Publications of Steffen A. Bass    :chronological  alphabetical  by type listing:

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@article{fds328952,
   Author = {Cao, S and Park, C and Barbieri, RA and Bass, SA and Bazow, D and Bernhard,
             J and Coleman, J and Fries, R and Gale, C and He, Y and Heinz, U and Jacak,
             BV and Jacobs, PM and Jeon, S and Kordell, M and Kumar, A and Luo, T and Majumder, A and Nejahi, Y and Pablos, D and Pang, L-G and Putschke, JH and Roland, G and Rose, S and Schenke, B and Schwiebert, L and Shen, C and Sirimanna, C and Soltz, RA and Velicanu, D and Vujanovic, G and Wang,
             X-N and Wolpert, RL},
   Title = {Multistage Monte Carlo simulation of jet modification in a
             static medium},
   Journal = {Physical Review C},
   Volume = {96},
   Number = {2},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.96.024909},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.96.024909},
   Key = {fds328952}
}

@article{fds329191,
   Author = {Xu, Y and Moreau, P and Song, T and Nahrgang, M and Bass, SA and Bratkovskaya, E},
   Title = {Traces of nonequilibrium dynamics in relativistic heavy-ion
             collisions},
   Journal = {Physical Review C},
   Volume = {96},
   Number = {2},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.96.024902},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.96.024902},
   Key = {fds329191}
}

@article{fds327010,
   Author = {Aarts, G and Aichelin, J and Allton, C and Arnaldi, R and Bass, SA and Bedda, C and Brambilla, N and Bratkovskaya, E and Braun-Munzinger, P and Bruno, GE and Dahms, T and Das, SK and Dembinski, H and Djordjevic, M and Ferreiro, E and Frawley, A and Gossiaux, P-B and Granier de
             Cassagnac, R and Grelli, A and He, M and Horowitz, WA and Innocenti, GM and Jo, M and Kaczmarek, O and Kuijer, PG and Laine, M and Lombardo, MP and Mischke, A and Munhoz, MG and Nahrgang, M and Nguyen, M and Oliveira da
             Silva, AC and Petreczky, P and Rothkopf, A and Schmelling, M and Scomparin, E and Song, T and Stachel, J et al.},
   Title = {Heavy-flavor production and medium properties in high-energy
             nuclear collisions --What next?},
   Journal = {The European Physical Journal A - Hadrons and
             Nuclei},
   Volume = {53},
   Number = {5},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epja/i2017-12282-9},
   Doi = {10.1140/epja/i2017-12282-9},
   Key = {fds327010}
}

@article{fds326196,
   Author = {Bluhm, M and Nahrgang, M and Bass, SA and Schäfer,
             T},
   Title = {Impact of resonance decays on critical point signals in
             net-proton fluctuations},
   Journal = {The European Physical Journal C - Particles and
             Fields},
   Volume = {77},
   Number = {4},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjc/s10052-017-4771-3},
   Doi = {10.1140/epjc/s10052-017-4771-3},
   Key = {fds326196}
}

@article{fds325389,
   Author = {Auvinen, J and Redlich, K and Bass, SA},
   Title = {Multi-strange hadrons and the precision extraction of QGP
             properties in the RHIC-BES domain},
   Journal = {Journal of Physics},
   Volume = {779},
   Pages = {012045-012045},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/779/1/012045},
   Doi = {10.1088/1742-6596/779/1/012045},
   Key = {fds325389}
}

@article{fds325390,
   Author = {Bluhm, M and Nahrgang, M and Bass, SA and Schäfer,
             T},
   Title = {Behavior of universal critical parameters in the QCD phase
             diagram},
   Journal = {Journal of Physics},
   Volume = {779},
   Pages = {012074-012074},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/779/1/012074},
   Doi = {10.1088/1742-6596/779/1/012074},
   Key = {fds325390}
}

@article{fds322929,
   Author = {Cao, S and Qin, G-Y and Bass, SA},
   Title = {Suppression and Two-Particle Correlations of Heavy Mesons in
             Heavy-Ion Collisions},
   Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
   Volume = {956},
   Pages = {505-508},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2015.12.012},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2015.12.012},
   Key = {fds322929}
}

@article{fds322930,
   Author = {Bernhard, JE and Moreland, JS and Bass, SA and Liu, J and Heinz,
             U},
   Title = {Applying Bayesian parameter estimation to relativistic
             heavy-ion collisions: Simultaneous characterization of the
             initial state and quark-gluon plasma medium},
   Journal = {Physical Review C},
   Volume = {94},
   Number = {2},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.94.024907},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.94.024907},
   Key = {fds322930}
}

@article{fds322931,
   Author = {Xu, Y and Cao, S and Nahrgang, M and Ke, W and Qin, G-Y and Auvinen, J and Bass, SA},
   Title = {Heavy-flavor dynamics in relativistic p-Pb collisions at
             sNN=5.02 TeV},
   Journal = {Nuclear and Particle Physics Proceedings},
   Volume = {276-278},
   Pages = {225-228},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysbps.2016.05.050},
   Abstract = {© 2016 Elsevier B.V.We investigate the heavy flavor
             dynamics in the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) medium created in
             p-Pb collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In
             the (3+1)-dimensional viscous hydrodynamics model describing
             QGP medium, the dynamics of heavy quarks are studied in an
             improved Langevin framework incorporating both collisional
             and radiative energy loss. The hadronization of the heavy
             quarks is given by a hybrid model of fragmentation and
             recombination. We find that the in-medium evolution of charm
             quarks raises the D-meson RpPb at low transverse momenta
             while it suppresses the D-meson RpPb at intermediate
             momenta. In addition, the elliptic flow of D-meson is
             calculated. For a diffusion coefficient which reproduces
             central RAA data at the LHC, we find a much smaller D-meson
             ν2 compared to the light hadrons. This observation
             indicates an incomplete coupling between heavy quarks with
             the medium, due to the reduced medium size compared to AA
             collisions.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysbps.2016.05.050},
   Key = {fds322931}
}

@article{fds315777,
   Author = {Shen, C and Qiu, Z and Song, H and Bernhard, J and Bass, S and Heinz,
             U},
   Title = {The iEBE-VISHNU code package for relativistic heavy-ion
             collisions},
   Journal = {Computer Physics Communications},
   Volume = {199},
   Pages = {61-85},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0010-4655},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpc.2015.08.039},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.cpc.2015.08.039},
   Key = {fds315777}
}

@article{fds315780,
   Author = {Hao, L and Healey, CG and Bass, SA},
   Title = {Effective Visualization of Temporal Ensembles},
   Journal = {IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer
             Graphics},
   Volume = {22},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {787-796},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1077-2626},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TVCG.2015.2468093},
   Doi = {10.1109/TVCG.2015.2468093},
   Key = {fds315780}
}

@article{fds315778,
   Author = {Cao, S and Huang, Y and Qin, G-Y and Bass, SA},
   Title = {The influence of initial state fluctuations on heavy quark
             energy loss in relativistic heavy-ion collisions},
   Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
             Physics},
   Volume = {42},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {125104-125104},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0954-3899},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1404.3139},
   Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/42/12/125104},
   Key = {fds315778}
}

@article{fds315779,
   Author = {Cao, S and Qin, G-Y and Bass, SA},
   Title = {Modeling of heavy-flavor pair correlations in Au-Au
             collisions at GeV at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion
             Collider},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {92},
   Number = {5},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.92.054909},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.92.054909},
   Key = {fds315779}
}

@article{fds245203,
   Author = {Cao, S and Qin, G-Y and Bass, SA},
   Title = {Energy loss, hadronization, and hadronic interactions of
             heavy flavors in relativistic heavy-ion collisions},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {92},
   Number = {2},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.92.024907},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.92.024907},
   Key = {fds245203}
}

@article{fds245204,
   Author = {Moreland, JS and Bernhard, JE and Bass, SA},
   Title = {Alternative ansatz to wounded nucleon and binary collision
             scaling in high-energy nuclear collisions},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {92},
   Number = {1},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.92.011901},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.92.011901},
   Key = {fds245204}
}

@article{fds245205,
   Author = {Bernhard, JE and Marcy, PW and Coleman-Smith, CE and Huzurbazar, S and Wolpert, RL and Bass, SA},
   Title = {Quantifying properties of hot and dense QCD matter through
             systematic model-to-data comparison},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {91},
   Number = {5},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.91.054910},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.91.054910},
   Key = {fds245205}
}

@article{fds245206,
   Author = {Younus, M and Coleman-Smith, CE and Bass, SA and Srivastava,
             DK},
   Title = {Charm quark energy loss in infinite QCD matter using a
             parton cascade model},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {91},
   Number = {2},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.91.024912},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.91.024912},
   Key = {fds245206}
}

@article{fds245202,
   Author = {Nahrgang, M and Aichelin, J and Bass, S and Gossiaux, PB and Werner,
             K},
   Title = {Elliptic and triangular flow of heavy flavor in heavy-ion
             collisions},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {91},
   Number = {1},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1410.5396},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.91.014904},
   Key = {fds245202}
}

@article{fds245209,
   Author = {Cao, S and Qin, GY and Bass, SA},
   Title = {Dynamical evolution, hadronization and angular
             de-correlation of heavy flavor in a hot and dense QCD
             medium},
   Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
   Volume = {932},
   Pages = {38-44},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0375-9474},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2014.08.047},
   Abstract = {© 2014. We study heavy flavor evolution and hadronization
             in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The in-medium
             evolution of heavy quarks is described using our modified
             Langevin framework that incorporates both collisional and
             radiative energy loss mechanisms. The subsequent
             hadronization process for heavy quarks is calculated with a
             fragmentation plus recombination model. We find significant
             contribution from gluon radiation to heavy quark energy loss
             at high p T ; the recombination mechanism can greatly
             enhance the D meson production at medium p T . Our
             calculation provides a good description of the D meson
             nuclear modification at the LHC. In addition, we explore the
             angular correlation functions of heavy flavor pairs which
             may provide us a potential candidate for distinguishing
             different energy loss mechanisms of heavy quarks inside the
             QGP.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2014.08.047},
   Key = {fds245209}
}

@article{fds245210,
   Author = {Cao, S and Qin, G-Y and Bass, SA},
   Title = {Dynamical evolution, hadronization and angular
             de-correlation of heavy flavor in a hot and dense QCD
             medium},
   Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
   Volume = {932},
   Pages = {38-44},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0375-9474},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2014.08.047},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2014.08.047},
   Key = {fds245210}
}

@article{fds245201,
   Author = {Nahrgang, M and Aichelin, J and Bass, S and Gossiaux, PB and Werner,
             K},
   Title = {Heavy-flavor observables at RHIC and LHC},
   Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
   Volume = {931},
   Pages = {575-580},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0375-9474},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2014.08.094},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2014.08.094},
   Key = {fds245201}
}

@article{fds245207,
   Author = {Asakawa, M and Bass, SA and Mueller, B},
   Title = {Center domains and their phenomenological consequences in
             ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions},
   Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
   Volume = {931},
   Pages = {1120-1124},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0375-9474},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2014.08.005},
   Abstract = {© 2014 Elsevier B.V. We argue that the domain structure of
             deconfined QCD matter, which can be inferred from the
             properties of the Polyakov loop, can simultaneously explain
             the two most prominent experimental features of the
             quark-gluon plasma, namely its near ideal fluid properties
             and its large opacity.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2014.08.005},
   Key = {fds245207}
}

@article{fds245208,
   Author = {Cao, S and Qin, G-Y and Bass, SA},
   Title = {Heavy flavor dynamics in QGP and hadron gas},
   Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
   Volume = {931},
   Pages = {569-574},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0375-9474},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2014.09.011},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2014.09.011},
   Key = {fds245208}
}

@article{fds245211,
   Author = {Asakawa, M and Bass, SA and Mueller, B},
   Title = {Center domains and their phenomenological consequences in
             ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions},
   Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
   Volume = {931},
   Pages = {1120-1124},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0375-9474},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2014.08.005},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2014.08.005},
   Key = {fds245211}
}

@article{fds225580,
   Author = {M. Asakawa and S.A. Bass and B. Mueller},
   Title = {Center domains and their phenomenological consequences in
             ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions},
   Journal = {Nucl. Phys. A.},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {Fall},
   Key = {fds225580}
}

@article{fds225581,
   Author = {S. Cao and G.Y. Qin and S.A. Bass},
   Title = {Heavy Flavor Dynamics in QGP and Hadron Gas},
   Journal = {Nucl. Phys. A},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {Fall},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1408.0503},
   Key = {fds225581}
}

@article{fds225582,
   Author = {M. Nahrgang and J. Aichelin and S.A. Bass and P.B. Gossiaux and K.
             Werner},
   Title = {Heavy-flavor observables at RHIC and LHC},
   Journal = {Nucl. Phys. A},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {Fall},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1409.1464},
   Key = {fds225582}
}

@article{fds225579,
   Author = {S. Cao and G.Y. Qin and S.A. Bass},
   Title = {Dynamical Evolution, Hadronization and Angular
             De-correlation of Heavy Flavor in a Hot and Dense QCD
             Medium},
   Journal = {Nucl. Phys. A},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {Summer},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1404.1081},
   Key = {fds225579}
}

@article{fds245212,
   Author = {Younus, M and Srivastava, DK and Bass, SA},
   Title = {Effect of quark gluon plasma on charm quark produced in
             relativistic heavy ion collision},
   Journal = {Journal of Physics},
   Volume = {509},
   Pages = {012038-012038},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {1742-6588},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/509/1/012038},
   Doi = {10.1088/1742-6596/509/1/012038},
   Key = {fds245212}
}

@article{fds245213,
   Author = {Song, H and Bass, SA and Heinz, U},
   Title = {Spectra and elliptic flow for identified hadrons in TeV Pb +
             Pb collisions},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {89},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {034919},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {Summer},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1311.0157},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.89.034919},
   Key = {fds245213}
}

@article{fds225577,
   Author = {C. Shen and Z. Qiu and H. Song and J. Bernhard and S.A. Bass and U.
             Heinz},
   Title = {The iEBE-VISHNU code package for relativistic heavy-ion
             collisions},
   Year = {2014},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1409.8164},
   Key = {fds225577}
}

@article{fds220608,
   Author = {H. Song and S.A. Bass and U.W. Heinz},
   Title = {Spectra and elliptic flow for identified hadrons in 2.76 A
             TeV Pb+Pb collisions},
   Journal = {Physical Review C},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {Winter},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1311.0157},
   Key = {fds220608}
}

@article{fds245215,
   Author = {Cao, S and Qin, GY and Bass, SA},
   Title = {Heavy-quark dynamics and hadronization in ultrarelativistic
             heavy-ion collisions: Collisional versus radiative energy
             loss},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {88},
   Number = {4},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.88.044907},
   Abstract = {We study the dynamics of energy loss and flow of heavy
             quarks produced in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions
             within the framework of a Langevin equation coupled to a
             (2+1)-dimensional viscous hydrodynamic model that simulates
             the spacetime evolution of the produced hot and dense QCD
             matter. The classical Langevin approach is improved such
             that, apart from quasielastic scatterings, radiative energy
             loss is incorporated by treating gluon radiation as an
             additional force term. The hadronization of emitted heavy
             quarks is simulated via a hybrid fragmentation plus
             recombination model. Our calculation shows significant
             contribution from gluon radiation to heavy quark energy loss
             at high energies, and we find the recombination mechanism is
             important for heavy flavor meson production at intermediate
             energies. We present numerical results for the nuclear
             modification and elliptic flow of D mesons, which are
             consistent with measurements at both the CERN Large Hadron
             Collider (LHC) and the BNL Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider
             (RHIC); predictions for B mesons are also provided. © 2013
             American Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.88.044907},
   Key = {fds245215}
}

@article{fds220305,
   Author = {S. Cao and G.-Y. Qin and S.A. Bass},
   Title = {Heavy quark dynamics and hadronization in ultra-relativistic
             heavy-ion collisions: collisional versus radiative energy
             loss},
   Journal = {Physical Review C},
   Volume = {88},
   Pages = {044907},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {Summer},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.88.044907},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.88.044907},
   Key = {fds220305}
}

@article{fds220307,
   Author = {M. Younus and C.E. Coleman-Smith and S.A. Bass and D.K.
             Srivastava},
   Title = {Systematic Study of Charm Quark Energy Loss Using Parton
             Cascade Model},
   Journal = {submitted to Phys. Rev. C},
   Year = {2013},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1309.1276},
   Key = {fds220307}
}

@article{fds245214,
   Author = {Cao, S and Qin, G-Y and Bass, SA and Mueller, B and IOP},
   Title = {Heavy quark energy loss and angular de-correlation in a
             quark-gluon plasma matter},
   Journal = {Journal of Physics},
   Volume = {446},
   Pages = {012035-012035},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {Summer},
   ISSN = {1742-6588},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000325851000035&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1088/1742-6596/446/1/012035},
   Key = {fds245214}
}

@article{fds245216,
   Author = {Cao, S and Qin, G-Y and Bass, SA},
   Title = {Model and parameter dependence of heavy quark energy loss in
             a hot and dense medium},
   Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
             Physics},
   Volume = {40},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {085103},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {Spring},
   ISSN = {0954-3899},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1205.2396},
   Abstract = {Within the framework of the Langevin equation, we study the
             energy loss of heavy quarks due to quasi-elastic multiple
             scatterings in a quark-gluon plasma created by relativistic
             heavy-ion collisions. We investigate how the initial
             configuration of the quark-gluon plasma as well as its
             properties affect the final state spectra and elliptic flow
             of D-mesons and non-photonic electrons. We find that both
             the geometric anisotropy of the initial quark-gluon plasma
             and the flow profiles of the hydrodynamic medium play
             important roles in the heavy quark energy loss process and
             the development of elliptic flow. The relative contribution
             from charm and bottom quarks is found to affect the
             transverse momentum dependence of the quenching and flow
             patterns of heavy flavor decay electron; such influence
             depends on the interaction strength between heavy quarks and
             the medium. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.},
   Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/40/8/085103},
   Key = {fds245216}
}

@article{fds245217,
   Author = {Coleman-Smith, CE and Müller, B and Bass, SA},
   Title = {Systematic Monte-Carlo studies of dijets at RHIC using the
             VNI/BMS Parton Cascade},
   Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
   Volume = {904-905},
   Pages = {759c-762c},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {Summer},
   ISSN = {0375-9474},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2013.02.128},
   Abstract = {We present a study of the dijet suppression at RHIC using
             the parton cascade model. We examine the modification of the
             dijet asymmetry A j and the fragmentation distributions z
             and j T in terms of: q̂; the path length of leading and
             sub-leading jets; cuts on the jet energy distributions; jet
             cone angle and the jet-medium interaction mechanism. We have
             introduced a string hadronization model and present hadronic
             jet fragmentation distributions. We find that A j is most
             sensitive to q̂ and less sensitive to the nature of the
             jet-medium interaction mechanism. The fragmentation
             distributions show jet modification and differentiate
             between elastic and radiative+elastic modes. © 2013
             Elsevier B.V.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2013.02.128},
   Key = {fds245217}
}

@article{fds245218,
   Author = {Cao, S and Qin, G-Y and Bass, SA},
   Title = {Heavy quark energy loss and thermalization in hot and dense
             nuclear matter},
   Journal = {Journal of Physics},
   Volume = {420},
   Number = {1},
   Year = {2013},
   ISSN = {1742-6588},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/420/1/012022},
   Abstract = {We study heavy quark energy loss and thermalization in hot
             and dense nuclear medium. The diffusion of heavy quarks is
             calculated via a Langevin equation, both for a static medium
             as well as for a quark-gluon plasma (QGP) medium generated
             by a (3+1)-dimensional hydrodynamic model. We investigate
             how the initial configuration of the QGP and its properties
             affect the final state spectra and elliptic flow of heavy
             flavor mesons and non-photonic electrons. It is observed
             that both the geometric anisotropy of the initial profile
             and the flow profile of the hydrodynamic medium play
             important roles in the heavy quark energy loss process and
             the development of elliptic flow. Within our definition of
             the thermalization criterion and for reasonable values of
             the diffusion constant, we observe thermalization times that
             are longer than the lifetime of the QGP phase.},
   Doi = {10.1088/1742-6596/420/1/012022},
   Key = {fds245218}
}

@article{fds245219,
   Author = {Song, H and Bass, SA and Heinz, U},
   Title = {Erratum: Elliptic flow in √s=200 GeV Au+Au collisions and
             √s=2.76 TeV Pb+Pb collisions: Insights from viscous
             hydrodynamics+hadron cascade hybrid model (Physical Review C
             (2011) 83 (054912))},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {87},
   Number = {1},
   Year = {2013},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.87.019902},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.87.019902},
   Key = {fds245219}
}

@article{fds245286,
   Author = {Bass, SA and Petersen, H and Quammen, C and Canary, H and Healey, CG and II, TRM},
   Title = {Probing the QCD critical point with relativistic heavy-ion
             collisions},
   Journal = {Central European Journal of Physics},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1278-1281},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {Winter},
   ISSN = {1895-1082},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000312142600013&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Abstract = {We utilize an event-by-event relativistic hydrodynamic
             calculation performed at a number of different incident beam
             energies to investigate the creation of hot and dense QCD
             matter near the critical point. Using state-of-the-art
             analysis and visualization tools we demonstrate that each
             collision event probes QCD matter characterized by a wide
             range of temperatures and baryo-chemical potentials, making
             a dynamical response of the system to the vicinity of the
             critical point very difficult to isolate above the
             background. © 2012 Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag
             Wien.},
   Doi = {10.2478/s11534-012-0076-1},
   Key = {fds245286}
}

@article{fds245287,
   Author = {Cao, S and Qin, G-Y and Bass, SA and Mueller, B},
   Title = {Collisional vs. Radiative Energy Loss of Heavy Quark in a
             Hot and Dense Nuclear Matter},
   Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
   Volume = {904},
   Pages = {653c-656c},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {Spring},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1209.5410},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2013.02.100},
   Key = {fds245287}
}

@article{fds245288,
   Author = {Asakawa, M and Bass, SA and Mueller, B},
   Title = {Center Domains and their Phenomenological
             Consequences},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {110},
   Pages = {202301},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {Spring},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1208.2426},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.202301},
   Key = {fds245288}
}

@article{fds318405,
   Author = {Bass, SA and Petersen, H and Quammen, C and Canary, H and Healey, CG and II, RMT},
   Title = {Probing the QCD critical point with relativistic heavy-ion
             collisions},
   Journal = {Central European Journal of Physics},
   Pages = {1-4},
   Year = {2012},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s11534-012-0076-1},
   Abstract = {We utilize an event-by-event relativistic hydrodynamic
             calculation performed at a number of different incident beam
             energies to investigate the creation of hot and dense QCD
             matter near the critical point. Using state-of-the-art
             analysis and visualization tools we demonstrate that each
             collision event probes QCD matter characterized by a wide
             range of temperatures and baryo-chemical potentials, making
             a dynamical response of the system to the vicinity of the
             critical point very difficult to isolate above the
             background. © 2012 Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag
             Wien.},
   Doi = {10.2478/s11534-012-0076-1},
   Key = {fds318405}
}

@article{fds245220,
   Author = {Song, H and Bass, SA and Heinz, U and Hirano, T and Shen,
             C},
   Title = {Erratum: Hadron spectra and elliptic flow for 200A GeV Au+Au
             collisions from viscous hydrodynamics coupled to a Boltzmann
             cascade},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {86},
   Number = {5},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.86.059903},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.86.059903},
   Key = {fds245220}
}

@article{fds245267,
   Author = {Coleman-Smith, CE and Qin, G-Y and Bass, SA and Müller,
             B},
   Title = {Jet modification in a brick of QGP matter},
   Journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings},
   Volume = {1441},
   Pages = {892-894},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {0094-243X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3700711},
   Abstract = {We have implemented the LPM effect into a microscopic
             transport model with partonic degrees of freedom by
             following the algorithm of Zapp & Wiedemann. The
             Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal (LPM) effect is a quantum
             interference process that modifies the emission of radiation
             in the presence of a dense medium. In QCD this results in a
             quadratic length dependence for radiative energy loss. This
             is an important effect for the modification of jets by their
             passage through the QGP. We verify the leading parton energy
             loss in the model against the leading order
             Baier-Dokshitzer-Mueller-Peigne-Schiff-Zakharov (BDMPS-Z)
             result. We apply our model to the recent observations of the
             modification of di-jets at the LHC. © 2012 American
             Institute of Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.3700711},
   Key = {fds245267}
}

@article{fds245268,
   Author = {Petersen, H and Placa, RL and Bass, SA},
   Title = {Triangular flow in relativstic heavy ion collisions in an
             event-by-event hybrid approach},
   Journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings},
   Volume = {1441},
   Pages = {777-779},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {0094-243X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3700677},
   Abstract = {Triangular flow has been shown to be an interesting new
             observable to gain insights about the properties of hot and
             dense strongly interacting matter as it is produced in heavy
             ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. The potential of triangular
             flow for constraining the initial state granularity is
             explored by performing an explicit calculation of the
             triangularity and the final state anisotropic flow for
             initial states that exhibit different amounts of
             fluctuations. We present triangular flow results for Au+Au
             collisions at the highest RHIC energy calculated in a hybrid
             approach that includes a non-equilibrium initial evolution
             and an ideal hydrodynamic expansion with a hadronic
             afterburner in 3+1 dimensions. Triangular flow results for
             Pb+Pb collisions at LHC energies employing the same
             parameters that work at RHIC are compared to ALICE data. In
             addition, by comparing the hybrid approach calculation with
             a pure transport approach, the influence of viscosity is
             studied. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.3700677},
   Key = {fds245268}
}

@article{fds245270,
   Author = {Bass, SA},
   Title = {High energy-density QCD matter},
   Journal = {Progress of Theoretical Physics Supplement},
   Number = {193},
   Pages = {53-61},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {0375-9687},
   Abstract = {This article highlights topics in High Energy-Density QCD of
             relevance to the physics of ultra-relativistic heavy-ion
             collisions.},
   Key = {fds245270}
}

@article{fds245271,
   Author = {Alabi, OS and Wu, X and Harter, JM and Phadke, M and Pinto, L and Petersen,
             H and Bass, S and Keifer, M and Zhong, S and Healey, C and II,
             RMT},
   Title = {Comparative visualization of ensembles using Ensemble
             Surface Slicing},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical
             Engineering},
   Volume = {8294},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.908288},
   Abstract = {By definition, an ensemble is a set of surfaces or volumes
             derived from a series of simulations or experiments.
             Sometimes the series is run with different initial
             conditions for one parameter to determine parameter
             sensitivity. The understanding and identification of visual
             similarities and differences among the shapes of members of
             an ensemble is an acute and growing challenge for
             researchers across the physical sciences. More specifically,
             the task of gaining spatial understanding and identifying
             similarities and differences between multiple complex
             geometric data sets simultaneously has proved challenging.
             This paper proposes a comparison and visualization technique
             to support the visual study of parameter sensitivity. We
             present a novel single-image view and sampling technique
             which we call Ensemble Surface Slicing (ESS). ESS produces a
             single image that is useful for determining differences and
             similarities between surfaces simultaneously from several
             data sets. We demonstrate the usefulness of ESS on two
             real-world data sets from our collaborators. © 2012
             SPIE-IS&T.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.908288},
   Key = {fds245271}
}

@article{fds245272,
   Author = {Phadke, MN and Pinto, L and Alabi, O and Harter, J and Taylor, RM and Wu,
             X and Petersen, H and Bass, SA and Healey, CG},
   Title = {Exploring ensemble visualization},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical
             Engineering},
   Volume = {8294},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.912419},
   Abstract = {An ensemble is a collection of related datasets. Each
             dataset, or member, of an ensemble is normally large,
             multidimensional, and spatio-temporal. Ensembles are used
             extensively by scientists and mathematicians, for example,
             by executing a simulation repeatedly with slightly different
             input parameters and saving the results in an ensemble to
             see how parameter choices affect the simulation. To draw
             inferences from an ensemble, scientists need to compare data
             both within and between ensemble members. We propose two
             techniques to support ensemble exploration and comparison: a
             pairwise sequential animation method that visualizes locally
             neighboring members simultaneously, and a screen door
             tinting method that visualizes subsets of members using
             screen space subdivision. We demonstrate the capabilities of
             both techniques, first using synthetic data, then with
             simulation data of heavy ion collisions in high-energy
             physics. Results show that both techniques are capable of
             supporting meaningful comparisons of ensemble data. © 2012
             SPIE-IS&T.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.912419},
   Key = {fds245272}
}

@article{fds245273,
   Author = {Harter, JM and Wu, X and Alabi, OS and Phadke, M and Pinto, L and Dougherty, D and Petersen, H and Bass, S and II, RMT},
   Title = {Increasing the perceptual salience of relationships in
             parallel coordinate plots},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical
             Engineering},
   Volume = {8294},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.907486},
   Abstract = {We present three extensions to parallel coordinates that
             increase the perceptual salience of relationships between
             axes in multivariate data sets: (1) luminance modulation
             maintains the ability to preattentively detect patterns in
             the presence of overplotting, (2) adding a one-vs.-all
             variable display highlights relationships between one
             variable and all others, and (3) adding a scatter plot
             within the parallel-coordinates display preattentively
             highlights clusters and spatial layouts without strongly
             interfering with the parallel-coordinates display. These
             techniques can be combined with one another and with
             existing extensions to parallel coordinates, and two of them
             generalize beyond cases with known-important axes. We
             applied these techniques to two real-world data sets
             (relativistic heavy-ion collision hydrodynamics and weather
             observations with statistical principal component analysis)
             as well as the popular car data set. We present
             relationships discovered in the data sets using these
             methods. © 2012 SPIE-IS&T.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.907486},
   Key = {fds245273}
}

@article{fds245274,
   Author = {Bass, SA and Casalderrey-Solana, J},
   Title = {Focus section on AdS/CFT applications to QCD
             matter},
   Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
             Physics},
   Volume = {39},
   Number = {5},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {0954-3899},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0954-3899/39/5/050301},
   Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/39/5/050301},
   Key = {fds245274}
}

@article{fds245285,
   Author = {Song, H and Bass, SA and Heinz, U and Hirano, T and Shen,
             C},
   Title = {Erratum: 200 A GeV Au+Au collisions serve a nearly perfect
             Quark-Gluon liquid},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {109},
   Number = {13},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {0031-9007},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.139904},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.139904},
   Key = {fds245285}
}

@article{fds245289,
   Author = {Petersen, H and Placa, RL and Bass, SA},
   Title = {A systematic study of the sensitivity of triangular flow to
             the initial state fluctuations in relativistic heavy-ion
             collisions},
   Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
             Physics},
   Volume = {39},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {055102},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {Spring},
   ISSN = {0954-3899},
   url = {http://iopscience.iop.org/0954-3899/39/5/055102/},
   Abstract = {Experimental data from the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider
             suggest that the quark gluon plasma behaves almost like an
             ideal fluid. Due to its short lifetime, many QGP properties
             can only be inferred indirectly through a comparison of the
             final state measurements with transport model calculations.
             Among the current phenomena of interest are the
             interdependences between two collective flow phenomena,
             elliptic and triangular flow. The former is mostly related
             to the initial geometry and collective expansion of the
             system whereas the latter is sensitive to the fluctuations
             of the initial state. For our investigation we use a hybrid
             transport model based on the ultra-relativistic quantum
             molecular dynamics (UrQMD) transport approach using an ideal
             hydrodynamic expansion for the hot and dense stage. Using
             UrQMD initial conditions for an AuAu collision, particles
             resulting from a collision are mapped into an energy density
             distribution that is evolved event-by-event with a
             hydrodynamic calculation. By averaging these distributions
             over different numbers of events, we have studied how the
             granularity/smoothness of the distribution affects the
             initial eccentricity, the initial triangularity, and the
             resulting flow components. The average elliptic flow in
             non-central collisions is not sensitive to the granularity,
             while triangular flow is. The triangularity might thus
             provide a good measure of the amount of initial state
             fluctuations that is necessary to reproduce the experimental
             data. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.},
   Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/39/5/055102},
   Key = {fds245289}
}

@article{fds245299,
   Author = {Petersen, H and Renk, T and Bass, SA},
   Title = {Medium-modified Jets and Initial State Fluctuations as
             Sources of Charge Correlations Measured at
             RHIC},
   Journal = {Physical Review},
   Volume = {C83},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {014916},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {Spring},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1008.3846},
   Abstract = {We investigate the contribution of medium-modified jets and
             initial state fluctuations to the asymmetry in
             charged-particle production with respect to the reaction
             plane. This asymmetry has been suggested as a compelling
             signature for the chiral magnetic effect in QCD and makes
             the study of conventional scenarios for the creation of such
             charged-particle multiplicity fluctuations a timely
             endeavor. The different path-length combinations of jets
             through the medium in noncentral heavy ion collisions result
             in finite correlations of like and different charged
             particles emitted in the different hemispheres. Our
             calculation is based on the combination of jet events from
             Yet another Jet Energy-Loss Model (YaJEM) and a bulk-medium
             evolution. It is found that the jet production probabilities
             are too small to observe this effect. The influence of
             initial state fluctuations on this observable is explored by
             using an event-by-event (3+1)-dimensional hybrid approach
             that is based on Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular
             Dynamics (UrQMD) with an ideal hydrodynamic evolution. In
             this calculation, momentum conservation and elliptic flow
             are explicitly taken into account. The asymmetries in the
             initial state are translated to a final state momentum
             asymmetry by the hydrodynamic flow profile. Dependent on the
             size of the initial state fluctuations, the resulting
             charged-particle asymmetries are in qualitative agreement
             with the preliminary STAR (solenoid tracker at the
             Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) results. The multiparticle
             correlation as proposed by the PHENIX Collaboration can, in
             principle, be used to disentangle the different
             contributions, however, in practice, is affected
             substantially by the procedure to subtract trivial resonance
             decay contributions. © 2011 American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.83.014916},
   Key = {fds245299}
}

@article{fds245290,
   Author = {Cao, S and Bass, SA},
   Title = {Thermalization of charm quarks in infinite and finite
             quark-gluon plasma matter},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {84},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {064902},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {Winter},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1108.5101},
   Abstract = {We study the thermalization process of charm quarks in hot
             and dense matter. The diffusion of heavy quarks is
             calculated via a Langevin equation, both for a static medium
             as well as for a quark-gluon plasma (QGP) medium generated
             by a (3+1)-dimensional hydrodynamic model. We define two
             criteria for the thermalization of the heavy quarks and
             observe thermalization times that are longer than the
             lifetime of the QGP phase for reasonable values of the
             diffusion constant. © 2011 American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.84.064902},
   Key = {fds245290}
}

@article{fds245291,
   Author = {Bass, SA},
   Title = {What do we know about the viscosity of QCD
             matter?},
   Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
   Volume = {862-863},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {174-179},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {Winter},
   ISSN = {0375-9474},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2011.05.037},
   Abstract = {This article provides an overview over the current state of
             knowledge regarding the viscosity of QCD matter and on its
             extraction via ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions at
             the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider. © 2011 Elsevier
             B.V.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2011.05.037},
   Key = {fds245291}
}

@article{fds245292,
   Author = {Shen, C and Bass, SA and Hirano, T and Huovinen, P and Qiu, Z and Song, H and Heinz, U},
   Title = {The QGP shear viscosity-elusive goal or just around the
             corner?},
   Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
             Physics},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {124045},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {Fall},
   ISSN = {0954-3899},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1106.6350},
   Abstract = {With the new viscous hydrodynamic + hadron cascade hybrid
             code VISHNU, a rather precise (25%) extraction of the quark
             gluon plasma (QGP) shear viscosity (η/s)QGP from heavy-ion
             elliptic flow data is possible if the initial eccentricity
             of the collision fireball is known with <5% accuracy. At
             this point, eccentricities from initial state models differ
             by up to 20%, leading to an (100%) uncertainty for
             (η/s)QGP. It is shown that a simultaneous comparison of
             elliptic and triangular flow, v2 and v3, puts strong
             constraints on initial state models and can largely
             eliminate the present uncertainty in (η/s)QGP. The
             variation of the differential elliptic flow v2(pT) for
             identified hadrons between RHIC and LHC energies provides
             additional tests of the evolution model. © 2011 IOP
             Publishing Ltd.},
   Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/38/12/124045},
   Key = {fds245292}
}

@article{fds245293,
   Author = {Petersen, H and Bhattacharya, V and Bass, SA and Greiner,
             C},
   Title = {Longitudinal correlation of the triangular flow event plane
             in a hybrid approach with hadron and parton cascade initial
             conditions},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {84},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {054908},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {Fall},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1105.0340},
   Abstract = {The longitudinal long-range correlations of the triangular
             flow event-plane angles are calculated in a Boltzmann +
             hydrodynamics hybrid approach. The potential to disentangle
             different energy deposition scenarios is explored by
             utilizing two different transport approaches for the early
             nonequilibrium evolution. In the hadronic transport approach
             the particle production in high-energy heavy ion reactions
             is mainly governed by string excitation and fragmentation
             processes which are absent in the parton cascade approach.
             We find that in both approaches the initial state shows a
             strong longitudinal correlation of the event-plane angles
             which is diluted but still persists in the final state
             momentum space distributions of the produced particles. The
             observation of this effect is an important prerequisite for
             the experimental determination of odd harmonics that relies
             on a rapidity independent event-plane definition. © 2011
             American Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.84.054908},
   Key = {fds245293}
}

@article{fds245294,
   Author = {Song, H and Bass, SA and Heinz, U},
   Title = {Elliptic flow in √s=200 GeV Au+Au collisions and √s=2.76
             TeV Pb+Pb collisions: Insights from viscous
             hydrodynamics+hadron cascade hybrid model},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {83},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {054912},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {Summer},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1103.2380},
   Abstract = {Using the newly developed hybrid model VISHNU, which
             connects viscous hydrodynamics with a hadron cascade model,
             we study the differential and integrated elliptic flow v2 at
             different centrality bins for 200 A GeV Au+Au collisions and
             2.76 A TeV Pb+Pb collisions. We find that the average
             quark-gluon plasma (QGP)-specific shear viscosity η/s
             slightly increases from Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider to
             Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energies. However, a further
             study assuming different temperature dependencies for
             (η/s)QGP shows that one cannot uniquely constrain the form
             of (η/s)QGP(T) by fitting the spectra and v2 alone. Based
             on our current understanding, the question whether the QGP
             fluid is more viscous or more perfect in the temperature
             regime reached by LHC energies is still open. © 2011
             American Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.83.054912},
   Key = {fds245294}
}

@article{fds245295,
   Author = {Song, H and Bass, SA and Heinz, U and Hirano, T and Shen,
             C},
   Title = {Hadron spectra and elliptic flow for 200 A GeV Au+Au
             collisions from viscous hydrodynamics coupled to a Boltzmann
             cascade},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {83},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {054910},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {Summer},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1101.4638},
   Abstract = {It is shown that the recently developed hybrid code VISHNU,
             which couples a relativistic viscous fluid dynamical
             description of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) with a
             microscopic Boltzmann cascade for the late hadronic
             rescattering stage, yields an excellent description of
             charged and identified hadron spectra and elliptic flow
             measured in 200 A GeV Au+Au collisions at the Relativistic
             Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC). Using initial conditions that
             incorporate event-by-event fluctuations in the initial shape
             and orientation of the collision fireball and values η/s
             for the specific shear viscosity of the quark-gluon plasma
             that were recently extracted from the measured centrality
             dependence of the eccentricity-scaled, pT-integrated charged
             hadron elliptic flow v2,ch/, we obtain universally good
             agreement between theory and experiment for the pT spectra
             and differential elliptic flow v2(pT) for both pions and
             protons at all collision centralities. © 2011 American
             Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.83.054910},
   Key = {fds245295}
}

@article{fds245296,
   Author = {Coleman-Smith, CE and Bass, SA and Srivastava,
             DK},
   Title = {Implementing the LPM effect in a parton cascade
             model},
   Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
   Volume = {862-863},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {275-278},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {Summer},
   ISSN = {0375-9474},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1101.4895},
   Abstract = {Parton Cascade Models which describe the full time-evolution
             of a system of quarks and gluons using pQCD interactions are
             ideally suited for the description of jet production,
             including the emission, evolution and energy-loss of the
             full parton shower in a hot and dense QCD medium. The
             Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal (LPM) effect the quantum
             interference of parton wave functions due to repeated
             scatterings against the background medium, is likely the
             dominant in-medium effect affecting jet suppression. We have
             implemented a probabilistic implementation of the LPM effect
             within the PCM which can be validated against previously
             derived analytical calculations by Baier et al (BDMPS-Z)
             Presented at the 6th International Conference on Physics and
             Astrophysics of Quark Gluon Plasma (ICPAQGP 2010). © 2011
             Elsevier B.V.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2011.05.071},
   Key = {fds245296}
}

@article{fds245297,
   Author = {Petersen, H and Coleman-Smith, C and Bass, SA and Wolpert,
             R},
   Title = {Constraining the initial state granularity with bulk
             observables in Au+Au collisions at √sNN=200
             GeV},
   Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
             Physics},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {045102},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {Spring},
   ISSN = {0954-3899},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1012.4629},
   Abstract = {In this paper we conduct a systematic study of the
             granularity of the initial state of hot and dense QCD matter
             produced in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions and its
             influence on bulk observables like particle yields, mT
             spectra and elliptic flow. For our investigation we use a
             hybrid transport model, based on (3+1)D hydrodynamics and a
             microscopic Boltzmann transport approach. The initial
             conditions are generated by a non-equilibrium hadronic
             transport approach and the size of their fluctuations can be
             adjusted by defining a Gaussian smoothing parameter σ. The
             dependence of the hydrodynamic evolution on the choices of
             σ and tstart is explored by means of a Gaussian emulator.
             To generate particle yields and elliptic flow that are
             compatible with experimental data the initial state
             parameters are constrained to be σ = 1 fm and tstart = 0.5
             fm. In addition, the influence of changes in the equation of
             state is studied and the results of our event-by-event
             calculations are compared to a calculation with averaged
             initial conditions. We conclude that even though the initial
             state parameters can be constrained by yields and elliptic
             flow, the granularity needs to be constrained by other
             correlation and fluctuation observables. © 2011 IOP
             Publishing Ltd.},
   Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/38/4/045102},
   Key = {fds245297}
}

@article{fds245300,
   Author = {Song, H and Bass, SA and Heinz, U},
   Title = {Viscous QCD matter in a hybrid hydrodynamic+Boltzmann
             approach},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {83},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {024912},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {Spring},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1012.0555},
   Abstract = {A hybrid transport approach for the bulk evolution of
             viscous QCD matter produced in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion
             collisions is presented. The expansion of the dense
             deconfined phase of the reaction is modeled with viscous
             hydrodynamics, while the dilute late hadron gas stage is
             described microscopically by the Boltzmann equation. The
             advantages of such a hybrid approach lie in the improved
             capability of handling large dissipative corrections in the
             late dilute phase of the reaction, including a realistic
             treatment of the nonequilibrium hadronic chemistry and
             kinetic freeze-out. By varying the switching temperature at
             which the hydrodynamic output is converted to particles for
             further propagation with the Boltzmann cascade we test the
             ability of the macroscopic hydrodynamic approach to emulate
             the microscopic evolution during the hadronic stage and
             extract the temperature dependence of the effective shear
             viscosity of the hadron resonance gas produced in the
             collision. We find that the extracted values depend on the
             prior hydrodynamic history and hence do not represent
             fundamental transport properties of the hadron resonance
             gas. We conclude that viscous fluid dynamics does not
             provide a faithful description of hadron resonance gas
             dynamics with predictive power, and that both components of
             the hybrid approach are needed for a quantitative
             description of the fireball expansion and its freeze-out. ©
             2011 American Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.83.024912},
   Key = {fds245300}
}

@article{fds245301,
   Author = {Song, H and Bass, SA and Heinz, U and Hirano, T and Shen,
             C},
   Title = {200 A GeV Au+Au collisions serve a nearly perfect
             quark-gluon liquid},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {106},
   Number = {19},
   Pages = {192301},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {Spring},
   ISSN = {0031-9007},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1011.2783},
   Abstract = {A new robust method to extract the specific shear viscosity
             (η/s) QGP of a quark-gluon plasma (QGP) at temperatures T
             c<T≤2Tc from the centrality dependence of the
             eccentricity-scaled elliptic flow v2/ε measured in
             ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions is presented.
             Coupling viscous fluid dynamics for the QGP with a
             microscopic transport model for hadronic freeze-out we find
             for 200 A GeV Au+Au collisions that v2/ε is a universal
             function of multiplicity density (1/S)(dNch/dy) that depends
             only on the viscosity but not on the model used for
             computing the initial fireball eccentricity ε. Comparing
             with measurements we find 1<4π(η/s) QGP<2.5 where
             the uncertainty range is dominated by model uncertainties
             for the values of ε used to normalize the measured v 2. ©
             2011 American Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.106.192301},
   Key = {fds245301}
}

@article{fds245302,
   Author = {Asakawa, M and Bass, SA and Müller, B},
   Title = {Anomalous transport processes in turbulent non-Abelian
             plasmas},
   Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
   Volume = {854},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {76-80},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {Spring},
   ISSN = {0375-9474},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1008.3496},
   Abstract = {Turbulent color fields, which can arise in the early and
             late stages of relativistic heavy ion collisions, may
             contribute significantly to the transport processes in the
             matter created in these collisions. We review the theory of
             these anomalous transport processes and discuss their
             possible phenomenology in the glasma and quasistationary
             expanding quark-gluon plasma. © 2010 Elsevier
             B.V.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2010.07.013},
   Key = {fds245302}
}

@article{fds245303,
   Author = {III, JF and Demir, NS and Srivastava, DK and Bass,
             SA},
   Title = {Shear viscosity in a perturbative quark-gluon
             plasma},
   Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
             Physics},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {015004},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {Spring},
   ISSN = {0954-3899},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0954-3899/38/1/015004},
   Abstract = {Among the key features of hot and dense QCD matter produced
             in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC is its
             very low shear viscosity, indicative of the properties of a
             near-ideal fluid, and a large opacity demonstrated by jet
             energy loss measurements. In this work, we utilize a
             microscopic transport model based on the Boltzmann equation
             with quark and gluon degrees of freedom and cross sections
             calculated from perturbative quantum chromodynamics to
             simulate an ideal quark-gluon plasma in full thermal and
             chemical equilibrium. We then use the Kubo formalism to
             calculate the shear viscosity to entropy-density ratio of
             the medium as a function of temperature and system
             composition. One of our key results is that the shear
             viscosity over entropy-density ratio η/s becomes invariant
             to the chemical composition of the system when plotted as a
             function of energy-density instead of temperature. © 2011
             IOP Publishing Ltd.},
   Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/38/1/015004},
   Key = {fds245303}
}

@article{fds304515,
   Author = {Petersen, H and Renk, T and Bass, SA},
   Title = {Medium-modified jets and initial state fluctuations as
             sources of charge correlations measured at energies
             available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider
             (RHIC)},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {83},
   Number = {1},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.83.014916},
   Abstract = {We investigate the contribution of medium-modified jets and
             initial state fluctuations to the asymmetry in
             charged-particle production with respect to the reaction
             plane. This asymmetry has been suggested as a compelling
             signature for the chiral magnetic effect in QCD and makes
             the study of conventional scenarios for the creation of such
             charged-particle multiplicity fluctuations a timely
             endeavor. The different path-length combinations of jets
             through the medium in noncentral heavy ion collisions result
             in finite correlations of like and different charged
             particles emitted in the different hemispheres. Our
             calculation is based on the combination of jet events from
             Yet another Jet Energy-Loss Model (YaJEM) and a bulk-medium
             evolution. It is found that the jet production probabilities
             are too small to observe this effect. The influence of
             initial state fluctuations on this observable is explored by
             using an event-by-event (3+1)-dimensional hybrid approach
             that is based on Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular
             Dynamics (UrQMD) with an ideal hydrodynamic evolution. In
             this calculation, momentum conservation and elliptic flow
             are explicitly taken into account. The asymmetries in the
             initial state are translated to a final state momentum
             asymmetry by the hydrodynamic flow profile. Dependent on the
             size of the initial state fluctuations, the resulting
             charged-particle asymmetries are in qualitative agreement
             with the preliminary STAR (solenoid tracker at the
             Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) results. The multiparticle
             correlation as proposed by the PHENIX Collaboration can, in
             principle, be used to disentangle the different
             contributions, however, in practice, is affected
             substantially by the procedure to subtract trivial resonance
             decay contributions. © 2011 American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.83.014916},
   Key = {fds304515}
}

@article{fds245298,
   Author = {Qin, G-Y and Petersen, H and Bass, SA and Müller,
             B},
   Title = {Translation of collision geometry fluctuations into momentum
             anisotropies in relativistic heavy-ion collisions},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {82},
   Number = {6},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1009.1847},
   Abstract = {We develop a systematic framework for the study of the
             initial collision geometry fluctuations in relativistic
             heavy-ion collisions and investigate how they evolve through
             different stages of the fireball history and translate into
             final-particle momentum anisotropies. We find in our
             event-by-event analysis that only the few lowest momentum
             anisotropy parameters survive after the hydrodynamical
             evolution of the system. The geometry of the produced medium
             is found to be affected by the pre-equilibrium evolution of
             the medium and the thermal smearing of the discretized
             event-by-event initial conditions, both of which tend to
             smear out the spatial anisotropies. We find such effects to
             be more prominent for higher moments than for lower moments.
             The correlations between odd and even spatial anisotropy
             parameters during the pre-equilibrium expansion are
             quantitatively studied and found to be small. Our study
             provides a theoretical foundation for the understanding of
             initial-state fluctuations and the collective expansion
             dynamics in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. © 2010 The
             American Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.82.064903},
   Key = {fds245298}
}

@article{fds245304,
   Author = {Petersen, H and Qin, G-Y and Bass, SA and Müller,
             B},
   Title = {Triangular flow in event-by-event ideal hydrodynamics in
             Au+Au collisions at √SNN = 200A GeV},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {82},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {041901},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {Summer},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/4268 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {The first calculation of triangular flow ν3 in Au+Au
             collisions at √sNN = 200A GeV from an event-by-event (3 +
             1) d transport+hydrodynamics hybrid approach is presented.
             As a response to the initial triangularity Ie{cyrillic,
             ukrainian}3 of the collision zone, ν3 is computed in a
             similar way to the standard event-plane analysis for
             elliptic flow ν2. It is found that the triangular flow
             exhibits weak centrality dependence and is roughly equal to
             elliptic flow in most central collisions. We also explore
             the transverse momentum and rapidity dependence of ν2 and
             ν3 for charged particles as well as identified particles.
             We conclude that an event-by-event treatment of the ideal
             hydrodynamic evolution startingwith realistic initial
             conditions generates the main features expected for
             triangular flow. © 2010 The American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.82.041901},
   Key = {fds245304}
}

@article{fds245305,
   Author = {Shin, GR and Bass, SA and Müller, B},
   Title = {Transport theoretical description of collisional energy loss
             in infinite quark-gluon matter},
   Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
             Physics},
   Volume = {37},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {105112},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {Spring},
   ISSN = {0954-3899},
   url = {http://iopscience.iop.org/0954-3899/37/10/105112/},
   Abstract = {We study the time evolution of a high-momentum gluon or
             quark propagating through an infinite, thermalized, partonic
             medium utilizing a Boltzmann equation approach. We calculate
             the collisional energy loss of the parton, study its
             temperature and flavor dependence as well as the momentum
             broadening incurred through multiple interactions. Our
             transport calculations agree well with analytic calculations
             of collisional energy loss where available, but offer the
             unique opportunity to address the medium response as well in
             a consistent fashion. © 2010 IOP Publishing
             Ltd.},
   Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/37/10/105112},
   Key = {fds245305}
}

@article{fds245306,
   Author = {Xie, Z and Ning, P and Bass, SA},
   Title = {The freeze-out properties of hyperons in a microscopic
             transport model},
   Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
             Physics},
   Volume = {37},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {045002},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {Spring},
   ISSN = {0954-3899},
   url = {http://arXiv.org/abs/0911.4410},
   Abstract = {The excitation function of freeze-out time, average
             freeze-out temperature and freeze-out energy density of
             (multi-) strange baryons created in relativistic heavy-ion
             collisions is investigated in the framework of a microscopic
             transport model. We find that the Ω on average freezes out
             earlier than the nucleon, Λ and Ξ. The average freeze-out
             temperature and energy density, as well as the spread
             between the different baryonic states, increase
             monotonically with increasing beam energy and should
             approach a universal value in the case of a hadronizing
             quark-gluon plasma. © 2010 IOP Publishing
             Ltd.},
   Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/37/4/045002},
   Key = {fds245306}
}

@article{fds304514,
   Author = {Demir, N and Bass, SA},
   Title = {Shear-viscosity to entropy-density ratio of a relativistic
             hadron gas.},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {102},
   Number = {17},
   Pages = {172302},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0031-9007},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19518776},
   Abstract = {Ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions at the Brookhaven
             National Laboratory Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)
             are thought to have produced a state of matter called the
             quark-gluon plasma, characterized by a very small
             shear-viscosity to entropy-density ratio eta/s, near the
             lower bound predicted for that quantity by anti-de Sitter
             space/conformal field theory methods. As the produced matter
             expands and cools, it evolves through a phase described by a
             hadron gas with rapidly increasing eta/s. We calculate eta/s
             as a function of temperature in this phase both in and out
             of chemical equilibrium and find that its value poses a
             challenge for viscous relativistic hydrodynamics, which
             requires small values of eta/s in order to successfully
             describe the collective flow observables at the RHIC. We
             therefore conclude that the origin of the low viscosity
             matter at the RHIC must be in the partonic phase of the
             reaction.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.172302},
   Key = {fds304514}
}

@article{fds245311,
   Author = {Demir, N and Bass, SA},
   Title = {Shear-Viscosity to Entropy Density Ratio of a Relativistic
             Hadron Gas at RHIC: Approaching the AdS/CFT
             bound?},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {102},
   Number = {17},
   Pages = {172302},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {Spring},
   ISSN = {0031-9007},
   url = {http://scitation.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal&id=PRLTAO000102000017172302000001&idtype=cvips&gifs=yes},
   Abstract = {http://arXiv.org/abs/0812.2422},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.172302},
   Key = {fds245311}
}

@article{fds245262,
   Author = {Lee, KS and Bass, S and Müller, B and Nonaka, C},
   Title = {Hadronization via recombination},
   Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
             Physics},
   Volume = {36},
   Number = {6},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {0954-3899},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0954-3899/36/6/064034},
   Abstract = {The recombination model as a model for hadronization from a
             quark-gluon plasma has been recently revived since it has
             advantages in explaining several important features of the
             final state produced in heavy-ion collisions at the RHIC,
             such as the constituent quark number scaling of the elliptic
             coefficient versus the transverse energy of identified
             hadrons, the bending shape of the pT spectrum of hadrons
             near 5 GeV/c, and the measured large value of
             baryon-to-meson ratio (of the order of unity) in the same pT
             range. We have developed a dynamic simulation model of
             heavy-ion collisions in which a quark-gluon plasma, starting
             from a certain initial condition, evolves hydrodynamically
             until it reaches the phase boundary, and then hadronizes by
             valence quark recombination. Rescattering after
             hadronization is described by UrQMD. We discuss some details
             of the model and report first, preliminary results. © 2009
             IOP Publishing Ltd.},
   Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/36/6/064034},
   Key = {fds245262}
}

@article{fds245263,
   Author = {Bass, SA},
   Title = {Modeling of relativistic heavy-ion collisions with 3+1D
             hydrodynamic and hybrid models},
   Journal = {Acta Physica Polonica, Series B.},
   Volume = {40},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {951-961},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {0587-4254},
   Abstract = {The current status of the modeling of relativistic heavy-ion
             collisions with 3+1D hydrodynamic and hybrid models is
             reviewed. Particular emphasis is placed in the use of
             hydrodynamics as a "standard medium", enabling the
             calculation of rare probe - medium interactions in a way
             consistent with the bulk evolution of the
             medium.},
   Key = {fds245263}
}

@article{fds245265,
   Author = {Bass, S and Caines, H and Sanchez, MCDLB and Falco, AD and Kuhn, C and Nagle, J and Nardi, M and Salgado, C and Velkovska,
             J},
   Title = {European Physical Journal C: Editorial},
   Journal = {The European Physical Journal C - Particles and
             Fields},
   Volume = {62},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {1-},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {1434-6044},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjc/s10052-009-1041-z},
   Doi = {10.1140/epjc/s10052-009-1041-z},
   Key = {fds245265}
}

@article{fds245307,
   Author = {Demir, N and Bass, SA},
   Title = {η / s of a Relativistic Hadron Gas at RHIC: Approaching the
             AdS/CFT bound?},
   Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
   Volume = {830},
   Number = {1-4},
   Pages = {733c-736c},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {Fall},
   ISSN = {0375-9474},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2009.10.120},
   Abstract = {Ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions at the Relativistic
             Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are thought to have produced a
             state of matter called the quark-gluon plasma, characterized
             by a very small shear-viscosity to entropy-density ratio η
             / s, near the lower bound predicted for that quantity by
             AdS/CFT methods. As the produced matter expands and cools,
             it evolves through a phase described by a hadron gas with
             rapidly increasing η / s. We calculate η / s as a function
             of temperature in this phase both in and out of chemical
             equilibrium and find that its value poses a challenge for
             viscous relativistic hydrodynamics, which requires small
             values of η / s in order to successfully describe the
             collective flow observables at RHIC. We therefore conclude
             that the origin of the low viscosity matter at the RHIC must
             be in the partonic phase of the reaction. © 2009 Elsevier
             B.V.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2009.10.120},
   Key = {fds245307}
}

@article{fds245308,
   Author = {Nonaka, C and Asakawa, M and Bass, SA and Müller,
             B},
   Title = {Signals of the QCD Critical Point in Hydrodynamic
             Evolutions},
   Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
   Volume = {830},
   Number = {1-4},
   Pages = {291c-294c},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {Fall},
   ISSN = {0375-9474},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2009.10.025},
   Abstract = {The presence of a critical point in the QCD phase diagram
             can deform the trajectories describing the evolution of the
             expanding fireball in the μB - T phase diagram. The
             deformation of the hydrodynamic trajectories will change the
             transverse velocity (βT) dependence of the
             proton-antiproton ratio when the fireball passes in the
             vicinity of the critical point. An unusual βT dependence of
             the over(p, -) / p ratio in a narrow beam energy window
             would thus signal the presence of the critical point. ©
             2009.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2009.10.025},
   Key = {fds245308}
}

@article{fds245309,
   Author = {Demir, N and Bass, SA},
   Title = {Extracting hadronic viscosity from microscopic transport
             models},
   Journal = {The European Physical Journal C - Particles and
             Fields},
   Volume = {62},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {63-68},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {Summer},
   ISSN = {1434-6044},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjc/s10052-009-1000-8},
   Abstract = {Ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions at the Relativistic
             Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) are thought to have created a
             Quark-Gluon Plasma, characterized by a very small shear
             viscosity to entropy density ratio η/s, close to the lower
             bound predicted for that quantity by string theory. However,
             due to the dynamics of the collision, the produced matter
             passes through a phase characterized by an expanding and
             rapidly cooling hadron gas with strongly increasing η/s.
             Such a rise in η/s would not be compatible with the success
             of (viscous) hydrodynamics, which requires a very small
             value of η/s throughout the full evolution of the reaction
             in order to successfully describe the collective flow seen
             in the experiments. Here we show that the inclusion of a
             pion-chemical potential, which is bound to arise due to the
             separation of chemical and kinetic freeze-out during the
             collision evolution, will reduce the value of η/s, and
             argue that introduction of other chemical potentials could
             ensure the successful application of (viscous) hydrodynamics
             to collisions at RHIC. © 2009 Springer-Verlag / Società
             Italiana di Fisica.},
   Doi = {10.1140/epjc/s10052-009-1000-8},
   Key = {fds245309}
}

@article{fds245310,
   Author = {Bass, SA and Gale, C and Majumder, A and Nonaka, C and Qin, G-Y and Renk,
             T and Ruppert, J},
   Title = {Systematic comparison of jet energy-loss schemes in a
             realistic hydrodynamic medium},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {79},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {024901},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {Spring},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://scitation.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal&id=PRVCAN000079000002024901000001&idtype=cvips&gifs=yes},
   Abstract = {We perform a systematic comparison of three different jet
             energy-loss approaches. These include the
             Armesto-Salgado-Wiedemann scheme based on the approach of
             Baier-Dokshitzer-Mueller-Peigne-Schiff and Zakharov
             (BDMPS-Z/ASW), the higher twist (HT) approach and a scheme
             based on the Arnold-Moore-Yaffe (AMY) approach. In this
             comparison, an identical medium evolution will be utilized
             for all three approaches: this entails not only the use of
             the same realistic three-dimensional relativistic fluid
             dynamics (RFD) simulation, but also the use of identical
             initial parton-distribution functions and final
             fragmentation functions. We are, thus, in a unique position
             to not only isolate fundamental differences between the
             various approaches but also make rigorous calculations for
             different experimental measurements using state of the art
             components. All three approaches are reduced to versions
             containing only one free tunable parameter, this is then
             related to the well-known transport parameter q. We find
             that the parameters of all three calculations can be
             adjusted to provide a good description of inclusive data on
             RAA vs transverse momentum. However, we do observe slight
             differences in their predictions for the centrality and
             azimuthal angular dependence of RAA vs pT. We also note that
             the values of the transport coefficient q in the three
             approaches to describe the data differ significantly. ©
             2009 The American Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.79.024901},
   Key = {fds245310}
}

@article{fds152134,
   Author = {M. Asakawa and S.A. Bass and B. Mueller and C.
             Nonaka},
   Title = {Transverse Rapidity Dependence of the Proton-Antiproton
             Ratio as a Signature of the QCD Critical
             Endpoint},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {101},
   Pages = {122302},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {Summer},
   url = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v101/e122302},
   Key = {fds152134}
}

@article{fds245261,
   Author = {Nonaka, C and Asakawa, M and Bass, SA},
   Title = {The 3D hydro+UrQMD model with the QCD critical
             point},
   Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
             Physics},
   Volume = {35},
   Number = {10},
   Year = {2008},
   ISSN = {0954-3899},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0954-3899/35/10/104099},
   Abstract = {Using a combined fully three-dimensional
             macroscopic/microscopic transport approach, we discuss the
             existence of the QCD critical point and how to find its
             consequences in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. © 2008
             IOP Publishing Ltd.},
   Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/35/10/104099},
   Key = {fds245261}
}

@article{fds245312,
   Author = {Bass, SA and Gale, C and Majumder, A and Nonaka, C and Qin, G-Y and Renk,
             T and Ruppert, J},
   Title = {Systematic comparison of jet energy-loss schemes in a 3D
             hydrodynamic medium},
   Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
             Physics},
   Volume = {35},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {104064},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {Fall},
   ISSN = {0954-3899},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0954-3899/35/10/104064},
   Abstract = {We utilize a 3D hydrodynamic model to provide the medium
             evolution for a systematic comparison of jet energy-loss
             calculations in the BDMPS/ASW, HT and AMY approaches. We
             find that the parameters of all three calculations can be
             adjusted to provide a good description of inclusive data on
             RAA versus transverse momentum. However, we do observe
             slight differences in their predictions for the azimuthal
             angular dependence of RAA versus p T. We also note that the
             value of the transport coefficient needed in the three
             approaches to describe the data differs significantly. ©
             2008 IOP Publishing Ltd.},
   Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/35/10/104064},
   Key = {fds245312}
}

@article{fds245313,
   Author = {Asakawa, M and Bass, SA and Müller, B and Nonaka,
             C},
   Title = {Transverse velocity dependence of the proton-antiproton
             ratio as a signature of the QCD critical
             point},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {101},
   Number = {12},
   Year = {2008},
   ISSN = {0031-9007},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.101.122302},
   Abstract = {The presence of a critical point in the QCD phase diagram
             can deform the trajectories describing the evolution of the
             expanding fireball in the μB-T phase diagram. If the
             average emission time of hadrons is a function of transverse
             velocity, as microscopic simulations of the hadronic
             freeze-out dynamics suggest, the deformation of the
             hydrodynamic trajectories will change the transverse
             velocity (βT) dependence of the proton-antiproton ratio
             when the fireball passes in the vicinity of the critical
             point. An unusual βT dependence of the p̄/p ratio in a
             narrow beam energy window would thus signal the presence of
             the critical point. © 2008 The American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.101.122302},
   Key = {fds245313}
}

@article{fds245314,
   Author = {Qin, GY and Ruppert, J and Turbide, S and Gale, C and Nonaka, C and Bass,
             SA},
   Title = {Radiative jet energy loss in a three-dimensional
             hydrodynamical medium and high $p_T$ azimuthal asymmetry of
             pi-zero suppression at mid and forward rapidity at
             RHIC},
   Journal = {Physical Review C},
   Volume = {76},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {064907},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {Winter},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/0705.2575},
   Abstract = {The nuclear modification factor RAA for π0 production in
             Au+Au collisions at s=200A GeV is calculated and studied at
             high transverse momenta pT. The soft thermalized nuclear
             medium is described within the framework of relativistic
             ideal three-dimensional hydrodynamics. The energy loss of
             partonic jets is evaluated in the context of gluon
             bremsstrahlung in the thermalized partonic matter. We
             provide a systematic analysis of the azimuthal asymmetry of
             π0 suppression at high pT in central and noncentral
             collisions at mid and forward rapidity. The determination of
             RAA as a function of pT at different azimuthal angles and
             different rapidities makes for a stringent test of our
             theoretical understanding of jet energy loss over a variety
             of in-medium path lengths, temperatures, and initial
             partonic jet energies. This lays the groundwork for a
             tomography of the nuclear medium. © 2007 The American
             Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.76.064907},
   Key = {fds245314}
}

@article{fds245315,
   Author = {Renk, T and Ruppert, J and Nonaka, C and Bass, SA},
   Title = {Jet-quenching in a 3D hydrodynamic medium},
   Journal = {Physical Review C},
   Volume = {75},
   Pages = {031902},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {Winter},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0611027},
   Key = {fds245315}
}

@article{fds245320,
   Author = {Majumder, A and Müller, B and Bass, SA},
   Title = {Longitudinal broadening of quenched jets in turbulent color
             fields.},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {99},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {042301},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {Spring},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17678353},
   Abstract = {The nearside distribution of particles at intermediate
             transverse momentum, associated with a high momentum trigger
             hadron produced in a high energy heavy-ion collision, is
             broadened in rapidity compared with the jet cone. This
             broadened distribution is thought to contain the energy lost
             by the progenitor parton of the trigger hadron. We show that
             the broadening can be explained as the final-state
             deflection of the gluons radiated from the hard parton
             inside the medium by soft, transversely oriented, turbulent
             color fields that arise in the presence of plasma
             instabilities. The magnitude of the effect is found to grow
             with medium size and density and diminish with increasing
             energy of the associated hadron.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.99.042301},
   Key = {fds245320}
}

@article{fds245256,
   Author = {Nonaka, C and Bass, SA},
   Title = {Space-time evolution of bulk QCD matter at
             RHIC},
   Journal = {The European Physical Journal C - Particles and
             Fields},
   Volume = {49},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {97-102},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {1434-6044},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjc/s10052-006-0062-0},
   Abstract = {We introduce a combined fully three-dimensional
             macroscopic/microscopic transport approach employing
             relativistic 3D-hydrodynamics for the early, dense,
             deconfined stage of the reaction and a microscopic
             non-equilibrium model for the later hadronic stage where the
             equilibrium assumptions are not valid anymore. Within this
             approach we study the dynamics of hot, bulk QCD matter,
             which is being created in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion
             collisions at RHIC. In particular, we perform a detailed
             analysis of the reaction dynamics, hadronic freeze-out,
             transverse flow and elliptic flow. © Springer-Verlag Berlin
             Heidelberg 2007.},
   Doi = {10.1140/epjc/s10052-006-0062-0},
   Key = {fds245256}
}

@article{fds245257,
   Author = {Antinori, F and Bass, S and Falco, AD and Kuhn, C and Nardi, M and Peitzmann, T and Ullrich, T and Velkovska, J and Wiedemann,
             UA},
   Title = {European Physical Journal C: Preface},
   Journal = {The European Physical Journal C - Particles and
             Fields},
   Volume = {49},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {1-},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {1434-6044},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjc/s10052-006-0190-6},
   Doi = {10.1140/epjc/s10052-006-0190-6},
   Key = {fds245257}
}

@article{fds245258,
   Author = {Renk, T and Ruppert, J and Nonaka, C and Bass, SA},
   Title = {Jet quenching in a three-dimensional hydrodynamic
             medium},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {75},
   Number = {3},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.75.031902},
   Abstract = {We study the radiative energy loss of hard partons in a soft
             medium in the multiple soft scattering approximation. The
             soft medium is described by a 3D hydrodynamical model and we
             treat the averaging over all possible parton paths through
             the medium without approximation. While the nuclear
             suppression factor RAA does not reflect the high quality of
             the medium description (except in a reduced systematic
             uncertainty in extracting the quenching power of the
             medium), the hydrodynamical model also allows to study
             different centralities and in particular the angular
             variation of RAA with respect to the reaction plane,
             allowing for a controlled variation of the in-medium
             path-length. We study the angular dependence of RAA for
             different centralities, discuss the influence of
             hydrodynamical expansion and flow and comment on the
             comparison with preliminary data. © 2007 The American
             Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.75.031902},
   Key = {fds245258}
}

@article{fds245259,
   Author = {Bass, SA and Nonaka, C},
   Title = {Modeling of heavy-ion collisions at the relativistic
             heavy-ion collider},
   Journal = {International Journal of Modern Physics E},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {729-741},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {0218-3013},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S021830130700623X},
   Abstract = {In summary, we have introduced a hybrid macroscopic/microscopic
             transport approach, combining a newly developed relativistic
             3+1 dimensional hydrodynamic model for the early deconfined
             stage of the reaction and the hadronization process with a
             microscopic non-equilibrium model for the later hadronic
             stage at which the hydrodynamic equilibrium assumptions are
             not valid anymore. Within this approach we have
             self-consistently calculated the freeze-out of the hadronic
             system, accounting for the collective flow on the
             hadronization hypersurface generated by the QGP expansion.
             We have compared the results of our hybrid model and of a
             calculation utilizing our hydrodynamic model for the full
             evolution of the reaction to experimental data. This
             comparison has allowed us to quantify the strength of
             dissipative effects prevalent in the later hadronic phase of
             the reaction, which cannot be properly treated in the
             framework of ideal hydrodynamics. Overall, the improved
             treatment of the hadronic phase provides a far better
             agreement between transport calculation and data, in
             particular concerning the flavor dependence of radial flow
             observables and the collective behavior of matter at
             forward/backward rapidities. We find that the hadronic phase
             of the heavy-ion reaction at top RHIC energy is of
             significant duration (at least 10 fm/c) and that hadronic
             freeze-out is a continuous process, strongly depending on
             hadron flavor and momenta. With this work we have
             established a base-line - both for the regular 3+1
             dimensional hydrodynamic model as well as for the hybrid
             hydro+micro approach. In forthcoming publications we shall
             expand on this baseline by investigating the effects of a
             realistic lattice-QCD motivated equation of state containing
             a tri-cricital point and by performing an analysis of two
             particle correlations (HBT interferometry). We also plan to
             use our model as the medium for the propagation of jets and
             heavy quarks and to study the modification of our medium due
             to the passage of these hard probes. © World Scientific
             Publishing Company.},
   Doi = {10.1142/S021830130700623X},
   Key = {fds245259}
}

@article{fds245316,
   Author = {Bass, SA and Renk, T and Srivastava, DK},
   Title = {Photon Production in the Parton Cascade Model},
   Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
   Volume = {783},
   Number = {1-4 SPEC. ISS.},
   Pages = {367-378},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {Summer},
   ISSN = {0375-9474},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2006.11.029},
   Abstract = {We calculate the production of high energy photons from
             Compton and annihilation processes as well as fragmentation
             off quarks in the Parton Cascade Model. The multiple
             scattering of partons is seen to lead to substantial
             production of high energy photons, which rises further when
             parton multiplication due to final state radiation is
             included. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights
             reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2006.11.029},
   Key = {fds245316}
}

@article{fds245317,
   Author = {Bass, SA and Renk, T and Ruppert, J and Nonaka, C},
   Title = {Hard and soft probe-medium interactions in a 3D hydro+micro
             approach at RHIC},
   Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
             Physics},
   Volume = {34},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {S979-S983},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {0954-3899},
   url = {http://arXiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0702079},
   Abstract = {We utilize a 3D hybrid hydro+micro model for a comprehensive
             and consistent description of soft and hard particle
             production in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions at
             RHIC. In the soft sector we focus on the dynamics of
             (multi-) strange baryons, where a clear strangeness
             dependence of their collision rates and freeze-out is
             observed. In the hard sector we study the radiative energy
             loss of hard partons in a soft medium in the multiple soft
             scattering approximation. While the nuclear suppression
             factor RAA does not reflect the high quality of the medium
             description (except in a reduced systematic uncertainty in
             extracting the quenching power of the medium), the
             hydrodynamical model also allows us to study different
             centralities and in particular the angular variation of RAA
             with respect to the reaction plane, allowing for a
             controlled variation of the in-medium path length. © 2007
             IOP Publishing Ltd.},
   Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/34/8/S139},
   Key = {fds245317}
}

@article{fds245318,
   Author = {Asakawa, M and Bass, SA and Müller, B},
   Title = {Anomalous viscosity of an expanding quark-gluon
             plasma},
   Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
             Physics},
   Volume = {34},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {S839-S842},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {Fall},
   ISSN = {0954-3899},
   url = {http://arXiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0702007},
   Abstract = {We argue that an expanding quark-gluon plasma has an
             anomalous viscosity, which arises from interactions with
             dynamically generated colour fields. The anomalous viscosity
             dominates over the collisional viscosity for large velocity
             gradients or weak coupling. This effect may provide an
             explanation for the apparent near-perfect liquidity of the
             matter produced in nuclear collisions at RHIC without the
             assumption that it is a strongly coupled state. © 2007 IOP
             Publishing Ltd.},
   Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/34/8/S108},
   Key = {fds245318}
}

@article{fds245319,
   Author = {Majumder, A and Nonaka, C and Bass, SA},
   Title = {Jet modification in three dimensional fluid dynamics at
             next-to-leading twist},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {76},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {041902},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {Summer},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://arXiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0703019},
   Abstract = {The modification of the single inclusive spectrum of high
             transverse momentum (pT) pions emanating from an
             ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collision is investigated. The
             deconfined sector is modeled using a full three-dimensional
             (3-D) ideal fluid dynamics simulation. Energy loss of high
             pT partons and the ensuing modification of their
             fragmentation is calculated within perturbative QCD at
             next-to-leading twist, where the magnitude of the higher
             twist contribution is modulated by the entropy density
             extracted from the 3-D fluid dynamics simulation. The
             nuclear modification factor (RAA) for pions with a pT≥8
             GeV as a function of centrality as well as with respect to
             the reaction plane is calculated. The magnitude of
             contributions to the differential RAA within small angular
             ranges, from various depths in the dense matter, is
             extracted from the calculation and demonstrates the
             correlation of the length integrated density and the RAA
             from a given depth. The significance of the mixed and
             hadronic phase to the overall magnitude of energy loss is
             explored. © 2007 The American Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.76.041902},
   Key = {fds245319}
}

@article{fds245321,
   Author = {Nonaka, C and Bass, SA},
   Title = {Space-time evolution of bulk QCD matter},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {75},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {014902},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {Winter},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0607018},
   Abstract = {We introduce a combined, fully three-dimensional
             macroscopic/microscopic transport approach employing
             relativistic 3D hydrodynamics for the early, dense,
             deconfined stage of the reaction and a microscopic
             nonequilibrium model for the later hadronic stage where the
             equilibrium assumptions are no longer valid. Within this
             approach, we study the dynamics of hot bulk QCD matter,
             which is being created in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion
             collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider. Our
             work is an extension of the well-known hybrid macro+micro
             approach in 1+1 and 2+1 dimensions, which is capable of
             self-consistently calculating the freeze-out of the hadronic
             system while accounting for the collective flow on the
             hadronization hypersurface generated by the quark-gluon
             plasma expansion. In particular, we perform a detailed
             analysis of the reaction dynamics, hadronic freeze-out, and
             transverse flow. © 2007 The American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.75.014902},
   Key = {fds245321}
}

@article{fds304513,
   Author = {Qin, G-Y and Ruppert, J and Turbide, S and Gale, C and Nonaka, C and Bass,
             SA},
   Title = {Radiative jet energy loss in a three-dimensional
             hydrodynamical medium and high pT azimuthal asymmetry of π0
             suppression at mid and forward rapidity in Au+Au collisions
             at sNN=200 GeV},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {76},
   Number = {6},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.76.064907},
   Abstract = {The nuclear modification factor RAA for π0 production in
             Au+Au collisions at s=200A GeV is calculated and studied at
             high transverse momenta pT. The soft thermalized nuclear
             medium is described within the framework of relativistic
             ideal three-dimensional hydrodynamics. The energy loss of
             partonic jets is evaluated in the context of gluon
             bremsstrahlung in the thermalized partonic matter. We
             provide a systematic analysis of the azimuthal asymmetry of
             π0 suppression at high pT in central and noncentral
             collisions at mid and forward rapidity. The determination of
             RAA as a function of pT at different azimuthal angles and
             different rapidities makes for a stringent test of our
             theoretical understanding of jet energy loss over a variety
             of in-medium path lengths, temperatures, and initial
             partonic jet energies. This lays the groundwork for a
             tomography of the nuclear medium. © 2007 The American
             Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.76.064907},
   Key = {fds304513}
}

@article{fds245253,
   Author = {Bass, SA and Nonaka, C},
   Title = {Transport theory for RHIC},
   Journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings},
   Volume = {870},
   Pages = {699-702},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {0094-243X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2402733},
   Abstract = {We present the results of a novel macroscopic/microscopic
             hybrid model, using a fully 3D non-boostinvariant
             hydrodynamic calculation for the deconfined phase coupled
             with with a non-equilibrium microscopic transport model
             (UrQMD) for the hadronic phase at RHIC. Advantages of this
             novel approach compared to pure hydrodynamics include the
             treatment of viscous effects in the hadronic phase as well
             as a fully self-consistent calculation of the hadronic
             freeze-out. © 2006 American Institute of
             Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.2402733},
   Key = {fds245253}
}

@article{fds245254,
   Author = {Asakawa, M and Bass, SA and Müller, B},
   Title = {The flavours of the quark-gluon plasma},
   Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
             Physics},
   Volume = {32},
   Number = {12},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {0954-3899},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0954-3899/32/12/S50},
   Abstract = {Flavour probes depend on the transport properties of the
             quark-gluon plasma. An expanding quark-gluon plasma has an
             anomalous viscosity, which arises from interactions with
             dynamically generated colour fields. The anomalous viscosity
             dominates over the collisional viscosity for weak coupling
             and at not too late times. In addition to possibly providing
             an explanation for the apparent nearly 'perfect' liquidity
             of the matter produced in nuclear collisions at RHIC,
             similar anomalous effects can affect the rate of flavour
             equilibration and the diffusion constant of heavy quarks. ©
             2006 IOP Publishing Ltd.},
   Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/32/12/S50},
   Key = {fds245254}
}

@article{fds245255,
   Author = {Bass, SA},
   Title = {Review of parton recombination models},
   Journal = {Journal of Physics},
   Volume = {50},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {279-288},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {1742-6588},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/50/1/033},
   Abstract = {Parton recombination models have been very successful in
             explaining data taken at RHIC on hadron spectra and emission
             patterns in Au+Au collisions at transverse momenta above 2
             GeV/c, which have exhibited features which could not be
             understood in the framework of basic perturbative QCD. In
             this article I will review the current status on
             recombination models and outline which future challenges
             need to be addressed by this class of models. © 2006 IOP
             Publishing Ltd.},
   Doi = {10.1088/1742-6596/50/1/033},
   Key = {fds245255}
}

@article{fds245322,
   Author = {Asakawa, M and Bass, SA and Müller, B},
   Title = {Anomalous transport processes in anisotropically expanding
             quark-gluon plasmas},
   Journal = {Progress of Theoretical Physics},
   Volume = {116},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {725-755},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {Fall},
   ISSN = {0033-068X},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/0608270},
   Abstract = {We derive an expression for the anomalous viscosity in an
             anisotropically expanding quark-gluon-plasma, which arises
             from interactions of thermal partons with dynamically
             generated color fields. The anomalous viscosity dominates
             over the collisional viscosity for large velocity gradients
             or weak coupling. This effect may provide an explanation for
             the apparent "nearly perfect" liquidity of the matter
             produced in nuclear collisions at RHIC without the
             assumption that it is a strongly coupled
             state.},
   Doi = {10.1143/PTP.116.725},
   Key = {fds245322}
}

@article{fds245323,
   Author = {Bass, SA},
   Title = {SQM 2006: Theory summary and perspectives},
   Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
             Physics},
   Volume = {32},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {S15-S27},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {Fall},
   ISSN = {0954-3899},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0607056},
   Abstract = {In this write-up of my SQM 2006 Theory Summary talk I focus
             on a selection of key contributions which I consider to have
             a large impact on the current status of the field of
             strangeness physics or which may have the potential to
             significantly advance strangeness - or in general flavour
             physics - in the near future. © 2006 IOP Publishing
             Ltd.},
   Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/32/12/S02},
   Key = {fds245323}
}

@article{fds245324,
   Author = {Asakawa, M and Bass, SA and Müller, B},
   Title = {Anomalous viscosity of an expanding quark-gluon
             plasma},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {96},
   Number = {25},
   Pages = {252301},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {Summer},
   ISSN = {0031-9007},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/0603092},
   Abstract = {We argue that an expanding quark-gluon plasma has an
             anomalous viscosity, which arises from interactions with
             dynamically generated color fields. We derive an expression
             for the anomalous viscosity in the turbulent plasma domain
             and apply it to the hydrodynamic expansion phase, when the
             quark-gluon plasma is near equilibrium. The anomalous
             viscosity dominates over the collisional viscosity for weak
             coupling and not too late times. This effect may provide an
             explanation for the apparent “nearly perfectâ€
             liquidity of the matter produced in nuclear collisions at
             the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider without the assumption
             that it is a strongly coupled state. © 2006 The American
             Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.96.252301},
   Key = {fds245324}
}

@article{fds245325,
   Author = {Renk, T and Bass, SA and Srivastava, DK},
   Title = {Dynamics of the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect in Au + Au
             collisions at √s=200 A GeV},
   Journal = {Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and
             High-Energy Physics},
   Volume = {632},
   Number = {5-6},
   Pages = {632-637},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {Spring},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0505059},
   Abstract = {We study the role played by the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal
             (LPM) effect in relativistic collisions of hadrons and heavy
             nuclei, within a parton cascade model. We find that the LPM
             effect strongly affects the gluon multiplication due to
             radiation and considerably alters the spacetime evolution of
             the dynamics of the collision. It ensures a multiplicity
             distribution of hadrons in agreement with the experimental
             proton-proton data. We study the production of single
             photons in relativistic heavy ion collisions and find that
             the inclusion of LPM suppression leads to a reduction in the
             single photon yield at small and intermediate transverse
             momenta. The parton cascade calculation of the single photon
             yield including the LPM effect is shown to be in good
             agreement with the recent PHENIX data taken at the
             Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All
             rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.physletb.2005.11.026},
   Key = {fds245325}
}

@article{fds245326,
   Author = {Nonaka, C and Bass, SA},
   Title = {3-D hydro + cascade model at RHIC},
   Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
   Volume = {774},
   Number = {1-4},
   Pages = {873-876},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {Spring},
   ISSN = {0375-9474},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0510038},
   Abstract = {We present a 3-D hydro + cascade model in which viscosity
             and a realistic freezeout process for the hadronic phase are
             taken into account. We compare our results to experimental
             data and discuss the finite state interaction effects on
             physical observables. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights
             reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2006.06.155},
   Key = {fds245326}
}

@article{fds245327,
   Author = {Bass, SA and Fries, RJ and Müller, B},
   Title = {Correlations in the Parton Recombination
             Model},
   Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
   Volume = {774},
   Number = {1-4},
   Pages = {635-638},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {Spring},
   ISSN = {0375-9474},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0510084},
   Abstract = {We describe how parton recombination can address the recent
             measurement of dynamical jet-like two particle correlations.
             In addition we discuss the possible effect realistic
             light-cone wave-functions including higher Fock-states may
             have on the well-known elliptic flow valence-quark number
             scaling law. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights
             reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2006.06.103},
   Key = {fds245327}
}

@article{fds245224,
   Author = {Antinori, F and Bass, SA and Bellwied, R and Ullrich, T and Velkovska,
             J and Wiedemann, U},
   Title = {Preface - Hot Quarks 2004},
   Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
             Physics},
   Volume = {31},
   Number = {4},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0954-3899},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000228842000001&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/31/4/000},
   Key = {fds245224}
}

@misc{fds42902,
   Title = {Proceedings, Workshop for Young Scientists on the Physics of
             Ultrarelativistic Nucleus Nucleus Collisions (Hot Quarks
             2004)},
   Journal = {Journal of Physics G},
   Volume = {31},
   Pages = {S1-S619},
   Editor = {F. Antinori and S.A. Bass and R. Bellwied and T. Ullrich and J.
             Velkovska and U.A. Wiedemann},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {Spring},
   Key = {fds42902}
}

@article{fds245226,
   Author = {Bass, SA and Fries, RJ and Nonaka, C and Muller, B},
   Title = {Hadronization at RHIC: Interplay of recombination and
             fragmentation},
   Journal = {ICHEP 2005: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 32ND INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE
             HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS VOLS 1 AND 2},
   Pages = {347-351},
   Year = {2005},
   ISBN = {981-256-110-2},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000230511700044&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds245226}
}

@article{fds245249,
   Author = {Bleicher, M and Bandyopadhyay, D and Bratkovskaya, EL and Reiter, M and Soff, S and Stöcker, H and Leeuwen, MV and Bass, SA and Cassing,
             W},
   Title = {Transverse pressure in relativistic nuclear collisions:
             Evidence for partonic interactions?},
   Journal = {Acta Physica Hungarica, Series A: Heavy Ion
             Physics},
   Volume = {24},
   Number = {1-4},
   Pages = {181-188},
   Year = {2005},
   ISSN = {1219-7580},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/APH.24.2005.1-4.25},
   Abstract = {Transverse hadron spectra from proton-proton, proton-nucleus
             and nucleus-nucleus collisions from 2 A·GeV to 21.3 A·TeV
             are investigated within two independent transport approaches
             (HSD and UrQMD). For central Au+Au (Pb+Pb) collisions at
             energies above Elab ∼ 5 A·GeV, the measured K±
             transverse mass spectra have a larger inverse slope
             parameter than expected from the default calculations. The
             additional pressure - as supported by lattice QCD
             calculations at finite quark chemical potential μq and
             temperature T - might be generated by strong interactions in
             the early pre-hadronic/partonic phase of central Au+Au
             (Pb+Pb) collisions [1]. © 2005 Akadémiai Kiadó,
             Budapest.},
   Doi = {10.1556/APH.24.2005.1-4.25},
   Key = {fds245249}
}

@article{fds245251,
   Author = {Nonaka, C and Fries, RJ and Müller, B and Bass, SA and Asakawa,
             M},
   Title = {Hadronization at RHIC: Interplay of recombination and
             fragmentation},
   Journal = {Acta Physica Hungarica, Series A: Heavy Ion
             Physics},
   Volume = {24},
   Number = {1-4},
   Pages = {227-233},
   Year = {2005},
   ISSN = {1219-7580},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/APH.24.2005.1-4.31},
   Abstract = {We discuss the hadron production in heavy ion collisions by
             the recombination and fragmentation model. We propose the
             elliptic flow as the useful tool for exploring final
             interactions for resonances, hadron structure for exotic
             particles and phase structure. © 2005 Akadémiai Kiadó,
             Budapest.},
   Doi = {10.1556/APH.24.2005.1-4.31},
   Key = {fds245251}
}

@article{fds245252,
   Author = {Nonaka, C and Müller, B and Bass, SA and Asakawa,
             M},
   Title = {Possible resolutions of the D-puzzle},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {71},
   Number = {5},
   Year = {2005},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.71.051901},
   Abstract = {We explore possible ways of explaining the net charge
             event-by-event fluctuations in Au+Au collisions observed in
             experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider within a
             quark recombination model. We estimate the number of quarks
             at recombination and their implications for the predicted
             net charge fluctuations. We also discuss the consequences of
             diquark and quark-antiquark clustering above the
             deconfinement temperature. © 2005 The American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.71.051901},
   Key = {fds245252}
}

@article{fds245328,
   Author = {Fries, RJ and Bass, SA and Müller, B},
   Title = {Correlated emission of hadrons from recombination of
             correlated partons},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {94},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {122301},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {Spring},
   ISSN = {0031-9007},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.94.122301},
   Abstract = {We discuss different sources of hadron correlations in
             relativistic heavy ion collisions. We show that correlations
             among partons in a quasithermal medium can lead to the
             correlated emission of hadrons by quark recombination and
             argue that this mechanism offers a plausible explanation for
             the dihadron correlations in the few GeV/c momentum range
             observed in Au + Au collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy
             Ion Collider. © 2005 The American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.94.122301},
   Key = {fds245328}
}

@article{fds245329,
   Author = {Nonaka, C and Fries, RJ and Müller, B and Bass, SA and Asakawa,
             M},
   Title = {Recombination plus fragmentation model at RHIC: Elliptic
             flow},
   Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
             Physics},
   Volume = {31},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {S429-S435},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {Summer},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0954-3899/31/4/053},
   Abstract = {We discuss hadron production in relativistic heavy-ion
             collisions in the framework of the recombination and
             fragmentation model. We propose elliptic flow as a useful
             tool for exploring final interactions of resonances, the
             hadron structure of exotic particles and the phase structure
             of the reaction. © 2005 IOP Publishing Ltd.},
   Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/31/4/053},
   Key = {fds245329}
}

@article{fds245330,
   Author = {Bass, SA},
   Title = {What do we learn from strangeness at RHIC?},
   Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
             Physics},
   Volume = {31},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {S733-S740},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {Summer},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0954-3899/31/6/014},
   Abstract = {I discuss strangeness as a tool for studying the reaction
             and hadronization dynamics of relativistic heavy-ion
             collisions at RHIC. In particular, I focus on quark-number
             scaling of elliptic flow as a tool to determine the nature
             of hadronization as well as to quantify the amount of
             collective flow the strange quarks carry and discuss the use
             of (multi-)strange hadron radial flow and interferometry for
             characterizing the collective expansion and emitting source
             dimensions of a hadronizing quark-gluon-plasma. © 2005 IOP
             Publishing Ltd.},
   Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/31/6/014},
   Key = {fds245330}
}

@article{fds245331,
   Author = {Chang, DY and Bass, SA and Srivastava, DK},
   Title = {Perturbative dynamics of strangeness production at
             RHIC},
   Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
             Physics},
   Volume = {31},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {S1005-S1010},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {Spring},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0954-3899/31/6/047},
   Abstract = {Strange quark production in Au-Au collisions at RHIC is
             studied in the framework of the parton cascade model (PCM).
             The yields of (anti-) strange quarks for three production
             scenarios - primary-primary scattering full scattering and
             full production - are compared to a proton-proton baseline.
             Enhancement of strange quark yields in central Au-Au
             collisions compared to scaled p-p collisions increases with
             the number of secondary interactions. The centrality
             dependence of strangeness production for the three
             production scenarios is studied as well. For all production
             mechanisms, the strangeness yield increases with (Npart)4/3.
             The perturbative QCD regime described by the PCM is able to
             account for up to 50% of the observed strangeness at RHIC.
             © 2005 IOP Publishing Ltd.},
   Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/31/6/047},
   Key = {fds245331}
}

@article{fds245332,
   Author = {Müller, B and Fries, RJ and Bass, SA},
   Title = {Thermal recombination: Beyond the valence quark
             approximation},
   Journal = {Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and
             High-Energy Physics},
   Volume = {618},
   Number = {1-4},
   Pages = {77-83},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {Summer},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0503003},
   Abstract = {Quark counting rules derived from recombination models agree
             well with data on hadron production at intermediate
             transverse momenta in relativistic heavy-ion collisions.
             They convey a simple picture of hadrons consisting only of
             valence quarks. We discuss the inclusion of higher Fock
             states that add sea quarks and gluons to the hadron
             structure. We show that, when recombination occurs from a
             thermal medium, hadron spectra remain unaffected by the
             inclusion of higher Fock states. However, the quark number
             scaling for elliptic flow is somewhat affected. We discuss
             the implications for our understanding of data from the
             Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All
             rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.physletb.2005.05.025},
   Key = {fds245332}
}

@article{fds245333,
   Author = {Nonaka, C and uuml, M and ller, B and Bass, SA and Asakawa,
             M},
   Title = {Possible resolution of the D-paradox},
   Journal = {Phys. Rev. C},
   Volume = {71},
   Pages = {051901},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {Spring},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0501028},
   Key = {fds245333}
}

@article{fds245344,
   Author = {Bass, SA and Müller, B and Srivastava, DK},
   Title = {Photon interferometry of Au+Au collisions at the BNL
             Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider.},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {93},
   Number = {16},
   Pages = {162301},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {Fall},
   ISSN = {0031-9007},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15524982},
   Abstract = {We calculate the two-body correlation function of direct
             photons produced in central Au+Au collisions at the
             Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider. Our calculation includes
             contributions from the early preequilibrium phase in which
             photons are produced via hard parton scatterings as well as
             radiation of photons from a thermalized quark-gluon plasma
             and the subsequent expanding hadron gas. We find that high
             energy photon interferometry provides a faithful probe of
             the details of the space-time evolution and of the early
             reaction stages of the system.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.93.162301},
   Key = {fds245344}
}

@misc{fds28286,
   Title = {Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on
             Strangeness in Quark Matter , SQM 2003, March 12-17
             2003},
   Journal = {J. Phys. G.},
   Volume = {30},
   Pages = {1-632},
   Editor = {S.A. Bass and B. Mueller and G.S.F. Stephans and T.
             Ullrich},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {Spring},
   Key = {fds28286}
}

@article{fds245404,
   Author = {Nonaka, C and Mueller, B and Asakawa, M and Bass, SA and Fries,
             RJ},
   Title = {Elliptic flow of resonances at RHIC: Probing final state
             interactions and the structure of resonances},
   Journal = {Phys. Rev. C},
   Volume = {69},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {031902},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {Spring},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.69.031902},
   Abstract = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0312081},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.69.031902},
   Key = {fds245404}
}

@article{fds245223,
   Author = {Bass, SA and Muller, B and Stephans, GSF and Urich,
             T},
   Title = {The 7th International Conference on Strangeness in Quark
             Matter},
   Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
             Physics},
   Volume = {30},
   Number = {1},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0954-3899},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000188667400001&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds245223}
}

@article{fds245221,
   Author = {Bass, SA and Fries, RJ and Nonaka, C},
   Title = {Hadronization at RHIC: Interplay of recombination and
             fragmentation},
   Volume = {166},
   Pages = {225-237},
   Year = {2004},
   ISBN = {1-4020-2445-2},
   ISSN = {1568-2609},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000225711800017&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds245221}
}

@article{fds245246,
   Author = {Bass, SA and Müller, B and Stephans, GSF and Ullrich,
             T},
   Title = {Preface: The 7th International Conference on Strangeness in
             Quark Matter},
   Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
             Physics},
   Volume = {30},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {i-ii},
   Year = {2004},
   Key = {fds245246}
}

@article{fds245345,
   Author = {Fries, RJ and Müller, B and Nonaka, C and Bass, SA},
   Title = {Hadronization in heavy-ion collisions: Recombination or
             fragmentation?},
   Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
             Physics},
   Volume = {30},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {S223-S228},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {Summer},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0305079},
   Abstract = {We show that hadron production in relativistic heavy-ion
             collisions at transverse momenta larger than 2 GeV/c can be
             explained by the competition of two different hadronization
             mechanisms. Above 5 GeV/c hadron production can be described
             by fragmentation of partons that are created perturbatively.
             Below 5 GeV/c recombination of partons from the dense and
             hot fireball dominates. This can explain some of the
             surprising features of RHIC data such as the constant
             baryon-to-meson ratio of about one and the small nuclear
             suppression for baryons between 2 to 4 GeV/c.},
   Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/30/1/025},
   Key = {fds245345}
}

@article{fds245346,
   Author = {Nonaka, C and Fries, RJ and Bass, SA},
   Title = {Elliptic flow of multi-strange particles: Fragmentation,
             recombination and hydrodynamics},
   Journal = {Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and
             High-Energy Physics},
   Volume = {583},
   Number = {1-2},
   Pages = {73-78},
   Year = {2004},
   url = {http:////arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0308051},
   Abstract = {We study the elliptic flow v2 of multi-strange hadrons such
             as the φ, Ξ and Ω as a function of transverse momentum in
             the recombination and fragmentation model and compare to a
             standard hydrodynamic calculation. We find that the
             measurement of v2 for the φ and Ω will allow for the
             unambiguous distinction between parton recombination and
             statistical hadro-chemistry to be the dominant process in
             hadronization at intermediate transverse momenta. © 2004
             Published by Elsevier B.V.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.physletb.2003.12.034},
   Key = {fds245346}
}

@article{fds245400,
   Author = {Nonaka, C and Asakawa, M and Bass, SA},
   Title = {Charge fluctuation observables at RHIC},
   Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
             Physics},
   Volume = {30},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {S243-S249},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {Summer},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0954-3899/30/1/028},
   Abstract = {We discuss net charge event-by-event fluctuations in
             microscopic transport models with emphasis on hadronization
             schemes and rescattering effects.},
   Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/30/1/028},
   Key = {fds245400}
}

@article{fds245401,
   Author = {Chang, DY and Bass, SA and Srivastava, DK},
   Title = {Strangeness production at RHIC in the perturbative
             regime},
   Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
             Physics},
   Volume = {30},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {L7-L15},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {Summer},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0954-3899/30/7/L02},
   Abstract = {We investigate strange quark production in Au-Au collisions
             at RHIC in the framework of the parton cascade model (PCM).
             The yields of (anti-) strange quarks for three production
             scenarios - primary-primary scattering, full scattering, and
             full production - are compared to a proton-proton baseline.
             The enhancement of the strange quark yield in central Au-Au
             collisions compared to scaled p - p collisions increases
             with the number of secondary interactions. The centrality
             dependence of strangeness production for the three
             production scenarios is studied as well. For all production
             mechanisms, the strangeness yield increases with (Npart)4/3.
             The perturbative QCD regime described by the PCM is able to
             account for up to 50% of the observed strangeness at
             RHIC.},
   Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/30/7/L02},
   Key = {fds245401}
}

@article{fds245402,
   Author = {Bass, SA and Müller, B and Srivastava, DK},
   Title = {RHIC physics with the parton cascade model},
   Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
             Physics},
   Volume = {30},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {S1283-S1286},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {Summer},
   ISSN = {1219-7580},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0954-3899/30/8/109},
   Abstract = {We present an analysis of the net baryon number rapidity
             distribution and of direct photon emission in the framework
             of the parton cascade model.},
   Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/30/8/109},
   Key = {fds245402}
}

@article{fds245403,
   Author = {Bratkovskaya, EL and Bleicher, M and Reiter, M and Soff, S and Stöcker,
             H and Leeuwen, MV and Bass, SA and Cassing, W},
   Title = {Strangeness dynamics and transverse pressure in relativistic
             nucleus-nucleus collisions},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {69},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {054907-054901},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {Summer},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.69.054907},
   Abstract = {We investigate hadron production as well as transverse
             hadron spectra from proton-proton, proton-nucleus, and
             nucleus-nucleus collisions from 2A GeV to 21.3A TeV within
             two independent transport approaches, i.e., hadron-string
             dynamics (HSD) and ultrarelativistic quantum molecular
             dynamics (UrQMD) that are based on quark, diquark, string,
             and hadronic degrees of freedom. The comparison to
             experimental data on transverse mass spectra from pp, pA,
             and C+C (or Si+Si) reactions shows the reliability of the
             transport models for light systems. For central Au+Au
             (Pb+Pb) collisions at bombarding energies above ∼5A GeV,
             furthermore, the measured K± transverse mass spectra have a
             larger inverse slope parameter than expected from the
             default calculations. We investigate various scenarios to
             explore their potential effects on the K± spectra. In
             particular the initial state Cronin effect is found to play
             a substantial role at top Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) and
             Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) energies. However,
             the maximum in the K+/π+ ratio at 20-30 A GeV is missed by
             40% and the approximately constant slope of the K± spectra
             at SPS energies is not reproduced either. Our systematic
             analysis suggests that the additional pressure - as expected
             from lattice QCD calculations at finite quark chemical
             potential μq and temperature T - should be generated by
             strong interactions in the early prehadronic/partonic phase
             of central Au+Au (Pb+Pb) collisions.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.69.054907},
   Key = {fds245403}
}

@article{fds304512,
   Author = {Nonaka, C and Müller, B and Asakawa, M and Bass, SA and Fries,
             RJ},
   Title = {Elliptic flow of resonances in relativistic heavy ion
             collisions: Probing final state interactions and the
             structure of resonances},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {69},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {031902-031901},
   Year = {2004},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.69.031902},
   Abstract = {We propose the measurement of the elliptic flow of hadron
             resonances at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider as a tool
             to probe the amount of hadronic final state interactions for
             resonances at intermediate and large transverse momenta.
             This can be achieved by looking at systematic deviations of
             the measured flow coefficient ν2 from the scaling law given
             by the quark recombination formalism. Our method can be
             generalized to explore the structure of exotic particles,
             such as the recently found pentaquark Θ+(1540).},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.69.031902},
   Key = {fds304512}
}

@article{fds245406,
   Author = {Fries, RJ and Müller, B and Nonaka, C and Bass, SA},
   Title = {Hadronization in heavy-ion collisions: recombination and
             fragmentation of partons.},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {90},
   Number = {20},
   Pages = {202303},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0031-9007},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12785886},
   Abstract = {We argue that the emission of hadrons with transverse
             momentum up to about 5 GeV/c in central relativistic heavy
             ion collisions is dominated by recombination, rather than
             fragmentation of partons. This mechanism provides a natural
             explanation for the observed constant baryon-to-meson ratio
             of about one and the apparent lack of a nuclear suppression
             of the baryon yield in this momentum range. Fragmentation
             becomes dominant at higher transverse momentum, but the
             transition point is delayed by the energy loss of fast
             partons in dense matter.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.90.202303},
   Key = {fds245406}
}

@article{fds245407,
   Author = {Bass, SA and Müller, B and Srivastava, DK},
   Title = {Light from cascading partons in relativistic heavy-ion
             collisions.},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {90},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {082301},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0031-9007},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12633418},
   Abstract = {We calculate the production of high energy photons from
             Compton and annihilation processes as well as fragmentation
             off quarks in the parton cascade model. The multiple
             scattering of partons is seen to lead to a substantial
             production of high energy photons, which rises further when
             parton multiplication due to final state radiation is
             included. The photon yield is found to be directly
             proportional to the number of hard collisions and thus
             provides valuable information on the preequilibrium reaction
             dynamics.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.90.082301},
   Key = {fds245407}
}

@article{fds245243,
   Author = {Bass, SA and Müller, B and Srivastava, DK},
   Title = {Parton rescattering and colour screening in Au+Au collisions
             at RHIC},
   Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
   Volume = {715},
   Pages = {813c-816c},
   Year = {2003},
   ISSN = {0375-9474},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0375-9474(02)01501-4},
   Abstract = {We study the microscopic dynamics of quarks and gluons in
             relativistic heavy ion collisions in the framework of the
             Parton Cascade Model. We use lowest order perturbative QCD
             cross sections with fixed lower momentum cutoff p Tmin. We
             calculate the time evolution of the Debye-screening mass μD
             for Au+Au collisions at √s = 200 GeV per nucleon pair. We
             also determine the energy density reached through hard and
             semi-hard processes at RHIC and analyze the extent of
             perturbative rescattering among partons. © 2003 Elsevier
             Science E.V. All rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0375-9474(02)01501-4},
   Key = {fds245243}
}

@article{fds245244,
   Author = {Bass, SA},
   Title = {QGP theory: Status and perspectives},
   Journal = {Pramana - Journal of Physics},
   Volume = {60},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {593-612},
   Year = {2003},
   Abstract = {The current status of quark gluon plasma theory was
             reviewed. The ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions
             offered a unique opportunity to probe highly excited dense
             nuclear matter under controlled laboratory conditions. It
             was found that the development of a transport theory based
             on QCD treated both hard and soft processes
             consistently.},
   Key = {fds245244}
}

@article{fds245347,
   Author = {Bass, SA and Müller, B and Srivastava, DK},
   Title = {Transverse momentum distribution of net baryon number at
             RHIC},
   Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
             Physics},
   Volume = {29},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {L51-L58},
   Year = {2003},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0307027},
   Abstract = {We calculate the transverse momentum distribution of net
             quarks (quarks minus antiquarks) in Au+Au collisions at the
             Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider in the framework of the
             parton cascade model at two different rapidities. Parton
             re-scattering and fragmentation are seen to lead to a
             substantial difference in the slopes of these distributions
             between mid- and forward-rapidities, in qualitative
             agreement with the corresponding data for the net baryon
             distribution.},
   Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/29/10/101},
   Key = {fds245347}
}

@article{fds245348,
   Author = {Bass, SA and Müller, B and Srivastava, DK},
   Title = {Net baryon density in Au + Au collisions at the relativistic
             heavy ion collider},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {91},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {523021-523024},
   Year = {2003},
   ISSN = {0031-9007},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12906590},
   Abstract = {The net-baryon multiplicity density distributions in Au + Au
             collisions were calculated at 130 and 200 GeV center-of-mass
             energy per nucleon pair. The parton cascade model predicted
             a net-baryon excess at midrapidity in Au + Au collisions,
             which was in agreement with measured values. The transport
             of partons to midrapidity, caused by rescattering among
             partons, was found to increase the net-baryon number
             density.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.91.052302},
   Key = {fds245348}
}

@article{fds245349,
   Author = {Soff, S and Bass, SA and Hardtke, DH and Panitkin,
             SY},
   Title = {Particle correlations at RHIC - Scrutiny of a
             puzzle},
   Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
   Volume = {715},
   Pages = {801c-804c},
   Year = {2003},
   ISSN = {0375-9474},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0209055},
   Abstract = {We present calculations of two-pion and two-kaon correlation
             functions in relativistic heavy ion collisions from a
             relativistic transport model that includes explicitly a
             first-order phase transition from a thermalized quark-gluon
             plasma to a hadron gas. We compare the obtained correlation
             radii with recent data from RHIC. The predicted R_side radii
             agree with data while the R_out and R_long radii are
             overestimated. We also address the impact of in-medium
             modifications, for example, a broadening of the rho-meson,
             on the correlation radii. In particular, the longitudinal
             correlation radius R_long is reduced, improving the
             comparison to data.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0375-9474(02)01492-6},
   Key = {fds245349}
}

@article{fds245350,
   Author = {Bass, SA and Müller, B and Srivastava, DK},
   Title = {Parton rescattering and screening in Au + Au collisions at
             RHIC},
   Journal = {Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and
             High-Energy Physics},
   Volume = {551},
   Number = {3-4},
   Pages = {277-283},
   Year = {2003},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0207042},
   Abstract = {We study the microscopic dynamics of quarks and gluons in
             relativistic heavy ion collisions in the framework of the
             Parton Cascade Model. We use lowest order perturbative QCD
             cross sections with fixed lower momentum cutoff PTmin. We
             calculate the time-evolution of the Debye-screening mass μD
             for Au + Au collisions at √s = 200 GeV per nucleon pair.
             The screening mass is used to determine a lower limit for
             the allowed range of PTmin. We also determine the energy
             density reached through hard and semi-hard processes at
             RHIC, obtain a lower bound for the rapidity density of
             charged hadrons produced by semi-hard interactions, and
             analyze the extent of perturbative rescattering among
             partons. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights
             reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0370-2693(02)03068-X},
   Key = {fds245350}
}

@article{fds245405,
   Author = {Fries, RJ and Müller, B and Nonaka, C and Bass, SA},
   Title = {Hadron production in heavy ion collisions: Fragmentation and
             recombination from a dense parton phase},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {68},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {449021-4490223},
   Year = {2003},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000187575300046&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Abstract = {We discuss hadron production in heavy ion collisions at the
             Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). We argue that
             hadrons at transverse momenta P T<5 GeV are formed by
             recombination of partons from the dense parton phase created
             in central collisions at RHIC. We provide a theoretical
             description of the recombination process for PT>2 GeV.
             Below PT=2 GeV our results smoothly match a purely
             statistical description. At high transverse momentum hadron
             production is well described in the language of perturbative
             QCD by the fragmentation of partons. We give numerical
             results for a variety of hadron spectra, ratios, and nuclear
             suppression factors. We also discuss the anisotropic flow v2
             and give results based on a flow in the parton phase. Our
             results are consistent with the existence of a parton phase
             at RHIC hadronizing at a temperature of 175 MeV and a radial
             flow velocity of 0.55c.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.68.044902},
   Key = {fds245405}
}

@article{fds245408,
   Author = {S A Bass and BM and uuml, and ller, DKS},
   Title = {Semihard scattering of partons at SPS and RHIC: A Study in
             contrast.},
   Journal = {Phys. Rev. C, Rapid Communication},
   Volume = {66},
   Pages = {061902(R)},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0210042},
   Abstract = {We analyze the contribution of pQCD based semi-hard parton
             (re)scattering to the reaction dynamics of relativistic
             heavy-ion collisions at SPS and RHIC. While such processes
             are able to account for the measured yield of high momentum
             direct photons at SPS energies, the conditions necessary for
             jet-quenching are not fulfilled. The situation changes
             dramatically at RHIC energies.},
   Key = {fds245408}
}

@article{fds245390,
   Author = {Bleicher, MJ and Bass, SA},
   Title = {Anti-Omega dominance in pp interactions at intermediate
             energies},
   Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
             Physics},
   Volume = {28},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {1965-1969},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0954-3899},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000177360900054&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/28/7/354},
   Key = {fds245390}
}

@article{fds245242,
   Author = {Bass, SA and Müller, B and Srivastava, DK},
   Title = {Semihard scattering of partons at √s=17 vs 200 GeV: A
             study in contrast},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {66},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {619021-619024},
   Year = {2002},
   Abstract = {We analyze the contribution of perturbative QCD based
             semihard parton (re)scattering to the reaction dynamics of
             relativistic heavy-ion collisions at SPS and RHIC. While
             such processes are able to account for the measured yield of
             high-momentum direct photons at SPS energies, the conditions
             necessary for jet quenching are not fulfilled. The situation
             changes dramatically at RHIC energies.},
   Key = {fds245242}
}

@article{fds245385,
   Author = {Bass, SA},
   Title = {Microscopic reaction dynamic at SPC and RHIC},
   Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
   Volume = {698},
   Number = {1-4},
   Pages = {164c-170c},
   Year = {2002},
   ISSN = {0375-9474},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0104040},
   Abstract = {The current status of transport theoretical models
             applicable to the physics of the Relativistic Heavy-Ion
             Collider is reviewed. The time evolution of microscopic
             reaction dynamics - from early, hard, partonic rescattering
             up to soft hadronic interactions close to freeze-out is
             analyzed and key observables linked to the different
             reaction stages are discussed.},
   Key = {fds245385}
}

@article{fds245386,
   Author = {Bravina, LV and Zabrodin, EE and Bass, SA and Faessler, A and Fuchs, C and Gorenstein, MI and Greiner, W and Soff, S and Stöcker, H and Weber,
             H},
   Title = {Chemical freeze-out parameters at RHIC from microscopic
             model calculations},
   Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
   Volume = {698},
   Number = {1-4},
   Pages = {383c-386c},
   Year = {2002},
   ISSN = {0375-9474},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0104023},
   Abstract = {The relaxation of hot nuclear matter to an equilibrated
             state in the central zone of heavy-ion collisions at
             energies from AGS to RHIC is studied within the microscopic
             UrQMD model. It is found that the system reaches the
             (quasi)equilibrium stage for the period of 10-15 fm/$c$.
             Within this time the matter in the cell expands nearly
             isentropically with the entropy to baryon ratio $S/A = 150 -
             170$. Thermodynamic characteristics of the system at AGS and
             at SPS energies at the endpoints of this stage are very
             close to the parameters of chemical and thermal freeze-out
             extracted from the thermal fit to experimental data.
             Predictions are made for the full RHIC energy $\sqrt{s} =
             200$ AGeV. The formation of a resonance-rich state at RHIC
             energies is discussed.},
   Key = {fds245386}
}

@article{fds245387,
   Author = {Soff, S and Bass, SA and Hardtke, DH and Panitkin,
             SY},
   Title = {Kaon interferometry: A sensitive probe of the QCD equation
             of state?},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {88},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {723011-723014},
   Year = {2002},
   ISSN = {0031-9007},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000174021100020&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Abstract = {The kaon-interferometry radius parameters for high-energy
             heavy-ion collisions were calculated. The first-order phase
             transition was assumed from a thermalized quark-gluon plasma
             (QGP) to a gas of hadrons. Large radii (Ri ≤ 9 fm) were
             not obtained from the calculations of the QGP + hadronic
             rescattering transport model.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.88.072301},
   Key = {fds245387}
}

@article{fds245388,
   Author = {Bleicher, M and Liu, FM and Keränen, A and Aichelin, J and Bass, SA and Becattini, F and Redlich, K and Werner, K},
   Title = {Overpopulation of Ω̄ in pp collisions: A way to
             distinguish statistical hadronization from string
             dynamics},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {88},
   Number = {20},
   Pages = {2025011-2025014},
   Year = {2002},
   ISSN = {0031-9007},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000175466200007&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Abstract = {The ω̄/ω ≡ ω+/ω- ratio in elementary proton-proton
             collisions in an unambiguous and sensitive probe for
             distinguishing particle production through the breakup of a
             color flux tube from statistical hadronization was
             presented. Results showed that the antiomega dominance
             increased with the decrasing beam energy. The behavior was
             caused by the combinatorics of quark-antiquark production in
             small and low-mass strings.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.88.202501},
   Key = {fds245388}
}

@article{fds287561,
   Author = {Bleicher, MJ and Bass, SA},
   Title = {Anti-ω dominance in pp interactions at intermediate
             energies},
   Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
             Physics},
   Volume = {28},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {1965-1969},
   Year = {2002},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0954-3899/28/7/354},
   Abstract = {The Ω+/Ω- ratio originating from string decays is
             predicted to be >1 in pp interaction at SPS energies. The
             anti-Ω dominance increases with decreasing beam energy.
             This surprising behaviour is caused by the combinatorics of
             quark-antiquark production in small, finite strings. Since
             this behaviour is not found in a statistical description of
             hadron production in pp collisions, it may serve as a potent
             observable to probe the hadronization mechanism in such
             collisions.},
   Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/28/7/354},
   Key = {fds287561}
}

@article{fds245389,
   Author = {Bass, SA},
   Title = {Strangeness production in microscopic transport
             models},
   Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
             Physics},
   Volume = {28},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {1543-1551},
   Year = {2002},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0112046},
   Abstract = {Strangeness production in microscopic transport models for
             relativistic heavyion collisions from SIS to RHIC is
             reviewed: after a brief introduction into elementary
             strangeness production processes, the main emphasis is put
             on strangeness as an indicator of the nuclear equation of
             state, the excitation function of the K+/π+ ratio and
             strangeness as a deconfinement indicator.},
   Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/28/7/304},
   Key = {fds245389}
}

@article{fds245391,
   Author = {Soff, S and Bass, SA and Hardtke, DH and Panitkin,
             SY},
   Title = {(Strange) meson interferometry at RHIC},
   Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
             Physics},
   Volume = {28},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {1885-1893},
   Year = {2002},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0202019},
   Abstract = {We make predictions for the kaon interferometry measurements
             in Au+Au collisions at the relativistic heavy ion collider
             (RHIC). A first-order phase transition from a thermalized
             quark-gluon plasma (QGP) to a gas of hadrons is assumed for
             the transport calculations. The fraction of kaons that are
             directly emitted from the phase boundary is considerably
             enhanced at large transverse momenta KT ∼ 1 GeV/c. In this
             kinematic region, the sensitivity of the Rout/Aside ratio to
             the QGP properties is enlarged. The results of the
             one-dimensional correlation analysis are presented. The
             extracted interferometry radii, depending on KT, are not
             unusually large and are strongly affected by finite momentum
             resolution effects.},
   Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/28/7/343},
   Key = {fds245391}
}

@article{fds318406,
   Author = {Bass, SA and Dumitru, A and Danielewicz, P and Pratt,
             S},
   Title = {Probing hadronization with strangeness},
   Journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings},
   Volume = {597},
   Pages = {54-63},
   Year = {2001},
   ISBN = {0-7354-0041-5},
   Key = {fds318406}
}

@article{fds245236,
   Author = {Zschiesche, D and Bass, S and Bleicher, M and Brachmann, J and Gerland,
             L and Paech, K and Scherer, S and Soff, S and Spieles, C and Weber, H and Stöcker, H and Greiner, W},
   Title = {Current Status of Quark-Gluon Plasma Signals},
   Journal = {Acta Physica Hungarica New Series Heavy Ion
             Physics},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {1-4},
   Pages = {425-438},
   Year = {2001},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/APH.14.2001.1-4.40},
   Abstract = {Compelling evidence for the creation of a new form of matter
             has been claimed to be found in Pb+Pb collisions at SPS. We
             discuss the uniqueness of often proposed experimental
             signatures for quark matter formation in relativistic heavy
             ion collisions. It is demonstrated that so far none of the
             proposed signals like J/ψ meson production/suppression,
             strangeness enhancement, dileptons, and directed flow
             unambiguously show that a phase of deconfined matter has
             been formed in SPS Pb+Pb collisions. We emphasize the need
             for systematic future measurements to search for
             simultaneous irregularities in the excitation functions of
             several observables in order to come close to pinning the
             properties of hot, dense QCD matter from
             data.},
   Doi = {10.1556/APH.14.2001.1-4.40},
   Key = {fds245236}
}

@article{fds245379,
   Author = {Soff, S and Zschiesche, D and Bleicher, M and Hartnack, C and Belkacem,
             M and Bravina, L and Zabrodin, E and Bass, SA and Stöcker, H and Greiner,
             W},
   Title = {Enhanced strange particle yields - Signal of a phase of
             massless particles?},
   Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
             Physics},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {449-457},
   Year = {2001},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0010103},
   Abstract = {The yields of strange particles are calculated with the
             ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics model for p,
             Pb(158 A GeV)Pb collisions and compared with experimental
             data. The yields are enhanced in central collisions compared
             with proton-induced or peripheral Pb + Pb collisions. The
             enhancement is due to secondary interactions. Nevertheless,
             only a reduction of the quark masses or equivalently an
             increase of the string tension provides an adequate
             description of the large observed enhancement factors (WA97
             and NA49). Furthermore, the yields of unstable strange
             resonances such as the A* or the φ are considerably
             affected by hadronic rescattering of the decay
             products.},
   Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/27/3/324},
   Key = {fds245379}
}

@article{fds245380,
   Author = {Wong, SMH and Belkacem, M and Kapusta, JI and Bass, SA and Bleicher, M and Stöcker, H},
   Title = {Bremsstrahlung from a Microscopic Model of Relativistic
             Heavy Ion Collisions},
   Journal = {Phys. Rev. C},
   Volume = {63},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {014903},
   Year = {2001},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/0008119},
   Abstract = {We compute bremsstrahlung arising from the acceleration of
             individual charged baryons and mesons during the time
             evolution of high-energy Au+Au collisions at the
             Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider using a microscopic
             transport model. We elucidate the connection between
             bremsstrahlung and charge stopping by colliding artificial
             pure proton on pure neutron nuclei. From the intensity of
             low energy bremsstrahlung, the time scale and the degree of
             stopping could be accurately extracted without measuring any
             hadronic observables.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.63.014903},
   Key = {fds245380}
}

@article{fds245381,
   Author = {Bravina, LV and Zabrodin, EE and Bass, SA and Bleicher, M and Brandstetter, M and Faessler, A and Fuchs, C and Greiner, W and Soff, S and Stoecker, H},
   Title = {Equation of state of resonance-rich matter in the central
             cell in heavy-ion collisions at $\sqrt{s}$=200
             AGeV},
   Journal = {Phys. Rev. C},
   Volume = {63},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {064902},
   Year = {2001},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/0010172},
   Abstract = {The equilibration of hot and dense nuclear matter produced
             in the central cell of central Au+Au collisions at RHIC
             ($\sqrt{s}=200$ AGeV) energies is studied within a
             microscopic transport model. The pressure in the cell
             becomes isotropic at $t\approx 5$ fm/$c$ after beginning of
             the collision. Within the next 15 fm/$c$ the expansion of
             matter in the cell proceeds almost isentropically with the
             entropy per baryon ratio $S/A \approx 150$, and the equation
             of state in the $(P,\epsilon)$ plane has a very simple form,
             $P=0.15\epsilon$. Comparison with the statistical model of
             an ideal hadron gas indicates that the time $t \approx 20$
             fm/c may be too short to reach the fully equilibrated state.
             Particularly, the creation of long-lived resonance-rich
             matter in the cell decelerates the relaxation to chemical
             equilibrium. This resonance-abundant state can be detected
             experimentally after the thermal freeze-out of
             particles.},
   Key = {fds245381}
}

@article{fds245383,
   Author = {Soff, S and Bass, SA and Dumitru, A},
   Title = {Pion interferometry at RHIC: Probing a thermalized
             quark-gluon plasma?},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {86},
   Number = {18},
   Pages = {3981-3984},
   Year = {2001},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0012085},
   Abstract = {The Gaussian radius parameters of the pion-emitting source
             in high-energy heavy-ion collisions were calculated. It was
             found that the radii depend minimally on the thermalization
             time, the critical temperature, and the specific entropy of
             the quark-gluon plasma (QGP).},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.86.3981},
   Key = {fds245383}
}

@article{fds245384,
   Author = {Bass, SA and Danielewicz, P and Dumitru, A and Pratt,
             S},
   Title = {Probing hadronization with strangeness},
   Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
             Physics},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {635-644},
   Year = {2001},
   ISBN = {0-7354-0041-5},
   ISSN = {0094-243X},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000174875600004&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Abstract = {A novel state of matter has been hypothesized to exist
             during the early stage of relativistic heavy-ion collisions,
             with normal hadrons not appearing until several fin c-1
             after the start of the reaction. Radial flow of
             multi-strange baryons is shown to be a sensitive probe of
             the expansion of the deconfined phase prior to
             hadronization. Using a hybrid macroscopic/microscopic
             transport model we show that if at hadronization the system
             has been significantly out of chemical equilibrium, hadronic
             rescattering cannot drive the system towards full chemical
             equilibration. Furthermore, we suggest a novel
             model-independent observable, balance functions, to evaluate
             correlations between charges and their associated
             anticharges It is shown that balance functions are extremely
             sensitive to the time-scale of hadronization: late-stage
             hadronization is characterized by tightly correlated
             charge/anticharge pairs when measured as a function of
             relative rapidity.},
   Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/27/3/348},
   Key = {fds245384}
}

@article{fds245411,
   Author = {Bravina, LV and Zabrodin, EE and Bleicher, M and Bass, SA and Brandstetter, M and Faessler, A and Fuchs, C and Greiner, W and Gorenstein, MI and Soff, S and Stöcker, H},
   Title = {Transition to resonance-rich matter in heavy-ion collisions
             at RHIC energies},
   Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
             Physics},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {421-426},
   Year = {2001},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0010088},
   Abstract = {The equilibration of hot and dense nuclear matter produced
             in the central region in central Au + Au collisions at √s
             = 200 A GeV is studied within the microscopic transport
             model UrQMD. The pressure here becomes isotropic at t ≈ 5
             fm c-1. Within the next 15 fm c-1 the expansion of the
             matter proceeds almost isentropically with the entropy per
             baryon ratio S/A ≈ 150. During this period the equation of
             state in the (P, ε)-plane has a very simple form, P =
             0.15ε. Comparison with the statistical model (SM) of an
             ideal hadron gas reveals that the time of ≈ 20 fm c-1 may
             be too short to attain the fully equilibrated state. In
             particular, the fractions of resonances are overpopulated in
             contrast with the SM values. The creation of such a
             long-lived resonance-rich state slows down the relaxation to
             chemical equilibrium and can be detected
             experimentally.},
   Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/27/3/321},
   Key = {fds245411}
}

@article{fds304510,
   Author = {Wong, SMH and Belkacem, M and Kapusta, JI and Bass, SA and Bleicher, M and Stöcker, H},
   Title = {Bremsstrahlung from a microscopic model of relativistic
             heavy ion collisions},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {63},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {149031-149039},
   Year = {2001},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.63.014903},
   Abstract = {We compute bremsstrahlung arising from the acceleration of
             individual charged baryons and mesons during the time
             evolution of high-energy Au + Au collisions at the
             Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider using a microscopic
             transport model. We elucidate the connection between
             bremsstrahlung and charge stopping by colliding artificial
             pure proton on pure neutron nuclei. From the intensity of
             low energy bremsstrahlung, the time scale and the degree of
             stopping could be accurately extracted without measuring any
             hadronic observables.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.63.014903},
   Key = {fds304510}
}

@article{fds304511,
   Author = {Bravina, LV and Zabrodin, EE and Bass, SA and Bleicher, M and Brandstetter, M and Faessler, A and Fuchs, C and Greiner, W and Soff, S and Stöcker, H},
   Title = {Equation of state of resonance-rich matter in the central
             cell in heavy-ion collisions at √s = 200A
             GeV},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {63},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {649021-649028},
   Year = {2001},
   Abstract = {The equilibration of hot and dense nuclear matter produced
             in the central cell of central Au+Au collisions at √s=200A
             GeV is studied within a microscopic transport model. The
             pressure in the cell becomes isotropic at t≈5 fm/c after
             beginning of the collision. Within the next 15 fm/c the
             expansion of matter in the cell proceeds almost
             isentropically with the entropy per baryon ratio S/A≅150,
             and the equation of state in the (P,ε) plane has a very
             simple form, P=0.15ε. Comparison with the statistical model
             of an ideal hadron gas indicates that the time t≈20 fm/c
             may be too short to reach the fully equilibrated state.
             Particularly, the creation of long-lived resonance-rich
             matter in the cell decelerates the relaxation to chemical
             equilibrium. This resonance-abundant state can be detected
             experimentally after the thermal freeze out of
             particles.},
   Key = {fds304511}
}

@article{fds245378,
   Author = {Bleicher, MJ and Bass, SA and Bravina, LV and Greiner, W and Soff, S and Stöcker, H and Xu, N and Zabrodin, EE},
   Title = {Global observables and secondary interactions in central
             Au+Au reactions at √s = 200A GeV},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {62},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {249041-249047},
   Year = {2000},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000088714000048&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Abstract = {The ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics model
             (UrQMD) is used to study global observables in central
             reactions of Au+Au at √s = 200A GeV at the Relativistic
             Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Strong stopping governed by
             massive particle production is predicted if secondary
             interactions are taken into account. The underlying string
             dynamics and the early hadronic decoupling implies only
             small transverse expansion rates. However, rescattering with
             mesons is found to act as a source of pressure leading to
             additional flow of baryons and kaons, while cooling down
             pions.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.62.024904},
   Key = {fds245378}
}

@article{fds245382,
   Author = {Bravina, LV and Zabrodin, EE and Bass, SA and Bleicher, M and Brandstetter, M and Soff, S and Stöcker, H and Greiner,
             W},
   Title = {Local equilibrium in heavy-ion collisions: Microscopic
             analysis of a central cell versus infinite
             matter},
   Journal = {Phys. Rev. C},
   Volume = {62},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {064906},
   Year = {2000},
   Abstract = {We study the local equilibrium in the central V = 125 fm3
             cell in heavy-ion collisions at energies from 10.7A GeV
             (AGS) to 160A GeV (SPS) calculated in the microscopic
             transport model. In the present paper the hadron yields and
             energy spectra in the cell are compared with those of
             infinite nuclear matter, as calculated within the same
             model. The agreement between the spectra in the two systems
             is established for times t [>=] 10 fm/c in the central cell.
             The cell results do not deviate noticeably from the infinite
             matter calculations with rising incident energy, in contrast
             to the apparent discrepancy with predictions of the
             statistical model (SM) of an ideal hadron gas. The entropy
             of this state is found to be very close to the maximum
             entropy, while hadron abundances and energy spectra differ
             significantly from those of the SM.},
   Key = {fds245382}
}

@article{fds245399,
   Author = {Bleicher, M and Belkacem, M and Bass, SA and Soff, S and Stöcker,
             H},
   Title = {Enhanced antiproton production in Pb(160 A GeV) + Pb
             reactions: Evidence for quark gluon matter?},
   Journal = {Physics Letters B},
   Volume = {485},
   Number = {1-3},
   Pages = {133-138},
   Year = {2000},
   ISSN = {0370-2693},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/0004045},
   Abstract = {The centrality dependence of the antiproton per participant
             ratio is studied in Pb(160 A GeV) + Pb reactions. Antiproton
             production in collisions of heavy nuclei at the CERN/SPS
             seems considerably enhanced as compared to conventional
             hadronic physics, given by the antiproton production rates
             in pp and antiproton annihilation in pp reactions. This
             enhancement is consistent with the observation of strong
             in-medium effects in other hadronic observables and may be
             an indication of partial restoration of chiral symmetry. (C)
             2000 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0370-2693(00)00643-2},
   Key = {fds245399}
}

@article{fds245409,
   Author = {Bass, SA and Dumitru, A},
   Title = {Dynamics of hot bulk QCD matter: From the quark-gluon plasma
             to hadronic freeze-out},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {61},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {649091-6490924},
   Year = {2000},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000087575000068&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Abstract = {We introduce a combined macroscopic-microscopic transport
             approach employing relativistic hydrodynamics for the early,
             dense, deconfined stage of the reaction and a microscopic
             nonequilibrium model for the later hadronic stage where the
             equilibrium assumptions are not valid anymore. Within this
             approach we study the dynamics of hot, bulk QCD matter,
             which is expected to be created in ultrarelativistic
             heavy-ion collisions at the Super Proton Synchrotron, the
             Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, and the Large Hadron
             Collider. Our approach is capable of self-consistently
             calculating the freeze-out of the hadronic system, while
             accounting for the collective flow on the hadronization
             hypersurface generated by the QGP expansion. In particular,
             we perform a detailed analysis of the reaction dynamics,
             hadronic freeze-out, and transverse flow.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.61.064909},
   Key = {fds245409}
}

@article{fds245410,
   Author = {Bass, SA and Danielewicz, P and Pratt, S},
   Title = {Clocking hadronization in relativistic heavy-ion collisions
             with balance functions},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {85},
   Number = {13},
   Pages = {2689-2692},
   Year = {2000},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0005044},
   Abstract = {Several experimental measurement were proposed as signals to
             the quark-gluon plasma is presented. Among these signals is
             an expected enhancement in strange-quark production which
             should take place 5-10 fm/c into the collision when the
             local temperature has dropped to near 160 MeV, but the
             system is still far from freeze-out. Strangeness enhancement
             was observed in heavy-ion collisions but alternative
             hadronic explanations were also been put forward assuming
             early-stage hadronization with medium junctions. The use of
             balance functions is proposed as a means to determine
             whether quark production occurred at early time, τ<1
             fm/c, or according to a late-stage hadronization
             scenario.},
   Key = {fds245410}
}

@article{fds304509,
   Author = {Bravina, LV and Zabrodin, EE and Bass, SA and Bleicher, M and Brandstetter, M and Soff, S and Stöcker, H and Greiner,
             W},
   Title = {Local equilibrium in heavy-ion collisions: Microscopic
             analysis of a central cell versus infinite
             matter},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {62},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {649061-6490610},
   Year = {2000},
   Abstract = {We study the local equilibrium in the central V = 125 fm3
             cell in heavy-ion collisions at energies from 10.7/4 GeV
             (AGS) to 160A GeV (SPS) calculated in the microscopic
             transport model. In the present paper the hadron yields and
             energy spectra in the cell are compared with those of
             infinite nuclear matter, as calculated within the same
             model. The agreement between the spectra in the two systems
             is established for times t ≥ 10 fm/c in the central cell.
             The cell results do not deviate noticeably from the infinite
             matter calculations with rising incident energy, in contrast
             to the apparent discrepancy with predictions of the
             statistical model (SM) of an ideal hadron gas. The entropy
             of this state is found to be very close to the maximum
             entropy, while hadron abundances and energy spectra differ
             significantly from those of the SM.},
   Key = {fds304509}
}

@article{fds303613,
   Author = {Soff, S and Bass, SA and Bleicher, M and Stoecker, H and Greiner,
             W},
   Title = {Directed and Elliptic Flow},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/9903061v1},
   Abstract = {We compare microscopic transport model calculations to
             recent data on the directed and elliptic flow of various
             hadrons in 2 - 10 A GeV Au+Au and Pb (158 A GeV) Pb
             collisions. For the Au+Au excitation function a transition
             from the squeeze-out to an in-plane enhanced emission is
             consistently described with mean field potentials
             corresponding to one incompressibility. For the Pb (158 A
             GeV) Pb system the elliptic flow prefers in-plane emission
             both for protons and pions, the directed flow of protons is
             opposite to that of the pions, which exhibit anti-flow.
             Strong directed transverse flow is present for protons and
             Lambdas in Au (6 A GeV) Au collisions as well. Both for the
             SPS and the AGS energies the agreement between data and
             calculations is remarkable.},
   Key = {fds303613}
}

@article{fds303612,
   Author = {Scherer, S and Bass, SA and Belkacem, M and Bleicher, M and Brachmann,
             J and Dumitru, A and Ernst, C and Gerland, L and Hammon, N and Hofmann, M and Konopka, J and Neise, L and Reiter, M and Schramm, S and Soff, S and Spieles, C and Weber, H and Zschiesche, D and Maruhn, JA and Stöcker,
             H and Greiner, W},
   Title = {Physics opportunities at RHIC and LHC},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/9903392v1},
   Abstract = {Nonequilibrium models (three-fluid hydrodynamics, UrQMD, and
             quark molecular dynamics) are used to discuss the uniqueness
             of often proposed experimental signatures for quark matter
             formation in relativistic heavy ion collisions from the SPS
             via RHIC to LHC. It is demonstrated that these models --
             although they do treat the most interesting early phase of
             the collisions quite differently (thermalizing QGP vs.
             coherent color fields with virtual particles) -- all yield a
             reasonable agreement with a large variety of the available
             heavy ion data. Hadron/hyperon yields, including $J/\Psi$
             meson production/suppression, strange matter formation,
             dileptons, and directed flow (bounce-off and squeeze-out)
             are investigated. Observations of interesting phenomena in
             dense matter are reported. However, we emphasize the need
             for systematic future measurements to search for
             simultaneous irregularities in the excitation functions of
             several observables in order to come close to pinning the
             properties of hot, dense QCD matter from data. The role of
             future experiments with the STAR and ALICE detectors is
             pointed out.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.59576},
   Key = {fds303612}
}

@article{fds304507,
   Author = {Bass, SA and Hofmann, M and Bleicher, M and Bravina, L and Zabrodin, E and Stöcker, H and Greiner, W},
   Title = {Analysis of reaction dynamics at ultrarelativistic energies
             in a combined parton-hadron transport approach},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {60},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {219011-219015},
   Year = {1999},
   Abstract = {We introduce a transport approach which combines partonic
             and hadronic degrees of freedom on an equal footing and
             discuss the resulting reaction dynamics. The initial parton
             dynamics is modeled in the framework of the parton cascade
             model, hadronization is performed via a cluster
             hadronization model and configuration space coalescence, and
             the hadronic phase is described by a microscopic hadronic
             transport approach. The resulting reaction dynamics indicate
             a strong influence of hadronic rescattering on the
             space-time pattern of hadronic freeze-out and on the shape
             of transverse mass spectra. Freeze-out times and transverse
             radii increase by factors of 2-3 depending on the hadron
             species.},
   Key = {fds304507}
}

@article{fds245282,
   Author = {Ardouin, D and Soff, S and Spieles, C and Bass, SA and Stöcker, H and Gourio, D and Schramm, S and Greiner, C and Lednicky, R and Lyuboshitz,
             VL and Coffin, J-P and Kühn, C},
   Title = {Unlike particle correlations and the strange quark matter
             distillation process},
   Journal = {Physics Letters B},
   Volume = {446},
   Number = {3-4},
   Pages = {191-196},
   Year = {1999},
   ISSN = {0370-2693},
   Abstract = {We present a new technique for observing the strange quark
             matter distillation process based on unlike particle
             correlations. A simulation is presented based on the
             scenario of a two-phase thermodynamical evolution mode. ©
             1999 Published by Elsevier Science B.V. All rights
             reserved.},
   Key = {fds245282}
}

@article{fds245283,
   Author = {Scherer, S and Bass, SA and Bleicher, M and Belkacem, M and Bravina, L and Brachmann, J and Dumitru, A and Ernst, C and Gerland, L and Hofmann, M and Neise, L and Reiter, M and Soff, S and Spieles, C and Weber, H and Zabrodin, E and Zschiesche, D and Maruhn, JA and Stöcker, H and Griener, W},
   Title = {Critical review of quark gluon plasma signatures},
   Journal = {Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {42},
   Pages = {279-293},
   Year = {1999},
   Abstract = {Nonequilibrium models (three-fluid hydrodynamics and UrQMD)
             are used to discuss the uniqueness of often proposed
             experimental signatures for quark matter formation in
             relativistic heavy ion collisions. It is demonstrated that
             these two models - although they do treat the most
             interesting early phase of the collisions quite differently
             (thermalizing QGP vs. coherent color fields with virtual
             particles) - both yield a reasonable agreement with a large
             variety of the available heavy ion data. Hadron/hyperon
             yields, including J/Ψ meson production/suppression, strange
             matter formation, dileptons, and directed flow (bounce-off
             and squeeze-out) are investigated. Observations of
             interesting phenomena in dense matter are reported. However,
             we emphasize the need for systematic future measurements to
             search for simultaneous irregularities in the excitation
             functions of several observables in order to come close to
             pinning the properties of hot, dense QCD matter from
             data.},
   Key = {fds245283}
}

@article{fds245284,
   Author = {Bleicher, M and Spieles, C and Ernst, C and Gerland, L and Soff, S and Neise, L and Stöcker, H and Greiner, W and Bass,
             SA},
   Title = {The origin of transverse flow at the SPS},
   Journal = {Physics Letters B},
   Volume = {447},
   Number = {3-4},
   Pages = {227-232},
   Year = {1999},
   ISSN = {0370-2693},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/9803346},
   Abstract = {We study the transverse expansion in central Pb + Pb
             collisions at the CERN SPS. Strong collective motion of
             hadrons can be created. This flow is mainly due to meson
             baryon rescattering. It allows to study the angular
             distribution of intermediate mass meson baryon interactions.
             © 1999 Published by Elsevier Science B.V. All rights
             reserved.},
   Key = {fds245284}
}

@article{fds245359,
   Author = {Bass, SA and Müller, B and Pöschl, W},
   Title = {Lattice gauge description of colliding nuclei},
   Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
             Physics},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {L109-L115},
   Year = {1999},
   ISSN = {0954-3899},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/9808011},
   Abstract = {We propose a novel formalism for simultaneously describing
             both the hard and soft parton dynamics in ultrarelativistic
             collisions of nuclei. The emission of gluons from the
             initially coherent parton configurations of the colliding
             nuclei and low-p1 colour coherence effects are treated in
             the framework of a Yang-Mills transport equation on a
             coupled lattice-particle system. A collision term is added
             to the transport equation to account for the remaining
             intermediate and high-p1 interactions in an infrared finite
             manner.},
   Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/25/11/101},
   Key = {fds245359}
}

@article{fds245360,
   Author = {Bass, SA and Weber, H and Ernst, C and Bleicher, M and Belkacem, M and Bravina, L and Soff, S and Stöcker, H and Greiner, W and Spieles,
             C},
   Title = {Reaction dynamics in Pb + Pb at the CERN/SPS: From partonic
             degrees of freedom to freeze-out},
   Journal = {Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {42},
   Pages = {313-322},
   Year = {1999},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/9810077},
   Abstract = {We analyze the reaction dynamics of central Pb+Pb collisions
             at 160 GeV/nucleon. First we estimate the energy density ∈
             pile-up at mid-rapidity and calculate its excitation
             function: ∈ is decomposed into hadronic and partonic
             contributions. A detailed analysis of the collision dynamics
             in the framework of a microscopic transport model shows the
             importance of partonic degrees of freedom and rescattering
             of leading (di)quarks in the early phase of the reaction for
             Elab ≥ 30 GeV/nucleon. The energy density reaches up to 4
             GeV/fm3, 95% of which are contained in partonic degrees of
             freedom. It is shown that cells of hadronic matter, after t
             ≈ 2R/γυcm, can be viewed as nearly chemically
             equilibrated. This matter never exceeds energy densities of
             ∼ 0.4 GeV/fm3, i.e. a density above which the notion of
             separated hadrons loses its meaning. The final reaction
             stage is analyzed in terms of hadron ratios, freeze-out
             distributions and a source analysis for final state
             pions.},
   Key = {fds245360}
}

@article{fds245361,
   Author = {Spieles, C and Vogt, R and Gerland, L and Bass, SA and Bleicher, M and Stoecker, H and Greiner, W},
   Title = {Dissociation rates of J/psi's with comoving mesons - thermal
             vs. nonequilibrium scenario},
   Journal = {J. Phys. G},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {2351-2359},
   Year = {1999},
   ISSN = {0954-3899},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/9809441},
   Abstract = {We study J/psi dissociation processes in hadronic
             environments. The validity of a thermal meson gas ansatz is
             tested by confronting it with an alternative, nonequilibrium
             scenario. Heavy ion collisions are simulated in the
             framework of the microscopic transport model UrQMD, taking
             into account the production of charmonium states through
             hard parton-parton interactions and subsequent rescattering
             with hadrons. The thermal gas and microscopic transport
             scenarios are shown to be very dissimilar. Estimates of
             J/psi survival probabilities based on thermal models of
             comover interactions in heavy ion collisions are therefore
             not reliable.},
   Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/25/12/305},
   Key = {fds245361}
}

@article{fds245362,
   Author = {Bravina, LV and Brandstetter, M and Gorenstein, MI and Zabrodin, EE and Belkacem, M and Bleicher, M and Bass, SA and Ernst, C and Hofmann, M and Soff, S and Stöcker, H and Greiner, W},
   Title = {Local thermal and chemical equilibration and the equation of
             state in relativistic heavy ion collisions},
   Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
             Physics},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {351-361},
   Year = {1999},
   ISSN = {0954-3899},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/9810036},
   Abstract = {Thermodynamical variables and their time evolution are
             studied for central relativistic heavy ion collisions from
             10.7 to 160 A GeV in the microscopic ultrarelativistic
             quantum molecular dynamics model (UrQMD). The UrQMD model
             exhibits drastic deviations from equilibrium during the
             early high density phase of the collision. Local thermal and
             chemical equilibration of the hadronic matter seems to be
             established only at later stages of the quasi-isentropic
             expansion in the central reaction cell with volume 125 fm3.
             Baryon energy spectra in this cell are reproduced by
             Boltzmann distributions at all collision energies for t ≥
             10 fm/c with a unique rapidly dropping temperature. At these
             times the equation of state has a simple form: P ≅
             (0.12-0.15)ε. At SPS energies the strong deviation from
             chemical equilibrium is found for mesons, especially pions,
             even at the late stage of the reaction. The final
             enhancement of pions is supported by experimental
             data.},
   Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/25/2/024},
   Key = {fds245362}
}

@article{fds245363,
   Author = {Bass, SA and Gyulassy, M and Stöcker, H and Greiner,
             W},
   Title = {Signatures of quark-gluon plasma formation in high energy
             heavy-ion collisions: A critical review},
   Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
             Physics},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {R1-R57},
   Year = {1999},
   ISSN = {0954-3899},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/9810281},
   Abstract = {A critical review on signatures of quark-gluon plasma (QGP)
             formation is given and the current (1998) experimental
             status is discussed. After giving an introduction to the
             properties of QCD matter in both, equilibrium and
             non-equilibrium theories, we focus on observables which may
             yield experimental evidence for QGP formation. For each
             individual observable the discussion is divided into three
             sections: first the connection between the respective
             observable and QGP formation in terms of the underlying
             theoretical concepts is given, then the relevant
             experimental results are reviewed and finally the current
             status concerning the interpretation of both, theory and
             experiment, is discussed. A comprehensive summary including
             an outlook towards RHIC is given in the final
             section.},
   Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/25/3/013},
   Key = {fds245363}
}

@article{fds245364,
   Author = {Bleicher, M and Reiter, M and Dumitru, A and Brachmann, J and Spieles,
             C and Bass, SA and Stöcker, H and Greiner, W},
   Title = {Distinguishing hadronic cascades from hydrodynamic models in
             Pb(160A GeV) + Pb reactions by impact parameter
             variation},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {59},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {R1844-R1845},
   Year = {1999},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/9811459},
   Abstract = {We propose to study the impact parameter dependence of the
             Λ̄/p̄ ratio in Pb(160A GeV) + Pb reactions. The Λ̄/p̄
             ratio is a sensible tool to distinguish between hadronic
             cascade models and hydrodynamical models, which assume
             chemical equilibrium and incorporate a possible phase
             transition to a quark-gluon plasma.},
   Key = {fds245364}
}

@article{fds245365,
   Author = {Bravina, LV and Gorenstein, MI and Zabrodin, EE and Bass, SA and Belkacem, M and Bleicher, M and Brandstetter, M and Hofmann, M and Soff,
             S and Spieles, C and Weber, H and Stöckerand, H and Greiner,
             W},
   Title = {Equilibrium and non-equilibrium effects in nucleus - Nucleus
             collisions},
   Journal = {Physics Letters B},
   Volume = {459},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {660-666},
   Year = {1999},
   ISSN = {0370-2693},
   Abstract = {Local thermal and chemical equilibration is studied for
             central A + A collisions at 10.7-160 AGeV in the
             Ultrarelativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics model (UrQMD).
             The UrQMD mode exhibits strong deviations from local
             equilibrium at the high density hadron-string phase formed
             during the early stage of the collision. Equilibration of
             the hadron-resonance matter is established in the central
             cäl of volume V = 125 fmat later stages, t > 10 fm/c, of
             the resulting quasi-isentropic expansion. The
             thermodynamical functions in the cell and their time
             evolution are presented. Deviations of the UrQMD
             quasi-equilibrium state from the statistical mechanics
             equilibrium are found. They increase with energy per baryon
             and lead to a strong enhancement of the pion number density
             as compared to statistical mechanics estimates at SPS
             energies. ©1999 Published by Elsevier Science B.V. All
             rights reserved.},
   Key = {fds245365}
}

@article{fds245366,
   Author = {Spieles, C and Vogt, R and Gerland, L and Bass, SA and Bleicher, M and Frankfurt, L and Strikman, M and Stöcker, H and Greiner,
             W},
   Title = {Dissociation of expanding cc̄ states in heavy ion
             collisions},
   Journal = {Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and
             High-Energy Physics},
   Volume = {458},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {137-142},
   Year = {1999},
   Abstract = {We study J/ψ suppression in AB collisions assuming that the
             charmonium states evolve from small, color transparent
             configurations. Their interaction with nucleons and
             nonequilibrated, secondary hadrons is simulated using the
             microscopic model UrQMD. The Drell-Yan lepton pair yield and
             the J/ψ/Drell-Yan ratio are calculated as a function of the
             neutral transverse energy in Pb + Pb collisions at 160 GeV
             and found to be in reasonable agreement with existing data.
             © 1999 Published by Elsevier Science B.V. All rights
             reserved.},
   Key = {fds245366}
}

@article{fds245367,
   Author = {Dumitru, A and Bass, SA and Bleicher, M and Stöcker, H and Greiner,
             W},
   Title = {Direct emission of multiple strange baryons in
             ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions from the phase
             boundary},
   Journal = {Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and
             High-Energy Physics},
   Volume = {460},
   Number = {3-4},
   Pages = {411-416},
   Year = {1999},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/9901046},
   Abstract = {We discuss a model for the space-time evolution of
             ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions which employs
             relativistic hydrodynamics within one region of the forward
             light-cone, and microscopic transport theory (i.e. UrQMD) in
             the complement. Our initial condition consists of a
             quark-gluon plasma which expands hydrodynamically and
             hadronizes. After hadronization the solution eventually
             changes from expansion in local equilibrium to free
             streaming, as determined selfconsistently by the interaction
             rates between the hadrons and the local expansion rate. We
             show that in such a scenario the inverse slopes of the
             mT-spectra of multiple strange baryons (Ξ, Ω) are
             practically unaffected by the purely hadronic stage of the
             reaction, while the flow of p's and Λ's increases.
             Moreover, we find that the rather "soft" transverse
             expansion at RHIC energies (due to a first-order phase
             transition) is not washed out by strong rescattering in the
             hadronic stage. The earlier kinetic freeze-out as compared
             to SPS-energies results in similar inverse slopes (of the
             mT-spectra of the hadrons in the final state) at RHIC and
             SPS energies. © 1999 Published by Elsevier Science B.V. All
             rights reserved.},
   Key = {fds245367}
}

@article{fds245368,
   Author = {Bass, SA and Dumitru, A and Bleicher, M and Bravina, L and Zabrodin, E and Stöcker, H and Greiner, W},
   Title = {Hadronic freeze-out following a first order hadronization
             phase transition in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion
             collisions},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {60},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {219021-219025},
   Year = {1999},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000082051700007&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Abstract = {We analyze the hadronic freeze-out in ultrarelativistic
             heavy-ion collisions at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider
             (RHIC) in a transport approach that combines hydrodynamics
             for the early, dense, deconfined stage of the reaction with
             a microscopic nonequilibrium model for the later hadronic
             stage at which the hydrodynamic equilibrium assumptions are
             not valid. With this ansatz we are able to self-consistently
             calculate the freeze-out of the system and determine
             space-time hypersurfaces for individual hadron species. The
             space-time domains of the freeze-out for several hadron
             species are found to be actually four dimensional, and
             differ drastically for the individual hadrons species.
             Freeze-out radii distributions are similar in width for most
             hadron species, even though the Ω- is found to be emitted
             rather close to the phase boundary and shows the smallest
             freeze-out radii and times among all baryon species. The
             total lifetime of the system does not change by more than
             10% when going from CERN Super Proton Synchrotron to RHIC
             energies.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.60.021902},
   Key = {fds245368}
}

@article{fds245369,
   Author = {Bass, SA and Hofmann, M and Bleicher, M and Bravina, L and Zabrodin, E and Stoecker, H and Greiner, W},
   Title = {Analysis of reaction dynamics at RHIC in a combined
             parton/hadron transport approach},
   Journal = {Phys. Rev. C},
   Volume = {60},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {021901},
   Year = {1999},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/9902055},
   Abstract = {We introduce a transport approach which combines partonic
             and hadronic degrees of freedom on an equal footing and
             discuss the resulting reaction dynamics. The initial parton
             dynamics is modeled in the framework of the parton cascade
             model, hadronization is performed via a cluster
             hadronization model and configuration space coalescence, and
             the hadronic phase is described by a microscopic hadronic
             transport approach. The resulting reaction dynamics
             indicates a strong influence of hadronic rescattering on the
             space-time pattern of hadronic freeze-out and on the shape
             of transverse mass spectra. Freeze-out times and transverse
             radii increase by factors of 2 - 3 depending on the hadron
             species.},
   Key = {fds245369}
}

@article{fds245370,
   Author = {Spieles, C and Vogt, R and Gerland, L and Bass, SA and Bleicher, M and Stöcker, H and Greiner, W},
   Title = {Modeling J/ψ production and absorption in a microscopic
             nonequilibrium approach},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {60},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {549011-5490115},
   Year = {1999},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000083768600057&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Abstract = {Charmonium production and absorption in heavy ion collisions
             is studied with the ultrarelativisitic quantum molecular
             dynamics model. We compare the scenario of universal and
             time-independent color-octet dissociation cross sections
             with one of distinct color-singlet J/ψ, ψ′, and χc
             states, evolving from small, color transparent
             configurations to their asymptotic sizes. Both purely
             hadronic scenarios are compared with the pA and AB data at
             SPS energies. The predicted rapidity dependence of Jlψ
             suppression can be used to discriminate between the two
             scenarios experimentally. The importance of interactions
             with secondary hadrons and the applicability of thermal
             reaction kinetics to Jlψ absorption are investigated. We
             discuss the effect of nuclear stopping and the role of
             leading hadrons. The dependence of the ψ′/J/ψ ratio on
             the model assumptions and the possible influence of
             refeeding processes are also studied.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.60.054901},
   Key = {fds245370}
}

@article{fds245371,
   Author = {Monreal, B and Bass, SA and Bleicher, M and Esumi, S and Greiner, W and Li,
             Q and Liu, H and Llope, WJ and Mattiello, R and Panitkin, S and Sakrejda,
             I and Snellings, R and Sorge, H and Spieles, C and Stöcker, H and Thomas,
             J and Voloshin, S and Wang, F and Xu, N},
   Title = {Deuterons and space-momentum correlations in high energy
             nuclear collisions},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {60},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {319011-319014},
   Year = {1999},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000082735100010&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Abstract = {Using a microscopic transport model together with a
             coalescence afterburner, we study the formation of deuterons
             in Au+Au central collisions at √s = 200A GeV. It is found
             that the deuteron transverse momentum distributions are
             strongly affected by the nucleon space-momentum
             correlations, at the moment of freeze-out, which are mostly
             determined by the number of rescatterings. This feature is
             useful for studying collision dynamics at ultrarelativistic
             energies.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.60.031901},
   Key = {fds245371}
}

@article{fds245372,
   Author = {Bass, SA and Bleicher, M and Cassing, W and Dumitru, A and Drescher, HJ and Eskola, KJ and Gyulassy, M and Kharzeev, D and Kovchegov, YV and Lin, Z and Molnar, D and Ollitrault, JY and Pratt, S and Schlei, BR and Sorge, H and Rafelski, J and Rapp, R and Rischke, DH and Schaffner, JB and Snigirev,
             AM and Srivastava, DK and Stachel, J and Teaney, D and Thews, R and Vance,
             SE and Vitev, I and Vogt, R and Wang, XN and Zhang, B and Zimányi,
             J},
   Title = {Last call for RHIC predictions},
   Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
   Volume = {661},
   Number = {1-4},
   Pages = {205c-260c},
   Year = {1999},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/9907090},
   Abstract = {This paper contains the individual contributions of all
             speakers of the session on 'Last Call for RHIC Predictions'
             at Quark Matter 99, and a summary by the
             convenor.},
   Key = {fds245372}
}

@article{fds245373,
   Author = {Bravina, LV and Zabrodin, EE and Gorenstein, MI and Bass, SA and Belkacem, M and Bleicher, M and Brandstetter, M and Ernst, C and Faessler, A and Greiner, W and Soff, S and Stöcker, H and Weber,
             H},
   Title = {Equilibrium and non-equilibrium effects in relativistic
             heavy ion collisions.},
   Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
   Volume = {661},
   Number = {1-4},
   Pages = {600c-603c},
   Year = {1999},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/9907062},
   Abstract = {The hypothesis of local equilibrium (LE) in relativistic
             heavy ion collisions at energies from AGS to RHIC is checked
             in the microscopic transport model. We find that kinetic,
             thermal, and chemical equilibration of the expanding
             hadronic matter is nearly reached in central collisions at
             AGS energy for t ≥ 10 fm/c in a central cell. At these
             times the equation of state may be approximated by a simple
             dependence P ≅ (0.12 - 0.15) ε. Increasing deviations of
             the yields and the energy spectra of hadrons from
             statistical model values are observed for increasing
             bombarding energies. The origin of these deviations is
             traced to the irreversible multiparticle decays of strings
             and many-body (N ≥ 3) decays of resonances. The violations
             of LE indicate that the matter in the cell reaches a steady
             state instead of idealized equilibrium. The entropy density
             in the cell is only about 6% smaller than that of the
             equilibrium state.},
   Key = {fds245373}
}

@article{fds245374,
   Author = {Bravina, LV and Zabrodin, EE and Gorenstein, MI and Bass, SA and Belkacem, M and Bleicher, M and Brandstetter, M and Ernst, C and Hofmann, M and Neise, L and Soff, S and Weber, H and Stöcker, H and Greiner, W},
   Title = {Local equilibrium in heavy ion collisions: Microscopic model
             versus statistical model analysis},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {60},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {249041-2490414},
   Year = {1999},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000082051700046&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Abstract = {The assumption of local equilibrium in relativistic heavy
             ion collisions at energies from 10.7A GeV (AGS) up to 160A
             GeV (SPS) is checked in the microscopic transport model.
             Dynamical calculations performed for a central cell in the
             reaction are compared to the predictions of the thermal
             statistical model. We find that kinetic, thermal, and
             chemical equilibration of the expanding hadronic matter are
             nearly approached late in central collisions at AGS energy
             for t ≥ 10 fm/c in a central cell. At these times the
             equation of state may be approximated by a simple dependence
             P ≅ (0.12-0.15)ε. Increasing deviations of the yields and
             the energy spectra of hadrons from statistical model values
             are observed for increasing energy, 40A GeV and 160A GeV.
             These violations of local equilibrium indicate that a fully
             equilibrated state is not reached, not even in the central
             cell of heavy ion collisions at energies above 10A GeV. The
             origin of these findings is traced to the multiparticle
             decays of strings and many-body decays of
             resonances.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.60.024904},
   Key = {fds245374}
}

@article{fds245375,
   Author = {Soff, S and Bass, SA and Bleicher, M and Bravina, L and Gorenstein, M and Zabrodin, E and Stöcker, H and Greiner, W},
   Title = {Strangeness enhancement in heavy ion collisions - Evidence
             for quark-gluon matter?},
   Journal = {Physics Letters B},
   Volume = {471},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {89-96},
   Year = {1999},
   ISSN = {0370-2693},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/9907026},
   Abstract = {The centrality dependence of (multi-)strange hadron
             abundances is studied for Pb(158 A GeV)Pb reactions and
             compared to p(158 GeV)Pb collisions. The microscopic
             transport model UrQMD is used for this analysis. The
             predicted Λ/π-, Ξ-/π- and Ω-/π- ratios are enhanced
             due to rescattering in central Pb-Pb collisions as compared
             to peripheral Pb-Pb or p-Pb collisions. However, the
             enhancement is substantially smaller than observed
             experimentally. The enhancement depends strongly on the
             kinematical cuts. The maximum enhancement is predicted
             around midrapidity. For A's, strangeness suppression is
             predicted at projectile/target rapidity. For Λ's, the
             predicted enhancement can be as large as one order of
             magnitude. Comparisons of Pb-Pb data to proton induced
             asymmetric (p-A) collisions are hampered due to the
             predicted strong asymmetry in the various rapidity
             distributions of the different (strange) particle species.
             In p-Pb collisions, strangeness is locally (in rapidity) not
             conserved. The present comparison to the data of the WA97
             and NA49 Collaborations clearly supports the suggestion that
             conventional (free) hadronic scenarios are unable to
             describe the observed high (anti-)hyperon yields in central
             collisions. A reduction of the constituent quark masses to
             the current quark masses m(s) ~ 230 Me V, m(q) ~ 10 MeV, as
             motivated by chiral symmetry restoration, yields hyperon
             production close to the experimentally observed high values.
             An ad hoc overall increase of the color electric field
             strength (effective string tension of κ = 3 Ge V/fm) yields
             similar results. It has been suggested that these findings
             might be interpreted as a signal of a phase of nearly
             massless particles. (C) 1999 Published by Elsevier Science
             B.V.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0370-2693(99)01318-0},
   Key = {fds245375}
}

@article{fds245376,
   Author = {Bass, SA and Müller, B},
   Title = {K-factors in parton cascades at RHIC and
             SPS},
   Journal = {Physics Letters B},
   Volume = {471},
   Number = {2-3},
   Pages = {108-112},
   Year = {1999},
   ISSN = {0370-2693},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/9908014},
   Abstract = {Different treatments for the inclusion of higher-order
             perturbative QCD corrections in parton based transport
             models of relativistic heavy-ion collisions are studied and
             their influence on experimental observables is investigated.
             At RHIC, particle multiplicities may vary by more than 30%,
             depending on the correction scheme. A detailed analysis of
             the squared relative momentum transfers Q2 to be expected in
             parton (re)scatterings at RHIC casts doubt on the
             applicability of pQCD based transport approaches at the SPS
             and rules out the application of higher-order correction
             schemes based on a rescaling of Q2 in the running coupling
             constant α(s), at all energies. (C) 1999 Published by
             Elsevier Science B.V.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0370-2693(99)01364-7},
   Key = {fds245376}
}

@article{fds245377,
   Author = {Bleicher, M and Zabrodin, E and Spieles, C and Bass, SA and Ernst, C and Soff, S and Bravina, L and Belkacem, M and Weber, H and Stöcker, H and Greiner, W},
   Title = {Relativistic hadron-hadron collisions in the
             ultra-relativistic quantum molecular dynamics
             model},
   Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
             Physics},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {1859-1896},
   Year = {1999},
   ISSN = {0954-3899},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/9909407},
   Abstract = {Hadron-hadron (h-h) collisions at high energies are
             investigated in the ultra-relativistic quantum molecular
             dynamics (UrQMD) approach. This microscopic transport model
             describes the phenomenology of hadronic interactions at low
             and intermediate energies (√s < 5 GeV) in terms of
             interactions between known hadrons and their resonances. At
             higher energies, √s > 5 GeV, the excitation of colour
             strings and their subsequent fragmentation into hadrons
             dominates the multiple production of particles in the UrQMD
             model. The model shows a fair overall agreement with a large
             body of experimental h-h data over a wide range of h-h
             centre-of-mass energies. Hadronic reaction data with higher
             precision would be useful to support the use of the UrQMD
             model for relativistic heavy-ion collisions.},
   Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/25/9/308},
   Key = {fds245377}
}

@article{fds304508,
   Author = {Spieles, C and Vogt, R and Gerland, L and Bass, SA and Bleicher, M and Stöcker, H and Greiner, W},
   Title = {Dissociation of J/ψ by mesons: Thermal versus
             nonequilibrium scenario},
   Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
             Physics},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {2351-2359},
   Year = {1999},
   ISSN = {0954-3899},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0954-3899/25/12/305},
   Abstract = {We study J/ψ reaction kinetics in hadronic environments.
             The validity of a thermal meson gas ansatz is tested by
             confronting it with an alternative, nonequilibrium scenario.
             Heavy-ion collisions are simulated in the framework of the
             microscopic transport model, the ultrarelativistic quantum
             molecular dynamics model, taking into account the production
             of charmonium states through hard parton-parton interactions
             and subsequent rescattering with secondary hadrons assuming
             constant dissociation cross sections. The thermal gas and
             microscopic transport scenarios are shown to be very
             dissimilar. Estimates of J/ψ survival probabilities based
             on thermal models of co-mover interactions in heavy-ion
             collisions are therefore questionable.},
   Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/25/12/305},
   Key = {fds304508}
}

@article{fds318407,
   Author = {Weber, H and Ernst, C and Bass, SA and Spieles, C and Bleicher, M and Belkacem, M and Bravina, L and Stöcker, H and Greiner,
             W},
   Title = {Excitation function of energy density and partonic degrees
             of freedom in relativistic heavy ion collisions},
   Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
   Volume = {642},
   Number = {1-2},
   Pages = {121C-129C},
   Year = {1998},
   Abstract = {We estimate the energy density ∈ pile-up at mid-rapidity
             in central Pb+Pb collisions from 1 - 200 GeV/nucleon. ∈ is
             decomposed into hadronic and partonic contributions. A
             detailed analysis of the collision dynamics in the framework
             of a microscopic transport model shows the importance of
             partonic degrees of freedom and rescattering of leading
             (di)quarks in the early phase of the reaction for Elab ≥
             30 GeV/nucleon. The energy density reaches up to 4 GeV/fm3,
             95% of which are contained in partonic degrees of freedom.
             It is shown that cells of hadronic matter, after t ≈
             2.R/γ, can be viewed as nearly chemically equilibrated.
             This matter never exceeds energy densities of ∼ 1
             GeV/fm-3, i.e. a density above which the notion of separated
             hadrons loses its meaning.},
   Key = {fds318407}
}

@article{fds245225,
   Author = {Bass, SA and Soff, S and Belkacem, M and Brandstetter, M and Bleicher,
             M and Gerland, L and Konopka, J and Neise, L and Spieles, C and Weber, H and Stocker, H and Greiner, W},
   Title = {Hadrochemical vs. microscopic analysis of particle
             production and freeze-out in ultrarelativistic heavy ion
             collisions},
   Journal = {ADVANCES IN NUCLEAR DYNAMICS 4},
   Pages = {13-24},
   Year = {1998},
   ISBN = {0-306-46036-X},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000078172500002&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds245225}
}

@article{fds245278,
   Author = {Spieles, C and Gerland, L and Hammon, N and Bleicher, M and Bass, SA and Stöcker, H and Greiner, W and Lourenço, C and Vogt,
             R},
   Title = {Intermediate mass dileptons from secondary Drell-Yan
             processes},
   Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
   Volume = {638},
   Number = {1-2},
   Pages = {507c-510c},
   Year = {1998},
   Abstract = {Recent reports on enhancements of intermediate and high mass
             muon pairs produced in heavy ion collisions have attracted
             much attention. To gain a better understanding of the
             content of the dilepton continuum, we study Drell-Yan
             production from secondary hadron interactions in
             nucleus-nucleus collisions. We show that meson-baryon
             interactions can be an important source of m ∼ 2 GeV
             dileptons. We also discuss the effects of preresonance
             parton collisions.},
   Key = {fds245278}
}

@article{fds245279,
   Author = {Bleicher, M and Gerland, L and Spieles, C and Dumitru, A and Bass, S and Belkacem, M and Brandstetter, M and Ernst, C and Neise, L and Soff, S and Weber, H and Stöcker, H and Greiner, W},
   Title = {Fluctuations and inhomogenities of energy density and
             isospin in Pb+Pb at the SPS},
   Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
   Volume = {638},
   Number = {1-2},
   Pages = {391c-394c},
   Year = {1998},
   Key = {fds245279}
}

@article{fds245351,
   Author = {Hartnack, C and Puri, RK and Aichelin, J and Konopka, J and Bass, SA and Stöcker, H and Greiner, W},
   Title = {Modelling the many-body dynamics of heavy ion collisions:
             Present status and future perspective},
   Journal = {European Physical Journal A},
   Volume = {1},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {151-169},
   Year = {1998},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/9811015},
   Abstract = {Basic problems of the semiclassical microscopic modelling of
             strongly interacting systems are discussed within the
             framework of Quantum Molecular Dynamics (QMD). This model
             allows to study the influence of several types of nucleonic
             interactions on a large variety of observables and phenomena
             occurring in heavy ion collisions at relativistic energies.
             It is shown that the same predictions can be obtained with
             several - numerically completely different and independently
             written - programs as far as the same model parameters are
             employed and the same basic approximations are made. Many
             observables are robust against variations of the details of
             the model assumptions used. Some of the physical results,
             however, depend also on rather technical parameters like the
             preparation of the initial configuration in phase space.
             This crucial problem is connected with the description of
             the ground state of single nuclei, which differs among the
             various approaches. An outlook to an improved molecular
             dynamics scheme for heavy ion collisions is
             given.},
   Key = {fds245351}
}

@article{fds245352,
   Author = {Spieles, C and Gerland, L and Hammon, N and Bleicher, M and Bass, SA and Stöcker, H and Greiner, W and Lourenço, C and Vogt,
             R},
   Title = {A microscopic calculation of secondary Drell-Yan production
             in heavy ion collisions},
   Journal = {European Physical Journal C},
   Volume = {5},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {349-355},
   Year = {1998},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/9706525},
   Abstract = {A study of secondary Drell-Yan production in nuclear
             collisions is presented for SPS energies. In addition to the
             lepton pairs produced in the initial collisions of the
             projectile and target nucleons, we consider the potentially
             high dilepton yield from hard valence antiquarks in produced
             mesons and antibaryons. We calculate the secondary Drell-Yan
             contributions taking the collision spectrum of hadrons from
             the microscopic model URQMD. The contributions from
             meson-baryon interactions, small in hadron-nucleus
             interactions, are found to be substantial in nucleus-nucleus
             collisions at low dilepton masses. Preresonance collisions
             of partons may further increase the yields.},
   Key = {fds245352}
}

@article{fds245353,
   Author = {Ernst, C and Bass, SA and Belkacem, M and Stöcker, H and Greiner,
             W},
   Title = {Intermediate mass excess of dilepton production in heavy ion
             collisions at relativistic energies},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {58},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {447-456},
   Year = {1998},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/9712069},
   Abstract = {Dielectron mass spectra are examined for various nuclear
             reactions recently measured by the DLS Collaboration. A
             detailed description is given of all dilepton channels
             included in the transport model UrQMD 1.0, i.e., Dalitz
             decays of π0, η, ω, η′ mesons and of the Δ(1232)
             resonance, direct decays of vector mesons and pn
             bremsstrahlung. The microscopic calculations reproduce data
             for light systems fairly well, but tend to underestimate the
             data in pp at high energies and in pd at low energies. These
             conventional sources, however, cannot explain the recently
             reported enhancement for nucleus-nucleus collisions in the
             mass region 0.15 GeV≤Me+e-≤0.6 GeV. Chiral scaling and
             ω meson broadening in the medium are investigated as a
             source of this mass excess. They also cannot explain the
             recent DLS data.},
   Key = {fds245353}
}

@article{fds245354,
   Author = {Bass, SA and Belkacem, M and Bleicher, M and Brandstetter, M and Bravina, L and Ernst, C and Gerland, L and Hofmann, M and Hofmann, S and Konopka, J and Mao, G and Neise, L and Soff, S and Spieles, C and Weber, H and Winckelmann, LA and Stöcker, H and Greiner, W and Hartnack, C and Aichelin, J and Amelin, N},
   Title = {Microscopic Models for Ultrarelativistic Heavy Ion
             Collisions},
   Journal = {Prog. Part. & Nucl. Phys.},
   Volume = {41},
   Pages = {225-370},
   Year = {1998},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/9803035},
   Abstract = {In this paper, the concepts of microscopic transport theory
             are introduced and the features and shortcomings of the most
             commonly used ansatzes are discussed. In particular, the
             Ultrarelativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD)
             transport model is described in great detail. Based on the
             same principles as QMD and RQMD, it incorporates a vastly
             extended collision term with full baryon-antibaryon
             symmetry, 55 baryon and 32 meson species. Isospin is
             explicitly treated for all hadrons. The range of
             applicability stretches from $E_{lab} 200$ GeV/nucleon,
             allowing for a consistent calculation of excitation
             functions from the intermediate energy domain up to
             ultrarelativistic energies. The main physics topics under
             discussion are stopping, particle production and collective
             flow.},
   Key = {fds245354}
}

@article{fds245355,
   Author = {Bleicher, M and Belkacem, M and Ernst, C and Weber, H and Gerland, L and Spieles, C and Bass, SA and Stöcker, H and Greiner,
             W},
   Title = {Can momentum correlations prove kinetic equilibration in
             heavy ion collisions at 160 AGeV?},
   Journal = {Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and
             High-Energy Physics},
   Volume = {435},
   Number = {1-2},
   Pages = {9-12},
   Year = {1998},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/9803345},
   Abstract = {We perform an event-by-event analysis of the transverse
             momentum distribution of final state particles in central
             Pb(160 AGeV) + Pb collisions within a microscopic
             non-equilibrium transport model (UrQMD). Strong influence of
             rescattering is found. The extracted momentum distributions
             show less fluctuations in A + A collisions than in p + p
             reactions. This is in contrast to simplified p + p
             extrapolations and random walk models. © 1998 Elsevier
             Science B.V. All rights reserved.},
   Key = {fds245355}
}

@article{fds245356,
   Author = {Belkacem, M and Brandstetter, M and Bass, SA and Bleicher, M and Bravina, L and Gorenstein, MI and Konopka, J and Neise, L and Spieles,
             C and Soff, S and Weber, H and Stöcker, H and Greiner,
             W},
   Title = {Equation of state, spectra, and composition of hot and dense
             infinite hadronic matter in a microscopic transport
             model},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {58},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {1727-1733},
   Year = {1998},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/9804058},
   Abstract = {Equilibrium properties of infinite relativistic hadron
             matter are investigated using the ultrarelativistic quantum
             molecular dynamics (UrQMD) model. The simulations are
             performed in a box with periodic boundary conditions.
             Equilibration times depend critically on energy and baryon
             densities. Energy spectra of various hadronic species are
             shown to be isotropic and consistent with a single
             temperature in equilibrium. The variation of energy density
             versus temperature shows a Hagedorn-like behavior with a
             limiting temperature of 130±10 MeV. Comparison of
             abundances of different particle species to ideal hadron gas
             model predictions show good agreement only if detailed
             balance is implemented for all channels. At low energy
             densities, high mass resonances are not relevant; however,
             their importance rises with increasing energy density. The
             relevance of these different conceptual frameworks for any
             interpretation of experimental data is questioned.},
   Key = {fds245356}
}

@article{fds245357,
   Author = {Bravina, LV and Gorenstein, MI and Belkacem, M and Bass, SA and Bleicher, M and Brandstetter, M and Hofmann, M and Soff, S and Spieles,
             C and Weber, H and Stöcker, H and Greiner, W},
   Title = {Local thermodynamical equilibrium and the equation of state
             of hot, dense matter created in Au + Au collisions at
             AGS},
   Journal = {Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and
             High-Energy Physics},
   Volume = {434},
   Number = {3-4},
   Pages = {379-387},
   Year = {1998},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/9804008},
   Abstract = {Local kinetic and chemical equilibration is studied for Au +
             Au collisions at 10.7 AGeV in the microscopic
             Ultrarelativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics model (UrQMD).
             The UrQMD model exhibits dramatic derivations from
             equilibrium during the high density phase of the collision.
             Thermal and chemical equilibration of the hadronic matter
             seems to be established in the later stages during a
             quasi-isentropic expansion, observed in the central reaction
             cell with volume 125 fm3. For t ≥ 10 fm/c the hadron
             energy spectra in the cell are nicely reproduced by
             Boltzmann distributions with a common rapidly dropping
             temperature. Hadron yields change drastically and at the
             late expansion stage follow closely those of an ideal gas
             statistical model. The equation of state seems to be simple
             at late times: P ≅ 0.12ε. The time evolution of other
             thermodynamical variables in the cell is also presented. ©
             1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.},
   Key = {fds245357}
}

@article{fds245358,
   Author = {Weber, H and Ernst, C and Bleicher, M and Bravina, L and Stöcker, H and Greiner, W and Spieles, C and Bass, SA},
   Title = {Excitation function of energy density and partonic degrees
             of freedom in relativistic heavy ion collisions},
   Journal = {Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and
             High-Energy Physics},
   Volume = {442},
   Number = {1-4},
   Pages = {443-448},
   Year = {1998},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/9808021},
   Abstract = {We estimate the energy density ε pile-up at mid-rapidity in
             central Pb + Pb collisions from 2-200 GeV/nucleon. ε is
             decomposed into hadronic and partonic contributions. A
             detailed analysis of the collision dynamics in the framework
             of a microscopic transport model shows the importance of
             partonic degrees of freedom and rescattering of leading
             (di)quarks in the early phase of the reaction for Elab ≥
             30 GeV/nucleon. In Pb + Pb collisions at 160 GeV/nucleon the
             energy density reaches up to 4 GeV/fm3, 95% of which are
             contained in partonic degrees of freedom. © 1998 Elsevier
             Science B.V. All rights reserved.},
   Key = {fds245358}
}

@article{fds245397,
   Author = {Bass, SA and Belkacem, M and Brandstetter, M and Bleicher, M and Gerland, L and Konopka, J and Neise, L and Spieles, C and Soff, S and Weber, H and Stoecker, H and Greiner, W},
   Title = {Are we close to the QGP? - Hadrochemical vs. microscopic
             analysis of particle production in ultrarelativistic heavy
             ion collisions},
   Journal = {Phys. Rev. Lett.},
   Volume = {81},
   Number = {19},
   Pages = {4092-4095},
   Year = {1998},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/9711032},
   Abstract = {Ratios of hadronic abundances are analyzed for pp and
             nucleus-nucleus collisions at sqrt(s)=20 GeV using the
             microscopic transport model UrQMD. Secondary interactions
             significantly change the primordial hadronic cocktail of the
             system. A comparison to data shows a strong dependence on
             rapidity. Without assuming thermal and chemical equilibrium,
             predicted hadron yields and ratios agree with many of the
             data, the few observed discrepancies are
             discussed.},
   Key = {fds245397}
}

@article{fds245398,
   Author = {Dumitru, A and Bleicher, M and Bass, SA and Spieles, C and Neise, L and Stocker, H and Greiner, W},
   Title = {Direct photons in Pb+Pb at CERN-SPS from microscopic
             transport theory},
   Journal = {Phys. Rev. C},
   Volume = {57},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {3271-3275},
   Year = {1998},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/9709487},
   Abstract = {Direct photon production in central Pb+Pb collisions at
             CERN-SPS energy is calculated within the relativistic
             microscopic transport model UrQMD, and within distinctly
             different versions of relativistic hydrodynamics. We find
             that in UrQMD the local momentum distributions of the
             secondaries are strongly elongated along the beam axis
             initially. Therefore, the pre-equilibrium contribution
             dominates the photon spectrum at transverse momenta above
             $\approx 1.5$ GeV. The hydrodynamics prediction of a strong
             correlation between the temperature and radial expansion
             velocities on the one hand and the slope of the transverse
             momentum distribution of direct photons on the other hand
             thus is not recovered in UrQMD. The rapidity distribution of
             direct photons in UrQMD reveals that the initial conditions
             for the longitudinal expansion of the photon source (the
             meson ``fluid'') resemble rather boostinvariance than
             Landau-like flow.},
   Key = {fds245398}
}

@article{fds304517,
   Author = {Bass, SA and Belkacem, M and Bleicher, M and Brandstetter, M and Bravina, L and Ernst, C and Gerland, L and Hofmann, M and Hofmann, S and Konopka, J and Mao, G and Neise, L and Soff, S and Spieles, C and Weber, H and Winckelmann, LA and Stöcker, H and Greiner, W and Hartnack, C and Aichelin, J and Amelin, N},
   Title = {Microscopic Models for Ultrarelativistic Heavy Ion
             Collisions},
   Journal = {Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {41},
   Pages = {255-369},
   Year = {1998},
   Key = {fds304517}
}

@article{fds304518,
   Author = {Dumitru, A and Bleicher, M and Bass, SA and Spieles, C and Neise, L and Stöcker, H and Greiner, W},
   Title = {Nonthermal direct photons in Pb+Pb at 160A GeV from
             microscopic transport theory},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {57},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {3271-3275},
   Year = {1998},
   Abstract = {Direct photon production in central Pb+Pb collisions at
             CERN-SPS energy is calculated within the ultrarelativistic
             quantum molecular dynamics model (UrQMD), and within
             distinctly different versions of relativistic hydrodynamics.
             We find that in UrQMD the local momentum distributions of
             the secondaries are strongly elongated along the beam axis
             initially. Therefore, the pre-equilibrium contribution
             dominates the photon spectrum at transverse momenta above
             ≈1.5 GeV. The hydrodynamics prediction of a strong
             correlation between the temperature and radial expansion
             velocities on the one hand, and the slope of the transverse
             momentum distribution of direct photons on the other hand
             thus is not recovered in UrQMD. The rapidity distribution of
             direct photons in UrQMD reveals that the initial conditions
             for the longitudinal expansion of the photon source (the
             meson "fluid") resemble boost invariance rather than
             Landau-like flow.},
   Key = {fds304518}
}

@article{fds304519,
   Author = {Bass, SA and Belkacem, M and Brandstetter, M and Bleicher, M and Gerland, L and Konopka, J and Neise, L and Spieles, C and Soff, S and Weber, H and Stöcker, H and Greiner, W},
   Title = {Are we close to an equilibrated quark-gluon plasma?
             Nonequilibrium analysis of particle production in
             ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {81},
   Number = {19},
   Pages = {4092-4095},
   Year = {1998},
   Abstract = {Ratios of hadronic abundances are analyzed for pp and
             nucleus-nucleus collisions at √s ≈ 20 GeV using the
             microscopic ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics
             transport model. Secondary interactions significantly change
             the primordial hadronic composition of the system. A strong
             dependence on rapidity is predicted. Without assuming
             thermal and chemical equilibrium, predicted hadron yields
             and ratios agree with many of the data (π/p, d/p, p̄/p,
             Λ̄/Λ, Ξ̄/Λ̄, etc.).},
   Key = {fds304519}
}

@booklet{Soff97a,
   Author = {Soff, S and Bass, SA and Belkacem, M and Bleicher, M and Brandstetter,
             M and Ernst, C and Gerland, L and Greiner, W and Konopka, J and Schramm, S and Spieles, C and Stoecker, H and Weber, H},
   Title = {Thermodynamic properties of heavy ion collisions.},
   Journal = {Abstracts Of Papers Of The American Chemical
             Society},
   Volume = {214},
   Pages = {81-NUCL},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {September},
   Key = {Soff97a}
}

@booklet{Stoecker97,
   Author = {Stoecker, H and Bass, SA and Greiner, W},
   Title = {Critical review on Quark Gluon Plasma signals.},
   Journal = {Abstracts Of Papers Of The American Chemical
             Society},
   Volume = {214},
   Pages = {96-NUCL},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {September},
   Key = {Stoecker97}
}

@booklet{Soff97,
   Author = {Soff, S and Ardouin, D and Spieles, C and Bass, SA and Stöcker, H and Gourio, D and Schramm, S and Greiner, C and Lednicky, R and Lyuboshitz,
             VL and Coffin, J-P and Kuhn, C},
   Title = {Search for the production of strangelets in quark matter
             using particle correlations},
   Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
             Physics},
   Volume = {23},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {2095-2105},
   Year = {1997},
   ISSN = {0954-3899},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0954-3899/23/12/035},
   Abstract = {We present a new technique for observing the strangelet
             production in quark matter based on unlike particle
             correlations. A simulation is presented with a two-phase
             thermodynamical model.},
   Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/23/12/035},
   Key = {Soff97}
}

@booklet{Winckelmann96,
   Author = {Winckelmann, LA and Bass, SA and Bleicher, M and Brandstetter, M and Dumitru, A and Ernst, C and Gerland, L and Konopka, J and Soff, S and Spieles, C and Weber, H and Hartnack, C and Aichelin, J and Amelin, N and Stöcker, H and Greiner, W},
   Title = {Microscopic calculations of stopping, flow and
             electromagnetic radiation from 160AMeV to
             160AGeV},
   Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
   Volume = {610},
   Pages = {116C-123C},
   Year = {1996},
   ISSN = {0375-9474},
   Abstract = {The behavior of hadronic matter at high baryon densities is
             studied within Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics
             (UQMD). Baryonic stopping is observed for Au+Au collisions
             from SIS up to SPS energies. The excitation function of flow
             shows strong sensitivities to the underlying equation of
             state (EOS), allowing for systematic studies of the EOS.
             Effects of a density dependent pole of the ρ-meson
             propagator on dilepton spectra are studied for different
             systems and centralities at CERN energies.},
   Key = {Winckelmann96}
}

@booklet{Bass96,
   Author = {Bass, SA and Bischoff, A and Maruhn, JA and Stöcker, H and Greiner,
             W},
   Title = {Neural networks for impact parameter determination},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {53},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {2358-2363},
   Year = {1996},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.53.2358},
   Abstract = {An accurate impact parameter determination in a heavy ion
             collision is crucial for almost all further analysis. The
             capabilities of an artificial neural network are
             investigated in that respect. A novel input generation for
             the network is proposed, namely, the transverse and
             longitudinal momentum distributions of all outgoing (or
             actually detectable) particles. The neural network approach
             yields an improvement in performance of a factor of 2 as
             compared to classical techniques. To achieve this
             improvement simple network architectures and a 5×5 input
             grid in (pt,pz) space are sufficient.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.53.2358},
   Key = {Bass96}
}

@booklet{Bass95c,
   Author = {Bass, SA and Hartnack, C and Stocker, H and Greiner,
             W},
   Title = {Pi-n correlations probe the nuclear-equation of state in
             relativistic heavy-ion collisions},
   Journal = {Phys. Rev. C},
   Volume = {51},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {R12-R16},
   Year = {1995},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.51.R12},
   Abstract = {We investigate the sensitivity of pionic bounce-off and
             squeeze-out on the density and momentum dependence of the
             real part of the nucleon optical potential. For the in-plane
             pion bounce-off we find a strong sensitivity on both the
             density and momentum dependence whereas the out-of-plane
             pion squeeze-out shows a strong sensitivity only towards the
             momentum dependence but little sensitivity towards the
             density dependence. We observe strong differences between
             calculations including the nucleon optical potential and
             CASCADE calculations. The question of validity of the
             CASCADE approach in relativistic heavy-ion collisions can be
             resolved experimentally on the basis of the predicted pion
             nucleon correlations. © 1995 The American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.51.R12},
   Key = {Bass95c}
}

@booklet{Bass95a,
   Author = {Bass, SA and Hartnack, C and Stöcker, H and Greiner,
             W},
   Title = {Azimuthal correlations of pions in relativistic heavy-ion
             collisions at 1 GeV/nucleon},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {51},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {3343-3356},
   Year = {1995},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.51.3343},
   Abstract = {Triple differential cross sections of pions in heavy ion
             collisions at 1 GeV/nucleon are studied with the isospin
             quantum molecular dynamics (IQMD) model. After discussing
             general properties of Δ resonance and pion production we
             focus on azimuthal correlations: At projectile- and
             target-rapidities we observe an anticorrelation in the
             in-plane transverse momentum between pions and protons. At
             c.m.-rapidity, however, we find that high pt pions are being
             preferentially emitted perpendicular to the event plane. We
             investigate the causes of those correlations and their
             sensitivity on the density and momentum dependence of the
             real and imaginary part of the nucleon and pion optical
             potential. © 1995 The American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.51.3343},
   Key = {Bass95a}
}

@booklet{Bass95b,
   Author = {Bass, SA and Hartnack, C and Stöcker, H and Greiner,
             W},
   Title = {Nucleon and baryon densities in heavy ion collisions at 1
             GeV/nucl},
   Journal = {Zeitschrift Fur Physik A-Hadrons and Nuclei},
   Volume = {351},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {359-360},
   Year = {1995},
   ISSN = {0939-7922},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01291138},
   Abstract = {The baryon density calculated at the collision center in
             relativistic heavy ion collisions is not representative for
             the density really probed by baryons in the high density
             collision phase. A decomposition into nucleon- and
             Δ-resonance densities yields average values of 1.25 ρN/ρo
             and 0.25 ρΔ/ρ0 at the time of maximum compression. ©
             1995 Springer-Verlag.},
   Doi = {10.1007/BF01291138},
   Key = {Bass95b}
}

@booklet{Bass95,
   Author = {Bass, SA and Hartnack, C and Stöcker, H and Greiner,
             W},
   Title = {Transverse energy dependence of neutron squeeze-out in
             relativistic heavy ion collisions},
   Journal = {Zeitschrift Fur Physik A-Hadrons and Nuclei},
   Volume = {352},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {171-174},
   Year = {1995},
   ISSN = {0939-7922},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01298904},
   Abstract = {We present a microscopic calculation of neutron squeeze-out
             in relativistic heavy ion collisions at beam energies
             betweeen 400 and 1000 MeV/nucleon. After demonstrating the
             importance of the correct isospin treatment for the neutron
             to proton ratio, our main emphasis is put on the
             investigation of the properties of neutron squeeze-out. The
             squeeze-out ratio increases monotonously with the transverse
             momentum of the neutrons. This ratio is independent of the
             incident beam energy if plotted versus pt/pproj. Most
             importantly, we observe a strong dependence on the nuclear
             equation of state and momentum dependent interaction. ©
             1995 Springer-Verlag.},
   Doi = {10.1007/BF01298904},
   Key = {Bass95}
}

@booklet{Soff95,
   Author = {Soff, S and Bass, SA and Hartnack, C and Stöcker, H and Greiner,
             W},
   Title = {Disappearance of flow},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {51},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {3320-3325},
   Year = {1995},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.51.3320},
   Abstract = {We investigate the disappearance of collective flow in the
             reaction plane in heavy-ion collisions within a microscopic
             model (QMD). A systematic study of the impact parameter
             dependence is performed for the system Ca+Ca. The balance
             energy strongly increases with impact parameter. Momentum
             dependent interactions reduce the balance energies for
             intermediate impact parameters b4.5 fm. For the heavy system
             Au+Au, dynamical negative flow is not visible in the
             laboratory frame but does exist if the initial precontact
             rotation of the system due to the Coulomb potential is
             subtracted. For semiperipheral collisions of Ca+Ca with b6.5
             fm a new two-component flow is discussed. Azimuthal
             distributions exhibit strong collective flow signals, even
             at the balance energy. © 1995 The American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.51.3320},
   Key = {Soff95}
}

@article{fds304516,
   Author = {Bass, SA and Hartnack, C and Stöcker, H and Greiner,
             W},
   Title = {π-N correlations probe the nuclear equation of state in
             relativistic heavy-ion collisions},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {51},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {R12-R16},
   Year = {1995},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.51.R12},
   Abstract = {We investigate the sensitivity of pionic bounce-off and
             squeeze-out on the density and momentum dependence of the
             real part of the nucleon optical potential. For the in-plane
             pion bounce-off we find a strong sensitivity on both the
             density and momentum dependence whereas the out-of-plane
             pion squeeze-out shows a strong sensitivity only towards the
             momentum dependence but little sensitivity towards the
             density dependence. We observe strong differences between
             calculations including the nucleon optical potential and
             CASCADE calculations. The question of validity of the
             CASCADE approach in relativistic heavy-ion collisions can be
             resolved experimentally on the basis of the predicted pion
             nucleon correlations. © 1995 The American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.51.R12},
   Key = {fds304516}
}

@booklet{Bass94,
   Author = {Bass, SA and Hartnack, C and Stöcker, H and Greiner,
             W},
   Title = {High pt pions as probes of the dense phase of relativistic
             heavy ion collisions},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {50},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {2167-2172},
   Year = {1994},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.50.2167},
   Abstract = {The properties of pions from the hot and dense reaction
             stage of relativistic heavy ion collisions are investigated
             with the Quantum Molecular Dynamics model. Pions originating
             from this reaction stage stem from resonance decay with
             enhanced mass. They carry high transverse moments. The
             calculation shows a direct correlation between high pt
             pions, early freeze-out times, and high freeze-out
             densities. A measurement of the mass distributions of p-
             correlations (e.g., the ++) in different pt bins is proposed
             to distinguish different reaction stages. © 1994 The
             American Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.50.2167},
   Key = {Bass94}
}

@booklet{Bass94b,
   Author = {Bass, SA and Bischoff, A and Hartnack, C and Maruhn, JA and Reinhardt,
             J and Stocker, H and Greiner, W},
   Title = {Neural networks for impact parameter determination},
   Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
             Physics},
   Volume = {20},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {L21-L26},
   Year = {1994},
   ISSN = {0954-3899},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0954-3899/20/1/004},
   Abstract = {Accurate impact parameter determination in a heavy-ion
             collision is crucial for almost all further analysis. We
             investigate the capabilities of an artificial neural network
             in that respect. First results show that the neural network
             is capable of improving the accuracy of the impact parameter
             determination based on observables such as the flow angle,
             the average directed inplane transverse momentum and the
             difference between transverse and longitudinal momenta.
             However, further investigations are necessary to discover
             the full potential of the neural network
             approach.},
   Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/20/1/004},
   Key = {Bass94b}
}

@booklet{Bass94a,
   Author = {Bass, SA and Hofmann, M and Hartnack, C and Stöcker, H and Greiner,
             W},
   Title = {Probing Δ resonance production in Au+Au collisions at 1
             GeV/nucleon},
   Journal = {Physics Letters B},
   Volume = {335},
   Number = {3-4},
   Pages = {289-294},
   Year = {1994},
   ISSN = {0370-2693},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0370-2693(94)90352-2},
   Abstract = {We investigate the possibility of creating a new form of
             highly excited nuclear matter, Δ-matter, in heavy ion
             collisions at 1 GeV/nucleon. Enough Δ-resonances are
             produced to show collective effects. Maximum densities for
             the resonances around 50% ground state density of nuclear
             matter are reached. We propose two decisive experiments,
             namely the resonance mass shift (nucleon-pion correlations)
             and the Δ-flow, to investigate collective properties of the
             Δ resonance in relativistic heavy ion collisions. ©
             1994.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0370-2693(94)90352-2},
   Key = {Bass94a}
}

@booklet{Bass93a,
   Author = {Bass, SA and Mattiello, R and Stöcker, H and Greiner, W and Hartnack,
             C},
   Title = {Is collective pion flow anticorrelated to nucleon
             flow?},
   Journal = {Physics Letters B},
   Volume = {302},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {381-385},
   Year = {1993},
   ISSN = {0370-2693},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0370-2693(93)90413-C},
   Abstract = {The in-plane transverse momentum of pions in Ne(2A GeV)Pb
             and Au(2A GeV)Au collisions is analysed in the framework of
             the Vlasov-Uehling-Uhlenbeck model. The rapidity dependence
             of pion flow shows the opposite sign as the nucleon flow.
             The anticorrelation of pions and nucleons can be explained
             by multiple πN scattering. It turns out that the nonzero
             transverse momentum for pions at target rapidities is no
             proof for pion absorption in contrast to claims in previous
             works. Pion absorption does not influence the angular
             distribution of pions but plays an important role for the
             absolute numbers of produced pions. © 1993.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0370-2693(93)90413-C},
   Key = {Bass93a}
}

@booklet{Bass93,
   Author = {Bass, SA and Hartnack, C and Stöcker, H and Greiner,
             W},
   Title = {Out-of-plane pion emission in relativistic heavy-ion
             collisions: Spectroscopy of Δ resonance
             matter},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {71},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {1144-1147},
   Year = {1993},
   Abstract = {Azimuthal correlations of pions are studied with the quantum
             molecular dynamics model. Pions are preferentially emitted
             perpendicular to the reaction plane. Our analysis shows that
             this anisotropy is dominated by pion absorption on the
             spectator matter in the reaction plane. Pions emitted
             perpendicular to the reaction plane undergo less
             rescattering than those emitted in the reaction plane and
             might therefore be more sensitive to the early hot and dense
             reaction phase.},
   Key = {Bass93}
}