the medium as a function of temperature and system
composition. One of our key results is that the shear
viscosity over entropy-density ratio η/s becomes invariant
to the chemical composition of the system when plotted as a
IOP Publishing Ltd.},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/38/1/015004},
Key = {fds245303}
}

@article{fds304515,
Author = {Petersen, H and Renk, T and Bass, SA},
Title = {Medium-modified jets and initial state fluctuations as
sources of charge correlations measured at energies
available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider
(RHIC)},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {83},
Number = {1},
Year = {2011},
Month = {January},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.83.014916},
Abstract = {We investigate the contribution of medium-modified jets and
initial state fluctuations to the asymmetry in
charged-particle production with respect to the reaction
plane. This asymmetry has been suggested as a compelling
signature for the chiral magnetic effect in QCD and makes
the study of conventional scenarios for the creation of such
charged-particle multiplicity fluctuations a timely
endeavor. The different path-length combinations of jets
through the medium in noncentral heavy ion collisions result
in finite correlations of like and different charged
particles emitted in the different hemispheres. Our
calculation is based on the combination of jet events from
Yet another Jet Energy-Loss Model (YaJEM) and a bulk-medium
evolution. It is found that the jet production probabilities
are too small to observe this effect. The influence of
initial state fluctuations on this observable is explored by
using an event-by-event (3+1)-dimensional hybrid approach
that is based on Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular
Dynamics (UrQMD) with an ideal hydrodynamic evolution. In
this calculation, momentum conservation and elliptic flow
are explicitly taken into account. The asymmetries in the
initial state are translated to a final state momentum
asymmetry by the hydrodynamic flow profile. Dependent on the
size of the initial state fluctuations, the resulting
charged-particle asymmetries are in qualitative agreement
with the preliminary STAR (solenoid tracker at the
Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) results. The multiparticle
correlation as proposed by the PHENIX Collaboration can, in
principle, be used to disentangle the different
contributions, however, in practice, is affected
substantially by the procedure to subtract trivial resonance
decay contributions. © 2011 American Physical
Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.83.014916},
Key = {fds304515}
}

@article{fds245299,
Author = {Petersen, H and Renk, T and Bass, SA},
Title = {Medium-modified Jets and Initial State Fluctuations as
Sources of Charge Correlations Measured at
RHIC},
Journal = {Physical Review},
Volume = {C83},
Number = {1},
Pages = {014916},
Year = {2011},
Month = {Spring},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1008.3846},
Abstract = {We investigate the contribution of medium-modified jets and
initial state fluctuations to the asymmetry in
charged-particle production with respect to the reaction
plane. This asymmetry has been suggested as a compelling
signature for the chiral magnetic effect in QCD and makes
the study of conventional scenarios for the creation of such
charged-particle multiplicity fluctuations a timely
endeavor. The different path-length combinations of jets
through the medium in noncentral heavy ion collisions result
in finite correlations of like and different charged
particles emitted in the different hemispheres. Our
calculation is based on the combination of jet events from
Yet another Jet Energy-Loss Model (YaJEM) and a bulk-medium
evolution. It is found that the jet production probabilities
are too small to observe this effect. The influence of
initial state fluctuations on this observable is explored by
using an event-by-event (3+1)-dimensional hybrid approach
that is based on Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular
Dynamics (UrQMD) with an ideal hydrodynamic evolution. In
this calculation, momentum conservation and elliptic flow
are explicitly taken into account. The asymmetries in the
initial state are translated to a final state momentum
asymmetry by the hydrodynamic flow profile. Dependent on the
size of the initial state fluctuations, the resulting
charged-particle asymmetries are in qualitative agreement
with the preliminary STAR (solenoid tracker at the
Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) results. The multiparticle
correlation as proposed by the PHENIX Collaboration can, in
principle, be used to disentangle the different
contributions, however, in practice, is affected
substantially by the procedure to subtract trivial resonance
decay contributions. Â© 2011 American Physical
Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.83.014916},
Key = {fds245299}
}

@article{fds245302,
Author = {Asakawa, M and Bass, SA and Müller, B},
Title = {Anomalous transport processes in turbulent non-Abelian
plasmas},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {854},
Number = {1},
Pages = {76-80},
Year = {2011},
Month = {Spring},
ISSN = {0375-9474},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1008.3496},
Abstract = {Turbulent color fields, which can arise in the early and
late stages of relativistic heavy ion collisions, may
contribute significantly to the transport processes in the
matter created in these collisions. We review the theory of
these anomalous transport processes and discuss their
possible phenomenology in the glasma and quasistationary
expanding quark-gluon plasma. © 2010 Elsevier
B.V.},
Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2010.07.013},
Key = {fds245302}
}

@article{fds245297,
Author = {Petersen, H and Coleman-Smith, C and Bass, SA and Wolpert,
R},
Title = {Constraining the initial state granularity with bulk
observables in Au+Au collisions at \sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=200
GeV},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {38},
Number = {4},
Pages = {045102-045102},
Year = {2011},
Month = {Spring},
ISSN = {0954-3899},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1012.4629},
Abstract = {In this paper we conduct a systematic study of the
granularity of the initial state of hot and dense QCD matter
produced in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions and its
influence on bulk observables like particle yields, mT
spectra and elliptic flow. For our investigation we use a
hybrid transport model, based on (3+1)D hydrodynamics and a
microscopic Boltzmann transport approach. The initial
conditions are generated by a non-equilibrium hadronic
transport approach and the size of their fluctuations can be
adjusted by defining a Gaussian smoothing parameter σ. The
dependence of the hydrodynamic evolution on the choices of
σ and tstart is explored by means of a Gaussian emulator.
To generate particle yields and elliptic flow that are
compatible with experimental data the initial state
parameters are constrained to be σ = 1 fm and tstart = 0.5
fm. In addition, the influence of changes in the equation of
state is studied and the results of our event-by-event
calculations are compared to a calculation with averaged
initial conditions. We conclude that even though the initial
state parameters can be constrained by yields and elliptic
flow, the granularity needs to be constrained by other
correlation and fluctuation observables. © 2011 IOP
Publishing Ltd.},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/38/4/045102},
Key = {fds245297}
}

@article{fds245294,
Author = {Song, H and Bass, SA and Heinz, U},
Title = {Elliptic flow in GeV Au Au collisions and TeV Pb Pb
collisions: Insights from viscous hydrodynamics hadron
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {83},
Number = {5},
Pages = {054912},
Year = {2011},
Month = {Summer},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1103.2380},
Abstract = {Using the newly developed hybrid model VISHNU, which
we study the differential and integrated elliptic flow v2 at
different centrality bins for 200 A GeV Au+Au collisions and
2.76 A TeV Pb+Pb collisions. We find that the average
quark-gluon plasma (QGP)-specific shear viscosity η/s
slightly increases from Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider to
Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energies. However, a further
study assuming different temperature dependencies for
(η/s)QGP shows that one cannot uniquely constrain the form
of (η/s)QGP(T) by fitting the spectra and v2 alone. Based
on our current understanding, the question whether the QGP
fluid is more viscous or more perfect in the temperature
regime reached by LHC energies is still open. © 2011
American Physical Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.83.054912},
Key = {fds245294}
}

@article{fds245301,
Author = {Song, H and Bass, SA and Heinz, U and Hirano, T and Shen,
C},
Title = {200 A GeV Au + Au collisions serve a nearly perfect
quark-gluon liquid.},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {106},
Number = {19},
Pages = {192301},
Year = {2011},
Month = {Spring},
ISSN = {0031-9007},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1011.2783},
Abstract = {A new robust method to extract the specific shear viscosity
(η/s)(QGP) of a quark-gluon plasma (QGP) at temperatures
T(c) < T ≲ 2T(c) from the centrality dependence of the
eccentricity-scaled elliptic flow v2/ε measured in
ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions is presented.
Coupling viscous fluid dynamics for the QGP with a
microscopic transport model for hadronic freeze-out we find
for 200 A GeV Au + Au collisions that v2/ε is a universal
function of multiplicity density (1/S)(dN(ch)/dy) that
depends only on the viscosity but not on the model used for
computing the initial fireball eccentricity ε. Comparing
with measurements we find 1<4π(η/s)(QGP) < 2.5 where the
uncertainty range is dominated by model uncertainties for
the values of ε used to normalize the measured
v2.},
Doi = {10.1103/physrevlett.106.192301},
Key = {fds245301}
}

@article{fds245293,
Author = {Petersen, H and Bhattacharya, V and Bass, SA and Greiner,
C},
Title = {Longitudinal correlation of the triangular flow event plane
conditions},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {84},
Number = {5},
Pages = {054908},
Year = {2011},
Month = {Fall},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1105.0340},
Abstract = {The longitudinal long-range correlations of the triangular
flow event-plane angles are calculated in a Boltzmann +
hydrodynamics hybrid approach. The potential to disentangle
different energy deposition scenarios is explored by
utilizing two different transport approaches for the early
nonequilibrium evolution. In the hadronic transport approach
the particle production in high-energy heavy ion reactions
is mainly governed by string excitation and fragmentation
processes which are absent in the parton cascade approach.
We find that in both approaches the initial state shows a
strong longitudinal correlation of the event-plane angles
which is diluted but still persists in the final state
momentum space distributions of the produced particles. The
observation of this effect is an important prerequisite for
the experimental determination of odd harmonics that relies
on a rapidity independent event-plane definition. © 2011
American Physical Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.84.054908},
Key = {fds245293}
}

@article{fds245292,
Author = {Shen, C and Bass, SA and Hirano, T and Huovinen, P and Qiu, Z and Song, H and Heinz, U},
Title = {The QGP shear viscosity–elusive goal or just around the
corner?},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {38},
Number = {12},
Pages = {124045-124045},
Year = {2011},
Month = {Fall},
ISSN = {0954-3899},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1106.6350},
code VISHNU, a rather precise (25%) extraction of the quark
gluon plasma (QGP) shear viscosity (η/s)QGP from heavy-ion
elliptic flow data is possible if the initial eccentricity
of the collision fireball is known with &lt;5% accuracy. At
this point, eccentricities from initial state models differ
by up to 20%, leading to an (100%) uncertainty for
(η/s)QGP. It is shown that a simultaneous comparison of
elliptic and triangular flow, v2 and v3, puts strong
constraints on initial state models and can largely
eliminate the present uncertainty in (η/s)QGP. The
variation of the differential elliptic flow v2(pT) for
identified hadrons between RHIC and LHC energies provides
Publishing Ltd.},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/38/12/124045},
Key = {fds245292}
}

@article{fds318405,
Author = {Bass, SA and Petersen, H and Quammen, C and Canary, H and Healey, CG and II, RMT},
Title = {Probing the QCD critical point with relativistic heavy-ion
collisions},
Journal = {Central European Journal of Physics},
Pages = {1-4},
Year = {2012},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s11534-012-0076-1},
Abstract = {We utilize an event-by-event relativistic hydrodynamic
calculation performed at a number of different incident beam
energies to investigate the creation of hot and dense QCD
matter near the critical point. Using state-of-the-art
analysis and visualization tools we demonstrate that each
collision event probes QCD matter characterized by a wide
range of temperatures and baryo-chemical potentials, making
a dynamical response of the system to the vicinity of the
critical point very difficult to isolate above the
background. © 2012 Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag
Wien.},
Doi = {10.2478/s11534-012-0076-1},
Key = {fds318405}
}

@article{fds245220,
Author = {Song, H and Bass, SA and Heinz, U and Hirano, T and Shen,
C},
Title = {Erratum: Hadron spectra and elliptic flow for 200A GeV Au+Au
collisions from viscous hydrodynamics coupled to a Boltzmann
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {86},
Number = {5},
Year = {2012},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.86.059903},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.86.059903},
Key = {fds245220}
}

@article{fds245267,
Author = {Coleman-Smith, CE and Qin, G-Y and Bass, SA and Müller,
B},
Title = {Jet modification in a brick of QGP matter},
Journal = {Aip Conference Proceedings},
Volume = {1441},
Pages = {892-894},
Year = {2012},
ISSN = {0094-243X},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3700711},
Abstract = {We have implemented the LPM effect into a microscopic
transport model with partonic degrees of freedom by
following the algorithm of Zapp &amp; Wiedemann. The
Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal (LPM) effect is a quantum
interference process that modifies the emission of radiation
in the presence of a dense medium. In QCD this results in a
is an important effect for the modification of jets by their
passage through the QGP. We verify the leading parton energy
loss in the model against the leading order
Baier-Dokshitzer-Mueller-Peigne-Schiff-Zakharov (BDMPS-Z)
result. We apply our model to the recent observations of the
modification of di-jets at the LHC. © 2012 American
Institute of Physics.},
Doi = {10.1063/1.3700711},
Key = {fds245267}
}

@article{fds245270,
Author = {Bass, SA},
Title = {High energy-density QCD matter},
Journal = {Progress of Theoretical Physics Supplement},
Number = {193},
Pages = {53-61},
Year = {2012},
ISSN = {0375-9687},
relevance to the physics of ultra-relativistic heavy-ion
collisions.},
Key = {fds245270}
}

@article{fds245274,
Author = {Bass, SA and Casalderrey-Solana, J},
Title = {Focus section on AdS/CFT applications to QCD
matter},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {39},
Number = {5},
Year = {2012},
ISSN = {0954-3899},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0954-3899/39/5/050301},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/39/5/050301},
Key = {fds245274}
}

@article{fds245271,
Author = {Alabi, OS and Wu, X and Harter, JM and Phadke, M and Pinto, L and Petersen,
H and Bass, S and Keifer, M and Zhong, S and Healey, C and Taylor,
RM},
Title = {Comparative Visualization of Ensembles Using Ensemble
Surface Slicing.},
Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
Behavior and Mechanics},
Volume = {8294},
Year = {2012},
Month = {January},
ISSN = {0277-786X},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.908288},
Abstract = {By definition, an ensemble is a set of surfaces or volumes
derived from a series of simulations or experiments.
Sometimes the series is run with different initial
conditions for one parameter to determine parameter
sensitivity. The understanding and identification of visual
similarities and differences among the shapes of members of
an ensemble is an acute and growing challenge for
researchers across the physical sciences. More specifically,
the task of gaining spatial understanding and identifying
similarities and differences between multiple complex
geometric data sets simultaneously has proved challenging.
This paper proposes a comparison and visualization technique
to support the visual study of parameter sensitivity. We
present a novel single-image view and sampling technique
which we call Ensemble Surface Slicing (ESS). ESS produces a
single image that is useful for determining differences and
similarities between surfaces simultaneously from several
data sets. We demonstrate the usefulness of ESS on two
real-world data sets from our collaborators.},
Doi = {10.1117/12.908288},
Key = {fds245271}
}

@article{fds245286,
Author = {Bass, S and Petersen, H and Quammen, C and Canary, H and Healey, C and Taylor, R},
Title = {Probing the QCD critical point with relativistic heavy-ion
collisions},
Journal = {Open Physics},
Volume = {10},
Number = {6},
Pages = {1278-1281},
Year = {2012},
Month = {Winter},
ISSN = {1895-1082},
Abstract = {We utilize an event-by-event relativistic hydrodynamic
calculation performed at a number of different incident beam
energies to investigate the creation of hot and dense QCD
matter near the critical point. Using state-of-the-art
analysis and visualization tools we demonstrate that each
collision event probes QCD matter characterized by a wide
range of temperatures and baryo-chemical potentials, making
a dynamical response of the system to the vicinity of the
critical point very difficult to isolate above the
background. © 2012 Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag
Wien.},
Doi = {10.2478/s11534-012-0076-1},
Key = {fds245286}
}

@article{fds245273,
Author = {Harter, JM and Wu, X and Alabi, OS and Phadke, M and Pinto, L and Dougherty, D and Petersen, H and Bass, S and Taylor,
RM},
Title = {Increasing the perceptual salience of relationships in
parallel coordinate plots.},
Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
Behavior and Mechanics},
Volume = {8294},
Pages = {82940T},
Year = {2012},
Month = {January},
ISSN = {0277-786X},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.907486},
Abstract = {We present three extensions to parallel coordinates that
increase the perceptual salience of relationships between
axes in multivariate data sets: (1) luminance modulation
maintains the ability to preattentively detect patterns in
the presence of overplotting, (2) adding a one-vs.-all
variable display highlights relationships between one
variable and all others, and (3) adding a scatter plot
within the parallel-coordinates display preattentively
highlights clusters and spatial layouts without strongly
interfering with the parallel-coordinates display. These
techniques can be combined with one another and with
existing extensions to parallel coordinates, and two of them
generalize beyond cases with known-important axes. We
applied these techniques to two real-world data sets
(relativistic heavy-ion collision hydrodynamics and weather
observations with statistical principal component analysis)
as well as the popular car data set. We present
relationships discovered in the data sets using these
methods.},
Doi = {10.1117/12.907486},
Key = {fds245273}
}

@article{fds245272,
Author = {Phadke, MN and Pinto, L and Alabi, F and Harter, J and Taylor, RM and Wu,
X and Petersen, H and Bass, SA and Healey, CG},
Title = {Exploring Ensemble Visualization.},
Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
Behavior and Mechanics},
Volume = {8294},
Number = {82940B},
Year = {2012},
Month = {February},
ISSN = {0277-786X},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.912419},
Abstract = {An ensemble is a collection of related datasets. Each
dataset, or member, of an ensemble is normally large,
multidimensional, and spatio-temporal. Ensembles are used
extensively by scientists and mathematicians, for example,
by executing a simulation repeatedly with slightly different
input parameters and saving the results in an ensemble to
see how parameter choices affect the simulation. To draw
inferences from an ensemble, scientists need to compare data
both within and between ensemble members. We propose two
techniques to support ensemble exploration and comparison: a
pairwise sequential animation method that visualizes locally
neighboring members simultaneously, and a screen door
tinting method that visualizes subsets of members using
screen space subdivision. We demonstrate the capabilities of
both techniques, first using synthetic data, then with
simulation data of heavy ion collisions in high-energy
physics. Results show that both techniques are capable of
supporting meaningful comparisons of ensemble
data.},
Doi = {10.1117/12.912419},
Key = {fds245272}
}

@article{fds245289,
Author = {Petersen, H and Placa, RL and Bass, SA},
Title = {A systematic study of the sensitivity of triangular flow to
the initial state fluctuations in relativistic heavy-ion
collisions},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {39},
Number = {5},
Pages = {055102-055102},
Year = {2012},
Month = {Spring},
ISSN = {0954-3899},
url = {http://iopscience.iop.org/0954-3899/39/5/055102/},
Abstract = {Experimental data from the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider
suggest that the quark gluon plasma behaves almost like an
ideal fluid. Due to its short lifetime, many QGP properties
can only be inferred indirectly through a comparison of the
final state measurements with transport model calculations.
Among the current phenomena of interest are the
interdependences between two collective flow phenomena,
elliptic and triangular flow. The former is mostly related
to the initial geometry and collective expansion of the
system whereas the latter is sensitive to the fluctuations
of the initial state. For our investigation we use a hybrid
transport model based on the ultra-relativistic quantum
molecular dynamics (UrQMD) transport approach using an ideal
hydrodynamic expansion for the hot and dense stage. Using
UrQMD initial conditions for an AuAu collision, particles
resulting from a collision are mapped into an energy density
distribution that is evolved event-by-event with a
hydrodynamic calculation. By averaging these distributions
over different numbers of events, we have studied how the
granularity/smoothness of the distribution affects the
initial eccentricity, the initial triangularity, and the
resulting flow components. The average elliptic flow in
non-central collisions is not sensitive to the granularity,
while triangular flow is. The triangularity might thus
provide a good measure of the amount of initial state
fluctuations that is necessary to reproduce the experimental
data. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/39/5/055102},
Key = {fds245289}
}

@article{fds245268,
Author = {Petersen, H and Placa, RL and Bass, SA},
Title = {Triangular flow in relativstic heavy ion collisions in an
event-by-event hybrid approach},
Journal = {Aip Conference Proceedings},
Volume = {1441},
Pages = {777-779},
Year = {2012},
Month = {May},
ISSN = {0094-243X},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3700677},
Abstract = {Triangular flow has been shown to be an interesting new
observable to gain insights about the properties of hot and
dense strongly interacting matter as it is produced in heavy
ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. The potential of triangular
flow for constraining the initial state granularity is
explored by performing an explicit calculation of the
triangularity and the final state anisotropic flow for
initial states that exhibit different amounts of
fluctuations. We present triangular flow results for Au+Au
collisions at the highest RHIC energy calculated in a hybrid
approach that includes a non-equilibrium initial evolution
and an ideal hydrodynamic expansion with a hadronic
afterburner in 3+1 dimensions. Triangular flow results for
Pb+Pb collisions at LHC energies employing the same
parameters that work at RHIC are compared to ALICE data. In
addition, by comparing the hybrid approach calculation with
a pure transport approach, the influence of viscosity is
studied. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.},
Doi = {10.1063/1.3700677},
Key = {fds245268}
}

@article{fds245288,
Author = {Asakawa, M and Bass, SA and Mueller, B},
Title = {Center Domains and their Phenomenological
Consequences},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {110},
Pages = {202301},
Year = {2012},
Month = {Spring},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1208.2426},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.202301},
Key = {fds245288}
}

@article{fds245285,
Author = {Song, H and Bass, SA and Heinz, U and Hirano, T and Shen,
C},
Title = {Erratum: 200 GeV Collisions Serve a Nearly Perfect
Quark-Gluon Liquid [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 , 192301
(2011)]},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {109},
Number = {13},
Year = {2012},
Month = {September},
ISSN = {0031-9007},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.139904},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.139904},
Key = {fds245285}
}

@article{fds245214,
Author = {Cao, S and Qin, G-Y and Bass, SA and Mueller, B and IOP},
Title = {Heavy quark energy loss and angular de-correlation in a
quark-gluon plasma matter},
Journal = {Journal of Physics: Conference Series},
Volume = {446},
Pages = {012035-012035},
Year = {2013},
Month = {Summer},
ISSN = {1742-6588},
Doi = {10.1088/1742-6596/446/1/012035},
Key = {fds245214}
}

@article{fds245216,
Author = {Cao, S and Qin, G-Y and Bass, SA},
Title = {Model and parameter dependence of heavy quark energy loss in
a hot and dense medium},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {40},
Number = {8},
Pages = {085103},
Year = {2013},
Month = {Spring},
ISSN = {0954-3899},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1205.2396},
Abstract = {Within the framework of the Langevin equation, we study the
energy loss of heavy quarks due to quasi-elastic multiple
scatterings in a quark-gluon plasma created by relativistic
heavy-ion collisions. We investigate how the initial
configuration of the quark-gluon plasma as well as its
properties affect the final state spectra and elliptic flow
of D-mesons and non-photonic electrons. We find that both
the geometric anisotropy of the initial quark-gluon plasma
and the flow profiles of the hydrodynamic medium play
important roles in the heavy quark energy loss process and
the development of elliptic flow. The relative contribution
from charm and bottom quarks is found to affect the
transverse momentum dependence of the quenching and flow
patterns of heavy flavor decay electron; such influence
depends on the interaction strength between heavy quarks and
the medium. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/40/8/085103},
Key = {fds245216}
}

@article{fds245217,
Author = {Coleman-Smith, CE and Müller, B and Bass, SA},
Title = {Systematic Monte-Carlo studies of dijets at RHIC using the
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {904-905},
Pages = {759c-762c},
Year = {2013},
Month = {Summer},
ISSN = {0375-9474},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2013.02.128},
Abstract = {We present a study of the dijet suppression at RHIC using
the parton cascade model. We examine the modification of the
dijet asymmetry A j and the fragmentation distributions z
and j T in terms of: q̂; the path length of leading and
sub-leading jets; cuts on the jet energy distributions; jet
cone angle and the jet-medium interaction mechanism. We have
jet fragmentation distributions. We find that A j is most
sensitive to q̂ and less sensitive to the nature of the
jet-medium interaction mechanism. The fragmentation
distributions show jet modification and differentiate
Elsevier B.V.},
Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2013.02.128},
Key = {fds245217}
}

@article{fds245218,
Author = {Cao, S and Qin, G-Y and Bass, SA},
Title = {Heavy quark energy loss and thermalization in hot and dense
nuclear matter},
Journal = {Journal of Physics: Conference Series},
Volume = {420},
Number = {1},
Year = {2013},
ISSN = {1742-6588},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/420/1/012022},
Abstract = {We study heavy quark energy loss and thermalization in hot
and dense nuclear medium. The diffusion of heavy quarks is
calculated via a Langevin equation, both for a static medium
as well as for a quark-gluon plasma (QGP) medium generated
by a (3+1)-dimensional hydrodynamic model. We investigate
how the initial configuration of the QGP and its properties
affect the final state spectra and elliptic flow of heavy
flavor mesons and non-photonic electrons. It is observed
that both the geometric anisotropy of the initial profile
and the flow profile of the hydrodynamic medium play
important roles in the heavy quark energy loss process and
the development of elliptic flow. Within our definition of
the thermalization criterion and for reasonable values of
the diffusion constant, we observe thermalization times that
are longer than the lifetime of the QGP phase.},
Doi = {10.1088/1742-6596/420/1/012022},
Key = {fds245218}
}

@article{fds245219,
Author = {Song, H and Bass, SA and Heinz, U},
Title = {Erratum: Elliptic flow in √s=200 GeV Au+Au collisions and
√s=2.76 TeV Pb+Pb collisions: Insights from viscous
(2011) 83 (054912))},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {87},
Number = {1},
Year = {2013},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.87.019902},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.87.019902},
Key = {fds245219}
}

@article{fds245287,
Author = {Cao, S and Qin, G-Y and Bass, SA and Müller, B},
Title = {Collisional vs. Radiative Energy Loss of Heavy Quark in a
Hot and Dense Nuclear Matter},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {904-905},
Pages = {653c-656c},
Year = {2013},
Month = {Spring},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1209.5410},
Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2013.02.100},
Key = {fds245287}
}

@article{fds220305,
Author = {S. Cao and G.-Y. Qin and S.A. Bass},
Title = {Heavy quark dynamics and hadronization in ultra-relativistic
heavy-ion collisions: collisional versus radiative energy
loss},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {88},
Pages = {044907},
Year = {2013},
Month = {Summer},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.88.044907},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.88.044907},
Key = {fds220305}
}

@article{fds245215,
Author = {Cao, S and Qin, G-Y and Bass, SA},
Title = {Heavy-quark dynamics and hadronization in ultrarelativistic
heavy-ion collisions: Collisional versus radiative energy
loss},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {88},
Number = {4},
Year = {2013},
Month = {October},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.88.044907},
Abstract = {We study the dynamics of energy loss and flow of heavy
quarks produced in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions
within the framework of a Langevin equation coupled to a
(2+1)-dimensional viscous hydrodynamic model that simulates
the spacetime evolution of the produced hot and dense QCD
matter. The classical Langevin approach is improved such
that, apart from quasielastic scatterings, radiative energy
loss is incorporated by treating gluon radiation as an
quarks is simulated via a hybrid fragmentation plus
recombination model. Our calculation shows significant
contribution from gluon radiation to heavy quark energy loss
at high energies, and we find the recombination mechanism is
important for heavy flavor meson production at intermediate
energies. We present numerical results for the nuclear
modification and elliptic flow of D mesons, which are
consistent with measurements at both the CERN Large Hadron
Collider (LHC) and the BNL Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider
(RHIC); predictions for B mesons are also provided. © 2013
American Physical Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.88.044907},
Key = {fds245215}
}

@article{fds245213,
Author = {Song, H and Bass, SA and Heinz, U},
Title = {Spectra and elliptic flow for identified hadrons in TeV Pb +
Pb collisions},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {89},
Number = {3},
Pages = {034919},
Year = {2014},
Month = {Summer},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1311.0157},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.89.034919},
Key = {fds245213}
}

@article{fds245212,
Author = {Younus, M and Srivastava, DK and Bass, SA},
Title = {Effect of quark gluon plasma on charm quark produced in
relativistic heavy ion collision},
Journal = {Journal of Physics: Conference Series},
Volume = {509},
Pages = {012038-012038},
Year = {2014},
Month = {May},
ISSN = {1742-6588},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/509/1/012038},
Doi = {10.1088/1742-6596/509/1/012038},
Key = {fds245212}
}

@article{fds245201,
Author = {Nahrgang, M and Aichelin, J and Bass, S and Gossiaux, PB and Werner,
K},
Title = {Heavy-flavor observables at RHIC and LHC},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {931},
Pages = {575-580},
Year = {2014},
Month = {November},
ISSN = {0375-9474},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2014.08.094},
Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2014.08.094},
Key = {fds245201}
}

@article{fds245207,
Author = {Asakawa, M and Bass, SA and Mueller, B},
Title = {Center domains and their phenomenological consequences in
ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {931},
Pages = {1120-1124},
Year = {2014},
Month = {November},
ISSN = {0375-9474},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2014.08.005},
Abstract = {© 2014 Elsevier B.V. We argue that the domain structure of
deconfined QCD matter, which can be inferred from the
properties of the Polyakov loop, can simultaneously explain
the two most prominent experimental features of the
quark-gluon plasma, namely its near ideal fluid properties
and its large opacity.},
Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2014.08.005},
Key = {fds245207}
}

@article{fds245208,
Author = {Cao, S and Qin, G-Y and Bass, SA},
Title = {Heavy flavor dynamics in QGP and hadron gas},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {931},
Pages = {569-574},
Year = {2014},
Month = {November},
ISSN = {0375-9474},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2014.09.011},
Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2014.09.011},
Key = {fds245208}
}

@article{fds245211,
Author = {Asakawa, M and Bass, SA and Mueller, B},
Title = {Center domains and their phenomenological consequences in
ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {931},
Pages = {1120-1124},
Year = {2014},
Month = {November},
ISSN = {0375-9474},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2014.08.005},
Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2014.08.005},
Key = {fds245211}
}

@article{fds245209,
Author = {Cao, S and Qin, GY and Bass, SA},
Title = {Dynamical evolution, hadronization and angular
de-correlation of heavy flavor in a hot and dense QCD
medium},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {932},
Pages = {38-44},
Year = {2014},
Month = {December},
ISSN = {0375-9474},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2014.08.047},
in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The in-medium
evolution of heavy quarks is described using our modified
Langevin framework that incorporates both collisional and
radiative energy loss mechanisms. The subsequent
hadronization process for heavy quarks is calculated with a
fragmentation plus recombination model. We find significant
contribution from gluon radiation to heavy quark energy loss
at high p T ; the recombination mechanism can greatly
enhance the D meson production at medium p T . Our
calculation provides a good description of the D meson
nuclear modification at the LHC. In addition, we explore the
angular correlation functions of heavy flavor pairs which
may provide us a potential candidate for distinguishing
different energy loss mechanisms of heavy quarks inside the
QGP.},
Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2014.08.047},
Key = {fds245209}
}

@article{fds245210,
Author = {Cao, S and Qin, G-Y and Bass, SA},
Title = {Dynamical evolution, hadronization and angular
de-correlation of heavy flavor in a hot and dense QCD
medium},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {932},
Pages = {38-44},
Year = {2014},
Month = {December},
ISSN = {0375-9474},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2014.08.047},
Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2014.08.047},
Key = {fds245210}
}

@article{fds245206,
Author = {Younus, M and Coleman-Smith, CE and Bass, SA and Srivastava,
DK},
Title = {Charm quark energy loss in infinite QCD matter using a
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {91},
Number = {2},
Year = {2015},
Month = {February},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.91.024912},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.91.024912},
Key = {fds245206}
}

@article{fds245205,
Author = {Bernhard, JE and Marcy, PW and Coleman-Smith, CE and Huzurbazar, S and Wolpert, RL and Bass, SA},
Title = {Quantifying properties of hot and dense QCD matter through
systematic model-to-data comparison},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {91},
Number = {5},
Year = {2015},
Month = {May},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.91.054910},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.91.054910},
Key = {fds245205}
}

@article{fds245204,
Author = {Moreland, JS and Bernhard, JE and Bass, SA},
Title = {Alternative ansatz to wounded nucleon and binary collision
scaling in high-energy nuclear collisions},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {92},
Number = {1},
Year = {2015},
Month = {July},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.92.011901},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.92.011901},
Key = {fds245204}
}

@article{fds245203,
Author = {Cao, S and Qin, G-Y and Bass, SA},
heavy flavors in relativistic heavy-ion collisions},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {92},
Number = {2},
Year = {2015},
Month = {August},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.92.024907},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.92.024907},
Key = {fds245203}
}

@article{fds315779,
Author = {Cao, S and Qin, G-Y and Bass, SA},
Title = {Modeling of heavy-flavor pair correlations in Au-Au
collisions at GeV at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion
Collider},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {92},
Number = {5},
Year = {2015},
Month = {November},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.92.054909},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.92.054909},
Key = {fds315779}
}

@article{fds332350,
Author = {Hao, L and Healey, CG and Bass, SA and Yu, HY},
Title = {Visualizing static ensembles for effective shape and data
comparison},
Year = {2016},
Month = {January},
Abstract = {© 2016 Society for Imaging Science and Technology.
Ensembles are large, multidimensional, multivariate datasets
generated in areas like physical and natural science to
study real-world phenomena. Simulations or experiments are
run repeatedly with slightly different initial parameters,
producing members of the ensemble. The need to compare data
and spatial properties, both within an individual member and
across multiple members, makes analysis challenging. Initial
visualization techniques focused on ensembles with a limited
number of members. Others generated overviews of larger
ensembles, but at the expense of aggregating potentially
important details. We propose an approach that combines
these two directions by automatically clustering members in
ways that help scientists locate interesting subsets, then
visualize members within the subset. Our ensemble
visualization technique includes: (1) octree comparison and
clustering to generate a hierarchical level-of-detail
overview of inter-member shape and data similarity; (2) a
glyph-based visualization of an ensemble member; and (3) a
method of combining multiple glyph visualizations to
highlight similarities and differences in shape and data
values across a subset of ensemble members. We apply our
approach to a Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider ensemble
collected by nuclear physics col- leagues at Duke University
studying quantum chromo-dynamics. Our system allows the
physicists to interactively choose when to explore
inter-member relationships, and when to visualize
fine-grained details in individual member
datasets.},
Key = {fds332350}
}

@article{fds315780,
Author = {Hao, L and Healey, CG and Bass, SA},
Title = {Effective Visualization of Temporal Ensembles},
Journal = {Ieee Transactions on Visualization and Computer
Graphics},
Volume = {22},
Number = {1},
Pages = {787-796},
Year = {2016},
Month = {January},
ISSN = {1077-2626},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TVCG.2015.2468093},
Doi = {10.1109/TVCG.2015.2468093},
Key = {fds315780}
}

@article{fds315777,
Author = {Shen, C and Qiu, Z and Song, H and Bernhard, J and Bass, S and Heinz,
U},
Title = {The iEBE-VISHNU code package for relativistic heavy-ion
collisions},
Journal = {Computer Physics Communications},
Volume = {199},
Pages = {61-85},
Year = {2016},
Month = {February},
ISSN = {0010-4655},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpc.2015.08.039},
Doi = {10.1016/j.cpc.2015.08.039},
Key = {fds315777}
}

@article{fds322931,
Author = {Xu, Y and Cao, S and Nahrgang, M and Ke, W and Qin, G-Y and Auvinen, J and Bass, SA},
Title = {Heavy-flavor dynamics in relativistic p-Pb collisions at
sNN=5.02 TeV},
Journal = {Nuclear and Particle Physics Proceedings},
Volume = {276-278},
Pages = {225-228},
Year = {2016},
Month = {July},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysbps.2016.05.050},
Abstract = {© 2016 Elsevier B.V.We investigate the heavy flavor
dynamics in the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) medium created in
p-Pb collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In
the (3+1)-dimensional viscous hydrodynamics model describing
QGP medium, the dynamics of heavy quarks are studied in an
improved Langevin framework incorporating both collisional
quarks is given by a hybrid model of fragmentation and
recombination. We find that the in-medium evolution of charm
quarks raises the D-meson RpPb at low transverse momenta
while it suppresses the D-meson RpPb at intermediate
momenta. In addition, the elliptic flow of D-meson is
calculated. For a diffusion coefficient which reproduces
central RAA data at the LHC, we find a much smaller D-meson
ν2 compared to the light hadrons. This observation
indicates an incomplete coupling between heavy quarks with
the medium, due to the reduced medium size compared to AA
collisions.},
Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysbps.2016.05.050},
Key = {fds322931}
}

@article{fds322930,
Author = {Bernhard, JE and Moreland, JS and Bass, SA and Liu, J and Heinz,
U},
Title = {Applying Bayesian parameter estimation to relativistic
heavy-ion collisions: Simultaneous characterization of the
initial state and quark-gluon plasma medium},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {94},
Number = {2},
Year = {2016},
Month = {August},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.94.024907},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.94.024907},
Key = {fds322930}
}

@article{fds322929,
Author = {Cao, S and Qin, G-Y and Bass, SA},
Title = {Suppression and Two-Particle Correlations of Heavy Mesons in
Heavy-Ion Collisions},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {956},
Pages = {505-508},
Year = {2016},
Month = {December},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2015.12.012},
Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2015.12.012},
Key = {fds322929}
}

@article{fds331114,
Author = {Nahrgang, M and Bluhm, M and Schäfer, T and Bass,
S},
Title = {Toward the description of fluid dynamical fluctuations in
heavy-ion collisions},
Journal = {Acta Physica Polonica B, Proceedings Supplement},
Volume = {10},
Number = {3},
Pages = {687-692},
Year = {2017},
Month = {January},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.5506/APhysPolBSupp.10.687},
dynamical fluctuations are included in relativistic 3+1
dimensional viscous fluid dynamics. We discuss effects of
the interactions of fluctuations due to nonlinearities and
the cutoff dependence.},
Doi = {10.5506/APhysPolBSupp.10.687},
Key = {fds331114}
}

@article{fds331115,
Author = {Auvinen, J and Bernhard, JE and Bass, SA},
Title = {Systematic extraction of QGP properties},
Journal = {Acta Physica Polonica B, Proceedings Supplement},
Volume = {10},
Number = {3},
Pages = {455-459},
Year = {2017},
Month = {January},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.5506/APhysPolBSupp.10.455},
Abstract = {We investigate the collision energy dependence of shear
viscosity over the entropy density ratio η/=s in Au+Au
collisions at √ sNN = 19:6, 39, and 62.4 GeV, using
Bayesian statistical analysis and Gaussian process emulators
to explore the full input parameter space of a
transport+hydrodynamics hybrid model. The ratio is found to
decrease as a function of collision energy, supporting the
results from previous studies performed with the same hybrid
model.},
Doi = {10.5506/APhysPolBSupp.10.455},
Key = {fds331115}
}

@article{fds337149,
Author = {Moreau, P and Xu, Y and Song, T and Nahrgang, M and Bass, S and Bratkovskaya, E},
Title = {Traces of non-equilibrium dynamics in relativistic heavy-ion
collisions},
Journal = {Proceedings of Science},
Volume = {2017-August},
Year = {2017},
Month = {January},
of non-equilibrium effects on the dynamics of heavy-ion
collisions is investigated by comparing a non-equilibrium
(PHSD), to a 2D+1 viscous hydrodynamical model, which is
based on the assumption of local equilibrium and
conservation laws. Starting the hydrodynamical model from
the same non-equilibrium initial condition as in the PHSD,
using an equivalent lQCD Equation-of-State (EoS), the same
transport coefficients, i.e. shear viscosity ? and the bulk
viscosity ? in the hydrodynamical model, we compare the time
evolution of the system in terms of energy density, Fourier
transformed energy density, spatial and momentum
eccentricities and ellipticity in order to quantify the
traces of non-equilibrium phenomena. In addition, we also
investigate the role of initial pre-equilibrium flow on the
hydrodynamical evolution and demonstrate its importance for
final state observables. We find that due to non-equilibrium
effects, the event-by-event transport calculations show
large fluctuations in the collective properties, while
ensemble averaged observables are close to the
hydrodynamical results.},
Key = {fds337149}
}

@article{fds337150,
Author = {Auvinen, J and Karpenko, I and Bernhard, JE and Bass,
SA},
Title = {Parameter extractions for RHIC BES using Bayesian
statistics},
Journal = {Proceedings of Science},
Volume = {2017-August},
Year = {2017},
Month = {January},
the latest results on the collision energy dependence of
?/s, obtained from a Bayesian model-to-data analysis of
UrQMD + viscous hydrodynamics hybrid model to RHIC beam
energy scan data for Au+Au collisions at 19.6, 39 and 62.4
GeV. Changes in the most likely value of ?/s over beam
energy scan range suggest a dependence on baryon chemical
potential µB. However, we also find the uncertainties
regarding the value of ?/s to be notable at sNN= 19.6
GeV.},
Key = {fds337150}
}

@article{fds325389,
Author = {Auvinen, J and Redlich, K and Bass, SA},
Title = {Multi-strange hadrons and the precision extraction of QGP
properties in the RHIC-BES domain},
Journal = {Journal of Physics: Conference Series},
Volume = {779},
Pages = {012045-012045},
Year = {2017},
Month = {January},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/779/1/012045},
Doi = {10.1088/1742-6596/779/1/012045},
Key = {fds325389}
}

@article{fds325390,
Author = {Bluhm, M and Nahrgang, M and Bass, SA and Schäfer,
T},
Title = {Behavior of universal critical parameters in the QCD phase
diagram},
Journal = {Journal of Physics: Conference Series},
Volume = {779},
Pages = {012074-012074},
Year = {2017},
Month = {January},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/779/1/012074},
Doi = {10.1088/1742-6596/779/1/012074},
Key = {fds325390}
}

@article{fds326196,
Author = {Bluhm, M and Nahrgang, M and Bass, SA and Schäfer,
T},
Title = {Impact of resonance decays on critical point signals in
net-proton fluctuations},
Journal = {The European Physical Journal C},
Volume = {77},
Number = {4},
Year = {2017},
Month = {April},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjc/s10052-017-4771-3},
Doi = {10.1140/epjc/s10052-017-4771-3},
Key = {fds326196}
}

@article{fds327010,
Author = {Aarts, G and Aichelin, J and Allton, C and Arnaldi, R and Bass, SA and Bedda, C and Brambilla, N and Bratkovskaya, E and Braun-Munzinger, P and Bruno, GE and Dahms, T and Das, SK and Dembinski, H and Djordjevic, M and Ferreiro, E and Frawley, A and Gossiaux, P-B and Granier de
Cassagnac, R and Grelli, A and He, M and Horowitz, WA and Innocenti, GM and Jo, M and Kaczmarek, O and Kuijer, PG and Laine, M and Lombardo, MP and Mischke, A and Munhoz, MG and Nahrgang, M and Nguyen, M and Oliveira da
Silva, AC and Petreczky, P and Rothkopf, A and Schmelling, M and Scomparin, E and Song, T and Stachel, J and Suaide, AAP and Tolos, L and Trzeciak, B and Uras, A and van Doremalen, L and Vermunt, L and Vigolo,
S and Xu, N and Ye, Z and Zanoli, HJC and Zhuang, P},
Title = {Heavy-flavor production and medium properties in high-energy
nuclear collisions --What next?},
Journal = {The European Physical Journal A},
Volume = {53},
Number = {5},
Year = {2017},
Month = {May},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epja/i2017-12282-9},
Doi = {10.1140/epja/i2017-12282-9},
Key = {fds327010}
}

@article{fds328952,
Author = {Cao, S and Park, C and Barbieri, RA and Bass, SA and Bazow, D and Bernhard,
J and Coleman, J and Fries, R and Gale, C and He, Y and Heinz, U and Jacak,
BV and Jacobs, PM and Jeon, S and Kordell, M and Kumar, A and Luo, T and Majumder, A and Nejahi, Y and Pablos, D and Pang, L-G and Putschke, JH and Roland, G and Rose, S and Schenke, B and Schwiebert, L and Shen, C and Sirimanna, C and Soltz, RA and Velicanu, D and Vujanovic, G and Wang,
X-N and Wolpert, RL},
Title = {Multistage Monte Carlo simulation of jet modification in a
static medium},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {96},
Number = {2},
Year = {2017},
Month = {August},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.96.024909},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.96.024909},
Key = {fds328952}
}

@article{fds329191,
Author = {Xu, Y and Moreau, P and Song, T and Nahrgang, M and Bass, SA and Bratkovskaya, E},
Title = {Traces of nonequilibrium dynamics in relativistic heavy-ion
collisions},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {96},
Number = {2},
Year = {2017},
Month = {August},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.96.024902},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.96.024902},
Key = {fds329191}
}

@article{fds333786,
Author = {Xu, Y and Cao, S and Nahrgang, M and Bernhard, JE and Bass,
SA},
Title = {Data-driven analysis of the temperature dependence of the
heavy-quark transport coefficient},
Journal = {Nuclear and Particle Physics Proceedings},
Volume = {289-290},
Pages = {257-260},
Year = {2017},
Month = {August},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysbps.2017.05.058},
Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysbps.2017.05.058},
Key = {fds333786}
}

@article{fds333787,
Author = {Ke, W and Scott Moreland and J and Bernhard, JE and Bass,
SA},
Title = {Constraints on rapidity-dependent initial conditions from
charged particle pseudorapidity densities and correlations
at the LHC},
Journal = {Nuclear and Particle Physics Proceedings},
Volume = {289-290},
Pages = {483-486},
Year = {2017},
Month = {August},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysbps.2017.05.113},
Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysbps.2017.05.113},
Key = {fds333787}
}

@article{fds331113,
Author = {Ke, W and Moreland, JS and Bernhard, JE and Bass,
SA},
Title = {Constraints on rapidity-dependent initial conditions from
charged-particle pseudorapidity densities and two-particle
correlations},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {96},
Number = {4},
Year = {2017},
Month = {October},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.96.044912},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.96.044912},
Key = {fds331113}
}

@article{fds331108,
Author = {Bernhard, JE and Moreland, JS and Bass, SA},
Title = {Characterization of the initial state and QGP medium from a
combined Bayesian analysis of LHC data at 2.76 and 5.02
TeV},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {967},
Pages = {293-296},
Year = {2017},
Month = {November},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2017.05.037},
Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2017.05.037},
Key = {fds331108}
}

@article{fds331109,
Author = {Bass, SA and Bernhard, J and Moreland, JS},
Title = {Determination of Quark-Gluon-Plasma Parameters from a Global
Bayesian Analysis},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {967},
Pages = {67-73},
Year = {2017},
Month = {November},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2017.05.052},
Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2017.05.052},
Key = {fds331109}
}

@article{fds331110,
Author = {Auvinen, J and Karpenko, I and Bernhard, JE and Bass,
SA},
Title = {Revealing the collision energy dependence of η / s in
RHIC-BES Au+Au collisions using Bayesian
statistics},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {967},
Pages = {784-787},
Year = {2017},
Month = {November},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2017.05.107},
Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2017.05.107},
Key = {fds331110}
}

@article{fds331111,
Author = {Nahrgang, M and Bluhm, M and Schäfer, T and Bass,
SA},
Title = {Baryon number diffusion with critical fluctuations},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {967},
Pages = {824-827},
Year = {2017},
Month = {November},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2017.04.021},
Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2017.04.021},
Key = {fds331111}
}

@article{fds331112,
Author = {Xu, Y and Nahrgang, M and Bernhard, JE and Cao, S and Bass,
SA},
Title = {A data-driven analysis of the heavy quark transport
coefficient},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {967},
Pages = {668-671},
Year = {2017},
Month = {November},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2017.05.035},
Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2017.05.035},
Key = {fds331112}
}

@article{fds331107,
Author = {Moreland, JS and Bernhard, JE and Ke, W and Bass,
SA},
Title = {Flow in small and large quark-gluon plasma droplets: the
role of nucleon substructure},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {967},
Pages = {361-364},
Year = {2017},
Month = {November},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2017.05.054},
Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2017.05.054},
Key = {fds331107}
}

@article{fds332349,
Author = {Srivastava, DK and Bass, SA and Chatterjee, R},
Title = {Production of charm quarks in a parton cascade model for
relativistic heavy ion collisions at GeV},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {96},
Number = {6},
Year = {2017},
Month = {December},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.96.064906},
Abstract = {© 2017 American Physical Society. We study the production
and dynamics of heavy quarks in the parton cascade model for
relativistic heavy ion collisions. The model is motivated by
the QCD parton picture and describes the dynamics of an
ultrarelativistic heavy ion collision in terms of cascading
partons which undergo scattering and multiplication while
propagating. We focus on the dynamics of charm quark
production and evolution in p+p and Au + Au collisions for
several different interaction scenarios, viz., collisions
only between primary partons without radiation of gluons,
multiple collisions without radiation of gluons, and
multiple collisions with radiation of gluons, allowing us to
isolate the contributions of parton rescattering and
radiation to charm production. We also discuss results of an
eikonal approximation of the collision which provides a
valuable comparison with minijet calculations and clearly
brings out the importance of multiple collisions.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.96.064906},
Key = {fds332349}
}

@article{fds332867,
Author = {Bluhm, M and Nahrgang, M and Schäfer, T and Bass,
SA},
Title = {Fluctuating fluid dynamics for the QGP in the LHC and BES
era},
Journal = {Epj Web of Conferences},
Volume = {171},
Pages = {16004-16004},
Editor = {Mischke, A and Kuijer, P},
Year = {2018},
ISBN = {9782759890330},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/epjconf/201817116004},
high-precision determinations of QGP properties a full
incorporation of fluid dynamical fluctuations into our
models has become crucial, in particular, when describing
the dynamics of small systems or near the conjectured QCD
critical point. In this talk we discuss some effects of the
propagation of these fluctuations. For LHC physics we focus
on fluctuations in the energy-momentum tensor, while the
impact of fluctuations in the diffusive net-baryon density
is studied to improve our knowledge on the formation of
critical fluctuations being searched in current and future
BES programs.},
Doi = {10.1051/epjconf/201817116004},
Key = {fds332867}
}

@article{fds332868,
Author = {Xu, Y and Nahrgang, M and Cao, S and Bernhard, JE and Bass,
SA},
Title = {A data-drive analysis for heavy quark diffusion
coefficient},
Journal = {Epj Web of Conferences},
Volume = {171},
Pages = {18001-18001},
Editor = {Mischke, A and Kuijer, P},
Year = {2018},
ISBN = {9782759890330},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/epjconf/201817118001},
Bayesian model-to-data analysis on an improved Langevin
framework to estimate the temperature and momentum
dependence of the heavy quark diffusion coefficient in the
quark-gluon plasma (QGP). The spatial diffusion coefficient
is found to have a minimum around 1-3 near T c in the zero
momentum limit, and has a non-trivial momentum dependence.
With the estimated diffusion coefficient, our improved
Langevin model is able to simultaneously describe the
D-meson R AA and v 2 in three different systems at RHIC and
the LHC.},
Doi = {10.1051/epjconf/201817118001},
Key = {fds332868}
}

@article{fds332869,
Author = {Xu, Y and Bernhard, JE and Bass, SA and Nahrgang, M and Cao,
S},
Title = {Data-driven analysis for the temperature and momentum
dependence of the heavy-quark diffusion coefficient in
relativistic heavy-ion collisions},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {97},
Number = {1},
Year = {2018},
Month = {January},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.97.014907},
Abstract = {© 2018 American Physical Society. By applying a Bayesian
model-to-data analysis, we estimate the temperature and
momentum dependence of the heavy quark diffusion coefficient
in an improved Langevin framework. The posterior range of
the diffusion coefficient is obtained by performing a Markov
chain Monte Carlo random walk and calibrating on the
experimental data of D-meson RAA and v2 in three different
collision systems at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collidaer
(RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC): Au-Au collisions
at 200 GeV and Pb-Pb collisions at 2.76 and 5.02 TeV. The
spatial diffusion coefficient is found to be consistent with
lattice QCD calculations and comparable with other models'
estimation. We demonstrate the capability of our improved
Langevin model to simultaneously describe the RAA and v2 at
both RHIC and the LHC energies, as well as the higher order
flow coefficient such as D meson v3. We show that by
applying a Bayesian analysis, we are able to quantitatively
and systematically study the heavy flavor dynamics in
heavy-ion collisions.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.97.014907},
Key = {fds332869}
}

@article{fds336440,
Author = {Auvinen, J and Bernhard, JE and Bass, SA and Karpenko,
I},
Title = {Investigating the collision energy dependence of in the beam
energy scan at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider using
Bayesian statistics},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {97},
Number = {4},
Year = {2018},
Month = {April},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.97.044905},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.97.044905},
Key = {fds336440}
}

@article{fds336439,
Author = {Srivastava, DK and Chatterjee, R and Bass, SA},
Title = {Transport dynamics of parton interactions in collisions at
energies available at the CERN Large Hadron
Collider},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {97},
Number = {6},
Year = {2018},
Month = {June},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.97.064910},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.97.064910},
Key = {fds336439}
}

%% Papers Accepted
@article{fds225579,
Author = {S. Cao and G.Y. Qin and S.A. Bass},
Title = {Dynamical Evolution, Hadronization and Angular
De-correlation of Heavy Flavor in a Hot and Dense QCD
Medium},
Journal = {Nucl. Phys. A},
Year = {2014},
Month = {Summer},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1404.1081},
Key = {fds225579}
}

@article{fds225580,
Author = {M. Asakawa and S.A. Bass and B. Mueller},
Title = {Center domains and their phenomenological consequences in
ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions},
Journal = {Nucl. Phys. A.},
Year = {2014},
Month = {Fall},
Key = {fds225580}
}

@article{fds225581,
Author = {S. Cao and G.Y. Qin and S.A. Bass},
Title = {Heavy Flavor Dynamics in QGP and Hadron Gas},
Journal = {Nucl. Phys. A},
Year = {2014},
Month = {Fall},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1408.0503},
Key = {fds225581}
}

@article{fds225582,
Author = {M. Nahrgang and J. Aichelin and S.A. Bass and P.B. Gossiaux and K.
Werner},
Title = {Heavy-flavor observables at RHIC and LHC},
Journal = {Nucl. Phys. A},
Year = {2014},
Month = {Fall},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1409.1464},
Key = {fds225582}
}

%% Papers Submitted
@article{fds220307,
Author = {M. Younus and C.E. Coleman-Smith and S.A. Bass and D.K.
Srivastava},
Title = {Systematic Study of Charm Quark Energy Loss Using Parton
Journal = {submitted to Phys. Rev. C},
Year = {2013},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1309.1276},
Key = {fds220307}
}

@article{fds220608,
Author = {H. Song and S.A. Bass and U.W. Heinz},
Title = {Spectra and elliptic flow for identified hadrons in 2.76 A
TeV Pb+Pb collisions},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Year = {2013},
Month = {Winter},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1311.0157},
Key = {fds220608}
}

@article{fds245202,
Author = {Nahrgang, M and Aichelin, J and Bass, S and Gossiaux, PB and Werner,
K},
Title = {Elliptic and triangular flow of heavy flavor in heavy-ion
collisions},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {91},
Number = {1},
Year = {2015},
Month = {January},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1410.5396},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.91.014904},
Key = {fds245202}
}

@article{fds315778,
Author = {Cao, S and Huang, Y and Qin, G-Y and Bass, SA},
Title = {The influence of initial state fluctuations on heavy quark
energy loss in relativistic heavy-ion collisions},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {42},
Number = {12},
Pages = {125104-125104},
Year = {2015},
Month = {December},
ISSN = {0954-3899},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1404.3139},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/42/12/125104},
Key = {fds315778}
}

%% Preprints
@article{fds225577,
Author = {C. Shen and Z. Qiu and H. Song and J. Bernhard and S.A. Bass and U.
Heinz},
Title = {The iEBE-VISHNU code package for relativistic heavy-ion
collisions},
Year = {2014},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1409.8164},
Key = {fds225577}
}

%% Other
@misc{fds28286,
Title = {Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on
Strangeness in Quark Matter , SQM 2003, March 12-17
2003},
Journal = {J. Phys. G.},
Volume = {30},
Pages = {1-632},
Editor = {S.A. Bass and B. Mueller and G.S.F. Stephans and T.
Ullrich},
Year = {2004},
Month = {Spring},
Key = {fds28286}
}

@misc{fds42902,
Title = {Proceedings, Workshop for Young Scientists on the Physics of
Ultrarelativistic Nucleus Nucleus Collisions (Hot Quarks
2004)},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G},
Volume = {31},
Pages = {S1-S619},
Editor = {F. Antinori and S.A. Bass and R. Bellwied and T. Ullrich and J.
Velkovska and U.A. Wiedemann},
Year = {2005},
Month = {Spring},
Key = {fds42902}
}