Publications of Glenn S. Edwards    :recent first  alphabetical  combined listing:

%% Books   
@book{fds3876,
   Author = {G. Edwards},
   Title = {Physical Mechanisms that Govern the Ablation of Biological
             Tissue},
   Series = {Volume 30: Laser Desorption and Ablation},
   Booktitle = {Experimental Methods in the Physical Sciences.},
   Publisher = {Academic Press},
   Editor = {J.C. Miller and R.F. Haglund. R. Celotta and T. Lucatorto,
             treatise},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds3876}
}

@book{fds3877,
   Author = {M.L. Copeland and R. J. Maciunas and G.S. Edwards},
   Title = {Use of the Free-Electron Laser for Metastatic Brain
             Tumors},
   Series = {The Anerican Association of Neurological
             Surgeons},
   Booktitle = {Neurosurgical Topics: Advanced Techniques in Central Nervous
             System Metastases},
   Editor = {R.J. Maciunas},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds3877}
}


%% Papers Published   
@article{fds245850,
   Author = {Swicord, ML and Edwards, GS and Sagripanti, JL and Davis,
             CC},
   Title = {Chain-length-dependent microwave absorption of
             DNA.},
   Journal = {Biopolymers - Peptide Science Section},
   Volume = {22},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {2513-2516},
   Year = {1983},
   Key = {fds245850}
}

@article{fds304530,
   Author = {Edwards, GS and Davis, CC and Saffer, JD and Swicord,
             ML},
   Title = {Erratum: Resonant microwave absorption of selected DNA
             molecules (Physical Review Letters (1984) 53, 21
             (2060))},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {53},
   Number = {21},
   Pages = {2060-},
   Year = {1984},
   ISSN = {0031-9007},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.53.2060.5},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.53.2060.5},
   Key = {fds304530}
}

@booklet{Edwards84a,
   Author = {Edwards, GS and Davis, CC and Saffer, JD and Swicord,
             ML},
   Title = {Resonant microwave absorption of selected DNA
             molecules},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {53},
   Number = {13},
   Pages = {1284-1287},
   Year = {1984},
   ISSN = {0031-9007},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.53.1284},
   Abstract = {The resonant absorption of microwave energy by aqueous
             solutions containing DNA of known length is experimentally
             demonstrated. The resonances observed have relaxation times
             of hundreds of picoseconds. Absorption by linear and
             supercoiled circular DNA molecules is discussed in terms of
             a mechanism involving microwave excitation of acoustic modes
             of the double helix. © 1984 The American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.53.1284},
   Key = {Edwards84a}
}

@booklet{Edwards84,
   Author = {Edwards, GS},
   Title = {Correction},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {53},
   Number = {21},
   Pages = {2060-2060},
   Year = {1984},
   ISSN = {0031-9007},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.53.2060.5},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.53.2060.5},
   Key = {Edwards84}
}

@article{fds245851,
   Author = {Swicord, ML and Davis, CC and Edwards, GS and Saffer,
             JD},
   Title = {MICROWAVE-FIELD DRIVEN ACOUSTIC MODES OF
             DNA.},
   Journal = {Bioengineering, Proceedings of the Northeast
             Conference},
   Pages = {226-229},
   Year = {1985},
   Abstract = {The microwave absorption characteristics of various forms of
             DNA in the frequency range between 0. 1 and 12 GHz are
             analyzed. The results are summarized as follows: the
             microwave absorption of aqueous solutions of long-chain DNA
             (tens of thousands of base-pairs in length) is not
             significantly different from the background absorption of
             the solvent; long-chain DNA that has been extensively
             sheared can exhibit substantially higher absorption per mass
             than the solvent; long-chain DNA that is nicked and
             subsequently broken into shorter fragments by the action of
             the endonuclease DNAse 1 will show a microwave absorption
             that rises with time during the action of the endonuclease.
             This strongly suggests a length dependence of the microwave
             absorption, and monodisperse aqueous solutions containing
             DNA molecules of well-defined length exhibit distinct
             absorption resonances. These resonances are surprisingly
             narrow.},
   Key = {fds245851}
}

@booklet{Edwards85,
   Author = {Edwards, GS and Davis, CC and Saffer, JD and Swicord,
             ML},
   Title = {Microwave-field-driven acoustic modes in
             DNA.},
   Journal = {Biophysical Journal},
   Volume = {47},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {799-807},
   Year = {1985},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3495(85)83984-9},
   Abstract = {The direct coupling of a microwave field to selected DNA
             molecules is demonstrated using standard dielectrometry. The
             absorption is resonant with a typical lifetime of 300 ps.
             Such a long lifetime is unexpected for DNA in aqueous
             solution at room temperature. Resonant absorption at
             fundamental and harmonic frequencies for both supercoiled
             circular and linear DNA agrees with an acoustic mode model.
             Our associated acoustic velocities for linear DNA are very
             close to the acoustic velocity of the longitudinal acoustic
             mode independently observed on DNA fibers using Brillouin
             spectroscopy. The difference in acoustic velocities for
             supercoiled circular and linear DNA is discussed in terms of
             solvent shielding of the nonbonded potentials in
             DNA.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0006-3495(85)83984-9},
   Key = {Edwards85}
}

@article{fds245852,
   Author = {Edwards, GS and Genzel, L and Peticolas, WL and Rupprecht,
             A},
   Title = {Measurements of a large anisotropy in the swelling of
             oriented DNA films in aqueous solution.},
   Journal = {Biopolymers},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {223-227},
   Year = {1986},
   Key = {fds245852}
}

@booklet{Davis86,
   Author = {Davis, CC and Edwards, GS and Swicord, ML and Sagripanti, J and Saffer,
             J},
   Title = {Direct excitation of internal modes of DNA by
             microwaves},
   Journal = {Bioelectrochemistry},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {63-76},
   Year = {1986},
   ISSN = {0302-4598},
   Abstract = {We have been studying the microwave absorption
             characteristics of various forms of DNA. Our observations
             have demonstrated that long-chain DNA in saline buffer does
             not absorb microwaves significantly more than its solvent,
             but that specific short-length molecules can absorb
             microwaves resonantly. The most satisfactory explanation of
             these microwave absorption phenomena invokes the excitation
             of internal acoustic modes of the molecule. There is good
             agreement between our experimental observations and a
             lattice-dynamical/normal-mode analysis of the vibrational
             motion of the double helical DNA.},
   Key = {Davis86}
}

@booklet{Powell87,
   Author = {Powell, JW and Edwards, GS and Genzel, L and Kremer, F and Wittlin, A and Kubasek, W and Peticolas, W},
   Title = {Investigation of far-infrared vibrational modes in
             polynucleotides},
   Journal = {Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical
             Physics},
   Volume = {35},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {3929-3939},
   Year = {1987},
   ISSN = {1050-2947},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.35.3929},
   Abstract = {Far-infrared measurements (40500 cm-1) of vacuum-dried,
             free-standing, unoriented films of the polynucleotides
             poly(dA)poly(dT), poly(dA-dT)poly(dA-dT) , and
             poly(dG)poly(dC) and the ribonucleotide poly(rA)poly(rU)
             under various salting conditions are reported. Spectral
             features that depend on temperature, crystallinity, and
             salting conditions have been observed. Of most interest are
             four sharp bands near 63, 83, 100, and 110 cm-1 in
             polycrystalline poly(dA)poly(dT). These low-frequency
             (<240 cm-1) observations are discussed in terms of a
             lattice-dynamical model of homopolymer DNA. © 1987 The
             American Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevA.35.3929},
   Key = {Powell87}
}

@booklet{Edwards88,
   Author = {Edwards, GS and Tolk, NH},
   Title = {Vanderbilt University FEL center for biomedical and
             materials research},
   Journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section
             A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated
             Equipment},
   Volume = {272},
   Number = {1-2},
   Pages = {37-39},
   Year = {1988},
   ISSN = {0168-9002},
   Key = {Edwards88}
}

@article{fds245854,
   Author = {Liu, C and Edwards, GS and Morgan, S and Silberman,
             E},
   Title = {Low-frequency, Raman-active vibrational modes of
             poly(dA)poly(dT)},
   Journal = {Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical
             Physics},
   Volume = {40},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {7394-7397},
   Year = {1989},
   ISSN = {1050-2947},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.40.7394},
   Abstract = {The Raman activity of low-frequency (20-300 cm-1)
             vibrational modes of dehydrated, oriented fibers of the
             sodium salts of poly(dA)poly(dT) and random sequenced DNA
             have been measured. Distinct bands near 60, 75-100, and
             125-140 cm-1 are resolved in poly(dA)poly(dT). The Raman
             activity of the two lowest bands correlate with the
             previously observed infrared activity of poly(dA)poly(dT).
             The apparent reduction in spectral line broadening for
             poly(dA)poly(dT), as demonstrated by this and previous
             measurements of a number of different polynucleotides, is
             considered as possible evidence for inhomogeneous line
             broadening. © 1989 The American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevA.40.7394},
   Key = {fds245854}
}

@article{fds245853,
   Author = {Young, L and Prabhu, VV and Prohofsky, EW and Edwards,
             GS},
   Title = {Prediction of modes with dominant base roll and propeller
             twist in B-DNA poly(dA)-poly(dT)},
   Journal = {Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical
             Physics},
   Volume = {41},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {7020-7023},
   Year = {1990},
   ISSN = {1050-2947},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.41.7020},
   Abstract = {In solving the secular equation of a one-dimensional
             infinite lattice model of poly(dA)-poly(dT), we obtain
             dispersion relations. [The notation poly(dA)-poly(dT) means
             that one strand contains only adenine (A) bases, and the
             other only thymine (T) bases.] We solve the equation for
             consecutive refinements of the nonbonded force constants
             based on Raman, Brillouin, and neutron scattering and
             Fourier-transform infrared experiments in both
             polynucleotides and random sequence DNA. When these
             eigenvectors are examined for base roll and propeller twist,
             such characteristics are found to be dominant in modes
             around 50 cm-1. © 1990 The American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevA.41.7020},
   Key = {fds245853}
}

@article{fds245855,
   Author = {Edwards, G and Liu, C},
   Title = {Sequence dependence of low-frequency Raman-active modes in
             nucleic acids},
   Journal = {Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical
             Physics},
   Volume = {44},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {2709-2717},
   Year = {1991},
   ISSN = {1050-2947},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.44.2709},
   Abstract = {We have measured the low-frequency (<200 cm-1) Raman
             activity of dehydrated fibers and films of polynucleotides
             and random-sequenced nucleic acids. The spectra exhibit a
             pronounced, unresolved band in the range 10150 cm-1. A
             nonlinear least-squares algorithm optimally fits the spectra
             from all samples with three low-frequency modes in the range
             25100 cm-1 and a fourth mode near 200 cm-1. A mode near 25
             cm-1 is sequence independent, but does shift to marginally
             higher frequency in RNA. The mode frequencies and oscillator
             strengths of two modes in the range 35100 cm-1 exhibit
             sequence dependence. © 1991 The American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevA.44.2709},
   Key = {fds245855}
}

@article{fds245856,
   Author = {Tolk, NH and Brau, CA and Edwards, GS and Margaritondo, G and McKinley,
             JT},
   Title = {Vanderbilt Free-Electron Laser Center for Biomedical and
             Materials Research (Invited Paper)},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical
             Engineering},
   Volume = {1552},
   Pages = {7-13},
   Year = {1991},
   Abstract = {The newly commissioned Vanderbilt Free Electron Laser Center
             for Biomedical and Materials Research is a multidisciplinary
             users facility intended as an international resource. It
             provides extremely intense, continuously tunable, pulsed
             radiation in the mid-infrared (2-10 μm). Projects already
             underway include the linear and nonlinear interaction of
             laser radiation with optical materials, semiconductors, and
             mammalian tissue, the spectroscopy of species absorbed on
             surfaces, measurement of vibrational energy transfer in DNA
             and RNA, the dynamics of proteins in cell membranes, the
             biomodulation of wound healing by lasers, image-guided
             stereotactic neurosurgery, and the use of monochromatic x
             rays in medical imaging and therapy. The purpose of this
             article is to introduce the machine to the user community
             and to describe some of the new experimental opportunities
             that it make possible. Details of several research projects
             are presented.},
   Key = {fds245856}
}

@article{fds245857,
   Author = {Tribble, J and Kozub, J and Aly, A and Ossoff, R and Edwards,
             G},
   Title = {Role of immersion refractometry for investigating
             laser-induced effects in cells},
   Journal = {Lasers in Surgery and Medicine},
   Volume = {12},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {459-463},
   Year = {1992},
   ISSN = {0196-8092},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lsm.1900120416},
   Abstract = {The broad background of scattered light observed in spectra
             of cell suspensions is reduced by factors of up to 20 by
             immersion refractometry allowing for improved spectroscopic
             determination of the absorption properties of cells in the
             325-820 nm range. Refractive-index matched spectra of E.
             coli C1a exhibit a set of resonant features near 422, 561,
             and 582 nm. Exposure wavelengths are chosen based on this
             spectrum and cell viability is investigated in E. coli
             suspensions exposed to 350, 400, 422, 440, and 700 nm
             radiation delivered in nanosecond pulses with total doses
             from 500 millijoules to 60 Joules. We observe a loss in cell
             viability for doses greater than 1 Joule at 422 nm and for
             all doses at other wavelengths; exposures of less than 1
             Joule at 422 nm enhance growth. Excluding exposures at
             wavelengths within the resonant feature, longer wavelengths
             are less effective at reducing the viability of E. coli C1a.
             This indicates the occurrence of at least two absorption
             processes.},
   Doi = {10.1002/lsm.1900120416},
   Key = {fds245857}
}

@article{fds245858,
   Author = {Edwards, G and Ying, G and Tribble, J},
   Title = {Role of counterions in the gigahertz relaxation of wet
             DNA},
   Journal = {Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical
             Physics},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {R8344-R8347},
   Year = {1992},
   ISSN = {1050-2947},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.45.R8344},
   Abstract = {We have measured the dielectric properties of concentrated
             solutions and gels (30 mg/ml) of random-sequenced DNA from
             E. coli in the 400-MHz26-GHz range. Two Debye-type
             relaxations are evident, one with a relaxation time near 9
             ps and attributable to the classical Debye relaxation of
             water. More noteworthy is a second relaxation process with a
             characteristic time in the 20200-ps range, i.e., a
             relaxation frequency in the 0.88-GHz range, depending upon
             the species of the counterions and the temperature. The
             slower relaxation process has an enthalpy of 3.3 kcal/mol
             and is accounted for by a counterion-based relaxation
             process. These experimental results are considered in terms
             of two models from polyelectrolyte theory, one by Oosawa
             [Biopolymers 9, 677 (1970)] and Wyllie [in Dielectric and
             Related Molecular Processes, edited by M. Davies (American
             Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1972), Vol. 1], and the
             other by Manning [Q. Rev. Biophys. 11, 179 (1978); Acc.
             Chem. Res. 12, 443 (1979)], and we propose that different
             ion-based relaxation mechanisms dominate in different
             hydration regimes. © 1992 The American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevA.45.R8344},
   Key = {fds245858}
}

@article{fds245861,
   Author = {Henderson, DO and Mu, R and Silberman, E and Johnson, JB and Edwards,
             GS},
   Title = {FEL investigations of energy transfer in condensed phase
             systems},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical
             Engineering},
   Volume = {1854},
   Pages = {105-116},
   Year = {1993},
   Abstract = {The vibrational dynamics of O-H groups in fused silica have
             been examined by a time-resolved pump-probe technique using
             the Vanderbilt Free Electron Laser (FEL). We consider two
             effects, local heating and transient thermal lensing, which
             can influence measured T1 values in one color pump-probe
             measurements. The dependence of these two effects on both
             the micropulse spacing and the total number of micropulses
             delivered to the sample are analyzed in detail for the
             O-H/SiO2 system. The results indicate that transient thermal
             lensing can significantly influence the measured probe
             signal. The local heating may cause thermally induced
             changes in the ground state population of the absorber,
             thereby complicating the analysis of the relaxation
             dynamics.},
   Key = {fds245861}
}

@booklet{Edwards93,
   Author = {Edwards, GS and Johnson, B and Kozub, J and Tribble, J and Wagner,
             K},
   Title = {Biomedical applications of free-electron
             lasers},
   Journal = {Optical Engineering},
   Volume = {32},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {314-319},
   Year = {1993},
   Month = {February},
   Key = {Edwards93}
}

@article{fds245859,
   Author = {Edwards, G and Hochberg, D and Kephart, TW},
   Title = {Structure in the electric potential emanating from
             DNA},
   Journal = {Physical Review E - Statistical Physics, Plasmas, Fluids,
             and Related Interdisciplinary Topics},
   Volume = {50},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {R698-R701},
   Year = {1994},
   ISSN = {1063-651X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.50.R698},
   Abstract = {We present an analytical model, based on a Green-function
             technique, for the electric potential surrounding dissolved
             DNA which treats the full, discrete charge distribution of
             homopolymer B-DNA and the aqueous solvent as concentric,
             dielectric cylinders. The resulting expressions manifest the
             symmetry of the system, with terms equivalent to a
             continuous line charge and with distinctive helical terms
             both due to the sugar-phosphate backbone and due to the base
             pairs. This theoretical approach quantifies the structural
             information in the potential with continuing approach to the
             DNA surface. © 1994 The American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.50.R698},
   Key = {fds245859}
}

@article{fds245860,
   Author = {Hochberg, D and Kephart, TW and Edwards, G},
   Title = {Structural information in the local electric field of
             dissolved B-DNA},
   Journal = {Physical Review E - Statistical Physics, Plasmas, Fluids,
             and Related Interdisciplinary Topics},
   Volume = {49},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {851-867},
   Year = {1994},
   ISSN = {1063-651X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.49.851},
   Abstract = {We have developed a theoretical model of the electric
             potential and field for B-DNA in solution to investigate the
             persistence of structural information in the local field. A
             Green-function technique is used to account for the
             phosphate groups, the dominant charges of the
             polyelectrolyte DNA, as discrete surface charges exhibiting
             helical geometry. In addition to the DNA macromolecule, a
             region of condensed ions and bulk solvent are treated as
             dielectric media with cylindrical symmetry. We have derived
             analytical expressions that manifest the symmetry of the
             system. The leading term is equivalent to that of a
             continuous line charge and thus only reflects cylindrical
             symmetry. Information reflecting the helical structure is
             contained in the terms of higher order. The effective decay
             length for helical information in the local electric field
             is approximately 5 beyond the surface of DNA. These results
             have significance for investigations of nucleic-acid-protein
             interactions and for experimental efforts to image DNA with
             scanning force microscopies. © 1994 The American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.49.851},
   Key = {fds245860}
}

@article{fds245862,
   Author = {Johnson, JB and Edwards, G and Mendenhall, M},
   Title = {Low-cost, high-performance array detector for spectroscopy
             based on a charge-coupled photodiode},
   Journal = {Review of Scientific Instruments},
   Volume = {65},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1782-1783},
   Year = {1994},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1144826},
   Abstract = {An evaluation of the performances of several CCDs and the
             Thomson TH 7832A is discussed. Thomson TH 7832A is a charged
             coupled photodiode which is a modification of the photodiode
             array design by incorporating CCD shift registers to reduce
             read noise. The following characteristics of the device such
             as the resolution, spectral range, detector area, noise,
             dynamic range and readout speed are compared.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.1144826},
   Key = {fds245862}
}

@article{fds245863,
   Author = {Becker, K and Johnson, BJ and Edwards, G},
   Title = {Broadband pockels cell and driver for a Mark III-type free
             electron laser},
   Journal = {Review of Scientific Instruments},
   Volume = {65},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1496-1501},
   Year = {1994},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1144881},
   Abstract = {Pockels cells was designed for the infrared range 2-10 μm.
             A CdTe crystal was used to provide strong Pockels effect.
             The maximum effective crystal length availed was 47 mm. Its
             dispersion were between 2 and 10 μm. A square pulse driver
             circuit was used. FEL supplied its first trigger. The second
             trigger was locally generated with a PIN photodiode. Single
             transition of Vpc was also utilized to generate short
             pulses. In single transition, the length of transmitted
             optical pulse was dependent on the transition speed of the
             HV. Pockels cell was shown to operate for a pulse duration
             of 80 ns with the use of square pulse HV driver. Pockels
             cell operated at 35 ns (FWHM) with single transition driver.
             35 ns (FWHM) represented the upper limit. With FEL
             macropulse, Pockels cell can be continuously adjusted to
             switch out from 80 ns to the full 6 μs.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.1144881},
   Key = {fds245863}
}

@article{fds245866,
   Author = {Edwards, G and Logan, R and Copeland, M and Reinisch, L and Davidson, J and Johnson, B and Maciunas, R and Mendenhall, M and Ossoff, R and Tribble,
             J and Werkhavent, J and O'Day, D},
   Title = {Tissue ablation by a free-electron laser tuned to the amide
             II band},
   Journal = {Nature},
   Volume = {371},
   Number = {6496},
   Pages = {416-419},
   Year = {1994},
   ISSN = {0028-0836},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/371416a0},
   Abstract = {Efforts to ablate soft tissue with conventional lasers have
             been limited by collateral damage and by concern over
             potential photochemical effects. Motivated by the
             thermal-confinement model, past infrared investigations
             targeted the OH-stretch mode of water with fast pulses from
             lasers emitting near 3,000 nm. What does a free-electron
             laser offer for the investigation of tissue ablation?
             Operating at non-photochemical single-photon energies, these
             infrared sources can produce trains of picosecond pulses
             tunable to the vibrational modes of proteins, lipids and/or
             water. We report here that targeting free-electron laser
             radiation to the amide II band of proteins leads to tissue
             ablation characterized by minimal collateral damage while
             maintaining a substantial ablation rate. To account for
             these observations we propose a novel ablation mechanism
             based on compromising tissue through resonant denaturation
             of structural proteins.},
   Doi = {10.1038/371416a0},
   Key = {fds245866}
}

@article{fds245864,
   Author = {Johnson, JB and Becker, K and Edwards, G},
   Title = {Pressure corrections for CoCl2 as a thermometer
             in an analytic ultracentrifuge},
   Journal = {Analytical Biochemistry},
   Volume = {227},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {385-387},
   Year = {1995},
   ISSN = {0003-2697},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/abio.1995.1295},
   Doi = {10.1006/abio.1995.1295},
   Key = {fds245864}
}

@article{fds245865,
   Author = {Edwards, GS},
   Title = {Biomedical and potential clinical applications for pulsed
             lasers operating near 6.45 um},
   Journal = {Optical Engineering},
   Volume = {34},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1524-1525},
   Year = {1995},
   Abstract = {The operating parameters of the Vanderbilt free electron
             laser (FEL) are summarized. Effort are underway to develop
             compact FELs for medical applications. While further
             investigations of both the ablation mechanism, in particular
             the role of the pulse structure, and the biological response
             will continue at Vanderbilt and other FEL centers, a glaring
             need exists for an alternative, preferably tabletop source.
             A great deal of biomedical research need to be done to
             investigate the biological response to laser ablation via
             the vibrational modes of proteins.},
   Key = {fds245865}
}

@booklet{Zhang95,
   Author = {Zhang, MZ and Edwards, GS and Reinisch, L and Vasagrande, VA and Mckanna, JA},
   Title = {Microglial responses to free-electron laser incisions in
             rat-brain},
   Journal = {Faseb Journal},
   Volume = {9},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {A382-A382},
   Year = {1995},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {Zhang95}
}

@article{fds245867,
   Author = {Joos, KMMD and Edwards, GS and Shen, J-H and Shetlar, D and Robinson, R and O'Day, DMD},
   Title = {Free Electron Laser (FEL) laser-tissue interaction with
             human cornea and optic nerve},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical
             Engineering},
   Volume = {2673},
   Pages = {89-92},
   Year = {1996},
   Abstract = {A free electron laser (FEL) may be tuned to novel
             wavelengths to explore laser-tissue interactions for
             development or improvement of laser surgical procedures.
             This study investigated the effect of selected infrared
             wavelengths upon human cornea and optic nerve tissues. Human
             cadaver eyes were placed in 10% dextran solution to
             normalize corneal thickness, and solution was injected
             intraocularly to achieve a physiologic intraocular pressure.
             The corneas and optic nerves were lased with the 6.0
             micrometer amide I band, 6.1 micrometer water absorbency
             peak, 6.45 micrometer amide II band, and 7.7 micrometer. The
             Vanderbilt FEL produces 5 microsecond long macropulses at 10
             Hz with each macropulse consisting of 1 ps micropulses at 3
             GHz. Histologic examination of the corneal tissue showed the
             least amount of collateral damage (10 - 20 micrometers) with
             the 6.0 micrometer amide I band, while marked shrinkage
             occurred with the 7.7 micrometer wavelength. For optic nerve
             tissue, the least amount of collateral damage (0 micrometer
             visible) occurred at 6.1 micrometer water absorbency peak
             and 6.45 micrometer amide II band, while the most damage (30
             - 50 micrometers) was observed with the 7.7 micrometer
             wavelength. We conclude that different tissues may have
             different optimal wavelengths for surgical laser
             procedures.},
   Key = {fds245867}
}

@article{fds245868,
   Author = {Harris, DM and Reinisch, L and Edwards, GS and Yessik, MJ and Ashrafi,
             S and Santos-Sacchi, J},
   Title = {Midinfrared ablation of dentin with the Vanderbilt
             FEL},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical
             Engineering},
   Volume = {2672},
   Pages = {165-175},
   Year = {1996},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   Abstract = {Absorption spectra of 0.1 - 0.2 mm thick, dehydrated
             sections of human teeth were measured in the transmission
             mode with a Bruker FT-IR spectrometer from 2.5 - 20 μm.
             Absorption peaks for amide I, II and III, carbonate and
             phosphate were identified. Craters were ablated in dentin
             and enamel using a tunable FEL at 6.45 μm at various
             fluences. Pulse duration: 3 μs; spot size (Gaussian, FWHM):
             300 μm; repetition rate: 10 Hz. Crater depth and width were
             measured from digitized optical images. Ablation rates were
             computed from crater depth and volume data. Selected
             specimens were examined with scanning electron microscopy to
             determine ablation surface characteristics. Depth of thermal
             damage and dentinal tubule morphology were estimated from
             SEM examination of fractures through ablation sites.
             Functions describing crater depth vs. number of pulses
             (quadratic function) were not the same as crater volume vs.
             number of pulses (linear function). Crater depth decreases
             with successive pulses, concurrently, the crater width
             increases. Thus, each pulse removes approximately a constant
             volume. Material was observed to flow through the dentinal
             tubules during and after ablation. Patent tubules on crater
             walls and floor were observed with SEM. Ablation rates in
             dentin were approximately 3× those in enamel at 6.45 μm.
             Ablation rates and surface characteristics varied across
             wavelengths from 5.8 to 8.0 μm.},
   Key = {fds245868}
}

@article{fds245869,
   Author = {Joos, KM and Shen, JH and Edwards, GS and Shetlar, DJ and Khoury, JM and Robinson, RD},
   Title = {Infrared free electron laser-tissue interactions with human
             ocular tissues},
   Journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science},
   Volume = {37},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {S431},
   Year = {1996},
   ISSN = {0146-0404},
   Abstract = {Purpose. To utilize the tuning capability of the Vanderbilt
             University Free Electron Laser (FEL) to examine ocular
             laser-tissue interactions with novel infrared wavelengths
             for potential improvement of ophthalmic laser surgical
             procedures. Methods. Human cadaver eyes were placed in 7.5%
             dextran solution to normalize corneal thickness, and
             solution was injected intraocularly to achieve a physiologic
             intraocular pressure. Ocular tissues including cornea, iris,
             retina and optic nerve were lased at the 2.94 μm water
             absorbancy peak, 6.0 μm amide I band, 6.1 μm water
             absorbancy peak, 6.45 μm amide II band, and 7.7 μm
             delivered through a hollow waveguide. The Vanderbilt FEL
             produces 5 μs long macropulses at 10 Hz with each
             macropulse consisting of 1 ps micropulses at 3 GHz. Results.
             Histologic examination of corneal tissue showed the least
             amount of collateral damage (10 - 20 μm) with the 6.0 μm
             amide I band, while marked shrinkage occurred with the 7.7
             μm wavelength. For optic nerve tissue, the least amount of
             collateral damage (0 μm visible) occurred at 6.1 μm water
             absorbancy peak and 6.45 μm amide II band, while the most
             damage (25 - 50 μm) was observed with the 7.7 μm
             wavelength. Conclusions. A hollow waveguide is capable of
             delivering useful infrared energy to ablate ocular tissues.
             Different tissues may have different optimal wavelengths for
             surgical laser procedures, and the tunable free election
             laser has the unique capability to investigate those
             potentially useful wavelengths.},
   Key = {fds245869}
}

@booklet{Edwards96,
   Author = {Edwards, GS and Evertson, D and Gabella, W and Grant, R and King, TL and Kozub, J and Mendenhall, M and Shen, J and Shores, R and Storms, S and Traeger, RH},
   Title = {Free-electron lasers: Reliability, performance, and beam
             delivery},
   Journal = {IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum
             Electronics},
   Volume = {2},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {810-816},
   Year = {1996},
   ISSN = {1077-260X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/2944.577303},
   Abstract = {The Vanderbilt free-electron laser (FEL) is a continuously
             tunable source of pulsed, mid-infrared radiation. FEL
             applications research has been underway for a decade. Recent
             experimental advances in FEL ablation of soft tissue
             indicate the potential for FEL-based protocols in surgery
             and medicine. In anticipation of these medical applications,
             the Vanderbilt FEL is being upgraded to meet the reliability
             and performance standards for a medical laser. Facilities
             for laser surgery have been constructed and equipped and
             medical delivery systems are being developed for
             pre-clinical and clinical research.},
   Doi = {10.1109/2944.577303},
   Key = {Edwards96}
}

@booklet{Joos96,
   Author = {Joos, KM and Shen, JH and Edwards, GS and Shetlar, DJ and Khoury, JM and Robinson, RD},
   Title = {Infrared free electron laser-tissue interactions with
             human},
   Journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology \& Visual Science},
   Volume = {37},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {1985-1985},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {February},
   Key = {Joos96}
}

@article{fds304531,
   Author = {Robinson, RD and Shen, JH and Joos, KM and Shetlar, DJ and Edwards, GS and O'Day, DM},
   Title = {Healing of cultured human cornea after free electron laser
             ablation},
   Journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {S406},
   Year = {1997},
   ISSN = {0146-0404},
   Abstract = {Purpose. To study the healing process in cultured human
             corneas after Qswitched Er:YAG laser ablation. Methods.
             Fresh human cadaver corneas within were ablated with a
             Q-switched Er:YAG laser at 2.94 m wavelength. (100ns, 1 Hz)
             The radiant exposure was 500 mJ/cm2. A focal crater was
             created using between 60 and 80 pulses. A linear incision
             was also formed by slowly scanning the laser over the
             corneal surface. Each cornea was cultured on a tissue
             supporting frame immediately after the ablation. Culture
             media consisted of 92% minimum essential media, 8% fetal
             bovine serum, 0.125% HEPES buffer solution, 0.125%
             gentamicin, and 0.05% fungizone. The entire tissue frame and
             media container were kept in an incubator at 37°C and 5%
             C02. Serial macroscopic photographs of the cultured corneas
             were taken during the healing process. Histology was
             performed after 17 days of culture. Results. At 3 days, a
             transient haze was observed within the craters which then
             resolved between 7 and 14 days. No haze was seen along the
             linear incision. Histologie sections of the cornea showed
             complete re-epithelialization of the lased area. The
             endothelium appeared unaffected. Conclusions. Cultured human
             corneas may provide useful information regarding the healing
             process following laser ablation.},
   Key = {fds304531}
}

@article{fds245870,
   Author = {Shen, JH and Joos, KJ and O'Day, DM and Edwards, GS},
   Title = {Investigation of clinical internal microsurgical device with
             use of hollow waveguide delivered infrared free electron
             laser},
   Journal = {Conference Proceedings - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society
             Annual Meeting-LEOS},
   Volume = {11},
   Pages = {151-152},
   Year = {1997},
   Abstract = {An application of hollow waveguide delivered infrared free
             electron laser (FEL) was investigated. The laser produced
             macro pulses of 5 μs duration at a repetition rate of 30
             Hz. Each macro pulse consisted of a train of 1 ps
             micropulses repeating at 3 GHz. By tuning the laser
             wavelength to the absorption peaks of the tissue or
             molecular, the optimum wavelength for specific laser-tissue
             interaction can be identified. Results of the investigation
             showed that by using hollow waveguide delivery system, the
             infrared FEL is suitable for the intraocular microsurgical
             applications.},
   Key = {fds245870}
}

@article{fds245873,
   Author = {Shen, J-H and Joos, KM and Shetlar, DJ and Robinson, RD and Thind, GK and Edwards, GS and O'Day, DM},
   Title = {Cultured human cornea healing process after free electron
             laser ablation},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical
             Engineering},
   Volume = {2971},
   Pages = {83-88},
   Year = {1997},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.275106},
   Abstract = {The purpose of this study is to investigate the healing
             process in cultured human cornea after infrared Free
             Electron Laser ablation. Fresh human cadaver cornea was
             ablated using the Free Electron Laser at the amide II band
             peak (6.45 micrometers). The cornea was then cultured in an
             incubator for 18 days. Haze development within the ablated
             area was monitored during culture. Histologic sections of
             the cornea showed complete re-epithelialization of the lased
             area, and ablation of the underlying Bowman's layer and
             stroma. The endothelium appeared unaffected. Cultured human
             corneas may provide useful information regarding the healing
             process following laser ablation. ©2004 Copyright SPIE -
             The International Society for Optical Engineering.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.275106},
   Key = {fds245873}
}

@article{fds245874,
   Author = {Edwards, G},
   Title = {10. Physical Mechanisms Governing the Ablation of Biological
             Tissue},
   Journal = {Experimental Methods in the Physical Sciences},
   Volume = {30},
   Number = {C},
   Pages = {449-473},
   Year = {1997},
   ISSN = {1079-4042},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0076-695X(08)60402-0},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0076-695X(08)60402-0},
   Key = {fds245874}
}

@article{fds245875,
   Author = {Hochberg, D and Edwards, G and Kephart, TW},
   Title = {Representing structural information of helical charge
             distributions in cylindrical coordinates},
   Journal = {Physical Review E - Statistical Physics, Plasmas, Fluids,
             and Related Interdisciplinary Topics},
   Volume = {55},
   Number = {3 SUPPL. B},
   Pages = {3765-3768},
   Year = {1997},
   Abstract = {Structural information in the local electric field produced
             by helical charge distributions, such as dissolved DNA, is
             revealed in a straightforward manner employing cylindrical
             coordinates. Comparison of structure factors derived in
             terms of cylindrical and helical coordinates is made. A
             simple coordinate transformation serves to relate the Green
             function in cylindrical and helical coordinates. We also
             compare the electric field on the central axis of a single
             helix as calculated in both systems.},
   Key = {fds245875}
}

@article{fds245876,
   Author = {Tribble, J and Lamb, DC and Reinisch, L and Edwards,
             G},
   Title = {Dynamics of gelatin ablation due to free-electron-laser
             irradiation},
   Journal = {Physical Review E - Statistical Physics, Plasmas, Fluids,
             and Related Interdisciplinary Topics},
   Volume = {55},
   Number = {6 SUPPL. B},
   Pages = {7385-7389},
   Year = {1997},
   Abstract = {We have carried out simultaneous, time-dependent
             measurements of the free-electron-laser (FEL)-induced stress
             transients and ablation plume in gelatin, which serves as a
             model system for collagenous tissues. The Mark-III FEL is
             tunable in the mid-IR (2-10 μm) and produces macropulses of
             microsecond duration comprised of picosecond micropulses
             separated by 350 ps. The macropulse duration was shortened
             with a broad-band, IR Pockets cell, producing pulse
             durations as short as 60 ns and energies in the range of
             0.1-1 mJ. The IR beam was focused to a diameter of 112-210
             μm, depending on the wavelength, and measurements were made
             at 3.0, 3.36, and 6.45 μm. For fluences below the ablation
             threshold, stress transients were measured and accounted for
             with a standard thermoelastic mechanism. Of particular
             interest were the measurements with fluences above the
             ablation threshold, where two classes of dynamics were
             observed. A cw HeNe beam monitors the plume: at 3.0 μm a
             single maximum of the "shadow" is observed, while at 3.36
             μm and 6.45 μm a second maximum also was resolved at later
             times. In addition, at 3.36 μm and 6.45 μm the duration of
             the momentum recoil is about twice as long as that observed
             for comparable exposure parameters at 3.0
             μm.},
   Key = {fds245876}
}

@article{fds245877,
   Author = {Wagner, K and Keyes, E and Kephart, TW and Edwards,
             G},
   Title = {Analytical Debye-Huckel model for electrostatic potentials
             around dissolved DNA},
   Journal = {Biophysical Journal},
   Volume = {73},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {21-30},
   Year = {1997},
   ISSN = {0006-3495},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3495(97)78043-3},
   Abstract = {We present an analytical, Green-function-based model for the
             electric potential of DNA in solution, treating the
             surrounding solvent with the Debye-Huckel approximation. The
             partial charge of each atom is accounted for by modeling DNA
             as linear distributions of atoms on concentric cylindrical
             surfaces. The condensed ions of the solvent are treated with
             the Debye- Huckel approximation. The resultant leading term
             of the potential is that of a continuous shielded line
             charge, and the higher order terms account for the helical
             structure. Within several angstroms of the surface there is
             sufficient information in the electric potential to
             distinguish features and symmetries of DNA. Plots of the
             potential and equipotential surfaces, dominated by the
             phosphate charges, reflect the structural differences
             between the A, B, and Z conformations and, to a smaller
             extent, the difference between base sequences. As the
             distances from the helices increase, the magnitudes of the
             potentials decrease. However, the bases and sugars account
             for a larger fraction of the double helix potential with
             increasing distance. We have found that when the solvent is
             treated with the Debye-Huckel approximation, the potential
             decays more rapidly in every direction from the surface than
             it did in the concentric dielectric cylinder
             approximation.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0006-3495(97)78043-3},
   Key = {fds245877}
}

@article{fds304532,
   Author = {Shen, JH and Joos, KJ and Shetlar, DJ and Robinson, RD and O'Day, DM and Edwards, GS},
   Title = {Investigation of a clinical intraocular microsurgical device
             using the infrared free electron laser},
   Journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {S86},
   Year = {1997},
   ISSN = {0146-0404},
   Abstract = {Purpose. The Free Electron Laser (PEL) has a wavelength
             tunability range between 2 and 9 m in the mid-infrared
             spectrum. It is capable of producing controlled predictable
             laser-tissue interactions by selecting specific wavelengths.
             However, delivery of this laser into the internal portion of
             the eye is difficult because of strong water absorption in
             this spectrum and the high peak power of the PEL. We
             investigated the feasibility of a hollow waveguide
             microsurgical device for FEL intraocular delivery Methods.
             The infrared FEL beam was coupled into a metalliccoated
             hollow waveguide (530 u,m inner diameter, l m length) and
             transmitted to an autoclaved surgical probe. The probe tip
             was an 18 gauge cannula fitted with a miniCaF2 window to
             protect the waveguide. Retinal tissues in human and animal
             cadaver eyes were incised at wavelengths of 2.94, 3.8, and
             6.45 u.m. Results. Up to 6xl05 W peak power was delivered to
             the intraocular tissues to successfully incise the retinas.
             The system was able to deliver 60% of the FEL energy
             .without damage to the waveguide or the surgical probe.
             Conclusions. The hollow waveguide delivery system allows use
             of the infrared FEL for intraocular microsurgical
             use.},
   Key = {fds304532}
}

@booklet{Shen97,
   Author = {Shen, JH and Loos, KJ and Shetlar, DJ and Robinson, RD and Oday, DM and Edwards, GS},
   Title = {Investigation of a clinical intraocular microsurgical device
             using the infrared free electron laser},
   Journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology \& Visual Science},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {418-418},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0146-0404},
   Abstract = {Purpose. The Free Electron Laser (PEL) has a wavelength
             tunability range between 2 and 9 m in the mid-infrared
             spectrum. It is capable of producing controlled predictable
             laser-tissue interactions by selecting specific wavelengths.
             However, delivery of this laser into the internal portion of
             the eye is difficult because of strong water absorption in
             this spectrum and the high peak power of the PEL. We
             investigated the feasibility of a hollow waveguide
             microsurgical device for FEL intraocular delivery Methods.
             The infrared FEL beam was coupled into a metalliccoated
             hollow waveguide (530 u,m inner diameter, l m length) and
             transmitted to an autoclaved surgical probe. The probe tip
             was an 18 gauge cannula fitted with a miniCaF2 window to
             protect the waveguide. Retinal tissues in human and animal
             cadaver eyes were incised at wavelengths of 2.94, 3.8, and
             6.45 u.m. Results. Up to 6xl05 W peak power was delivered to
             the intraocular tissues to successfully incise the retinas.
             The system was able to deliver 60% of the FEL energy
             .without damage to the waveguide or the surgical probe.
             Conclusions. The hollow waveguide delivery system allows use
             of the infrared FEL for intraocular microsurgical
             use.},
   Key = {Shen97}
}

@booklet{Robinson97,
   Author = {Robinson, RD and Shen, JH and Joos, KM and Shetlar, DJ and Edwards, GS and Oday, DM},
   Title = {Healing of cultured human cornea after free electron laser
             ablation},
   Journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology \& Visual Science},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1916-1916},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0146-0404},
   Abstract = {Purpose. To study the healing process in cultured human
             corneas after Qswitched Er:YAG laser ablation. Methods.
             Fresh human cadaver corneas within were ablated with a
             Q-switched Er:YAG laser at 2.94 m wavelength. (100ns, 1 Hz)
             The radiant exposure was 500 mJ/cm2. A focal crater was
             created using between 60 and 80 pulses. A linear incision
             was also formed by slowly scanning the laser over the
             corneal surface. Each cornea was cultured on a tissue
             supporting frame immediately after the ablation. Culture
             media consisted of 92% minimum essential media, 8% fetal
             bovine serum, 0.125% HEPES buffer solution, 0.125%
             gentamicin, and 0.05% fungizone. The entire tissue frame and
             media container were kept in an incubator at 37°C and 5%
             C02. Serial macroscopic photographs of the cultured corneas
             were taken during the healing process. Histology was
             performed after 17 days of culture. Results. At 3 days, a
             transient haze was observed within the craters which then
             resolved between 7 and 14 days. No haze was seen along the
             linear incision. Histologie sections of the cornea showed
             complete re-epithelialization of the lased area. The
             endothelium appeared unaffected. Conclusions. Cultured human
             corneas may provide useful information regarding the healing
             process following laser ablation.},
   Key = {Robinson97}
}

@article{fds245878,
   Author = {Shen, JH and Joos, KM and Harrington, JA and O'Day, DM and Edwards,
             GS},
   Title = {Hollow waveguide delivered infrared free electron laser for
             microsurgical applications},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical
             Engineering},
   Volume = {3262},
   Pages = {130-134},
   Year = {1998},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.309466},
   Abstract = {The Free Electron Laser (FEL) at Vanderbilt University is
             tunable from 2 μm to 9 μm in the mid-infrared spectrum,
             which is capable of controlling predicted laser-tissue
             interaction by selecting a specific wavelength. However,
             delivery of this laser into the internal portion of the eye
             is difficult because of strong water absorption at this
             spectrum range and the high peak power of the FEL. We used a
             metallic coated hollow waveguide with a 530 μm inner
             diameter and 1 meter in length, and delivered the FEL beam
             to an autoclaved surgical probe. The probe tip was an 18
             gauge canula with a mini CaF2 window fixed in front of it to
             protect the waveguide from contacting water. Human and
             animal cadaver eyes were used to perform an open sky retinal
             cutting procedure. The system was able to deliver 60% of FEL
             energy to the intraocular tissues. Up to 6×105 w peak power
             was reached without damage to the waveguide or the surgical
             probe at the spectrum range of 2.94 μm to 7.7 μm. In
             conclusion, the hollow waveguide is suitable for delivering
             the infrared FEL for intraocular microsurgical
             procedures.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.309466},
   Key = {fds245878}
}

@article{fds245933,
   Author = {Edwards, G and Engh, D and Kozub, J and Williams,
             R},
   Title = {Infrared dynamics of collagen, microtubules, and water:
             Biophysical research enabling biomedical FEL
             applications},
   Journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section
             B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms},
   Volume = {144},
   Number = {1-4},
   Pages = {260-264},
   Year = {1998},
   Abstract = {Experimental evidence is presented for FEL induced
             photothermal protein chemistry and FEL modulation of
             microtubule dynamics. These findings are discussed in terms
             of previous investigations of FEL tissue ablation to explore
             the importance of the micropulse structure of the Mark-III
             FEL. We propose various roles for localized heating in FEL
             modulation of the dynamics of biological macromolecules.
             Potential medical applications are described. © 1998
             Published by Elsevier Science B.V. All rights
             reserved.},
   Key = {fds245933}
}

@article{fds245879,
   Author = {Sobol, E and Sviridov, A and Kitai, M and Gilligan, J and Tolk, NH and Edwards, G},
   Title = {Effect of wavelength on threshold and kinetics of tissue
             denaturation under laser radiation},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical
             Engineering},
   Volume = {3601},
   Pages = {122-129},
   Year = {1999},
   Abstract = {We consider the denaturation process as an alteration in
             ordered organization of tissue structure and study the
             threshold and kinetics of laser-induced denaturation in
             cartilage and cornea undergoing irradiation from a free
             electron laser (FEL) in the wavelength range 2.2-8.5 μ.
             Light-scattering by cartilage samples was measured in
             real-time during FEL irradiation using a 630-nm diode laser
             and a diode array with time resolution of 10 ms. We found
             that denaturation threshold is slightly lower than that for
             cartilage, and both depend on laser wavelength. A strong
             inverse correlation between denaturation thresholds and the
             absorption spectrum of the tissue is observed. Only for the
             wavelength region near the 3 μ water absorption band was
             the denaturation threshold not inversely proportional to the
             absorption coefficient. We believe this was because the
             radiation penetration depth was very small in this
             high-absorption region, so tissue denaturation occurred only
             in a layer too thin to produce significant light scattering.
             ATR spectra of 2.4 mm thick cartilage samples was measured
             before and after irradiation at 6.0 and 2.2 μ. At 6.0 μ,
             where the absorption is high, the spectrum of the irradiated
             (front) surface showed changes, while the spectrum of the
             back surface was identical to that before irradiation. This
             difference results from dramatic denaturation (with chemical
             bond breaking) at the front surface due to laser heating in
             a small absorption depth. For 2.2 μ irradiation, where the
             absorption is small, the spectra of the front and back of
             the irradiated sample were unchanged from before
             irradiation, wile light scattering alteration shown the
             denaturation process began, for laser fluences above the
             denaturation threshold. This indicates that the absorption
             is too small to produce deep denaturation of the tissue with
             dramatic alteration of structure. Thus, we have shown that
             light scattering is useful for measuring denaturation
             thresholds and kinetics for biotissues except where the
             initial absorptivity is very high.},
   Key = {fds245879}
}

@article{fds245880,
   Author = {Palmer, RA and Smith, GD and Litvinenko, VN and Edwards,
             G},
   Title = {Fourier transform infrared picosecond time-resolved
             spectroscopy with a UV free electron laser pump and
             synchrotron IR probe},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical
             Engineering},
   Volume = {3775},
   Pages = {137-144},
   Year = {1999},
   Abstract = {The development of the capability for sub-nanosecond
             time-resolved infrared spectroscopy, combining the broad
             spectral bandwidth and other well-established advantages of
             Fourier transform interferometry with the high power, high
             repetition rate and wide tunability of an electron storage
             ring-based UV free-electron laser pump, along with the
             broadband, pulsed, featureless IR continuum of synchrotron
             radiation from the same storage ring as a probe, is
             described. The capabilities of the system compared to other
             alternatives for fast, time-resolved infrared spectroscopy
             are discussed.},
   Key = {fds245880}
}

@article{fds245932,
   Author = {Keay, BJ and Mendenhall, M and Edwards, GS},
   Title = {Time-resolved infrared transmittance and reflectance of a
             propagating melt in GaAs},
   Journal = {Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials
             Physics},
   Volume = {60},
   Number = {15},
   Pages = {10898-10902},
   Year = {1999},
   Abstract = {The time-resolved infrared transmittance and reflectance of
             a melt induced by a 10 nsec optical-laser pulse has been
             observed in an undoped crystalline GaAs wafer. Picosecond
             pulsed, 2.86 GHz repetition rate, infrared radiation from a
             free-electron laser was used to study the formation and
             propagation of the melt in real time. The back reflectance
             (probed from the side opposite to the incident optical
             radiation) displays interference oscillations as the melt
             propagates in the sample. The measurements are in agreement
             with model calculations which describe the melt with the
             Drude free-carrier model. ©1999 The American Physical
             Society.},
   Key = {fds245932}
}

@article{fds245881,
   Author = {Edwards, G and Fowler, C and Hutson, S and Litvinenko, V and Palmer, R and Roberts, B},
   Title = {Light source capabilities and applications research at the
             Duke FEL laboratory},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical
             Engineering},
   Volume = {3925},
   Pages = {106-116},
   Editor = {Glenn S. Edwards and John C. Sutherland},
   Year = {2000},
   Abstract = {The Duke FEL Laboratory is a national and international
             users facility. We describe the current light source
             capabilities in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, and
             Gamma rays. Plans are summarized for the development of two
             novel beamlines, one for UV-resonant Raman spectroscopy and
             the other an essentially jitter-free UV-pump, IR-probe
             'two-color' source with rapid-scan FTIR time-resolved
             detection of the broadband infrared. Current applications
             research is summarized, with a more detailed description of
             research in corneal would healing.},
   Key = {fds245881}
}

@article{fds245883,
   Author = {Sobol, E and Sviridov, A and Kitai, M and Gilligan, J and Edwards,
             G},
   Title = {Alterations of absorption coefficients of tissue water as a
             result of the heating under the IR FEL radiation with
             different wavelengths},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical
             Engineering},
   Volume = {3925},
   Pages = {78-88},
   Year = {2000},
   Abstract = {The effect of temperature dependent shift of water
             absorption band, known for pure water, has been examined,
             for the first time, for tissue water, using the IR Free
             Electron Laser radiation. Cooling kinetics of cartilage and
             cornea irradiated was measured with a fluorimeter. We have
             modified the computation algorithm to calculate the optical
             properties from these measurements more precisely.
             Temperature dependence of the absorption coefficient of
             tissue water is studied, for both sides of water absorption
             bands at 3.0 and 6.1 μm. It is shown that cooling kinetics
             for samples irradiated with small laser intensity is the
             same, for both wavelengths of each pair: 6.2 and 6.0; 6.35
             and 5.92; 3.22 and 2.81; 3.15 and 2.87 μm. For high laser
             intensity, the cooling curves are differ, for above
             wavelengths. From cooling kinetics curves we have calculated
             the values of absorption coefficient and their alterations
             for above wavelengths. We have modified the computation
             algorithm taking into account the real FTIR spectra of the
             tissue, the effect of water evaporation from the tissue, and
             specific characteristics of the IR detector used. It is
             shown that absorption coefficient may increase or decrease
             depending on laser wavelength and fluence, and that the
             water absorption bands have a tendency to shift under laser
             heating. The IR absorption spectra of cartilage and cornea
             have been measured by the FTIR spectrometer. The limitation
             and possible errors of two techniques used have been
             discussed.},
   Key = {fds245883}
}

@article{fds3882,
   Author = {E.N. Sobol and A.P. Sviridov and M.S. Kitai and J. Gilligan and G.S.
             Edwards},
   Title = {Alterations of absorption coefficient of tissue water as a
             result of the heating under the IR FEL radiation with
             different wavelengths},
   Journal = {International Biomedical Optics Symposium,
             SPIE},
   Volume = {3925},
   Pages = {78},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds3882}
}

@article{fds245882,
   Author = {Pinayev, I and Emamian, M and Gustavsson, J and Litvinenko, VN and Morcombe, P and Oakeley, O and Rathbone, V and Swift, G and Wang, P and Edwards, G},
   Title = {Status of Mark III FEL},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the IEEE Particle Accelerator
             Conference},
   Volume = {4},
   Pages = {2725-2726},
   Year = {2001},
   Abstract = {Status of Mark III free electron laser and its upgrades were
             presented. An old high voltage source utilizing unregulated
             rectifier was replaced with power supplies manufactured by
             Maxwell to reduce optical power fluctuations. To implement
             faster change of lasing wavelength a fixed coupler was
             replaced with a variable power splitter equipped with remote
             control. Upgradation significantly increased the performance
             of Mark III FEL and brought it up with up-to-date
             technology.},
   Key = {fds245882}
}

@article{fds245884,
   Author = {Wang, P and Litvinenko, V and Emamian, M and Faircloth, J and Gustavsson, J and Hartman, S and Mikhailov, S and Morcombe, P and Oakeley, O and Patterson, J and Pentico, M and Pinayev, I and Shevchenko, O and Swift, G and Edwards, G},
   Title = {Status report on the Duke FEL facility},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the IEEE Particle Accelerator
             Conference},
   Volume = {4},
   Pages = {2819-2820},
   Year = {2001},
   Abstract = {At the Duke Free Electron Laser (FEL) Laboratory, there are
             two FEL machines: the Mark III infrared FEL and the
             OK-4/Storage Ring, which produces UV and XUV laser beam as
             well as gamma rays via Compton backscattering. The recent
             status of Mark-III machine is described in another paper.
             Here we will concentrate on the new development of the
             OK-4/Storage Ring FEL and its performance and capabilities.
             A brief history of this machine and the future plan are also
             given in this paper.},
   Key = {fds245884}
}

@article{fds245930,
   Author = {Jr, EJS and Edwards, GS and Perdigao, J and Thompson, JY and Nunes, MF and Ruddell, DE and Negishi, A},
   Title = {Free-electron laser etching of dental enamel},
   Journal = {Journal of Dentistry},
   Volume = {29},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {347-353},
   Year = {2001},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0300-5712(01)00019-7},
   Abstract = {Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the
             Mark-III free-electron laser as a means of etching enamel
             surfaces, with potential application to resin bonding.
             Methods: The FEL was tuned to wavelengths ranging from 3.0
             to 9.2 μm. Specific wavelengths that are resonantly
             absorbed by phosphates, proteins, and water were used.
             First, bovine enamel was polished and exposed to static FEL
             exposures. Lased enamel was examined using scanning electron
             microscopy (SEM). Additional bovine enamel specimens were
             exposed to FEL at similar wavelengths, but with rastering to
             create treated rectangular areas on each specimen. Surface
             roughness was evaluated using profilometry and atomic force
             microscopy (AFM). Composite was bonded to the lased enamel,
             and shear bond strengths were determined using an Instron
             universal testing machine. As a control, the surface
             roughness of, and shear bond strengths to, acid-etched
             enamel were determined. Results: Static FEL exposures caused
             changes in the enamel ranging from an etched appearance to
             pits, cracks, and frank cratering. The surface roughness of
             lased enamel was much greater than that of acid-etched
             enamel, and was qualitatively different as well. Shear bond
             strengths of resin to acid-etched enamel were significantly
             higher than bond strengths to lased enamel. Conclusions:
             Under the conditions used in this study, the FEL did not
             offer a practical and effective method of etching enamel for
             resin bonding. However, the ability of the FEL to deliver
             many specific wavelengths makes it an interesting tool for
             further research of laser effects on tooth structure. ©
             2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0300-5712(01)00019-7},
   Key = {fds245930}
}

@article{fds245931,
   Author = {Shen, JH and Harrington, JA and Edwards, GS and Joos,
             KM},
   Title = {Hollow-glass waveguide delivery of an infrared free-electron
             laser for microsurgical applications},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {40},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {583-587},
   Year = {2001},
   ISSN = {0003-6935},
   Abstract = {The purpose of this research is to deliver
             free-electron-laser (FEL) pulses for intraocular
             microsurgery. The FEL at Vanderbilt University is tunable
             from 1.8 to 10.8 μm. To deliver the FEL beam we used a
             metallic-coated hollow-glass waveguide of 530-μm inner
             diameter. A 20-gauge cannula with a miniature CaF2 window
             shielded the waveguide from water. Open-sky retinotomy was
             performed on cadaver eyes. The system delivered as much as 6
             × 105 W of FEL peak power to the intraocular tissues
             without damage to the waveguide or to the surgical probe. ©
             2001 Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {fds245931}
}

@article{fds3886,
   Author = {E.J. Swift, Jr. and G.S. Edwards and J. Perdigao and J.Y. Thompson and M.F. Nunes and D.E. Ruddell and A. Negishi},
   Title = {Free-electron laser etching of dental enamel},
   Journal = {Journal of Dentistry},
   Volume = {29},
   Pages = {347-353},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds3886}
}

@article{fds245885,
   Author = {Hutson, MS and Palmer, RA and Gillikin, A and Chang, M-S and Litvinenko,
             VN and Edwards, GS},
   Title = {UV/time-resolved FTIR beamline at the Duke FEL
             Laboratory},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical
             Engineering},
   Volume = {4633},
   Series = {Proceedings of the SPIE},
   Pages = {225-232},
   Booktitle = {Commercial and Biomedical Applications of Ultrafast and Free
             Electron Lasers},
   Editor = {Glenn S. Edwards and Joseph Neev and Andreas Ostendorf and John
             Sutherland},
   Year = {2002},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.461383},
   Abstract = {We describe the commissioning of a novel two-color beamline
             at the Duke Free Electron Laser Laboratory, designed to
             perform time-resolved FTIR spectroscopy in a pump-probe
             scheme with sub-nanosecond resolution to measure dynamical
             processes with durations as long as ten nanoseconds. The UV
             pump pulses are produced by the tunable (193 to 700 nm)
             output of the OK-4 Storage-Ring FEL. The broadband, infrared
             probe pulses are generated as synchrotron radiation in a
             bending magnet downstream of the OK-4 wiggler. The
             repetition rate of the light source (2.79 MHz) is ideal for
             operating the interferometer in the rapid-scan, asynchronous
             sampling mode.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.461383},
   Key = {fds245885}
}

@article{fds245886,
   Author = {Edwards, G and Hutson, MS and Hauger, S and Kozub, J and Shen, J and Shieh,
             C and Topadze, K and Joos, K},
   Title = {Comparison of OPA and Mark-III FEL for tissue ablation at
             6.45 microns},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical
             Engineering},
   Volume = {4633},
   Pages = {194-200},
   Booktitle = {Commercial and Biomedical Applications of Ultrafast and Free
             Electron Lasers},
   Editor = {Glenn S. Edwards and Joseph Neev and Andreas Ostendorf and John
             Sutherland},
   Year = {2002},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.461379},
   Abstract = {We have investigated the experimental consequences of two
             picosecond infrared lasers, both tuned to 6.45 μm and
             focused on ocular tissue. The exposure conditions were
             comparable, other than pulse repetition rate, where an
             optical parametric oscillator/amplifier laser (OPA) system
             operates at a kilohertz and the Mark-III FEL at 3 gigahertz.
             In both cases, the peak intensity was near 2×1014 W/m2 and
             the total delivered energy was approximately 125 mJ. The
             Mark-III consistently ablates tissue, while the OPA fails to
             ablate or to damage corneal tissue. In particular, there is
             no experimental evidence for protein denaturation due to OPA
             irradiation. We account for these observations in terms of a
             theoretical model based on thermal diffusion and threshold
             conditions for superheating and chemical kinetics. We
             comment on the relevance of tissue geometry.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.461379},
   Key = {fds245886}
}

@article{fds245887,
   Author = {Edwards, GS and Neev, J and Ostendorf, A and Sutherland,
             JC},
   Title = {Erratum: (Commercial and Biomedical Applications of
             Ultrafast and Free-Electron Lasers (23-24 January
             2002))},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical
             Engineering},
   Volume = {4633},
   Pages = {243-244},
   Year = {2002},
   Key = {fds245887}
}

@article{fds245888,
   Author = {Edwards, GS and Hutson, MS and Hauger, S},
   Title = {Heat diffusion and chemical kinetics in Mark-III FEL tissue
             ablation},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical
             Engineering},
   Volume = {4633},
   Pages = {184-193},
   Booktitle = {Commercial and Biomedical Applications of Ultrafast and Free
             Electron Lasers},
   Editor = {Glenn S. Edwards and Joseph Neev and Andreas Ostendorf and John
             Sutherland},
   Year = {2002},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.461378},
   Abstract = {We present in some detail a theoretical model that provides
             a dynamical account for the experimentally observed ablative
             properties of an FEL tuned near 6.45 microns. The model is
             based on thermal diffusion and chemical kinetics in a system
             of alternating layers of protein and saline as heated by an
             infrared Mark-III FEL. We compare exposure at 3.0 microns,
             where water is the sole absorber, to that at 6.45 microns,
             where both protein and water absorb. The picosecond pulses
             of the Mark-III superpulse are treated as a train of
             impulses. We consider the onset of both the helix-coil
             transition and chemical bond breaking in terms of the
             thermal, chemical, and mechanical properties of the system
             as well as laser wavelength and pulse structure.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.461378},
   Key = {fds245888}
}

@article{fds245934,
   Author = {Hutson, MS and Hauger, SA and Edwards, G},
   Title = {Thermal diffusion and chemical kinetics in laminar
             biomaterial due to heating by a free-electron
             laser},
   Journal = {Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter
             Physics},
   Volume = {65},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {061906/1-061906/6},
   Year = {2002},
   ISSN = {1539-3755},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.65.061906},
   Abstract = {We have theoretically investigated the role of thermal
             diffusion and chemical kinetics as a possible dynamic
             explanation for the preferential ablative properties of
             infrared radiation from a free-electron laser (FEL). The
             model is based on a laminar system composed of alternating
             layers of protein and saline. We have compared exposure to 3
             μm where water is the main absorber and 6.45 μm where both
             water and protein absorb. The picosecond pulses of the
             superpulse are treated as a train of impulses. We find that
             the heating rates are sufficient to superheat the outer
             saline layers on the nanosecond time scale, leading to
             explosive vaporization. We also find that competition
             between the layer-specific heating rates and thermal
             diffusion results in a wavelength-dependent separation in
             layer temperatures. We consider the onset of both chemical
             bond breaking and the helix-coil transition of protein prior
             to vaporization in terms of the thermal, chemical, and
             structural properties of the system as well as laser
             wavelength and pulse structure. There is no evidence for
             thermal bond breaking on these time scales. At 6.45 μm, but
             not 3 μm, there is evidence for a significant helix-coil
             transition. While the native protein is ductile, the
             denatured protein exhibits brittle fracture. This model
             provides a dynamic mechanism to account for the preferential
             ablative properties observed with FEL radiation tuned near
             6.45 μm. © 2002 The American Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.65.061906},
   Key = {fds245934}
}

@article{fds245935,
   Author = {Hutson, MS and Palmer, RA and Chang, M-S and Gillikin, A and Litvinenko,
             V and Edwards, G},
   Title = {Commissioning of a UV/time-resolved-FTIR beamline at the
             Duke FEL laboratory},
   Journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section
             A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated
             Equipment},
   Volume = {483},
   Number = {1-2},
   Pages = {560-564},
   Year = {2002},
   ISSN = {0168-9002},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0168-9002(02)00382-0},
   Abstract = {We describe the commissioning of a novel two-color beamline
             at the Duke Free Electron Laser Laboratory, designed to
             perform time-resolved FTIR spectroscopy in a pump-probe
             scheme with sub-nanosecond resolution to measure dynamical
             processes with durations as long as 10 ns. The UV pump
             pulses are produced by the tunable (193-700 nm) output of
             the OK-4 Storage-Ring FEL. The broadband, infrared probe
             pulses are generated as synchrotron radiation in a bending
             magnet downstream of the OK-4 wiggler. The repetition rate
             of the light source (2.79 MHz) is ideal for operating the
             interferometer in the rapid-scan, asynchronous sampling
             mode. An investigation of DNA photolyase is proposed. ©
             2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0168-9002(02)00382-0},
   Key = {fds245935}
}

@article{fds245889,
   Author = {Sobol, E and Sviridov, A and Kitai, M and Bagratashvili, V and Gilligan,
             J and Edwards, G},
   Title = {Laser-induced alterations of the Infrared light absorption
             by biological tissues: Radiometric and spectroscopic
             measurements},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical
             Engineering},
   Volume = {4829 II},
   Pages = {1030-1031},
   Year = {2003},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.530961},
   Abstract = {The temperature alterations in the absorption coefficients
             of water in cartilage and cornea under laser radiation of an
             IR Free Electron Laser (PEL) were studied for several
             wavelengths near 2.9 and 6.1 μm water absorption bands
             using a pulsed photo-thermal radiometer (PPTR). A
             computation algorithm has been modified to take into account
             the real IR absorption spectra of the tissue and the
             spectral sensitivity of the IR detector used. The IR
             absorption spectra of cartilage and cornea have been also
             measured by the FTIR spectrometer. It is shown that the
             values of absorption obtined ising PPTR differ from that
             obtained by the spectrometer. The limitation and possible
             errors of two techniques used for have been
             discussed.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.530961},
   Key = {fds245889}
}

@article{fds245891,
   Author = {Edwards, GS and Austin, RH and Carroll, FE and Copeland, ML and Couprie,
             ME and Gabella, WE and Huglund, RF and Hooper, BA and Hutson, MS and Jansen, ED and Joos, KM and Kiehart, DP and Lindau, I and Miao, J and Pratisto, HS and Shen, JH and Tokutake, Y and Meer, AFGVD and Xie,
             A},
   Title = {Free-electron-laser-based biophysical and biomedical
             instrumentation},
   Journal = {Review of Scientific Instruments},
   Volume = {74},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {3207-3245},
   Year = {2003},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1584078},
   Abstract = {A survey of biophysical and biomedical applications of
             free-electron lasers (FEL) was discussed. It was found that
             the midinfrared SCA FEL and UV FELs based on storage rings
             were useful for one- and two-color spectroscopic
             investigations of biophysical proesses. The light source
             capabilities of FEL which include combinations of wavelength
             ranges and pulse structures were also elaborated.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.1584078},
   Key = {fds245891}
}

@article{fds245927,
   Author = {Edwards, GS and Austin, RH and Carroll, FE and Copeland, ML and Couprie,
             ME and Gabella, WE and Haglund, RF and Hooper, BA and Hutson, MS and Jansen, ED and Joos, KM and Kiehart, DP and Lindau, I and Miao, J and Pratisto, HS and Shen, JH and Tokutake, Y and van Der Meer and L and Xie,
             A},
   Title = {FEL-based biophysical and biomedical instrumentation},
   Journal = {Invited paper, Review of Scientific Instruments},
   Volume = {74},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {3207-3245},
   Year = {2003},
   Key = {fds245927}
}

@article{fds245928,
   Author = {Sobol, EN and Sviridov, AP and Kitai, MS and Edwards,
             GS},
   Title = {Temperature alterations of infrared light absorption by
             cartilage and cornea under free-electron laser
             radiation},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {42},
   Number = {13},
   Pages = {2443-2449},
   Year = {2003},
   ISSN = {0003-6935},
   Abstract = {Like pure water, the water incorporated into cartilage and
             cornea tissue shows a pronounced dependence of the
             absorption coefficient on temperature. Alteration of the
             temperature by radiation with an IR free-electron laser was
             studied by use of a pulsed photothermal radiometric
             technique. A computation algorithm was modified to take into
             account the real IR absorption spectra of the tissue and the
             spectral sensitivity of the IR detector used. The absorption
             coefficients for several wavelengths within the 2.9-and
             6.1-μm water absorption bands have been determined for
             various laser pulse energies. It is shown that the
             absorption coefficient for cartilage decreases at
             temperatures higher than 50 °C owing to thermal alterations
             of water-water and water-biopolymer interactions. © 2003
             Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {fds245928}
}

@article{fds245929,
   Author = {Sobol, E and Sviridov, A and Kitai, M and Gilligan, J and Tolk, N and Edwards, G},
   Title = {Time-resolved, light scattering measurements of cartilage
             and cornea denaturation due to FEL radiation: effect of
             infrared wavelength},
   Journal = {Journal of Biomedical Optics},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {216-222},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {Spring},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.1559996},
   Abstract = {Light scattering is used to monitor the dynamics and energy
             thresholds of laser-induced structural alterations in
             biopolymers due to irradiation by a free electron laser
             (FEL) in the infrared (IR) wavelength range 2.2 to 8.5
             μm. Attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier-transform
             IR (FTIR) spectroscopy is used to examine infrared tissue
             absorption spectra before and after irradiation. Light
             scattering by bovine and porcine cartilage and cornea
             samples is measured in real time during FEL irradiation
             using a 650-nm diode laser and a diode photoarray with time
             resolution of 10 ms. The data on the time dependence of
             light scattering in the tissue are modeled to estimate the
             approximate values of kinetic parameters for denaturation as
             functions of laser wavelength and radiant exposure. We found
             that the denaturation threshold is slightly lower for cornea
             than for cartilage, and both depend on laser wavelength. An
             inverse correlation between denaturation thresholds and the
             absorption spectrum of the tissue is observed for many
             wavelengths; however, for wavelengths near 3 and 6 μm,
             the denaturation threshold does not exhibit the inverse
             correlation, instead being governed by heating kinetics of
             tissue. It is shown that light scattering is useful for
             measuring the denaturation thresholds and dynamics for
             different biotissues, except where the initial absorptivity
             is very high.},
   Doi = {10.1117/1.1559996},
   Key = {fds245929}
}

@article{fds304533,
   Author = {Sobol, E and Sviridov, A and Kitai, M and Gilligan, JM and Tolk, NH and Edwards, GS},
   Title = {Time-resolved, light scattering measurements of cartilage
             and cornea denaturation due to free electron laser
             radiation},
   Journal = {Journal of Biomedical Optics},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {216-222},
   Year = {2003},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.1559996},
   Abstract = {Light scattering is used to monitor the dynamics and energy
             thresholds of laser-induced structural alterations in
             biopolymers due to irradiation by a free electron laser
             (FEL) in the infrared (IR) wavelength range 2.2 to 8.5 μm.
             Attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier-transform IR
             (FTIR) spectroscopy is used to examine infrared tissue
             absorption spectra before and after irradiation. Light
             scattering by bovine and porcine cartilage and cornea
             samples is measured in real time during FEL irradiation
             using a 650-nm diode laser and a diode photoarray with time
             resolution of 10 ms. The data on the time dependence of
             light scattering in the tissue are modeled to estimate the
             approximate values of kinetic parameters for denaturation as
             functions of laser wavelength and radiant exposure. We found
             that the denaturation threshold is slightly lower for cornea
             than for cartilage, and both depend on laser wavelength. An
             inverse correlation between denaturation thresholds and the
             absorption spectrum of the tissue is observed for many
             wavelengths; however, for wavelengths near 3 and 6 μm, the
             denaturation threshold does not exhibit the inverse
             correlation, instead being governed by heating kinetics of
             tissue. It is shown that light scattering is useful for
             measuring the denaturation thresholds and dynamics for
             different biotissues, except where the initial absorptivity
             is very high.},
   Doi = {10.1117/1.1559996},
   Key = {fds304533}
}

@article{fds245926,
   Author = {Hutson, MS and Tokutake, Y and Chang, M-S and Bloor, JW and Venakides,
             S and Kiehart, DP and Edwards, GS},
   Title = {Forces for morphogenesis investigated with laser
             microsurgery and quantitative modeling.},
   Journal = {Science},
   Volume = {300},
   Number = {5616},
   Pages = {145-149},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12574496},
   Abstract = {We investigated the forces that connect the genetic program
             of development to morphogenesis in Drosophila. We focused on
             dorsal closure, a powerful model system for development and
             wound healing. We found that the bulk of progress toward
             closure is driven by contractility in supracellular "purse
             strings" and in the amnioserosa, whereas adhesion-mediated
             zipping coordinates the forces produced by the purse strings
             and is essential only for the end stages. We applied
             quantitative modeling to show that these forces, generated
             in distinct cells, are coordinated in space and synchronized
             in time. Modeling of wild-type and mutant phenotypes is
             predictive; although closure in myospheroid mutants
             ultimately fails when the cell sheets rip themselves apart,
             our analysis indicates that beta(PS) integrin has an
             earlier, important role in zipping.},
   Doi = {10.1126/science.1079552},
   Key = {fds245926}
}

@article{fds245925,
   Author = {Edwards, GS and Hutson, MS},
   Title = {Advantage of the Mark-III FEL for biophysical research and
             biomedical applications.},
   Journal = {Journal of Synchrotron Radiation},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {Pt 5},
   Pages = {354-357},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0909-0495},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12944619},
   Abstract = {Although 6.45 micro m is not the strongest absorption band
             of biological tissues in the mid-infrared, a Mark-III
             free-electron laser (FEL) tuned to this wavelength can
             efficiently ablate tissue while minimizing collateral
             damage. A model has previously been presented that explains
             this wavelength dependence as a competition between two
             dynamic processes--explosive vaporization of saline and
             denaturation of structural proteins. Here it is shown that
             this model predicts a 'sweet-spot' for each wavelength, i.e.
             a region of parameter space (incident intensity and pulse
             width) in which explosive vaporization is preceded by
             substantial protein denaturation. This sweet-spot is much
             larger for wavelengths where protein is the dominant
             chromophore. At other wavelengths, collateral damage may be
             minimized within the sweet-spot, but the maximum intensities
             and pulse widths in these regions are insufficient to remove
             tissue at surgically relevant rates.},
   Key = {fds245925}
}

@article{fds245924,
   Author = {Samokhvalov, A and Garguilo, J and Yang, W-C and Edwards, GS and Nemanich, RJ and Simon, JD},
   Title = {Photoionization threshold of eumelanosomes determined using
             UV free electron laser - Photoelectron emission
             microscopy},
   Journal = {The Journal of Physical Chemistry Part B: Condensed Matter,
             Materials, Surfaces, Interfaces and Biophysical},
   Volume = {108},
   Number = {42},
   Pages = {16334-16338},
   Year = {2004},
   ISSN = {1520-6106},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp046701q},
   Abstract = {The application of UV-free electron laser photoelectron
             emission microscopy (UV-FEL PEEM) to measure the threshold
             photoelectron spectrum and photoionization potential for
             human eumelanosomes is described. The origin of potential
             artifacts and the limitations of the technique are discussed
             and their potential effects on the measured photoionization
             potential are quantified. The UV-FEL-PEEM images collected
             on human eumelanosomes isolated from black hair show that
             the organelle is photoionized by UV-Bradiation. The
             photoionization threshold is determined to be 4.6 ± 0.2 eV.
             This result provides new insight into the origin of the
             differences between the photoionization and oxygen
             photoconsumption action spectra for eumelanins.},
   Doi = {10.1021/jp046701q},
   Key = {fds245924}
}

@article{fds16425,
   Author = {E.D. Jansen and M. Copeland and G.S. Edwards and W. Gabella and K. Joos and M.A. Mackanos and J.H. Shen and S.R. Uhlhorn},
   Title = {Therapeutic Applications of Free-Electron
             Lasers},
   Booktitle = {Handbook of Laser Technology and Applications},
   Publisher = {Institute of Physics Publishing},
   Editor = {Colin Webb and Julian Jones},
   Year = {2004},
   Key = {fds16425}
}

@article{fds245909,
   Author = {Edwards, GS},
   Title = {Applications of free-electron lasers to the biological and
             physical sciences},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical
             Engineering},
   Volume = {5725},
   Pages = {210-219},
   Year = {2005},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.598150},
   Abstract = {Representative examples of applications research based on
             Free-Electron Lasers are reviewed. Research highlights
             include: observation of absolute negative conductance in
             semiconductor superlattices using a terahertz Free-Electron
             Laser at the University of California, Santa Barbara;
             infrared photon echos as a technique in nonlinear
             spectroscopy to investigate vibrational dynamics in liquids
             and glasses using an infrared Free-Electron Laser at
             Stanford University; attributing the 20.1 μm stellar
             spectral feature to titanium carbide clusters using an
             infrared Free-Electron Laser in The Netherlands; human laser
             neurosurgery and ophthalmic laser surgery using an infrared
             Free-Electron Laser at Vanderbilt University; imaging of
             nanoscale island dynamics during thin film growth using the
             ultraviolet Free-Electron Laser at Duke University; and
             nuclear resonant fluorescence measurements for parity
             assignments in 138Ba using the high intensity gamma ray
             source at Duke University.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.598150},
   Key = {fds245909}
}

@article{fds51808,
   Author = {M.S. Hutson and G.S. Edwards},
   Title = {Advances in the Physical Understanding of Laser Surgery at
             6.45 Microns},
   Journal = {Physical Review Special Topics – Accelerator and
             Beams},
   Series = {Joint Accelerator Conferences Website},
   Year = {2005},
   Key = {fds51808}
}

@article{fds245910,
   Author = {Samokhvalov, A and Hong, L and Liu, Y and Garguilo, J and Nemanich, RJ and Edwards, GS and Simon, JD},
   Title = {Oxidation potentials of human eumelanosomes and
             pheomelanosomes.},
   Journal = {Photochemistry & Photobiology},
   Volume = {81},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {145-148},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0031-8655},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15458368},
   Abstract = {Eumelanosomes and pheomelanosomes isolated from black and
             red human hair, respectively, were studied by photoelectron
             emission microscopy (PEEM). PEEM images were collected at
             various wavelengths between 207 and 344 nm, using the
             spontaneous emission output of the Duke OK-4 free electron
             laser (FEL). Analysis of the FEL-PEEM data revealed
             ionization thresholds of 4.6 and 3.9 eV corresponding to
             oxidation potentials of -0.2 and +0.5 V vs normal hydrogen
             electrode for eumelanosomes and pheomelanosomes,
             respectively. The difference in oxidation potential is
             attributed to the pigment content of the melanosome, namely
             whether it contains primarily eumelanin and pheomelanin. The
             effect of added melanosomes on the reduction of
             Fe(III)-cytochrome showed pheomelanosomes are stronger
             reducing agents than eumelanosomes, consistent with the
             measured oxidation potentials. The FEL-PEEM experiment
             offers to be an important new approach for quantifying the
             effects of age, oxidation and metal accumulation on the
             oxidation potentials of intact melanosomes.},
   Doi = {10.1562/2004-07-23-RC-245},
   Key = {fds245910}
}

@article{fds245911,
   Author = {Edwards, GS and Allen, SJ and Haglund, RF and Nemanich, RJ and Redlich,
             B and Simon, JD and Yang, W-C},
   Title = {Applications of free-electron lasers in the biological and
             material sciences.},
   Journal = {Photochemistry & Photobiology},
   Volume = {81},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {711-735},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0031-8655},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15755193},
   Abstract = {Free-Electron Lasers (FELs) collectively operate from the
             terahertz through the ultraviolet range and via intracavity
             Compton backscattering into the X-ray and gamma-ray regimes.
             FELs are continuously tunable and can provide optical
             powers, pulse structures and polarizations that are not
             matched by conventional lasers. Representative research in
             the biological and biomedical sciences and condensed matter
             and material research are described to illustrate the
             breadth and impact of FEL applications. These include
             terahertz dynamics in materials far from equilibrium,
             infrared nonlinear vibrational spectroscopy to investigate
             dynamical processes in condensed-phase systems, infrared
             resonant-enhanced multiphoton ionization for gas-phase
             spectroscopy and spectrometry, infrared matrix-assisted
             laser-desorption-ionization and infrared matrix-assisted
             pulsed laser evaporation for analysis and processing of
             organic materials, human neurosurgery and ophthalmic surgery
             using a medical infrared FEL and ultraviolet photoemission
             electron microscopy for nanoscale characterization of
             materials and nanoscale phenomena. The ongoing development
             of ultraviolet and X-ray FELs are discussed in terms of
             future opportunities for applications research.},
   Doi = {10.1562/2004-11-08-IR-363},
   Key = {fds245911}
}

@article{fds245848,
   Author = {Kiehart, DP and Tokutake, Y and Chang, M-S and Hutson, MS and Wiemann,
             J and Peralta, XG and Toyama, Y and Wells, AR and Rodriguez, A and Edwards,
             GS},
   Title = {Ultraviolet Laser Microbeam for Dissection of Drosophila
             Embryos},
   Journal = {Cell Biology, Four-Volume Set},
   Volume = {3},
   Pages = {87-103},
   Booktitle = {Cell Biology: A Laboratory Handbook, 3rd
             edition},
   Publisher = {Elsevier},
   Editor = {J.E. Celis},
   Year = {2006},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-012164730-8/50137-4},
   Abstract = {This chapter describes the use of ultraviolet (UV) laser
             microbeam interrogation strategies, combined with confocal
             microscopy, to investigate the developmental process of
             dorsal closure. Drosophila embryos that carry GFP-fusion
             transgenes are mounted to allow high spatial and temporal
             resolution imaging under conditions that allow development
             to proceed unimpeded. With the help of QuickTime videos of
             the time-lapsed image stacks, changes in specimen morphology
             that result from laser surgical interrogation are therefore
             described both qualitatively and quantitatively. Drosophila
             embryos that carry GFP-fusion transgenes are mounted to
             allow high spatial and temporal resolution imaging under
             conditions that allow development to proceed unimpeded. For
             each confocal microscope system, modifications to the
             optical path of the microscope are necessary to allow
             simultaneous imaging and laser surgery. The advent of
             spectral variants of GFP mentioned earlier, the
             proliferation of other unrelated fluorescent proteins, each
             with different excitation and emission characteristics. Once
             the mirrors are aligned properly to guide the unmodified
             beam through the objective, the polarizer, the individual
             lenses that comprise the beam expander and the telescope are
             added, in that order. © 2006 Copyright © 2006 Elsevier
             Inc. All rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/B978-012164730-8/50137-4},
   Key = {fds245848}
}

@article{fds245908,
   Author = {Ye, T and Hong, L and Garguilo, J and Pawlak, A and Edwards, GS and Nemanich, RJ and Sarna, T and Simon, JD},
   Title = {Photoionization thresholds of melanins obtained from free
             electron laser-photoelectron emission microscopy,
             femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy and electron
             paramagnetic resonance measurements of oxygen
             photoconsumption.},
   Journal = {Photochemistry & Photobiology},
   Volume = {82},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {733-737},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0031-8655},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16542109},
   Abstract = {Free electron laser-photoelectron emission microscopy
             (FEL-PEEM), femtosecond absorption spectroscopy and electron
             paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements of oxygen
             photoconsumption were used to probe the threshold potential
             for ionization of eumelanosomes and pheomelanosomes isolated
             from human hair. FEL-PEEM data show that both pigments are
             characterized by an ionization threshold at 282 nm. However,
             pheomelanosomes exhibit a second ionization threshold at 326
             nm, which is interpreted to be reflective of the
             benzothiazine structural motif present in pheomelanin and
             absent in eumelanin. The lower ionization threshold for
             pheomelanin is supported by femtosecond transient absorption
             spectroscopy. Unlike photolysis at 350 nm, following
             excitation of solubalized synthetic pheomelanin at 303 nm,
             the transient spectrum observed between 500 and 700 nm
             matches that for the solvated electron, indicating the
             photoionization threshold for the solubalized pigment is
             between 350 and 303 nm. For the same synthetic pheomelanin,
             EPR oximetry experiments reveal an increased rate of oxygen
             uptake between 338 nm and 323 nm, narrowing the threshold
             for photoionization to sit between these two wavelengths.
             These results on the solubalized synthetic pigment are
             consistent with the FEL-PEEM results on the human
             melanosomes. The lower ionization potential observed for
             pheomelanin could be an important part of the explanation
             for the greater incidence rate of UV-induced skin cancers in
             red-haired individuals.},
   Doi = {10.1562/2006-01-02-RA-762},
   Key = {fds245908}
}

@article{fds245907,
   Author = {Bush, WD and Garguilo, J and Zucca, FA and Albertini, A and Zecca, L and Edwards, GS and Nemanich, RJ and Simon, JD},
   Title = {The surface oxidation potential of human neuromelanin
             reveals a spherical architecture with a pheomelanin core and
             a eumelanin surface.},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of
             USA},
   Volume = {103},
   Number = {40},
   Pages = {14785-14789},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0027-8424},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17001010},
   Abstract = {Neuromelanin (NM) isolated from the substantia nigra region
             of the human brain was studied by scanning probe and
             photoelectron emission microscopies. Atomic force microscopy
             reveals that NM granules are comprised of spherical
             structures with a diameter of approximately 30 nm, similar
             to that observed for Sepia cuttlefish, bovine eye, and human
             eye and hair melanosomes. Photoelectron microscopy images
             were collected at specific wavelengths of UV light between
             248 and 413 nm, using the spontaneous-emission output from
             the Duke OK-4 free electron laser. Analysis of the data
             establishes a threshold photoionization potential for NM of
             4.5 +/- 0.2 eV, which corresponds to an oxidation potential
             of -0.1 +/- 0.2 V vs. the normal hydrogen electrode (NHE).
             The oxidation potential of NM is within experimental error
             of the oxidation potential measured for human eumelanosomes
             (-0.2 +/- 0.2 V vs. NHE), despite the presence of a
             significant fraction of the red pigment, pheomelanin, which
             is characterized by a higher oxidation potential (+0.5 +/-
             0.2 V vs. NHE). Published kinetic studies on the early
             chemical steps of melanogenesis show that in the case of
             pigments containing a mixture of pheomelanin and eumelanin,
             of which NM is an example, pheomelanin formation occurs
             first with eumelanin formation predominantly occurring only
             after cysteine levels are depleted. Such a kinetic model
             would predict a structural motif with pheomelanin at the
             core and eumelanin at the surface, which is consistent with
             the measured surface oxidation potential of the
             approximately 30-nm constituents of NM granules.},
   Doi = {10.1073/pnas.0604010103},
   Key = {fds245907}
}

@article{fds245903,
   Author = {Hong, L and Garguilo, J and Anzaldi, L and Edwards, GS and Nemanich, RJ and Simon, JD},
   Title = {Age-dependent photoionization thresholds of melanosomes and
             lipofuscin isolated from human retinal pigment epithelium
             cells.},
   Journal = {Photochemistry & Photobiology},
   Volume = {82},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1475-1481},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0031-8655},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16696595},
   Abstract = {Melanosomes and lipofuscin were isolated from 14-, 59-, and
             76-year-old, human retinal pigment epithelium specimens and
             examined. The morphological features of these samples were
             studied by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force
             microscopy, and the photoionization properties were examined
             by photoelectron emission microscopy. Ovoid- and rod-shaped
             melanosomes were observed. The size of the granules and the
             distribution between the two shapes show no significant
             age-dependent change. However, there is a higher occurrence
             of irregularly shaped aggregates of small round granules in
             older samples which suggests degradation or damage to
             melanosomes occurs with age. The melanosomes from the
             14-year-old donor eye are well characterized by a single
             photoionization threshold, 4.1 eV, while the two older
             melanosomes exhibit two thresholds around 4.4 and 3.6 eV.
             Lipofuscin from both young and old cells show two
             thresholds, 4.4 and 3.4 eV. The similarity of the potentials
             observed for aged melanosomes and lipofuscin suggest that
             the lower threshold in the melanosome sample reflects
             lipofuscin deposited the surface of the melanosome. The
             amount, however, is not sufficient to alter the density of
             the melanosome, and therefore these granules do not separate
             in a sucrose gradient at densities characteristic of the
             typical melanolipofuscin granule. These data suggest that
             thin deposits of lipofuscin on the surface of retinal
             pigment epithelium melanosomes are common in the aged eye
             and that this renders the melanosomes more
             pro-oxidant.},
   Doi = {10.1562/2006-03-14-RA-846},
   Key = {fds245903}
}

@article{fds245846,
   Author = {Kim, Y and Gustavsson, J and Wang, P and Swift, G and Emamian, M and Hartman, S and Wallace, P and Edwards, G},
   Title = {The mark-III FEL facility at duke university},
   Journal = {23rd International Linear Accelerator Conference, LINAC 2006
             - Proceedings},
   Pages = {394-396},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {At the Free Electron Laser (FEL) Laboratory of Duke
             University, there is an S-band linac based Mark III FEL
             facility which can supply coherent FEL photon in the
             infrared wavelength range. To supply high quality electron
             beams and to have excellent pulse structure, we installed an
             S-band RF gun with a Lanthanum Hexaboride (LaB6) single
             crystal cathode for the Mark III FEL facility in 2005. Its
             longest macropulse length is about 6 μs, and maximum
             repetition rates of a macropulse and a micropulse are 15 Hz
             and 2856 MHz, respectively. Therefore we can generate about
             17142 bunches within a bunch train and about 257142 bunches
             within one second by the S-band gun. In this paper, we
             describe recent commissioning experiences of our new S-band
             RF gun for the Mark III FEL facility.},
   Key = {fds245846}
}

@article{fds245847,
   Author = {Kim, Y and Gustavsson, J and Wang, P and Swift, G and Emamian, M and Hartman, S and Wallace, P and Edwards, G},
   Title = {Commissioning of S-band RF gun and linac for the mark-III
             FEL facility at Duke University},
   Journal = {28th International Free Electron Laser Conference, FEL
             2006},
   Pages = {411-414},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {At the Free Electron Laser (FEL) Laboratory of Duke
             University, there is an S-band linac based Mark III FEL
             facility which can supply coherent FEL photon in the
             infrared wavelength range. To supply high quality electron
             beams and to have excellent pulse structure, we installed an
             S-band RF gun with a Lanthanum Hexaboride (LaB 6 ) single
             crystal cathode for the Mark III FEL facility in 2005. Its
             longest macropulse length is about 6 μs, and maximum
             repetition rates of a macropulse and a micropulse are 15 Hz
             and 2856 MHz, respectively. Therefore we can generate about
             17142 bunches within a bunch train and about 257142 bunches
             within one second by the S-band gun. In this paper, we
             describe recent commissioning experiences of our newly
             installed S-band RF gun and linac for the Mark III FEL
             facility.},
   Key = {fds245847}
}

@article{fds245905,
   Author = {Garguilo, J and Hong, L and Edwards, GS and Nemanich, RJ and Simon,
             JD},
   Title = {The surface oxidation potential of melanosomes measured by
             free electron laser-photoelectron emission
             microscopy},
   Journal = {Photochemistry & Photobiology},
   Volume = {83},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {692-697},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {0031-8655},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1562/2006-09-11-RA-1037},
   Abstract = {A technique for measuring the photoionization spectrum and
             the photoelectron emission threshold of a microscopic
             structured material is presented. The theoretical
             underpinning of the experiment and the accuracy of the
             measurements are discussed. The technique is applied to
             titanium silicide nanostructures and melanosomes isolated
             from human hair, human and bovine retinal pigment epithelium
             cells, and the ink sac of Sepia officinalis. A common
             photothreshold of 4.5 ± 0.2 eV is found for this set of
             melanosomes and is attributed to the photoionization of the
             eumelanin pigment. The relationship between the
             photoionization threshold and the electrochemical potential
             referenced to the normal hydrogen electrode is used to
             quantify the surface oxidation potential of the melanosome.
             The developed technique is used to examine the effect of
             iron chelation on the surface oxidation potential of Sepia
             melanosomes. The surface oxidation potential is insensitive
             to bound Fe(III) up to saturation, suggesting that the metal
             is bound to the interior of the granule. This result is
             discussed in relation to the age-dependent accumulation of
             iron in human melanosomes in both the eye and brain. © 2007
             American Society for Photobiology.},
   Doi = {10.1562/2006-09-11-RA-1037},
   Key = {fds245905}
}

@article{fds245906,
   Author = {Peralta, XG and Toyama, Y and Hutson, MS and Montague, R and Venakides,
             S and Kiehart, DP and Edwards, GS},
   Title = {Upregulation of forces and morphogenic asymmetries in dorsal
             closure during Drosophila development.},
   Journal = {Biophysical Journal},
   Volume = {92},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {2583-2596},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0006-3495},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17218455},
   Abstract = {Tissue dynamics during dorsal closure, a stage of Drosophila
             development, provide a model system for cell sheet
             morphogenesis and wound healing. Dorsal closure is
             characterized by complex cell sheet movements, driven by
             multiple tissue specific forces, which are coordinated in
             space, synchronized in time, and resilient to UV-laser
             perturbations. The mechanisms responsible for these
             attributes are not fully understood. We measured spatial,
             kinematic, and dynamic antero-posterior asymmetries to
             biophysically characterize both resiliency to laser
             perturbations and failure of closure in mutant embryos and
             compared them to natural asymmetries in unperturbed,
             wild-type closure. We quantified and mathematically modeled
             two processes that are upregulated to provide
             resiliency--contractility of the amnioserosa and formation
             of a seam between advancing epidermal sheets, i.e., zipping.
             Both processes are spatially removed from the laser-targeted
             site, indicating they are not a local response to
             laser-induced wounding and suggesting mechanosensitive
             and/or chemosensitive mechanisms for upregulation. In mutant
             embryos, tissue junctions initially fail at the anterior end
             indicating inhomogeneous mechanical stresses attributable to
             head involution, another developmental process that occurs
             concomitant with the end stages of closure. Asymmetries in
             these mutants are reversed compared to wild-type, and
             inhomogeneous stresses may cause asymmetries in wild-type
             closure.},
   Doi = {10.1529/biophysj.106.094110},
   Key = {fds245906}
}

@article{fds245904,
   Author = {Edwards, GS and Pearlstein, RD and Copeland, ML and Hutson, MS and Latone, K and Spiro, A and Pasmanik, G},
   Title = {6450 nm wavelength tissue ablation using a nanosecond laser
             based on difference frequency mixing and stimulated Raman
             scattering.},
   Journal = {Optics Letters},
   Volume = {32},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {1426-1428},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0146-9592},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17546143},
   Abstract = {A four-stage laser system was developed, emitting at a
             wavelength of 6450 nm with a 3-5 ns pulse duration, < or = 2
             mJ pulse energy, and 1/2 Hz pulse repetition rate. The laser
             system successfully ablated rat brain tissue, where both the
             collateral damage and the ablation rate compare favorably
             with that previously observed with a Mark-III Free-Electron
             Laser.},
   Key = {fds245904}
}

@article{fds245900,
   Author = {Edwards, G and Wagner, W and Sokolow, A and Pearlstein,
             R},
   Title = {Pressure (mechanical) effects in infrared tissue
             ablation},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE},
   Volume = {6854},
   Pages = {685410},
   Year = {2008},
   ISSN = {1605-7422},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.776999},
   Abstract = {We experimentally demonstrate that the acoustic transients
             propagating as a result Free-Electron Laser (FEL) ablation
             in brain tissue exhibit a strong FEL wavelength dependence.
             These acoustic transients were measured with a
             time-resolved, polarization quadrature laser interferometer.
             The transients are multiphased, with displacements of tens
             of microns and durations of tens of milliseconds. We
             calculated the Fourier transforms, power spectra, and
             pressure transients based on these displacement data sets.
             For 3.0 μm irradiation, the bandwidth of the Fourier
             components extends to ∼20 kHz, while for 6.45 μm
             irradiation the bandwidth of the Fourier components extend
             to ∼8 kHz. For the 3.0 μm irradiation, the power spectra
             indicate acoustic energy propagates in the bandwidth up to
             ∼12 kHz, with structure in the 1-4 kHz range. For the 6.45
             μm radiation, the mechanical power spectra indicate the
             acoustic energy propagates in the bandwidth up to ∼7 kHz,
             with structure throughout. The pressure transients resulting
             from 3.0 μm irradiation have a leading phase with a faster
             onset, shorter duration, and more than ten times the peak
             pressure compared to that observed in pressure transients
             resulting from 6.45 μm irradiation. For 3.0 μm
             irradiation, the observed pressure transients have peak
             pressures in the MPa range and durations of ∼1 ms, while
             for 6.45 μm irradiation the pressure transients have peak
             pressures in the 0.1 MPa range and durations of about ∼3
             ms.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.776999},
   Key = {fds245900}
}

@article{fds245902,
   Author = {Peralta, XG and Toyama, Y and Kiehart, DP and Edwards,
             GS},
   Title = {Emergent properties during dorsal closure in Drosophila
             morphogenesis.},
   Journal = {Physical Biology},
   Volume = {5},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {015004},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18403825},
   Abstract = {Dorsal closure is an essential stage of Drosophila
             development that is a model system for research in
             morphogenesis and biological physics. Dorsal closure
             involves an orchestrated interplay between gene expression
             and cell activities that produce shape changes, exert forces
             and mediate tissue dynamics. We investigate the dynamics of
             dorsal closure based on confocal microscopic measurements of
             cell shortening in living embryos. During the mid-stages of
             dorsal closure we find that there are fluctuations in the
             width of the leading edge cells but the time-averaged
             analysis of measurements indicate that there is essentially
             no net shortening of cells in the bulk of the leading edge,
             that contraction predominantly occurs at the canthi as part
             of the process for zipping together the two leading edges of
             epidermis and that the rate constant for zipping correlates
             with the rate of movement of the leading edges. We
             characterize emergent properties that regulate dorsal
             closure, i.e., a velocity governor and the coordination and
             synchronization of tissue dynamics.},
   Doi = {10.1088/1478-3975/5/1/015004},
   Key = {fds245902}
}

@article{fds245899,
   Author = {Rodriguez-Diaz, A and Toyama, Y and Abravanel, DL and Wiemann, JM and Wells, AR and Tulu, US and Edwards, GS and Kiehart,
             DP},
   Title = {Actomyosin purse strings: renewable resources that make
             morphogenesis robust and resilient.},
   Journal = {HFSP Journal},
   Volume = {2},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {220-237},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {1955-2068},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19404432},
   Abstract = {Dorsal closure in Drosophila is a model system for cell
             sheet morphogenesis and wound healing. During closure two
             sheets of lateral epidermis move dorsally to close over the
             amnioserosa and form a continuous epidermis. Forces from the
             amnioserosa and actomyosin-rich, supracellular purse strings
             at the leading edges of these lateral epidermal sheets drive
             closure. Purse strings generate the largest force for
             closure and occur during development and wound healing
             throughout phylogeny. We use laser microsurgery to remove
             some or all of the purse strings from developing embryos.
             Free edges produced by surgery undergo characteristic
             responses as follows. Intact cells in the free edges, which
             previously had no purse string, recoil away from the
             incision and rapidly assemble new, secondary purse strings.
             Next, recoil slows, then pauses at a turning point.
             Following a brief delay, closure resumes and is powered to
             completion by the secondary purse strings. We confirm that
             the assembly of the secondary purse strings requires RhoA.
             We show that alpha-actinin alternates with nonmuscle myosin
             II along purse strings and requires nonmuscle myosin II for
             its localization. Together our data demonstrate that purse
             strings are renewable resources that contribute to the
             robust and resilient nature of closure.},
   Doi = {10.2976/1.2955565},
   Key = {fds245899}
}

@article{fds245901,
   Author = {Toyama, Y and Peralta, XG and Wells, AR and Kiehart, DP and Edwards,
             GS},
   Title = {Apoptotic force and tissue dynamics during Drosophila
             embryogenesis.},
   Journal = {Science},
   Volume = {321},
   Number = {5896},
   Pages = {1683-1686},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18802000},
   Abstract = {Understanding cell morphogenesis during metazoan development
             requires knowledge of how cells and the extracellular matrix
             produce and respond to forces. We investigated how
             apoptosis, which remodels tissue by eliminating
             supernumerary cells, also contributes forces to a tissue
             (the amnioserosa) that promotes cell-sheet fusion (dorsal
             closure) in the Drosophila embryo. We showed that expression
             in the amnioserosa of proteins that suppress or enhance
             apoptosis slows or speeds dorsal closure, respectively.
             These changes correlate with the forces produced by the
             amnioserosa and the rate of seam formation between the cell
             sheets (zipping), key processes that contribute to closure.
             This apoptotic force is used by the embryo to drive
             cell-sheet movements during development, a role not
             classically attributed to apoptosis.},
   Doi = {10.1126/science.1157052},
   Key = {fds245901}
}

@article{fds245895,
   Author = {Layton, AT and Toyama, Y and Yang, G-Q and Edwards, GS and Kiehart, DP and Venakides, S},
   Title = {Drosophila Morphogenesis: Tissue Force Laws and the Modeling
             of Dorsal Closure},
   Journal = {Human Frontier Science Program Journal},
   Volume = {3},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {doi:10.2976/1.3266062},
   Year = {2009},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20514134},
   Abstract = {Dorsal closure, a stage of Drosophila development, is a
             model system for cell sheet morphogenesis and wound healing.
             During closure, two flanks of epidermal tissue progressively
             advance to reduce the area of the eye-shaped opening in the
             dorsal surface, which contains amnioserosa tissue. To
             simulate the time evolution of the overall shape of the
             dorsal opening, we developed a mathematical model, in which
             contractility and elasticity are manifest in model
             force-producing elements that satisfy force-velocity
             relationships similar to muscle. The action of the elements
             is consistent with the force-producing behavior of actin and
             myosin in cells. The parameters that characterize the
             simulated embryos were optimized by reference to
             experimental observations on wild-type embryos and, to a
             lesser extent, on embryos whose amnioserosa was removed by
             laser surgery and on myospheroid mutant embryos. Simulations
             failed to reproduce the amnioserosa-removal protocol in
             either the elastic or the contractile limit, indicating that
             both elastic and contractile dynamics are essential
             components of the biological force-producing elements. We
             found it was necessary to actively upregulate forces to
             recapitulate both the double and single-canthus nick
             protocols, which did not participate in the optimization of
             parameters, suggesting the existence of additional key
             feedback mechanisms.},
   Doi = {10.2976/1.3266062},
   Key = {fds245895}
}

@article{fds245896,
   Author = {Edwards, GS},
   Title = {Mechanisms for soft-tissue ablation and the development of
             alternative medical lasers based on investigations with
             mid-infrared free-electron lasers},
   Journal = {Laser & Photonics Reviews},
   Volume = {3},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {545-555},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {1863-8880},
   url = {DOI 10.1002/lpor.200810063},
   Abstract = {Experimental evidence indicating the potential biomedical
             advantages of using a Mark-III Free-Electron Laser (FEL) for
             the ablation of soft tissue were first reported in 1994.
             Research progress since that time is reviewed, including: 1)
             successful human surgery using the Mark-III FEL; 2) advances
             in understanding the physical mechanism for infrared tissue
             ablation and how these mechanistic features correlate with
             the preferential ablative properties; 3) the pursuit of
             table-top, nanosecond-pulsed laser technology that mimics
             the preferential ablation properties of the Mark-III FEL
             with the aim of improving clinical acceptance of
             mid-infrared laser ablation of soft tissue; and 4) current
             research challenges. © 2009 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH &amp;
             Co.KGaA, Weinheim.},
   Doi = {10.1002/lpor.200810063},
   Key = {fds245896}
}

@article{fds245898,
   Author = {Wagner, W and Sokolow, A and Pearlstein, R and Edwards,
             G},
   Title = {Thermal Vapor Bubble and Pressure Dynamics During Infrared
             Laser Ablation of Tissue},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {94},
   Number = {013901},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3063127},
   Abstract = {Free-electron laser irradiation can superheat tissue water,
             driving thermal vapor bubbles confined by tissue matrix and
             leading to mechanical tissue failure (ablation). Acoustic
             transients propagating from an ablation cavity were recorded
             with a polarization quadrature, interferometric vibrometer.
             For 3.0 μm infrared irradiation, the shocklike transients
             with peak pressures in the megapascal range indicate
             amplification due to bubble collapse. In contrast, for 6.45
             μm irradiation, elastic transients with peak pressures in
             the 0.1 MPa range indicate tissue failure during bubble
             growth. © 2009 American Institute of Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.3063127},
   Key = {fds245898}
}

@article{fds304534,
   Author = {Wagner, W and Sokolow, A and Pearlstein, R and Edwards,
             G},
   Title = {Thermal vapor bubble and pressure dynamics during infrared
             laser ablation of tissue},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {94},
   Number = {1},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3063127},
   Abstract = {Free-electron laser irradiation can superheat tissue water,
             driving thermal vapor bubbles confined by tissue matrix and
             leading to mechanical tissue failure (ablation). Acoustic
             transients propagating from an ablation cavity were recorded
             with a polarization quadrature, interferometric vibrometer.
             For 3.0 μm infrared irradiation, the shocklike transients
             with peak pressures in the megapascal range indicate
             amplification due to bubble collapse. In contrast, for 6.45
             μm irradiation, elastic transients with peak pressures in
             the 0.1 MPa range indicate tissue failure during bubble
             growth. © 2009 American Institute of Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.3063127},
   Key = {fds304534}
}

@article{fds245897,
   Author = {Bush, WD and Garguilo, J and Zucca, FA and Bellei, C and Nemanich, RJ and Edwards, GS and Zecca, L and Simon, JD},
   Title = {Neuromelanins isolated from different regions of the human
             brain exhibit a common surface photoionization
             threshold.},
   Journal = {Photochemistry & Photobiology},
   Volume = {85},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {387-390},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0031-8655},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19067944},
   Abstract = {Neuromelanin isolated from the premotor cortex, cerebellum,
             putamen, globus pallidus and corpus callosum of the human
             brain is studied by scanning probe and photoelectron
             emission microscopies and the results are compared with
             previously published work on neuromelanin from the
             substantia nigra. Scanning electron microscopy reveals
             common structure for all neuromelanins. All exhibit
             spherical entities of diameters between 200 and 400 nm,
             composed of smaller spherical substructures, approximately
             30 nm in diameter. These features are similar to that
             observed for many melanin systems including Sepia
             cuttlefish, bovine eye, and human eye and hair melanosomes.
             Photoelectron microscopy images were collected for all
             neuromelanins at specific wavelengths of ultraviolet light
             between 248 and 413 nm, using the spontaneous emission
             output from the Duke free electron laser. Analysis of the
             data establishes a common threshold photoionization
             potential for neuromelanins of 4.7 +/- 0.2 eV, corresponding
             to an oxidation potential of -0.3 +/- 0.2 V vs the normal
             hydrogen electrode (NHE). These results are consistent with
             previously reported potentials for neuromelanin from the
             substantia nigra of 4.5 +/- 0.2 eV (-0.1 +/- 0.2 V vs NHE).
             All neuromelanins exhibit a common low surface oxidation
             potential, reflecting their eumelanic component and their
             inability to trigger redox processes with neurotoxic
             effect.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1751-1097.2008.00476.x},
   Key = {fds245897}
}

@article{fds303660,
   Author = {Layton, AT and Toyama, Y and Yang, G-Q and Edwards, GS and Kiehart, DP and Venakides, S},
   Title = {Drosophila morphogenesis: tissue force laws and the modeling
             of dorsal closure.},
   Journal = {HFSP Journal},
   Volume = {3},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {441-460},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20514134},
   Abstract = {Dorsal closure, a stage of Drosophila development, is a
             model system for cell sheet morphogenesis and wound healing.
             During closure, two flanks of epidermal tissue progressively
             advance to reduce the area of the eye-shaped opening in the
             dorsal surface, which contains amnioserosa tissue. To
             simulate the time evolution of the overall shape of the
             dorsal opening, we developed a mathematical model, in which
             contractility and elasticity are manifest in model
             force-producing elements that satisfy force-velocity
             relationships similar to muscle. The action of the elements
             is consistent with the force-producing behavior of actin and
             myosin in cells. The parameters that characterize the
             simulated embryos were optimized by reference to
             experimental observations on wild-type embryos and, to a
             lesser extent, on embryos whose amnioserosa was removed by
             laser surgery and on myospheroid mutant embryos. Simulations
             failed to reproduce the amnioserosa-removal protocol in
             either the elastic or the contractile limit, indicating that
             both elastic and contractile dynamics are essential
             components of the biological force-producing elements. We
             found it was necessary to actively upregulate forces to
             recapitulate both the double and single-canthus nick
             protocols, which did not participate in the optimization of
             parameters, suggesting the existence of additional key
             feedback mechanisms.},
   Doi = {10.2976/1.3266062},
   Key = {fds303660}
}

@article{fds245894,
   Author = {Sokolow, A and Toyama, Y and Kiehart, DP and Edwards,
             GS},
   Title = {Cell ingression and apical shape oscillations during dorsal
             closure in Drosophila.},
   Journal = {Biophysical Journal},
   Volume = {102},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {969-979},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22404919},
   Abstract = {Programmed patterns of gene expression, cell-cell signaling,
             and cellular forces cause morphogenic movements during
             dorsal closure. We investigated the apical cell-shape
             changes that characterize amnioserosa cells during dorsal
             closure in Drosophila embryos with in vivo imaging of
             green-fluorescent-protein-labeled DE-cadherin. Time-lapsed,
             confocal images were assessed with a novel segmentation
             algorithm, Fourier analysis, and kinematic and dynamical
             modeling. We found two generic processes, reversible
             oscillations in apical cross-sectional area and cell
             ingression characterized by persistent loss of apical area.
             We quantified a time-dependent, spatially-averaged sum of
             intracellular and intercellular forces acting on each cell's
             apical belt of DE-cadherin. We observed that a substantial
             fraction of amnioserosa cells ingress near the leading edges
             of lateral epidermis, consistent with the view that
             ingression can be regulated by leading-edge cells. This is
             in addition to previously observed ingression processes
             associated with zipping and apoptosis. Although there is
             cell-to-cell variability in the maximum rate for decreasing
             apical area (0.3-9.5 μm(2)/min), the rate for completing
             ingression is remarkably constant (0.83 cells/min, r(2) >
             0.99). We propose that this constant ingression rate
             contributes to the spatiotemporal regularity of mechanical
             stress exerted by the amnioserosa on each leading edge
             during closure.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.bpj.2012.01.027},
   Key = {fds245894}
}

@article{fds225748,
   Author = {Adrienne R. Wells and Roger S. Zou and U. Serdar Tulu and Adam C.
             Sokolow and Janice M. Crawford and Glenn S. Edwards and Daniel P.
             Kiehart},
   Title = {Complete canthi removal reveals that forces from the
             amnioserosa are alone sufficient to drive dorsal closure in
             Drosophila},
   Journal = {Molecular Biology of the Cell},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {seq001|0387964908},
   Key = {fds225748}
}

@article{fds245845,
   Author = {Wells, AR and Zou, RS and Tulu, US and Sokolow, AC and Crawford, JM and Edwards, GS and Kiehart, DP},
   Title = {Complete canthi removal reveals that forces from the
             amnioserosa alone are sufficient to drive dorsal closure in
             Drosophila.},
   Journal = {Molecular Biology of the Cell},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {22},
   Pages = {3552-3568},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {1059-1524},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1091/mbc.e14-07-1190},
   Abstract = {Drosophila's dorsal closure provides an excellent model
             system with which to analyze biomechanical processes during
             morphogenesis. During native closure, the amnioserosa,
             flanked by two lateral epidermal sheets, forms an eye-shaped
             opening with canthi at each corner. The dynamics of
             amnioserosa cells and actomyosin purse strings in the
             leading edges of epidermal cells promote closure, whereas
             the bulk of the lateral epidermis opposes closure. Canthi
             maintain purse string curvature (necessary for their
             dorsalward forces), and zipping at the canthi shortens
             leading edges, ensuring a continuous epithelium at closure
             completion. We investigated the requirement for intact
             canthi during closure with laser dissection approaches.
             Dissection of one or both canthi resulted in tissue recoil
             and flattening of each purse string. After recoil and a
             temporary pause, closure resumed at approximately native
             rates until slowing near the completion of closure. Thus the
             amnioserosa alone can drive closure after dissection of one
             or both canthi, requiring neither substantial purse string
             curvature nor zipping during the bulk of closure. How the
             embryo coordinates multiple, large forces (each of which is
             orders of magnitude greater than the net force) during
             native closure and is also resilient to multiple
             perturbations are key extant questions.},
   Doi = {10.1091/mbc.e14-07-1190},
   Key = {fds245845}
}

@article{fds328148,
   Author = {Lu, H and Sokolow, A and Kiehart, DP and Edwards,
             GS},
   Title = {Quantifying dorsal closure in three dimensions.},
   Journal = {Molecular Biology of the Cell},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {25},
   Pages = {3948-3955},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1091/mbc.e16-06-0400},
   Abstract = {Dorsal closure is an essential stage of Drosophila
             embryogenesis and is a powerful model system for
             morphogenesis, wound healing, and tissue biomechanics.
             During closure, two flanks of lateral epidermis close an
             eye-shaped dorsal opening that is filled with amnioserosa.
             The two flanks of lateral epidermis are zipped together at
             each canthus ("corner" of the eye). Actomyosin-rich purse
             strings are localized at each of the two leading edges of
             lateral epidermis ("lids" of the eye). Here we report that
             each purse string indents the dorsal surface at each leading
             edge. The amnioserosa tissue bulges outward during the
             early-to-mid stages of closure to form a remarkably smooth,
             asymmetric dome indicative of an isotropic and uniform
             surface tension. Internal pressure of the embryo and tissue
             elastic properties help to shape the dorsal
             surface.},
   Doi = {10.1091/mbc.e16-06-0400},
   Key = {fds328148}
}

@article{fds329955,
   Author = {Kiehart, DP and Crawford, JM and Aristotelous, A and Venakides, S and Edwards, GS},
   Title = {Cell Sheet Morphogenesis: Dorsal Closure in Drosophila
             melanogaster as a Model System.},
   Journal = {Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology},
   Volume = {33},
   Pages = {169-202},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-cellbio-111315-125357},
   Abstract = {Dorsal closure is a key process during Drosophila
             morphogenesis that models cell sheet movements in chordates,
             including neural tube closure, palate formation, and wound
             healing. Closure occurs midway through embryogenesis and
             entails circumferential elongation of lateral epidermal cell
             sheets that close a dorsal hole filled with amnioserosa
             cells. Signaling pathways regulate the function of cellular
             structures and processes, including Actomyosin and
             microtubule cytoskeletons, cell-cell/cell-matrix adhesion
             complexes, and endocytosis/vesicle trafficking. These
             orchestrate complex shape changes and movements that entail
             interactions between five distinct cell types. Genetic and
             laser perturbation studies establish that closure is robust,
             resilient, and the consequence of redundancy that
             contributes to four distinct biophysical processes:
             contraction of the amnioserosa, contraction of supracellular
             Actomyosin cables, elongation (stretching?) of the lateral
             epidermis, and zipping together of two converging cell
             sheets. What triggers closure and what the emergent
             properties are that give rise to its extraordinary
             resilience and fidelity remain key, extant
             questions.},
   Doi = {10.1146/annurev-cellbio-111315-125357},
   Key = {fds329955}
}


%% Papers Submitted   
@article{fds321830,
   Author = {Lu, H and Sokolow, A and Kiehart, DP and Edwards,
             GS},
   Title = {Remodeling Tissue Interfaces and the Thermodynamics of
             Zipping during Dorsal Closure in Drosophila.},
   Journal = {Biophysical Journal},
   Volume = {109},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {2406-2417},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpj.2015.10.017},
   Abstract = {Dorsal closure during Drosophila embryogenesis is an
             important model system for investigating the biomechanics of
             morphogenesis. During closure, two flanks of lateral
             epidermis (with actomyosin-rich purse strings near each
             leading edge) close an eye-shaped opening that is filled
             with amnioserosa. At each canthus (corner of the eye) a
             zipping process remodels the tissue interfaces between the
             leading edges of the lateral epidermis and the amnioserosa.
             We investigated zipping dynamics and found that apposing
             leading edge cells come together at their apical ends and
             then square off basally to form a lateral junction.
             Meanwhile, the purse strings act as contractile elastic rods
             bent toward the embryo interior near each canthus. We
             propose that a canthus-localized force contributes to both
             bending the ends of the purse strings and the formation of
             lateral junctions. We developed a thermodynamic model for
             zipping based on three-dimensional remodeling of the tissue
             interfaces and the reaction dynamics of adhesion molecules
             in junctions and elsewhere, which we applied to zipping
             during unperturbed wild-type closure and to laser or
             genetically perturbed closure. We identified two processes
             that can contribute to the zipping mechanism, consistent
             with experiments, distinguished by whether amnioserosa
             dynamics do or do not augment canthus adhesion
             dynamics.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.bpj.2015.10.017},
   Key = {fds321830}
}