Publications of Calvin R. Howell    :chronological  combined listing:

%% Papers Published   
@article{fds246741,
   Author = {Mitchell, GE and Furman, WI and Lychagin, EV and Muzichka, AY and Nekhaev, GV and Strelkov, AV and Sharapov, EI and Shvetsov, VN and Levakov, BG and Litvin, VI and Lyzhin, AE and Magda, EP and Crawford,
             BE and Stephenson, SL and Howell, CR and Tornow, W},
   Title = {A direct measurement of the neutron-neutron scattering
             length},
   Journal = {Brazilian Journal of Physics},
   Volume = {35},
   Number = {3B},
   Pages = {850-853},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0103-9733},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000232921600036&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Abstract = {A direct measurement of nn-scattering by colliding free
             neutrons has never been performed. Indirect measurements
             continue to provide inconsistent results, leaving the issue
             of charge symmetry in the nuclear force unresolved. At
             present the Russian pulsed reactor YAGUAR is the best
             neutron source for such a measurement. A neutron moderator
             is installed in the central through channel and the
             scattered neutrons are detected at a distance of 12 m from
             the reactor. An instantaneous value of 1.1 × 1018/cm2s was
             obtained for the thermal neutron flux density. The
             experiment will be performed by the DIANNA Collaboration as
             ISTC project No. 2286.},
   Doi = {10.1590/S0103-97332005000500036},
   Key = {fds246741}
}

@article{fds318452,
   Author = {Mitchell, GE and Furman, WI and Lychagin, EV and Muzichka, AY and Nekhaev, GV and Strelkov, AV and Sharapov, EI and Shvetsov, VN and Levakov, BG and Litvin, VI and Lyzhin, AE and Magda, EP and Crawford,
             BE and Stephenson, SL and Howell, CR and Tornow, W},
   Title = {A direct measurement of the neutron-neutron scattering
             length},
   Journal = {Brazilian Journal of Physics},
   Volume = {35},
   Number = {3 B},
   Pages = {850-853},
   Year = {2005},
   Abstract = {A direct measurement of nn-scattering by colliding free
             neutrons has never been performed. Indirect measurements
             continue to provide inconsistent results, leaving the issue
             of charge symmetry in the nuclear force unresolved. At
             present the Russian pulsed reactor YAGUAR is the best
             neutron source for such a measurement. A neutron moderator
             is installed in the central through channel and the
             scattered neutrons are detected at a distance of 12 m from
             the reactor. An instantaneous value of 1.1 × 1018/cm2s was
             obtained for the thermal neutron flux density. The
             experiment will be performed by the DIANNA Collaboration as
             ISTC project No. 2286.},
   Key = {fds318452}
}

@article{fds246802,
   Author = {Chen, Z and Walter, RL and Tornow, W and Weisel, GJ and Howell,
             CR},
   Title = {A dispersive optical model for n +120Sn from -15
             to +80 MeV and properties of neutron single-particle and
             single-hole states},
   Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
             Physics},
   Volume = {30},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {1847-1859},
   Year = {2004},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0954-3899/30/12/007},
   Abstract = {Data for σ(θ) and Ay(θ) previously obtained at the
             Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory for 120Sn(n, n) are
             combined with other measurements of σ(θ) and Ay(θ) to
             create an elastic-scattering database from 9.9 to 24 MeV. In
             addition, relatively recent high-accuracy measurements of
             the neutron total cross section σT for Sn from 5 to 80 MeV
             are combined with earlier σT data to form a detailed σT
             database from 0.24 to 80 MeV. All of these data are analysed
             in the framework of a dispersive optical model (DOM). The
             DOM is extended to negative energies to investigate
             properties of single-particle and single-hole bound states.
             The DOM also is used in calculations of compound-nucleus
             contributions to σ(θ), so that DOM predictions can be
             compared to σ(θ) measurements. Excellent agreement is
             obtained for the entire set of scattering data from 0.4 to
             24 MeV, and for σT values from 0.05 to 80 MeV. Calculations
             of bound-state quantities are compared to values derived
             from experiment for energies down to -15 MeV. Reasonable
             agreement for the binding energies is achieved, while the
             predicted spectroscopic factors disagree somewhat with the
             values found in stripping and pickup experiments. Finally,
             the DOM is modified to investigate two features (volume
             absorption that is asymmetric about the Fermi energy and
             zero absorption in the vicinity of the Fermi energy) that
             have been ignored in many DOM models. These modifications
             have little effect on the agreement of the calculations with
             the scattering data or with the bound-state
             quantities.},
   Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/30/12/007},
   Key = {fds246802}
}

@article{fds246719,
   Author = {Brady, SL and Gunasingha, R and Yoshizumi, TT and Howell, CR and Crowell, AS and Fallin, B and Tonchev, AP and Dewhirst,
             MW},
   Title = {A feasibility study using radiochromic films for fast
             neutron 2D passive dosimetry.},
   Journal = {Physics in Medicine and Biology},
   Volume = {55},
   Number = {17},
   Pages = {4977-4992},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20693612},
   Abstract = {The objective of this paper is threefold: (1) to establish
             sensitivity of XRQA and EBT radiochromic films to fast
             neutron exposure; (2) to develop a film response to
             radiation dose calibration curve and (3) to investigate a
             two-dimensional (2D) film dosimetry technique for use in
             establishing an experimental setup for a radiobiological
             irradiation of mice and to assess the dose to the mice in
             this setup. The films were exposed to a 10 MeV neutron beam
             via the (2)H(d,n)(3)He reaction. The XRQA film response was
             a factor of 1.39 greater than EBT film response to the 10
             MeV neutron beam when exposed to a neutron dose of 165 cGy.
             A film response-to-soft tissue dose calibration function was
             established over a range of 0-10 Gy and had a goodness of
             fit of 0.9926 with the calibration data. The 2D film
             dosimetry technique estimated the neutron dose to the mice
             by measuring the dose using a mouse phantom and by placing a
             piece of film on the exterior of the experimental mouse
             setup. The film results were benchmarked using Monte Carlo
             and aluminum (Al) foil activation measurements. The
             radiochromic film, Monte Carlo and Al foil dose measurements
             were strongly correlated, and the film within the mouse
             phantom agreed to better than 7% of the externally mounted
             films. These results demonstrated the potential application
             of radiochromic films for passive 2D neutron
             dosimetry.},
   Doi = {10.1088/0031-9155/55/17/007},
   Key = {fds246719}
}

@booklet{Howell82,
   Author = {Howell, CR and Wender, SA},
   Title = {A linear voltage ramp generator for a three stage bunching
             system},
   Journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods},
   Volume = {195},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {443-446},
   Year = {1982},
   ISSN = {0029-554X},
   Abstract = {A circuit capable of modulating the energy of a beam oor use
             with a three-stage bunching system has been designed and
             tested. This circuit charges up the anode of a duoplasmatron
             ion source through a resistor and discharges it through high
             power FETs at repetition rates of 4 MHz or 2 MHz. This new
             design represents an improvement over previous circuits in
             simplicity, reliability, and performance. ©
             1982.},
   Key = {Howell82}
}

@booklet{Clegg95,
   Author = {Clegg, TB and Karwowski, HJ and Lemieux, SK and Sayer, RW and Crosson,
             ER and Hooke, WM and Howell, CR and Lewis, HW and Lovette, AW and Pfutzner,
             HJ and Sweeton, KA and Wilburn, WS},
   Title = {A new atomic beam polarized ion source for the Triangle
             Universities Nuclear Laboratory: overview, operating
             experience, and performance},
   Journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section
             A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated
             Equipment},
   Volume = {357},
   Number = {2-3},
   Pages = {200-211},
   Year = {1995},
   ISSN = {0168-9002},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0168-9002(94)01078-1},
   Abstract = {A newly constructed source of polarized H± and D± ions is
             described. Atomic H or D beams from a dissociator with a
             cooled nozzle enter a system of two sextupole magnets and
             several radio-frequency transitions where they are focused
             and polarized. They enter a downstream electron-cyclotron-resonance-heated
             plasma ionizer from which positive ions are extracted. When
             negative ions are desired, they may be produced from the
             positive beam by charge-exchange in cesium vapor. Emerging
             beams are intense, have good polarization, low energy
             spread, and good optical quality. Descriptions are included
             for all major systems and for diagnostic procedures used to
             optimize both the intensity and the polarization of the
             output H± or D± beams obtained. Typical operating
             experience, performance figures, and a description of
             routine maintenance procedures are given. ©
             1995.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0168-9002(94)01078-1},
   Key = {Clegg95}
}

@article{fds17224,
   Author = {E.M. Neidel and W. Tornow and D.E. Gonzalez Trotter and C.R. Howell and A.S. Crowell and R.A. Macri and R.L. Walter and G.J. Weisel and J.
             Esterline, H. Witala and B.J. Crowe III and R.S. Pedroni and D.M.
             Markoff},
   Title = {A new twist to the long-standing three-nucleon analyzering
             power puzzle},
   Journal = {Physics Letters B},
   Volume = {552},
   Pages = {29},
   Year = {2003},
   Key = {fds17224}
}

@article{fds246811,
   Author = {Neidel, EM and Tornow, W and Trotter, DEG and Howell, CR and Crowell,
             AS and Macri, RA and Walter, RL and Weisel, GJ and Esterline, J and Witała, H and III, BJC and Pedroni, RS and Markoff,
             DM},
   Title = {A new twist to the long-standing three-nucleon analyzing
             power puzzle},
   Journal = {Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and
             High-Energy Physics},
   Volume = {552},
   Number = {1-2},
   Pages = {29-34},
   Year = {2003},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0370-2693(02)03106-4},
   Abstract = {New results for the neutron-deuteron analyzing power Ay(θ)
             at En = 1.2 and 1.9 MeV and their comparison to
             proton-deuteron data reveal a sizeable and unexpected
             difference which increases with decreasing center-of-mass
             energy. This finding calls for the theoretical treatment of
             a subtle electromagnetic effect presently not incorporated
             in rigorous three-nucleon scattering calculations, before it
             is justified to invoke charge-dependent three-nucleon forces
             and/or other new physics. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All
             rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0370-2693(02)03106-4},
   Key = {fds246811}
}

@booklet{Sanders91,
   Author = {Sanders, PG and Sikka, VK and Howell, CR and Baldwin,
             RH},
   Title = {A processing method to reduce the environmental-effect in
             fe3al-based alloys},
   Journal = {Scripta Metallurgica Et Materialia},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {2365-2369},
   Year = {1991},
   Month = {October},
   Key = {Sanders91}
}

@article{fds225744,
   Author = {W. Tornow and C.R. Howell and A.S. Crowell},
   Title = {A Proposal for the Simultaneous Measurement of the
             Neutron-Neutron and Neutron-Proton Quasi-Free Scattering
             Cross Section via the Neuron-Deuteron Breakup Reaction at En
             = 19 MeV},
   Journal = {Few-Body Syst.},
   Volume = {54},
   Pages = {2174},
   Year = {2013},
   Key = {fds225744}
}

@article{fds311478,
   Author = {FLOYD, CE and GUSS, PP and TUNGATE, G and BYRD, RC and MURPHY, K and HOWELL, CR and WENDER, SA and WALTER, RL},
   Title = {ACCURATE FORWARD ANGLE MEASUREMENTS WITH POLAR
             NEUTRONS},
   Journal = {Bulletin- American Physical Society},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {623-624},
   Year = {1981},
   ISSN = {0003-0503},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1981LG91200596&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds311478}
}

@article{fds246646,
   Author = {Tornow, W and Howell, CR and Pfutzner, HG and Roberts, ML and Felsher,
             PD and Chen, ZM and Ohali, MA and Weisel, GJ and Walter, RL and Naqvi,
             AA},
   Title = {Analysing power for 12C(n,n0,1)12C
             and evaluation of n-12C scattering at 18.2
             MeV},
   Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {49-64},
   Year = {1988},
   ISSN = {0305-4616},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0305-4616/14/1/009},
   Abstract = {The analysing power Ay( theta ) for 12C(n,n) 12C elastic
             scattering and for inelastic scattering to the first excited
             state (Jpi=2+, Q=-4.44 MeV) of 12C was measured at 18.2 MeV.
             A pulsed polarised neutron beam was produced via the
             2H(d,n)3He polarisation transfer reaction. The A y data,
             together with published cross sections, were analysed in the
             framework of the spherical optical model and in the
             coupled-channels formalism. A phase-shift analysis at 18.2
             MeV gives supporting evidence for a broad 5/2+ resonance.
             The 12C recoil kerma factors and values for the n+12C
             reaction cross section were deduced and compared with
             previous estimates and predictions.},
   Doi = {10.1088/0305-4616/14/1/009},
   Key = {fds246646}
}

@booklet{Tornow88a,
   Author = {TORNOW, W and HOWELL, CR and PFUTZNER, HG and ROBERTS, ML and FELSHER,
             PD and CHEN, ZM and ALOHALI, M and WEISEL, GJ and WALTER, RL and NAQVI,
             AA},
   Title = {ANALYZING POWER FOR C-12(N-],N0,1)C-12 AND EVALUATION OF
             N-C-12 SCATTERING AT 18.2 MEV},
   Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
             Physics},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {49-64},
   Year = {1988},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0954-3899},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1988L843900009&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1088/0305-4616/14/1/009},
   Key = {Tornow88a}
}

@article{fds246813,
   Author = {Tornow, W and Czakon, NG and Howell, CR and Hutcheson, A and Kelley, JH and Litvinenko, VN and Mikhailov, S and Pinayev, IV and Weisel, GJ and Witala, H},
   Title = {Analyzing power for the photodisintegration of the deuteron
             between Eγ = 2.4 and 4.0 MEV},
   Journal = {Modern Physics Letters A},
   Volume = {18},
   Number = {2-6},
   Pages = {282-285},
   Year = {2003},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S021773230301034X},
   Abstract = {The photon analyzing power for the photodisintegration of
             the deuteron was measured for seven gamma-ray energies
             between 2.39 and 4.05 MeV using the linearly polarized
             gamma-ray beam of the High-Intensity Gamma-ray Source at the
             Duke Free-Electron Laser Laboratory. The data provide a
             stringent test of theoretical calculations for the inverse
             reaction, the neutron-proton radiative capture reaction at
             energies important for Big-Bang nucleosynthesis. Our data
             are in excellent agreement with potential model and
             effective field theory calculations.},
   Doi = {10.1142/S021773230301034X},
   Key = {fds246813}
}

@booklet{Tornow82,
   Author = {Tornow, W and Howell, CR and Byrd, RC and Pedroni, RS and Walter,
             RL},
   Title = {Analyzing power measurements for (H2(npol,n)H2) scattering
             at 10 MeV compared to few-nucleon calculations and data for
             (H2(ppol,p)H2) scattering},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {49},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {312-315},
   Year = {1982},
   ISSN = {0031-9007},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.49.312},
   Abstract = {The analyzing power Ay() for scattering of neutrons from
             deuterons at 10 MeV for 30°to 145°(c.m.) was measured to
             an accuracy better than 0.005. The results are compared to
             published p-d data at 10 MeV, and convincing differences are
             noted for the first time. These differences provide a
             sensitive test both of calculations for the three-nucleon
             system and, more importantly, of the fundamental
             nucleon-nucleon interaction. © 1982 The American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.49.312},
   Key = {Tornow82}
}

@booklet{Weisel96,
   Author = {Weisel, GJ and Tornow, W and Howell, CR and Felsher, PD and Alohali, M and Roberts, ML and Das, RK and Walter, RL and Mertens,
             G},
   Title = {Analyzing power measurements for 209Bi(n,n) at 6 and 9 MeV
             and consistent dispersive optical-model analyses for n+209Bi
             and n+208Pb from -20 to +80 MeV.},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {54},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {2410-2428},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9971597},
   Key = {Weisel96}
}

@booklet{Pedroni90,
   Author = {Pedroni, RS and Howell, CR and Walter, RL},
   Title = {Analyzing power measurements for elastic scattering of 17
             MeV neutrons from Sn120},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {41},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {2929-2930},
   Year = {1990},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.41.2929},
   Abstract = {Measurements of the analyzing power Ay() have been made for
             the elastic scattering of neutrons from Sn120 at 17 MeV.
             Over most of the angular range the data agree with
             predictions derived from the previously reported
             coupled-channels analysis for Sn116,120(n,n) of Guss et al.
             © 1990 The American Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.41.2929},
   Key = {Pedroni90}
}

@booklet{Felsher97,
   Author = {Felsher, PD and Howell, CR and Tornow, W and Roberts, ML and Hanly, JM and Weisel, GJ and Ohali, MA and Walter, RL and Šlaus, I and Lambert, JM and Treado, PA and Mertens, G and Fonseca, AC and Soldi, A and Vlahovic,
             B},
   Title = {Analyzing power measurements for the d+d→d+p+n
             breakup reaction at 12 MeV},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {56},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {38-49},
   Year = {1997},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1997XL65000007&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Abstract = {We report the most extensive set of vector iT11 and tensor
             T20 and T22 analyzing-power data for the d→+d→d+p+n
             reaction. Two-particle coincidence data have been measured
             for six deuteron-proton, three deuteron-neutron and three
             proton-neutron angle pairs at an incident deuteron energy of
             12.0 MeV. These data are compared to impulse-approximation
             calculations that treat the underlying nucleon-deuteron
             system exactly and include contributions from both target
             and projectile breakup processes. This model gives a good
             description of the analyzing-power and relative
             cross-section data. We show that the inclusion of
             nucleon-nucleon P interactions considerably improves the
             agreement with the spin observables. The disagreement
             between the data and theoretical predictions show the
             limitations in our model and the importance of the
             rescattering processes. We suggest that the d+d three-body
             breakup process will provide useful information on the
             nucleon-nucleon force when exact calculations become
             available.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.56.38},
   Key = {Felsher97}
}

@booklet{Floyd82,
   Author = {Floyd, CE and Guss, PP and Murphy, K and Howell, CR and Byrd, RC and Tungate, G and Wender, SA and Walter, RL and Clegg,
             TB},
   Title = {Analyzing powers for neutron elastic scattering at forward
             angles},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {1682-1684},
   Year = {1982},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.25.1682},
   Abstract = {Accurate neutron analyzing powers have been obtained using a
             new pulsed polarized neutron facility. Data are presented
             for elastic scattering of 14-MeV neutrons from Ca40, Fe54,
             Cu65, Sn120, and Pb208 between 18°and 36°. Our data
             exhibit no evidence for the anomalously large values which
             were reported previously at 20°. NUCLEAR REACTIONS Ca40,
             Fe54, Cu65, Sn120, Pb208(n→,n), E=14.0 MeV; measured
             Ay(θ), θ=18°-36A° compared to previous py; 1982 The
             American Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.25.1682},
   Key = {Floyd82}
}

@article{fds53236,
   Author = {A. Sabourov and M.W. Ahmed and M.A. Blackston and A.S. Crowell and C.R.
             Howell, B.A. Perdue and K. Sabourov and A. Tonchev and H.R. Weller and R.M. Prior and M.C. Spraker},
   Title = {Astrophysical S factor for the 7Li(d,n0)8Be
             and 7Li(d,n1)8Be
             reactions},
   Journal = {Phys. Rev. C},
   Volume = {73},
   Pages = {015801},
   Year = {2006},
   Key = {fds53236}
}

@article{fds246737,
   Author = {Sabourov, A and Ahmed, MW and Blackston, MA and Crowell, AS and Howell,
             CR and Perdue, BA and Sabourov, K and Tonchev, A and Weller, HR and Prior,
             RM and Spraker, MC},
   Title = {Astrophysical S factor for the Li7(d,n0)Be8 and Li7(d,n1)Be8
             reactions},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {73},
   Number = {1},
   Year = {2006},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.73.015801},
   Abstract = {The absolute astrophysical S factor and cross section for
             the Li7(d,n0)Be8 and Li7(d,n1)Be8 reactions have been
             determined using deuteron beams with energies between 45 and
             80 keV. The slope of the S factor is consistent with zero in
             the n0 case but is slightly negative in the n1 case. The S
             factor for the sum of both neutron groups at c.m. energies
             below 70 keV is S(E)=5400(±1500)-37(±21)E keV b, where E
             is the c.m. energy in keV. © 2006 The American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.73.015801},
   Key = {fds246737}
}

@article{fds246715,
   Author = {Mueller, JM and Charity, RJ and Shane, R and Sobotka, LG and Waldecker,
             SJ and Dickhoff, WH and Crowell, AS and Esterline, JH and Fallin, B and Howell, CR and Westerfeldt, C and Youngs, M and Crowe, BJ and Pedroni,
             RS},
   Title = {Asymmetry dependence of nucleon correlations in spherical
             nuclei extracted from a dispersive-optical-model
             analysis},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {83},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {064605},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.83.064605},
   Abstract = {Neutron elastic-scattering angular distributions were
             measured at beam energies of 11.9 and 16.9 MeV on Ca40,48
             targets. These data plus other elastic-scattering
             measurements, total and reaction cross-sections
             measurements, (e,e′p) data, and single-particle energies
             for magic and doubly magic nuclei have been analyzed in the
             dispersive optical-model (DOM), generating nucleon
             self-energies (optical-model potentials) that can be
             related, via the many-body Dyson equation, to spectroscopic
             factors and occupation probabilities. It is found that, for
             stable nuclei with N≥Z, the imaginary surface potential
             for protons exhibits a strong dependence on the
             neutron-proton asymmetry. This result leads to a more modest
             dependence of the spectroscopic factors on asymmetry. The
             measured data and the DOM analysis of all considered nuclei
             clearly demonstrate that the neutron imaginary surface
             potential displays very little dependence on the
             neutron-proton asymmetry for nuclei near stability (N≥Z).
             © 2011 American Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.83.064605},
   Key = {fds246715}
}

@article{fds246677,
   Author = {Muzichka, AY and Furman, WI and Lychagin, EV and Krylov, AR and Nekhaev,
             GV and Sharapov, EI and Shvetsov, VN and Strelkov, AV and Levakov, BG and Lyzhin, AE and Chernukhin, YI and Kandiev, YZ and Howell, CR and Mitchell, GE and Crawford, BE and Stephenson, SL and Tornow,
             W},
   Title = {Background determination for the neutron-neutron scattering
             experiment at the reactor YAGUAR},
   Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
   Volume = {789},
   Number = {1-4},
   Pages = {30-45},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {0375-9474},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2007.03.163},
   Abstract = {The motivation and design is outlined for the experiment to
             measure the neutron-neutron singlet scattering length
             directly with thermal neutrons at the pulsed reactor YAGUAR.
             A statistical accuracy of 3% can be reached, though
             achieving the goal of an overall accuracy of 3-5% for the
             nn-scattering length depends on the background level.
             Possible sources of background are discussed in depth and
             the results of extensive modeling of the background are
             presented. Measurements performed at YAGUAR to test these
             background calculations are described. The experimental
             results indicate an anticipated background level up to 30%
             relative to the expected nn effect at the maximal energy
             burst of the reactor. The conclusion is made that the nn
             experiment at YAGUAR is feasible to produce the first
             directly measured value for the neutron-neutron scattering
             length. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights
             reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2007.03.163},
   Key = {fds246677}
}

@article{fds246798,
   Author = {Laveissière, G and Degrande, N and Jaminion, S and Jutier, C and Todor,
             L and Salvo, RD and Hoorebeke, LV and Alexa, LC and Anderson, BD and Aniol,
             KA and Arundell, K and Audit, G and Auerbach, L and Baker, FT and Baylac,
             M and Berthot, J and Bertin, PY and Bertozzi, W and Bimbot, L and Boeglin,
             WU and Brash, EJ and Breton, V and Breuer, H and Burtin, E and Calarco, JR and Cardman, LS and Cavata, C and Chang, C-C and Chen, J-P and Chudakov, E and Cisbani, E and Dale, DS and Jager, CWD and Leo, RD and Deur, A and d'Hose,
             N and Dodge, GE and Domingo, JJ and Elouadrhiri, L and Epstein, MB and Ewell, LA and Finn, JM et al.},
   Title = {Backward electroproduction of π0 mesons on
             protons in the region of nucleon resonances at four momentum
             transfer squared Q2=1.0 GeV2},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {69},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {045203-1-045203-15},
   Year = {2004},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000221427500055&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Abstract = {Exclusive electroproduction of π0 mesons on protons in the
             backward hemisphere has been studied at Q2 = 1.0 GeV2 by
             detecting protons in the forward direction in coincidence
             with scattered electrons from the 4 GeV electron beam in
             Jefferson Lab's Hall A. The data span the range of the total
             (γ*p) center-of-mass energy W from the pion production
             threshold to W=2.0 GeV. The differential cross sections σT+
             εσL, σTL, and σTT were separated from the azimuthal
             distribution and are presented together with the MAID and
             SAID parametrizations.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.69.045203},
   Key = {fds246798}
}

@article{fds246695,
   Author = {Alcorn, J and Anderson, BD and Aniol, KA and Annand, JRM and Auerbach,
             L and Arrington, J and Averett, T and Baker, FT and Baylac, M and Beise,
             EJ and Berthot, J and Bertin, PY and Bertozzi, W and Bimbot, L and Black,
             T and Boeglin, WU and Boykin, DV and Brash, EJ and Breton, V and Breuer, H and Brindza, P and Brown, D and Burtin, E and Calarco, JR and Cardman, LS and Carr, R and Cates, GD and Cavata, C and Chai, Z and Chang, CC and Chant,
             NS and Chen, J-P and Choi, S and Chudakov, E and Churchwell, S and Coman,
             M and Cisbani, E and Colilli, S and Colombel, N and Crateri, R and Dale,
             DS and Degrande, N and Jager, CWD et al.},
   Title = {Basic instrumentation for Hall A at Jefferson
             Lab},
   Journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section
             A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated
             Equipment},
   Volume = {522},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {294-346},
   Year = {2004},
   ISSN = {0168-9002},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2003.11.415},
   Abstract = {The instrumentation in Hall A at the Thomas Jefferson
             National Accelerator Facility was designed to study electro-
             and photo-induced reactions at very high luminosity and good
             momentum and angular resolution for at least one of the
             reaction products. The central components of Hall A are two
             identical high resolution spectrometers, which allow the
             vertical drift chambers in the focal plane to provide a
             momentum resolution of better than 2×10-4. A variety of
             Cherenkov counters, scintillators and lead-glass
             calorimeters provide excellent particle identification. The
             facility has been operated successfully at a luminosity well
             in excess of 1038 cm-2 s-1. The research program is aimed at
             a variety of subjects, including nucleon structure
             functions, nucleon form factors and properties of the
             nuclear medium. © 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights
             reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.nima.2003.11.415},
   Key = {fds246695}
}

@article{fds246682,
   Author = {Bowman, CD and Vogelaar, RB and Bilpuch, EG and Bowman, DC and Howell,
             CR and Pierson, MA and Tonchev, AP and Tornow, W},
   Title = {Basis for green energy multiplier*alternative nuclear
             technology (GEM*ART)},
   Journal = {Transactions- American Nuclear Society},
   Volume = {100},
   Pages = {578-579},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {0003-018X},
   Key = {fds246682}
}

@article{fds246667,
   Author = {Jr, CEF and Bender, JE and Harrawood, B and Sharma, AC and Kapadia, A and Tourassi, GD and Lo, JY and Howell, C},
   Title = {Breast cancer diagnosis using neutron stimulated emission
             computed tomography: Dose and count requirements},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE},
   Volume = {6142 II},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {1605-7422},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.656045},
   Abstract = {Neutron Stimulated Emission Computed Tomography (NSECT) was
             evaluated as a potential technique for breast cancer
             diagnosis. NSECT can form a 3D tomographic image with an
             elemental (isotopic) spectrum provided at each reconstructed
             voxel. The target is illuminated (in vivo) by a neutron beam
             that scatters in-elastically producing characteristic gamma
             emission that is acquired tomographically with a
             spectrograph. Images are reconstructed of each element in
             the acquired spectrum. NSECT imaging was simulated for
             benign and malignant breast masses. A range of the number of
             incident neutrons was simulated from 19 million to 500k
             neutrons. Simulation included all known primary and
             secondary physical interactions in both the breast as well
             as in the spectrometer. Characteristic energy spectra were
             acquired by simulation and were analyzed for statistically
             significant differences between benign and malignant
             breasts. For 1 million incident neutrons, there were 61
             differences in the spectra that were statistically
             significant (p < 0,05), Of these, 23 matched known
             characteristic emission from 6 elements that have been found
             in the breast (Br, Cs, K, Mn, Rb, Zn). The dose to two
             breasts was less than 3% of the dose of a 4 view screening
             mammogram, Increasing the dose to 52% of the mammogram (19
             million neutrons) provided 89 significant spectral
             differences that matched 30 known emissions from 7 elements
             that have been found in the breast (Br, Co, Cs, K, Mn, Rb,
             Zn). Decreasing the dose to 1.4% (500K neutrons) eliminated
             all statistically significant matches to known elements.
             This study suggests that NSECT may be a viable technique for
             detecting human breast cancer in vivo at a reduced dose
             compared to 4 view screening mammography.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.656045},
   Key = {fds246667}
}

@article{fds246801,
   Author = {Crawford, BE and Stephenson, SL and Howell, CR and Mitchell, GE and Tornow, W and Furman, WI and Lychagin, EV and Muzichka, AY and Nekhaev,
             GV and Strelkov, AV and Sharapov, EI and Shvetsov,
             VN},
   Title = {Calculations of neutron spectra after neutron-neutron
             scattering},
   Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
             Physics},
   Volume = {30},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {1269-1285},
   Year = {2004},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0954-3899/30/9/024},
   Abstract = {A direct neutron-neutron scattering length, ann, measurement
             with the goal of 3% accuracy (0.5 fm) is under preparation
             at the aperiodic pulsed reactor YAGUAR. A direct measurement
             of ann will not only help resolve conflicting results of ann
             by indirect means, but also in comparison to the
             proton-proton scattering length, app, shed light on the
             charge-symmetry of the nuclear force. We discuss in detail
             the analysis of the nn-scattering data in terms of a simple
             analytical expression. We also discuss calibration
             measurements using the time-of-flight spectra of neutrons
             scattered on He and Ar gases and the neutron activation
             technique. In particular, we calculate the neutron velocity
             and time-of-flight spectra after scattering neutrons on
             neutrons and after scattering neutrons on He and Ar atoms
             for the proposed experimental geometry, using a realistic
             neutron flux spectrum - Maxwellian plus epithermal tail. The
             shape of the neutron spectrum after scattering is
             appreciably different from the initial spectrum, due to
             collisions between thermal-thermal and thermal-epithermal
             neutrons. At the same time, the integral over the Maxwellian
             part of the realistic scattering spectrum differs by only
             about 6 per cent from that of a pure Maxwellian
             nn-scattering spectrum.},
   Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/30/9/024},
   Key = {fds246801}
}

@article{fds43988,
   Author = {B.E. Crawford and S.L. Stephenson and C.R. Howell and G.E. Mitchell and W. Tornow and W.I. Furman and E.V. Lychagin and A.Yu. Muzichka and G.V.
             Nekhaev, A.V. Strelkov and E.I. Sharapov and V.N.
             Shvetsov},
   Title = {Calculations of neutron velocity and time-of-flight spectra
             in the DIANNA neutron-neutron scattering
             experiment},
   Journal = {XII International Seminar on Interactions of Neutrons with
             Nuclei, ISINN-XII,},
   Pages = {144 - 152},
   Year = {2004},
   Key = {fds43988}
}

@article{fds329806,
   Author = {Niculescu, I and Suleiman, R and Madey, R and Eden, T and Anderson, BD and Anderson, JE and Baker, OK and Baldwin, AR and Brown, WR and Cameron,
             JM and Chang, CC and Elaasar, M and Foster, CC and Halli, C and Howell, C and Keane, D and Kelly, JJ and Lai, A and Liu, H and Manley, DM and Markowitz,
             P and Niboh, MM and Niculescu, G and Olson, M and Stephenson, EJ and Walter, R and Watson, JW and Zhang, W-M},
   Title = {Calibration of a neutron polarimeter to measure the electric
             form factor of the neutron},
   Journal = {IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {68-74},
   Year = {1998},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/23.659556},
   Doi = {10.1109/23.659556},
   Key = {fds329806}
}

@article{fds246711,
   Author = {Arnold, CW and Clegg, TB and Karwowski, HJ and Rich, GC and Tompkins,
             JR and Howell, CR},
   Title = {Characterization of an INVS model IV neutron counter for
             high precision (γ,n) cross-section measurements},
   Journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section
             A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated
             Equipment},
   Volume = {647},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {55-62},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {0168-9002},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2011.01.177},
   Abstract = {A neutron counter designed for assay of radioactive
             materials has been adapted for beam experiments at TUNL. The
             cylindrical geometry and 60% maximum efficiency make it well
             suited for (γ,n) cross-section measurements near the
             neutron emission threshold. A high precision
             characterization of the counter has been made using neutrons
             from several sources. Using a combination of measurements
             and simulations, the absolute detection efficiency of the
             neutron counter was determined to an accuracy of ±3% in the
             neutron energy range between 0.1 and 1 MeV. It is shown that
             this efficiency characterization is generally valid for a
             wide range of targets. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.nima.2011.01.177},
   Key = {fds246711}
}

@article{fds246676,
   Author = {Mikhailov, SF and Busch, MD and Emamian, M and Hartman, SM and Kim, Y and Li, J and Popov, VG and Swift, G and Wallace, PW and Wang, P and Wu, YK and Howell, CR and Gavrilov, NG and Kurkin, GY and Matveev, Y and Anchugov,
             OV and Shvedov, DA and Vinokurov, NA},
   Title = {Commissioning of the booster injector synchrotron for the
             HIGS facility at Duke University},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the IEEE Particle Accelerator
             Conference},
   Pages = {1209-1211},
   Year = {2007},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/PAC.2007.4441032},
   Abstract = {A booster synchrotron (Duke booster) has been built and
             recently commissioned at Duke University Free Electron Laser
             Laboratory (DFELL) as part of the High Intensity Gamma-ray
             Source (HIGS) facility upgrade. HIGS is collaboration
             between the DFELL and Triangle Universities Nuclear
             Laboratory (TUNL). The booster provides top-off injection
             into the Duke FEL storage ring in the energy range of 0.24 -
             1.2 GeV. When operating the Duke storage ring to produce
             high energy Compton gamma ray beams above 20 MeV, continuous
             electron beam loss occurs. The lost electrons are
             replenished by the booster injector operating in the top-off
             mode. The presentt operational injection and extraction rate
             of the machine allows us to routinely replenish up to 5·10
             8 electrons per second. The compactness of the booster posed
             a challenge for its development and commissioning. The
             booster has been successfully commissioned in 2006. This
             paper reports experience of commissioning and initial
             operation of the booster. ©2007 IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/PAC.2007.4441032},
   Key = {fds246676}
}

@article{fds246685,
   Author = {Weisenberger, AG and Stolin, A and Kross, B and Lee, SJ and Majewski, S and McKisson, J and McKisson, JE and Xi, W and Zorn, C and Howell, CR and Crowell, AS and Reid, CD and Smith, MF},
   Title = {Compact beta particle/positron imager for plant
             biology},
   Journal = {IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference
             Record},
   Pages = {1752-1754},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {1095-7863},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/NSSMIC.2010.5874074},
   Abstract = {The 11 CO2 tracer is used to facilitate plant biology
             research towards optimization of plant productivity, biofuel
             development and carbon sequestration in biomass. Positron
             emission tomography (PET) imaging has been used to study
             carbon transport in live plants using 11 CO 2. Plants
             typically have very thin leaves resulting in little medium
             for the emitted positrons to undergo an annihilation event.
             For the emitted positron from 11C decay approximately 1mm of
             water equivalent material is needed for positron
             annihilation. Thus most of the positrons do not annihilate
             inside the leaf, resulting in limited sensitivity for PET
             imaging. To address this problem we have developed a compact
             beta-positive beta-minus particle (BPBM) imager for 11 CO2
             leaf imaging. The detector is based on a Hamamatsu H8500
             position sensitive photomultiplier tube optically coupled
             via optical grease and a 3mm thick glass plate to a 0.5mm
             thick Eljin EJ-212 plastic scintillator. The detector is
             equipped with a flexible arm to allow its placement and
             orientation on the leaf of the plant of interest while
             maintaining the leaf's original orientation. We are planning
             to utilize the imaging device at the Duke University
             Phytotron to investigate dynamic carbon transport
             differences between invasive and native species. © 2010
             IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/NSSMIC.2010.5874074},
   Key = {fds246685}
}

@booklet{Howell87,
   Author = {Howell, CR and Tornow, W and Murphy, K and Pfützner, HG and Roberts,
             ML and Li, A and Felsher, PD and Walter, RL and Šlaus, I and Treado, PA and Koike, Y},
   Title = {Comparisons of vector analyzing-power data and calculations
             for neutron-deuteron elastic scattering from 10 to 14
             MeV},
   Journal = {Few-Body Systems},
   Volume = {2},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {19-32},
   Year = {1987},
   ISSN = {0177-7963},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01078989},
   Abstract = {High-accuracy analyzing-power Ay(θ) data for n-d elastic
             scattering at 12 MeV have been measured using the
             polarized-neutron facilities at the Triangle Universities
             Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL). The present data have been
             combined with our previous n-d measurements at 10, 12, and
             14.1 MeV to form the highest-accuracy Ay(θ) data set for
             n-d elastic scattering below 20 MeV. These data are compared
             to recent Faddeev-based neutron-deuteron (n-d) calculations
             which use the Paris and Bonn equivalent separable potentials
             PEST and BEST, as well as Doleschall's representation of the
             P- and D-wave nucleon-nucleon interactions. None of these
             models adequately describe the data in the angular region
             around the maximum of Ay(θ). Possible reasons for the
             discrepancies are discussed. The sensitivity of the present
             Faddeev-based calculations to various angular momentum
             components of the nucleon-nucleon interaction are examined.
             © 1987 Springer-Verlag.},
   Doi = {10.1007/BF01078989},
   Key = {Howell87}
}

@article{fds246697,
   Author = {Danagoulian, A and Mamyan, VH and Roedelbronn, M and Aniol, KA and Annand, JRM and Bertin, PY and Bimbot, L and Bosted, P and Calarco, JR and Camsonne, A and Chang, CC and Chang, T-H and Chen, J-P and Choi, S and Chudakov, E and Degtyarenko, P and Jager, CWD and Deur, A and Dutta, D and Egiyan, K and Gao, H and Garibaldi, F and Gayou, O and Gilman, R and Glamazdin, A and Glashausser, C and Gomez, J and Hamilton, DJ and Hansen, J-O and Hayes, D and Higinbotham, DW and Hinton, W and Horn, T and Howell, C and Hunyady, T and Hyde, CE and Jiang, X and Jones, MK and Khandaker, M and Ketikyan, A and Kubarovsky, V et
             al.},
   Title = {Compton-scattering cross section on the proton at high
             momentum transfer},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {98},
   Number = {15},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {0031-9007},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.152001},
   Abstract = {Cross-section values for Compton scattering on the proton
             were measured at 25 kinematic settings over the range s=5-11
             and -t=2-7GeV2 with a statistical accuracy of a few percent.
             The scaling power for the s dependence of the cross section
             at fixed center-of-mass angle was found to be 8.0±0.2,
             strongly inconsistent with the prediction of perturbative
             QCD. The observed cross-section values are in fair agreement
             with the calculations using the handbag mechanism, in which
             the external photons couple to a single quark. © 2007 The
             American Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.152001},
   Key = {fds246697}
}

@booklet{Tornow92,
   Author = {Tornow, W and Howell, CR and Walter, RL and Slaus,
             I},
   Title = {Coulomb effects in three-nucleon scattering versus
             charge-symmetry breaking in the 3P nucleon-nucleon
             interactions.},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {459-462},
   Year = {1992},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9967777},
   Key = {Tornow92}
}

@booklet{Honore86a,
   Author = {Honoré, GM and Tornow, W and Howell, CR and Pedroni, RS and Byrd, RC and Walter, RL and Delaroche, JP},
   Title = {Coupled-channel analysis of nucleon scattering from sup40Ca
             up to 80 MeV.},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {33},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1129-1140},
   Year = {1986},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9953258},
   Key = {Honore86a}
}

@article{fds318451,
   Author = {Raut, R and Crowell, AS and Fallin, B and Howell, CR and Huibregtse, C and Kelley, JH and Kawano, T and Kwan, E and Rusev, G and Tonchev, AP and Tornow, W and Vieira, DJ and Wilhelmy, JB},
   Title = {Cross section measurements of neutron induced reactions on
             GaAs using monoenergetic beams from 7.5 to 15
             MeV},
   Journal = {Journal of Physics},
   Volume = {312},
   Number = {SECTION 6},
   Pages = {062008-062008},
   Year = {2011},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/312/6/062008},
   Abstract = {Cross section measurements for the neutron induced reactions
             on GaAs have been carried out at ten different neutron
             energies from 7.5 to 15 MeV, using the activation technique.
             The monoenergetic neutron beams were produced via the
             2H(d,n)3He reaction, known for it's high neutron yield in
             the chosen energy regime. GaAs samples were activated along
             with the Au and Al monitor foils, for estimating the
             incident neutron flux. The induced activiy was measured
             using high resolution γ-ray spectroscopy. Five reaction
             channels viz., 69Ga(n, 2n) Ga, 69Ga(n,p)69mZn,
             71Ga(n,p)71mZn, 75As(n, 2n)74As and 75As(n,p)75Ge, have been
             reported for the comprehensive cross section measurements.
             The results are compared with the existing literature data
             and the available evaluations. Statistical model
             calculations, based on the Hauser-Feshbach formalism, have
             been carried out using the TALYS and EMPIRE codes and are
             compared with the experimental values.},
   Doi = {10.1088/1742-6596/312/6/062008},
   Key = {fds318451}
}

@article{fds246679,
   Author = {Stave, S and Ahmed, MW and Antolak, AJ and Blackston, MA and Crowell,
             AS and Doyle, BL and Henshaw, SS and Howell, CR and Kingsberry, P and Perdue, BA and Rossi, P and Prior, RM and Spraker, MC and Weller,
             HR},
   Title = {Cross section measurements of the B10(d,n0)C11 reaction
             below 160 keV},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {77},
   Number = {5},
   Year = {2008},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.77.054607},
   Abstract = {New data were taken at the Triangle Universities Nuclear
             Laboratory to investigate the plausibility of using low
             energy deuterons and the B10(d,n)C11 reaction as a portable
             source of 6.3 MeV neutrons. Analysis of the data at and
             below incident deuteron energies of 160 keV indicates an n0
             neutron cross section that is lower than previous estimates
             by at least three orders of magnitude. In separate runs,
             deuterons with two different energies (160 and 140 keV) were
             stopped in a B10 target. The resulting n0 neutrons of
             approximately 6.3 MeV were detected at angles between 0°
             and 150°. The angle integrated yields were used to
             determine the astrophysical S factor for this reaction
             assuming a constant value for the S factor below 160 keV.
             The cross sections reported between 130 and 160 keV were
             calculated using the extracted value of the S factor. The
             measured n0 cross section is several orders of magnitude
             smaller than previous results, thus eliminating B10(d,n)C11
             as a portable source of intense neutrons with low energy
             deuteron beams on the order of tens of microamps. In order
             to gain insight into the reaction dynamics at these low
             energies the cross section results have been compared with
             results from calculations using the distorted wave Born
             approximation (DWBA) and a detailed Hauser-Feshbach
             calculation performed by the authors. The angular
             distribution is consistent with the Hauser-Feshbach
             calculation suggesting a statistical compound nucleus
             reaction rather than a direct reaction. © 2008 The American
             Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.77.054607},
   Key = {fds246679}
}

@article{fds246779,
   Author = {Guss, PP and Byrd, RC and Floyd, CE and Howell, CR and Murphy, K and Tungate, G and Pedroni, RS and Walter, RL and Delaroche, JP and Clegg,
             TB},
   Title = {Cross sections and analyzing powers for fast-neutron
             scattering to the ground and first excited states of
             58Ni and 60Ni},
   Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
   Volume = {438},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {187-211},
   Year = {1985},
   ISSN = {0375-9474},
   Abstract = {Differential cross sections for neutron scattering from 58Ni
             and 60Ni to the ground state and first excited state have
             been measured at 8, 10, 12 and 14 MeV. In addition,
             analyzing powers were measured for scattering to the same
             states for 58Ni at 10 and 14 MeV, and for 60Ni at 10 MeV.
             The data were analyzed in the framework of a coupled-channel
             formalism in which the vibrational model was assumed with
             deformed central and spin-orbit potentials. A
             spherical-optical-model analysis of the elastic scattering
             data was also performed following the coupled-channel
             analysis. Predictions for (p, p) and (p, p') scattering
             observables have been made and compared with measurements
             previously published. This approach permits neutron and
             proton deformation parameters to be deduced similarly from
             (n, n') and (p, p') scattering measurements for 58,60Ni.
             These deformation parameters are compared in the framework
             of the core-polarization model of Madsen, Brown and
             Anderson. © 1985.},
   Key = {fds246779}
}

@article{fds246723,
   Author = {Hutcheson, A and Angell, C and Becker, JA and Crowell, AS and Dashdorj,
             D and Fallin, B and Fotiades, N and Howell, CR and Karwowski, HJ and Kawano, T and Kelley, JH and Kwan, E and MacRi, RA and Nelson, RO and Pedroni, RS and Tonchev, AP and Tornow, W},
   Title = {Cross sections for U238(n,n'γ) and U238(n,2nγ) reactions
             at incident neutron energies between 5 and 14
             MeV},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {80},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {014603},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.80.014603},
   Abstract = {Precision measurements of U238(n,n'γ) and U238(n,2nγ)
             partial cross sections have been performed at Triangle
             Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) to improve crucial
             data needed for testing nuclear reaction models in the
             actinide mass region. A pulsed and monoenergetic neutron
             beam was used in combination with high-resolution γ-ray
             spectroscopy to obtain partial cross sections for incident
             neutron energies between 5 and 14 MeV. γ-ray yields were
             measured with high-purity germanium clover and planar
             detectors. Measured partial cross-section data are compared
             with previous results using white and monoenergetic neutron
             beams and calculations from the GNASH and TALYS
             Hauser-Feshbach statistical-model codes. Present
             experimental results are in fair to good agreement with most
             of the existing data for the U238(n,n'γ) reaction. However,
             significant discrepancies are observed for the U238(n,2nγ)
             reaction. © 2009 The American Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.80.014603},
   Key = {fds246723}
}

@article{fds246709,
   Author = {Arnold, CW and Clegg, TB and Iliadis, C and Karwowski, HJ and Rich, GC and Tompkins, JR and Howell, CR},
   Title = {Cross-section measurement of 9Be(γ,n)8Be and implications
             for α+α+n→9Be in the r process},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {85},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {044605},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.85.044605},
   Abstract = {Models of the r process are sensitive to the production rate
             of 9Be because, in explosive environments rich in neutrons,
             α(αn,γ) 9Be is the primary mechanism for bridging the
             stability gaps at A=5 and A=8. The α(αn,γ)9Be reaction
             represents a two-step process, consisting of α+α→8Be
             followed by 8Be(n,γ)9Be. We report here on a new absolute
             cross-section measurement for the 9Be(γ,n)8Be reaction
             conducted using a highly efficient, 3He-based neutron
             detector and nearly monoenergetic photon beams, covering
             energies from E γ=1.5 MeV to E γ=5.2 MeV, produced by the
             High Intensity γ-ray Source of Triangle Universities
             Nuclear Laboratory. In the astrophysically important
             threshold energy region, the present cross sections are 40%
             larger than those found in most previous measurements and
             are accurate to ±10% (95% confidence). The revised
             thermonuclear α(αn,γ)9Be reaction rate could have
             implications for the r process in explosive environments
             such as type II supernovae. © 2012 American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.85.044605},
   Key = {fds246709}
}

@article{fds246708,
   Author = {Couture, AH and Clegg, TB and Tajima, S and Howell, CR and Fallin, B and Esterline, JH and Crowell, AS and Crowe, BJ and Markoff, DM and Cumberbatch, LC and Pedroni, RS and Witała, H},
   Title = {Cross-section measurements of 2H(n,np)n in symmetric star
             configurations},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {85},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {054004},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.85.054004},
   Abstract = {Cross-section measurements have been made at 16 and 19 MeV
             in two exit-channel configurations of neutron-deuteron
             breakup: the space star and coplanar star. In this
             kinematically complete measurement, the outgoing proton and
             one of the neutrons were detected in coincidence and their
             energies were determined via time-of-flight techniques.
             Monte Carlo simulations based on rigorous three-nucleon
             Faddeev calculations using the charge-dependent-Bonn
             (CD-Bonn) nucleon-nucleon potential were used to compare the
             experimental results with theory. Large discrepancies
             between data and theory were found in both breakup
             configurations measured at both energies, suggesting
             deficiencies in current theoretical treatment of
             three-nucleon forces or in present knowledge of the
             neutron-neutron 1S 0 force. © 2012 American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.85.054004},
   Key = {fds246708}
}

@article{fds246735,
   Author = {Setze, HR and Howell, CR and Tornow, W and Braun, RT and Trotter, DEG and Hussein, AH and Pedroni, RS and Roper, CD and Salinas, F and Šlaus, I and Vlahović, B and Walter, RL and Mertens, G and Lambert, JM and Witała,
             H and Glöckle, W},
   Title = {Cross-section measurements of neutron-deuteron breakup at
             13.0 MeV},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {71},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {034006},
   Year = {2005},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.71.034006},
   Abstract = {Cross-section measurements of seven exit-channel
             configurations in the neutron-deuteron breakup at 13.0 MeV
             are reported and compared to rigorous calculations. Our data
             are consistent with those of previous measurements in four
             of six configurations. The present data for five
             configurations are in good agreement with theoretical
             predictions. The cross-section data for the space-star and
             another out-of-plane configuration are larger than the
             theoretical predictions by more than three standard
             deviations. The previously observed 20% discrepancy between
             theory and data for the space-star configuration is
             confirmed in the present work. The inclusion of the
             Tucson-Melbourne 2π-exchange three-nucleon force changes
             the predicted cross section by only 2% and in the wrong
             direction needed to bring theory into agreement with data.
             © 2005 The American Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.71.034006},
   Key = {fds246735}
}

@article{fds246714,
   Author = {Raut, R and Crowell, AS and Fallin, B and Howell, CR and Huibregtse, C and Kelley, JH and Kawano, T and Kwan, E and Rusev, G and Tonchev, AP and Tornow, W and Vieira, DJ and Wilhelmy, JB},
   Title = {Cross-section measurements of neutron-induced reactions on
             GaAs using monoenergetic beams from 7.5 to 15
             MeV},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {83},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {062008-062008},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.83.044621},
   Abstract = {Cross-section measurements for neutron-induced reactions on
             GaAs have been carried out at twelve different neutron
             energies from 7.5 to 15 MeV using the activation technique.
             The monoenergetic neutron beams were produced via the
             H2(d,n)He3 reaction. GaAs samples were activated along with
             Au and Al monitor foils to determine the incident neutron
             flux. The activities induced by the reaction products were
             measured using high-resolution γ-ray spectroscopy. Cross
             sections for five reaction channels, viz., Ga69(n,2n)Ga68,
             Ga69(n,p)Zn69m, Ga71(n,p)Zn71m, As75(n,2n)As74, and
             As75(n,p)Ge75, are reported. The results are compared with
             the previous measurements and available data evaluations.
             Statistical-model calculations, based on the Hauser-Feshbach
             formalism, have been carried out using the TALYS and the
             COH3 codes and are compared with the experimental results.
             © 2011 American Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.83.044621},
   Key = {fds246714}
}

@booklet{Guss85,
   Author = {P. P. Guss and R. C. Byrd and C. E. Floyd and C. R. Howell and K. Murphy and G. Tungate and R. S. Pedroni and R. L.
             Walter and J. P. Delaroche and T. B. Clegg},
   Title = {Cross-sections and analyzing powers for fast-neutron
             scattering to the ground and 1st excited-states of ni-58 and
             ni-60},
   Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
   Volume = {438},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {187 -- 211},
   Year = {1985},
   Key = {Guss85}
}

@article{fds30178,
   Author = {E.I. Sharapov and C.D. Bowman and B.E. Crawford and W.I. Furman and C.R.
             Howell, B.G. Levakov and V.I. Litvin and E.V. Lychagin and A.E.
             Lyzhin, E.P. Magda and G.E. Mitchell and M.E. Morris and A.Yu.
             Muzichka, G.V. Nekhaev and Yu.V. Safronov and V.N. Shvetsov and S.L.
             Stephenson, A.V. Strelkov},
   Title = {Current Condition of the Experiment Project on the Direct
             Measurement of Neutron Scattering Length on the YAGUAR
             Pulsed Reactor},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the IIIrd International Conference on
             Nuclear-pumped Lasers and Pulsed Reactors, Snezhinsk,
             Russia},
   Pages = {644},
   Publisher = {(Russian Federal Center - All-Russian Scientific Institute
             of Technical Physics, Snezhinsk, Russia)},
   Year = {2003},
   Key = {fds30178}
}

@article{fds246681,
   Author = {Furman, WI and Muzichka, AY and Crawford, BE and Howell, CR and Kandiev,
             Y and Levakov, BG and Litvin, VI and Lychagin, EV and Lyzhin, AE and Mitchell, GE and Nekhaev, GV and Sharapov, EI and Shvetsov, VN and Stephenson, SL and Strelkov, AV and Tchernukhin, YI and Tomow,
             W},
   Title = {Current status of the experiment on direct measurement of
             neutron-neutron scattering length at the reactor
             yaguar},
   Journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings},
   Volume = {1109},
   Pages = {53-58},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {0094-243X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3122261},
   Abstract = {A new experiment was proposed in 2002 to perixirm the first
             direct measurement of neutron-neutron scattering on the
             powerful pulsed reactor YAGUAR located at Snezhinsk, Ural
             region, Russia. Extensive efforts were made to model the
             background conditions and to optimize the set-up design. To
             make the experiment feasible it was necessary to suppress
             the background from various origins by more than 16 orders
             of magnitude for thermal neutrons and 14 orders of magnitude
             for fast neutrons. In 2003 a channel was drilled under the
             reactor and equipped for time-offlight measurements. During
             the next two years at this channel there were carried out a
             series of test experiments aimed at verifying the accuracy
             of the background modeling. Good agreement of the measured
             results with the calculated values enabled us to make the
             final design of the full scale set-up. During 2005-2006 the
             experimental system was manufactured. After vacuum tests at
             JINR the set-up was mounted at the YAGUAR reactor hall. In
             2006-2007 calibration measurements with noble gases were
             performed. The results confirmed the validity of the
             modeling of the full scale experiment and verified the
             calibration. The first preliminary experiments for
             nn-scattering were performed in April 2008. These recent
             results are discussed. © 2009 American Institute of
             Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.3122261},
   Key = {fds246681}
}

@article{fds17225,
   Author = {W.I. Furman and E.V. Lychagin and A.Yu. Muzichka and G.V. Nekhaev and A.V. Strelkov and E.I. Sharapov and V.N. Shvetsov and B.G. Levakov and V.I. Litvin and A.E. Lyzhin and C.R. Howell and G.E. Mitchell and W.
             Tornow, C.D. Bowman and B.E. Crawford and C.B. Dallas and J.R.
             Greece, M.E. Morris and S.},
   Title = {Current Status of the Proposal for the Direct Measurement of
             the Neutron-Neutron Scattering Length at the Reactor
             YAGUAR},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the X International Seminar on Interactions
             of Neutrons with Nuclei, ISINN-X},
   Pages = {410},
   Year = {2003},
   Key = {fds17225}
}

@article{fds246674,
   Author = {Sharma, AC and Tourassi, GD and Kapadia, AJ and Harrawood, BP and Bender, JE and Crowell, AS and Kiser, MR and Howell, CR and Jr,
             CEF},
   Title = {Design and construction of a prototype rotation modulation
             collimator for near-field high-energy spectroscopic gamma
             imaging},
   Journal = {IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference
             Record},
   Volume = {4},
   Pages = {2021-2024},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {1095-7863},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/NSSMIC.2006.354310},
   Abstract = {Neutron Stimulated Emission Computed Tomography (NSECT) is
             being developed for in vivo measurement of the concentration
             and location of biologically relevant elements. NSECT is a
             spectroscopic imaging technique whereby the body is
             illuminated via high-energy neutrons that excite elemental
             nuclei that then relax through characteristic gamma
             radiation. This imaging technique requires high-resolution
             spectroscopy, thereby eliminating the use conventional
             scintillation gamma cameras. Consequently, high-purity
             germanium (HPGe) semi-conductor detectors are utilized,
             providing no spatial information. To obtain 2D elemental
             concentration images, we are adapting high-energy solar
             spectroscopy technology. A rotating modulation collimator
             (RMC) consisting of two parallel-slat collimators is placed
             in front of the detector to modulate the incoming signal in
             a manner predicted by its geometry. Reconstruction of 2D
             images is feasible by counting the number of incident gammas
             at each rotation angle. The challenge is to identify a RMC
             geometry that allows this method to work in the near-field
             environment, which has far fewer assumptions and
             simplifications than the infinite focus of solar imaging.
             Herein we describe construction of a prototype RMC and
             experiments conducted with a radioactive 22Na point source.
             These experiments verified that the RMC modulates the signal
             in manner consistent with its geometric and physical
             properties. © 2006 IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/NSSMIC.2006.354310},
   Key = {fds246674}
}

@article{fds246678,
   Author = {Sharma, AC and Tourassi, GD and Kapadia, AJ and Harrawood, BP and Bender, JE and Crowell, AS and Kiser, MR and Howell, CR and Jr,
             CEF},
   Title = {Design and development of a high-energy gamma camera for use
             with NSECT imaging: Feasibility for breast
             imaging},
   Journal = {IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science},
   Volume = {54},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1498-1505},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {0018-9499},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNS.2007.906058},
   Abstract = {A new spectroscopic imaging technique, Neutron Stimulated
             Emission Computed Tomography (NSECT), is currently being
             developed to non-invasively and non-destructively measure
             and image elemental concentrations within the body. NSECT
             has potential for use in breast imaging as several studies
             have shown a link between elemental concentration and tumor
             status. In NSECT, a region of interest is illuminated with a
             high-energy (3-5 MeV) beam of neutrons that scatter
             inelastically with elemental nuclei within the body. The
             characteristic gamma rays that are emitted as the excited
             nuclei relax allow the identification of elements and the
             formation of elemental composition images. This imaging
             technique requires high-resolution and high-energy gamma
             spectroscopy; thereby eliminating current scintillation
             crystal based position sensitive gamma cameras. Instead, we
             propose to adapt high-energy gamma imaging techniques used
             in space-based imaging. A High Purity Germanium (HPGe)
             detector provides high-resolution energy spectra while a
             rotating modulation collimator (RMC) placed in front of the
             detector modulates the incoming signal to provide spatial
             information. Counting the number of gamma events at each
             collimator rotation angle allows for reconstruction of
             images. Herein we report on the design and testing of a
             prototype RMC, a Monte Carlo simulation of this camera, and
             the use of this simulation tool to access the feasibility of
             imaging a breast with such a camera. The prototype RMC was
             tested with a 22Na point source and verified that the RMC
             modulates the gamma rays in a predictable manner. The Monte
             Carlo simulation accurately modeled this behavior. Other
             simulations were used to accurately reconstruct images of a
             point source located within a 10 cm cube, suggesting NSECT's
             potential as a breast imaging method. © 2007
             IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/TNS.2007.906058},
   Key = {fds246678}
}

@article{fds330178,
   Author = {Friesen, FQL and Ahmed, MW and Crowe, BJ and Crowell, AS and Cumberbatch, LC and Fallin, B and Han, Z and Howell, CR and Malone, RM and Markoff, D and Tornow, W and Witała, H},
   Title = {Design of an Experiment to Measure a Using 3 H ( γ , pn ) n
             at HIγS},
   Journal = {EPJ Web of Conferences},
   Volume = {113},
   Pages = {08007-08007},
   Editor = {Elster, C and Phillips, DR and Roberts, CD},
   Year = {2016},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/epjconf/201611308007},
   Doi = {10.1051/epjconf/201611308007},
   Key = {fds330178}
}

@article{fds17227,
   Author = {W.I. Furman and J.R. Greece and C.R. Howell and B.G. Levakov and V.I.
             Litvin, E.V. Lychagin and A.E. Lyzhin and E.P. Magda and G.E.
             Mitchell, M.E. Morris and A.Yu. Muzichka and G.V. Nekhaev and Yu.V.
             Safronov, E.I. Sharapov and V.N. Shvetsov and S.L. Stephenson and A.V. Strelkov and W. Tornow},
   Title = {Detector Count Rates in the YAGUAR nn-scattering
             Experiment},
   Journal = {Proceedings of X International Seminar on Interactions of
             Neutrons with Nuclei, ISINN-X},
   Pages = {436},
   Year = {2003},
   Key = {fds17227}
}

@booklet{Alohali97,
   Author = {M. A. Alohali and A. Aksoy and A. Coban and J. M. Hanly and P. D. Felsher and C. R. Howell and W. Tornow and F. Salinas and R. L. Walter},
   Title = {Determination of the neutron detection efficiency of an
             NE213 scintillator for E-n = 2.5 to 16 MeV using the
             H-2(d,n)He-3 reaction},
   Journal = {Nuclear Instruments \& Methods In Physics Research Section
             A-accelerators Spectrometers Detectors And Associated
             Equipment},
   Volume = {396},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {388 -- 393},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {September},
   Key = {Alohali97}
}

@article{fds246759,
   Author = {Al-Ohali, MA and Aksoy, A and Coban, A and Hanly, JM and Felsher, PD and Howell, CR and Tornow, W and Salinas, F and Walter,
             RL},
   Title = {Determination of the neutron detection efficiency of an
             NE213 scintillator for En = 2.5 to 16 MeV using
             the 2H(d, n)3He reaction},
   Journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section
             A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated
             Equipment},
   Volume = {396},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {388-393},
   Year = {1997},
   ISSN = {0168-9002},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0168-9002(97)00701-8},
   Abstract = {The absolute efficiency of an NE213 liquid scintillator of
             12.7 cm diameter and 5.08 cm thickness was measured in the
             neutron energy range 2.5-16 MeV using the 2H(d, n)3He
             reaction as a source of monoenergetic neutrons. The
             efficiencies were measured at the time-of-flight facility of
             Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL). The
             experimental data are compared to calculations from the
             Monte Carlo code NEFF of Physikalisch-Technische
             Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig, Germany (PTB).},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0168-9002(97)00701-8},
   Key = {fds246759}
}

@article{fds246687,
   Author = {Weisenberger, AG and Dong, H and Kross, B and Lee, SJ and McKisson, J and McKisson, JE and Xi, W and Zorn, C and Howell, CR and Crowell, AS and Cumberbatch, L and Reid, CD and Smith, MF and Stolin,
             A},
   Title = {Development of PhytoPET: A plant imaging PET
             system},
   Journal = {IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference
             Record},
   Pages = {275-278},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {1095-7863},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/NSSMIC.2011.6154496},
   Abstract = {The development and initial evaluation of a high-resolution
             positron emission tomography (PET) system to image the
             biodistribution of positron emitting tracers in live plants
             is underway. The positron emitting 11CO 2 tracer is used in
             plant biology research investigating carbon sequestration in
             biomass, optimization of plant productivity and biofuel
             development. This PhytoPET design allows flexible
             arrangements of PET detectors based on individual standalone
             detector modules built from single 5 cm x 5 cm Hamamatsu
             H8500 position sensitive photomultiplier tubes. Each H8500
             is coupled to a LYSO:Ce scintillator array composed of 48x48
             elements that are 10 mm thick arranged with a 1.0 mm pitch.
             An Ethernet based 12-bit flash analog to digital data
             acquisition system with onboard coincident matrix definition
             is under development to digitize the signals. The detector
             modules of the PhytoPET system can be arranged and stacked
             to accommodate various sized plants and plant structures. ©
             2011 IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/NSSMIC.2011.6154496},
   Key = {fds246687}
}

@article{fds246718,
   Author = {Zhou, Z and Ruan, X and Du, Y and Qi, B and Tang, H and Xia, H and Walter, RL and Braun, RT and Howell, CR and Tornow, W and Weisel, GJ and Dupuis, M and Delaroche, JP and Chen, Z and Chen, Z and Chen, Y},
   Title = {Differential cross section for neutron scattering from Bi209
             at 37 MeV and the weak particle-core coupling},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {82},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {024601},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/4266 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {Differential scattering cross-section data have been
             measured at 43 angles from 11° to 160° for 37-MeV neutrons
             incident on Bi209. The primary motivation for the
             measurements is to address the scarcity of neutron
             scattering data above 30 MeV and to improve the accuracy of
             optical-model predictions at medium neutron energies. The
             high-statistics measurements were conducted at the China
             Institute of Atomic Energy using the H3(d,n)He4 reaction as
             the neutron source, a pulsed deuteron beam, and
             time-of-flight (TOF) techniques. Within the resolution of
             the TOF spectrometer, the measurements included inelastic
             scattering components. The sum of elastic and inelastic
             scattering cross sections was computed in joint
             optical-model and distorted-wave Born approximation
             calculations under the assumption of the weak particle-core
             coupling. The results challenge predictions from
             well-established spherical optical potentials. Good
             agreement between data and calculations is achieved at 37
             MeV provided that the balance between surface and volume
             absorption in a recent successful model is modified, thus
             suggesting the need for global optical-model improvements at
             medium neutron energies. © 2010 The American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.82.024601},
   Key = {fds246718}
}

@booklet{Honore86,
   Author = {Honoré, GM and Pedroni, RS and Howell, CR and Pfützner, HG and Byrd,
             RC and Tungate, G and Walter, RL},
   Title = {Differential cross sections and analyzing powers for neutron
             elastic scattering from Y89 between 8 and 17
             MeV},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {34},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {825-834},
   Year = {1986},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.34.825},
   Abstract = {Differential cross sections and analyzing powers for neutron
             elastic scattering from Y89 have been measured at energies
             from 8 to 17 MeV using a neutron time-of-flight facility.
             The data have been analyzed with the spherical optical model
             and excellent representations are achieved at all energies
             with the derived optical potential parameters, which were
             constrained to vary linearly with energy. Comparisons have
             been made to two previously reported global spherical
             optical models as well. © 1986 The American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.34.825},
   Key = {Honore86}
}

@booklet{Yang93,
   Author = {Yang, X and Wang, L and Rapaport, J and Goodman, CD and Foster, C and Wang,
             Y and Unkelbach, W and Sugarbaker, E and Marchlenski, D and de Lucia S, and Luther, B and Ullmann, JL and Ling, AG and Park, BK and Sorenson, DS and Rybarcyk, L and Taddeucci, TN and Howell, CR and Tornow,
             W},
   Title = {Dipole and spin-dipole resonances in charge-exchange
             reactions on 12C.},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {48},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {1158-1171},
   Year = {1993},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9968948},
   Key = {Yang93}
}

@article{fds246707,
   Author = {Hammond, SL and Adekola, AS and Angell, CT and Karwowski, HJ and Kwan,
             E and Rusev, G and Tonchev, AP and Tornow, W and Howell, CR and Kelley,
             JH},
   Title = {Dipole response of 238U to polarized photons below the
             neutron separation energy},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {85},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {044302},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.85.044302},
   Abstract = {Nuclear resonance fluorescence experiments were carried out
             at the High-Intensity γ-ray Source facility at Triangle
             Universities Nuclear Laboratory to characterize the
             low-energy dipole structure of 238U using 100% linearly
             polarized photon beams from 2.0 to 6.2 MeV. 113 transitions
             corresponding to de-excitations to the ground state in 238U
             were observed and the energy, spin, parity, integrated cross
             section, reduced width, and branching ratio were determined
             for each of these identified levels. The total E1 γ-ray
             interaction cross section was calculated and it was deduced
             that the observed concentration of low-lying E1 transitions
             were excited from the low-energy tail of the giant dipole
             resonance and were not a pygmy dipole resonance. Comparisons
             were made between quasiparticle random-phase approximation
             calculations and the experimentally observed strength. The
             observed and predicted M1 strength agreed well with each
             other. However, there was no similar agreement for the E1
             strength. © 2012 American Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.85.044302},
   Key = {fds246707}
}

@article{fds30176,
   Author = {E.I. Sharapov and C.D. Bowman and B.E. Crawford and W.I. Furman and C.R.
             Howell, B.G. Levakov and V.I. Litvin and E.V. Lychagin and A.E.
             Lyzhin, E.P. Magda and G.E. Mitchell and A.Yu. Muzichka and G.V.
             Nekhaev, Yu.V. Safronov and V.N. Shvetsov and S.L. Stephenson and A.V. Strelkov and W. Torn},
   Title = {Direct Measurement of Neutron-Neutron Scattering},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on the
             Application of Accelerators in Research and Industry,
             Denton, Texas},
   Volume = {680},
   Series = {AIP Conference Proceedings},
   Pages = {261},
   Publisher = {(Melville, New York)},
   Editor = {J.L. Duggan and I.L. Morgan},
   Year = {2003},
   Key = {fds30176}
}

@article{fds246810,
   Author = {Furman, WI and Lychagin, EV and Muzichka, AY and Nekhaev, GV and Safronov, YV and Strelkov, AV and Sharapov, EI and Shvetsov, VN and Levakov, BG and Litvin, VI and Lyzhin, AE and Magda, EP and Howell, CR and Mitchell, GE and Tornow, W and Crawford, BE and Stephenson, SL and Bowman, CD},
   Title = {Direct measurement of the neutron-neutron scattering cross
             section at the reactor YAGUAR},
   Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
             Physics},
   Volume = {28},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {2627-2641},
   Year = {2002},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0954-3899/28/10/308},
   Abstract = {We propose to perform the first measurement of the
             neutron-neutron scattering cross section in the
             through-channel of the pulsed aperiodic reactor YAGUAR
             (Snezhinsk, Russia). Such a measurement directly determines
             the neutron-neutron scattering length, and by comparison
             with the proton-proton scattering length bears upon the
             issue of charge symmetry of the nuclear force. The proposed
             experimental set-up, as well as modelling of the neutron
             density and of the frequency of neutron-neutron collisions
             is described. Experimental results are reported on the
             formation and optimization of the thermal neutron field
             inside the through-channel of the reactor YAGUAR. The
             instantaneous value of 1.1 × 1018 cm-2 s-1 obtained for the
             thermal neutron flux density is large enough to perform the
             first direct neutron-neutron scattering length
             measurement.},
   Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/28/10/308},
   Key = {fds246810}
}

@article{fds246665,
   Author = {Crawford, BE and Furman, WI and Howell, CR and Lychagin, EV and Levakov,
             BG and Litvin, VI and Lyzhin, AE and Magda, EP and Mitchell, GE and Muzichka, AY and Nekhaev, GV and Sharapov, EI and Shvetsov, VN and Stephenson, SL and Strelkov, AV and Tornow, W},
   Title = {Direct nn-scattering at the YAGUAR reactor},
   Journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section
             B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms},
   Volume = {241},
   Number = {1-4},
   Pages = {190-194},
   Year = {2005},
   ISSN = {0168-583X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2005.07.023},
   Abstract = {The Direct Investigation of ann Association (DIANNA) is
             finalizing the design of a direct measurement of the
             nn-scattering length to be performed at the YAGUAR reactor
             in Snezhinsk, Russia. Extensive modeling of the neutron
             field, nn-scattering kinematics, and sources of detector
             background have verified the plan for a 3% measurement of
             ann. Measurements of the neutron flux support the neutron
             field modeling. Initial test measurements of the neutron
             field inside the underground channel have confirmed
             calculations of the thermal neutron background. © 2005
             Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.nimb.2005.07.023},
   Key = {fds246665}
}

@article{fds246742,
   Author = {Mitchell, GE and Furman, WI and Lychagin, EV and Muzichka, AY and Nekhaev, GV and Strelkov, AV and Sharapov, EI and Shvetsov, VN and Chernuhin, YI and Levakov, BG and Litvin, VI and Lyzhin, AE and Magda,
             EP and Crawford, BE and Stephenson, SL and Howell, CR and Tornow,
             W},
   Title = {Direct nn-scattering measurement with the pulsed reactor
             YAGUAR},
   Journal = {Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards
             and Technology},
   Volume = {110},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {225-230},
   Year = {2005},
   Abstract = {Although crucial for resolving the issue of charge symmetry
             in the nuclear force, direct measurement of nn-scattering by
             colliding free neutrons has never been performed. At present
             the Russian pulsed reactor YAGUAR is the best neutron source
             for performing such a measurement. It has a through channel
             where the neutron moderator is installed. The neutrons are
             counted by a neutron detector located 12 m from the reactor.
             In preliminary experiments an instantaneous value of 1.1 ×
             1018/cm2s was obtained for the thermal neutron flux density.
             The experiment will be performed by the DIANNA Collaboration
             as International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)
             project No. 2286.},
   Key = {fds246742}
}

@article{fds246713,
   Author = {Adekola, AS and Angell, CT and Hammond, SL and Hill, A and Howell, CR and Karwowski, HJ and Kelley, JH and Kwan, E},
   Title = {Discovery of low-lying E1 and M1 strengths in
             Th232},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {83},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {034615},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.83.034615},
   Abstract = {Properties of low-energy dipole states in Th232 have been
             investigated with the nuclear resonance fluorescence
             technique. The present work used monoenergetic γ-ray beams
             at energies of 2-4 MeV from the high-intensity γ-ray source
             at Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory. Over 40
             transitions corresponding to deexcitation to the ground
             state and first excited state were observed for the first
             time. Excitation energies, integrated cross sections, decay
             widths, branching ratios, and transition strengths for those
             states in Th232 were determined and compared with
             quasiparticle random-phase-approximation calculations. A
             large number of E1 transitions were observed for the first
             time in actinide nuclei with summed strength of
             3.28(69)×10-3 e2fm2. The observed summed M1 strength of
             4.26(63)μN2 is in good agreement with the other actinides
             and with the systematics of the scissors mode in deformed
             rare-earth nuclei. © 2011 American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.83.034615},
   Key = {fds246713}
}

@article{fds246712,
   Author = {Kwan, E and Rusev, G and Adekola, AS and Dönau, F and Hammond, SL and Howell, CR and Karwowski, HJ and Kelley, JH and Pedroni, RS and Raut, R and Tonchev, AP and Tornow, W},
   Title = {Discrete deexcitations in U235 below 3 MeV from nuclear
             resonance fluorescence},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {83},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {041601},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.83.041601},
   Abstract = {Gamma-ray transitions in U235 were measured using the (γ,
             γ') reaction below 3 MeV. The nuclear-resonance-fluorescence
             experiment was carried out at the High-Intensity γ-ray
             Source facility using nearly monoenergetic and circularly
             polarized photon beams. More than 20 transitions
             corresponding to deexcitations to the ground state and
             low-lying levels in U235 were observed. The integrated cross
             sections to the excited levels and intensities of branching
             transitions were deduced. The experimental results are
             compared with predictions from a quasiparticle random-phase
             approximation in a deformed basis. © 2011 American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.83.041601},
   Key = {fds246712}
}

@article{fds246805,
   Author = {Nagadi, MM and Howell, CR and Tornow, W and Weisel, GJ and Al-Ohali, MA and Braun, RT and Setze, HR and Chen, Z and Walter, RL and Delaroche, JP and Romain, P},
   Title = {Dispersive optical-model and coupled-channels descriptions
             of neutron scattering from 27Al and
             59Co up to 80 MeV},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {68},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {446101-446108},
   Year = {2003},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000187575300044&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Abstract = {Differential cross sections σ(θ) and analyzing powers A
             y(θ) have been measured for neutron scattering from 27Al
             and 59Co at 15 MeV at the Triangle Universities Nuclear
             Laboratory using standard time-of-flight techniques. In
             addition, σ(θ) was measured for 59Co at 10, 12, 14, 17,
             and 19 MeV. Two large databases covering the energy range
             from 0.1 to 80 MeV were formed for these nuclei from this
             new data and previously published data, including that for
             the total cross section σ T. These sets of data were
             analyzed using spherical dispersive optical-model (DOM)
             potentials, as well as coupled-channels model (CCM)
             potentials. The 59Co DOM gives good agreement with the
             σ(θ) data, except in the region of the first minimum. It
             also gives a reasonable description of our A y(θ)
             measurement. The 27Al DOM gives good agreement with the
             data, except for σ(θ) at backward angles below 9.4 MeV and
             for σ T, for which there is up to 5% disagreement in the
             10-50 MeV range. Compared to the DOM, the 59Co CCM
             calculations give improved agreement with the σ(θ) data,
             especially at the first minimum. The σ T calculations agree
             with the data to within about 3% above 1.0 MeV. The
             three-level CCM calculations for 27Al give excellent
             agreement with the entire database.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.68.044610},
   Key = {fds246805}
}

@article{fds246637,
   Author = {Bhatia, C and Fallin, B and Gooden, ME and Howell, CR and Kelley, JH and Tornow, W and Arnold, CW and Bond, EM and Bredeweg, TA and Fowler, MM and Moody, WA and Rundberg, RS and Rusev, G and Vieira, DJ and Wilhelmy, JB and Becker, JA and Macri, R and Ryan, C and Sheets, SA and Stoyer, MA and Tonchev, AP},
   Title = {Dual-fission chamber and neutron beam characterization for
             fission product yield measurements using monoenergetic
             neutrons},
   Journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section
             A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated
             Equipment},
   Volume = {757},
   Pages = {7-19},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0168-9002},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2014.03.022},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.nima.2014.03.022},
   Key = {fds246637}
}

@article{fds246815,
   Author = {Gao, J and Anderson, BD and Aniol, KA and Auerbach, L and Baker, FT and Berthot, J and Bertozzi, W and Bertin, P-Y and Bimbot, L and Boeglin,
             WU and Brash, EJ and Breton, V and Breuer, H and Burtin, E and Calarco, JR and Cardman, L and Cates, GD and Cavata, C and Chang, CC and Chen, J-P and Cisbani, E and Dale, DS and Leo, RD and Deur, A and Diederich, B and Djawotho, P and Domingo, J and Doyle, B and Ducret, J-E and Epstein, MB and Ewell, LA and Finn, JM and Fissum, KG and Fonvieille, H and Frois, B and Frullani, S and Garibaldi, F and Gasparian, A and Gilad, S and Gilman,
             R and Glamazdin, A and Glashausser, C et al.},
   Title = {Dynamical Relativistic Effects in Quasielastic 1 p-Shell
             Proton Knockout from 16O},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {84},
   Number = {15},
   Pages = {3265-3269},
   Year = {2000},
   ISSN = {0031-9007},
   Key = {fds246815}
}

@article{fds246820,
   Author = {Liyanage, N and Anderson, BD and Aniol, KA and Auerbach, L and Baker,
             FT and Berthot, J and Bertozzi, W and Bertin, P-Y and Bimbot, L and Boeglin, WU and Brash, EJ and Breton, V and Breuer, H and Burtin, E and Calarco, JR and Cardman, L and Cates, GD and Cavata, C and Chang, CC and Chen, J-P and Cisbani, E and Dale, DS and Leo, RD and Deur, A and Diederich, B and Djawotho, P and Domingo, J and Doyle, B and Ducret,
             J-E and Epstein, MB and Ewell, LA and Finn, JM and Fissum, KG and Fonvieille, H and Frois, B and Frullani, S and Gao, J and Garibaldi, F and Gasparian, A and Gilad, S and Gilman, R and Glamazdin, A et
             al.},
   Title = {Dynamics of the 16O(e, e′ p) reaction at high
             missing energies},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {86},
   Number = {25},
   Pages = {5670-5674},
   Year = {2001},
   ISSN = {0031-9007},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.86.5670},
   Abstract = {The cross section and response functions for the
             quasielastic reaction for missing energies were measured.
             The result for Em > 25 Mev, and p-shell knockout region
             was also presented. It was found that pion exchange
             currents, isobar currents, and short-range correlations
             accounted for the shape and the transversity for only half
             of the magnitude of the measured cross section.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.86.5670},
   Key = {fds246820}
}

@article{fds246799,
   Author = {al, KGFE and Howell, ICR},
   Title = {Dynamics of the Quasielastic 16O(e,ep) Reaction at Q2 ~ 0.8
             (GeV/c)2},
   Journal = {Phy. Rev. C},
   Volume = {70},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {034606},
   Year = {2004},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.70.034606},
   Abstract = {The physics program in Hall A at Jefferson Lab commenced in
             the summer of 1997 with a detailed investigation of the
             16O(e,e′p) reaction in quasielastic. constant
             (q,ω) kinematics at Q2≈0.8 (GeV/c)2, q ≈ 1
             GeV/c, and ω≈445 MeV. Use of a self-calibrating,
             self-normalizing, thin-film waterfall target enabled a
             systematically rigorous measurement. Five-fold differential
             cross-section data for the removal of protons from the
             1p-shell have been obtained for 0<p miss<350 MeV/c.
             Six-fold differential cross-section data for
             0<Emiss<120 MeV were obtained for 0<pmiss<340
             MeV/c. These results have been used to extract the ALT
             asymmetry and the RL, RT, RLT, and KL+TT effective response
             functions over a large range of Emiss and pmiss. Detailed
             comparisons of the 1p-shell data with Relativistic
             Distorted-Wave Impulse Approximation (RDWIA), Relativistic
             Optical-Model Eikonal Approximation (ROMEA). and
             Relativistic Multiple-Scattering Glauber Approximation
             (RMSGA) calculations indicate that two-body currents
             stemming from meson-exchange currents (MEC) and isobar
             currents (IC) are not needed to explain the data at this Q2.
             Further, dynamical relativistic effects are strongly
             indicated by the observed structure in ALT at
             pmiss≈300 MeV/c. For 25<Emiss<50 MeV and
             pmiss≈50 MeV/c. proton knockout from the 1s1/2-state
             dominates, and ROMEA calculations do an excellent job of
             explaining the data. However, as p miss increases, the
             single-particle behavior of the reaction is increasingly
             hidden by more complicated processes, and for 280<p
             miss<340 MeV/c, ROMEA calculations together with two-body
             currents stemming from MEC and IC account for the shape and
             transverse nature of the data, but only about half the
             magnitude of the measured cross section. For
             50<Emiss<120 MeV and 145<pmiss<340 MeV/c,
             (e.e′pN) calculations which include the contributions
             of central and tensor correlations (two-nucleon
             correlations) together with MEC and IC (two-nucleon
             currents) account for only about half of the measured cross
             section. The kinematic consistency of the 1p-shell
             normalisation factors extracted from these data with respect
             to all available 16O(e, e′ p) data is also examined in
             detail. Finally, the Q2- dependence of the normalization
             factors is discussed.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.70.034606},
   Key = {fds246799}
}

@article{fds304579,
   Author = {Fissum, KG and Liang, M and Anderson, BD and Aniol, KA and Auerbach, L and Baker, FT and Berthot, J and Bertozzi, W and Bertin, P-Y and Bimbot, L and Boeglin, WU and Brash, EJ and Breton, V and Breuer, H and Burtin, E and Calarco, JR and Cardman, LS and Cates, GD and Cavata, C and Chang, CC and Chen, J-P and Cisbani, E and Dale, DS and Jager, CWD and Leo, RD and Deur,
             A and Diederich, B and Djawotho, P and Domingo, J and Ducret, J-E and Epstein, MB and Ewell, LA and Finn, JM and Fonvieille, H and Frois, B and Frullani, S and Gao, J and Garibaldi, F and Gasparian, A and Gilad, S and Gilman, R and Glamazdin, A et al.},
   Title = {Dynamics of the quasielastic16O(e,e′p) reaction
             at Q 2≈0.8 (GeV/c)2},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {70},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {0346061-03460630},
   Year = {2004},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.70.034606},
   Abstract = {The physics program in Hall A at Jefferson Lab commenced in
             the summer of 1997 with a detailed investigation of the
             16O(e,e′p) reaction in quasielastic. constant (q,ω)
             kinematics at Q2≈0.8 (GeV/c)2, q ≈ 1 GeV/c, and ω≈445
             MeV. Use of a self-calibrating, self-normalizing, thin-film
             waterfall target enabled a systematically rigorous
             measurement. Five-fold differential cross-section data for
             the removal of protons from the 1p-shell have been obtained
             for 0<p miss<350 MeV/c. Six-fold differential
             cross-section data for 0<Emiss<120 MeV were obtained
             for 0<pmiss<340 MeV/c. These results have been used to
             extract the ALT asymmetry and the RL, RT, RLT, and KL+TT
             effective response functions over a large range of Emiss and
             pmiss. Detailed comparisons of the 1p-shell data with
             Relativistic Distorted-Wave Impulse Approximation (RDWIA),
             Relativistic Optical-Model Eikonal Approximation (ROMEA).
             and Relativistic Multiple-Scattering Glauber Approximation
             (RMSGA) calculations indicate that two-body currents
             stemming from meson-exchange currents (MEC) and isobar
             currents (IC) are not needed to explain the data at this Q2.
             Further, dynamical relativistic effects are strongly
             indicated by the observed structure in ALT at pmiss≈300
             MeV/c. For 25<Emiss<50 MeV and pmiss≈50 MeV/c.
             proton knockout from the 1s1/2-state dominates, and ROMEA
             calculations do an excellent job of explaining the data.
             However, as p miss increases, the single-particle behavior
             of the reaction is increasingly hidden by more complicated
             processes, and for 280<p miss<340 MeV/c, ROMEA
             calculations together with two-body currents stemming from
             MEC and IC account for the shape and transverse nature of
             the data, but only about half the magnitude of the measured
             cross section. For 50<Emiss<120 MeV and
             145<pmiss<340 MeV/c, (e.e′pN) calculations which
             include the contributions of central and tensor correlations
             (two-nucleon correlations) together with MEC and IC
             (two-nucleon currents) account for only about half of the
             measured cross section. The kinematic consistency of the
             1p-shell normalisation factors extracted from these data
             with respect to all available 16O(e, e′ p) data is also
             examined in detail. Finally, the Q2- dependence of the
             normalization factors is discussed.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.70.034606},
   Key = {fds304579}
}

@article{fds246652,
   Author = {Witała, H and Golak, J and Skibiński, R and Howell, CR and Tornow,
             W},
   Title = {Effects of the magnetic moment interaction between nucleons
             on observables in the 3N continuum},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {67},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {640021-640028},
   Year = {2003},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0301022v1},
   Abstract = {The influence of the magnetic moment interaction of nucleons
             on nucleon-deuteron elastic scattering and breakup cross
             sections and on elastic scattering polarization observables
             has been studied. Among the numerous elastic scattering
             observables only the vector analyzing powers were found to
             show a significant effect, and of opposite sign for the
             proton-deuteron and neutron-deuteron systems. This finding
             results in an even larger discrepancy than the one
             previously established between neutron-deuteron data and
             theoretical calculations. For the breakup reaction the
             largest effect was found for the final-state-interaction
             cross sections. The consequences of this observation on
             previous determinations of the 1S0 scattering lengths from
             breakup data are discussed.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.67.064002},
   Key = {fds246652}
}

@article{fds246809,
   Author = {Tornow, W and Neidel, EM and Trotter, DEG and Howell, CR and Crowell,
             AS and Macri, RA and Walter, RL and Weisel, GJ and Esterline, J and Witala,
             H and III, BJC and Pedroni, RS and Markoff, DM},
   Title = {Electromagnetic effects and the long-standing three-nucleon
             analyzing power puzzle},
   Journal = {Modern Physics Letters A},
   Volume = {18},
   Number = {2-6},
   Pages = {258-261},
   Year = {2003},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0217732303010314},
   Abstract = {New results for the neutron-deuteron analyzing power Ay (θ)
             at En = 1.2 and 1.9 MeV and their comparison to
             proton-deuteron data reveal a sizeable and unexpected
             difference which increases with decreasing center-of-mass
             energy. This finding calls for the theoretical treatment of
             a subtle electromagnetic effect presently not incorporated
             in rigorous three-nucleon scattering calculations, before it
             is justified to invoke charge-dependent three-nucleon forces
             and/or other new physics.},
   Doi = {10.1142/S0217732303010314},
   Key = {fds246809}
}

@article{fds246673,
   Author = {Sharma, AC and Tourassi, GD and Kapadia, AJ and Crowell, AS and Kiser,
             MR and Hutcheson, A and Harrawood, BP and Howell, CR and Jr,
             CEF},
   Title = {Elemental spectrum of a mouse obtained via neutron
             stimulation},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE},
   Volume = {6510},
   Number = {PART 1},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {1605-7422},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.713731},
   Abstract = {Several studies have shown that the concentration of certain
             elements may be a disease indicator. We are developing a
             spectroscopic imaging technique, Neutron Stimulated Emission
             Computed Tomography (NSECT), to non-invasively measure and
             image elemental concentrations within the body. The region
             of interest is interrogated via a beam of highenergy
             neutrons that excite elemental nuclei through inelastic
             scatter. These excited nuclei then relax by emitting
             characteristic gamma radiation. Acquiring the gamma energy
             spectrum in a tomographic geometry allows reconstruction of
             elemental concentration images. Our previous studies have
             demonstrated NSECT's ability to obtain spectra and images of
             known elements and phantoms, as well as, initial
             interrogations of biological tissue. Here, we describe the
             results obtained from NSECT interrogation of a fixed mouse
             specimen. The specimen was interrogated via a 5MeV neutron
             beam for 9.3 hours in order to ensure reasonable counting
             statistics. The gamma energy spectrum was obtained using two
             High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) clover detectors. A background
             spectrum was obtained by interrogating a specimen container
             containing 50mL of 0.9% NaCl solution. Several elements of
             biological interest including 12C, 40Ca, 31P, and 39K were
             identified with greater then 90% confidence. This
             interrogation demonstrates the feasibility of NSECT
             interrogation of small animals. Interrogation with a
             commercial neutron source that provides higher neutron flux
             and lower energy (∼2.5MeV) neutrons would reduce scanning
             time and eliminate background from certain
             elements.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.713731},
   Key = {fds246673}
}

@booklet{Knibloe92,
   Author = {Knibloe, JR and Wright, RN and Sikka, VK and Baldwin, RH and Howell,
             CR},
   Title = {Elevated-temperature behavior of fe3al with chromium
             additions},
   Journal = {Materials Science And Engineering A-structural Materials
             Properties Microstructure And Processing},
   Volume = {153},
   Number = {1-2},
   Pages = {382-386},
   Year = {1992},
   Month = {May},
   Key = {Knibloe92}
}

@article{fds329802,
   Author = {Gooden, ME and Arnold, CW and Becker, JA and Bhatia, C and Bhike, M and Bond, EM and Bredeweg, TA and Fallin, B and Fowler, MM and Howell, CR and Kelley, JH and Krishichayan, and Macri, R and Rusev, G and Ryan, C and Sheets, SA and Stoyer, MA and Tonchev, AP and Tornow, W and Vieira, DJ and Wilhelmy, JB},
   Title = {Energy Dependence of Fission Product Yields from 235U, 238U
             and 239Pu for Incident Neutron Energies Between 0.5 and 14.8
             MeV},
   Journal = {Nuclear Data Sheets},
   Volume = {131},
   Pages = {319-356},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http:/dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nds.2015.12.006},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.nds.2015.12.006},
   Key = {fds329802}
}

@booklet{Park93,
   Author = {Park, BK and Rapaport, J and Fink, G and Ullmann, JL and Ling, AG and Sorenson, DS and Brady, FP and Romero, JL and Howell, CR and Tornow, W and Unkelbach, W},
   Title = {Energy dependence of multipole strength distributions in the
             32S(n,p)32P reaction.},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {48},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {711-722},
   Year = {1993},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9968882},
   Key = {Park93}
}

@booklet{Pedroni88,
   Author = {Pedroni, RS and Howell, CR and Honoré, GM and Pfutzner, HG and Byrd,
             RC and Walter, RL and Delaroche, JP},
   Title = {Energy dependence of the deformed optical potential for
             neutron scattering from 54,56Fe and 58,60Ni up to 80
             MeV},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {2052-2062},
   Year = {1988},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.38.2052},
   Abstract = {Angular distributions of the analyzing power Ay have been
             measured for neutron elastic scattering and for neutron
             inelastic scattering to the first 21+ states of 54,56Fe and
             Ni58.60 at 10 MeV, and for Fe54 and Ni58 at 14 and 17 MeV.
             The differential cross sections for the same processes were
             measured at 17 MeV for Fe54 and Ni58. These measurements
             have been combined with other measurements of and Ay and
             also with total cross sections to form a sizable data set
             for incident neutron energies up to 80 MeV. This data set
             has been described in the context of the coupled channels
             formalism to determine the energy dependences of the various
             terms of the deformed optical potential. Some emphasis was
             placed on investigating the magnitude of the deformation
             parameter so of the neutron spin-orbit potential and the
             possibility that it might be energy dependent. © 1988 The
             American Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.38.2052},
   Key = {Pedroni88}
}

@booklet{Sorenson92,
   Author = {Sorenson, DS and Aslanoglou, X and Brady, FP and Drummond, JR and Haight, RC and Howell, CR and King, NS and Ling, A and Lisowski, PW and Park, BK and Rapaport, J and Romero, JL and Tornow, W and Ullmann,
             JL},
   Title = {Energy dependence of the Gamow-Teller strength in p-shell
             nuclei observed in the (n,p) reaction.},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {R500-R503},
   Year = {1992},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9967833},
   Key = {Sorenson92}
}

@booklet{Delaroche85,
   Author = {J. P. Delaroche and P. P. Guss and G. M. Honore and C. R.
             Howell and R. L. Walter and D. C. Larson and D. M. Hetrick and J. A. Harvey},
   Title = {Energy-dependence of the local optical-potential for
             neutron-nucleus scattering},
   Journal = {Aip Conference Proceedings},
   Number = {124},
   Pages = {310 -- 311},
   Year = {1985},
   Key = {Delaroche85}
}

@article{fds246638,
   Author = {Elhami, E and Orce, JN and Scheck, M and Mukhopadhyay, S and Choudry,
             SN and McEllistrem, MT and Yates, SW and Angell, C and Boswell, M and Fallin, B and Howell, CR and Hutcheson, A and Karwowski, HJ and Kelley,
             JH and Parpottas, Y and Tonchev, AP and Tornow, W},
   Title = {Erratum: Experimental study of the low-lying structure of Zr
             with the reaction [Phys. Rev. C 78 , 064303
             (2008)]},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {88},
   Number = {2},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.88.029903},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.88.029903},
   Key = {fds246638}
}

@article{fds246661,
   Author = {Punjabi, V and Perdrisat, CF and Aniol, KA and Baker, FT and Berthot, J and Bertin, PY and Bertozzi, W and Besson, A and Bimbot, L and Boeglin, WU and Brash, EJ and Brown, D and Calarco, JR and Cardman, LS and Chai, Z and Chang, C-C and Chen, J-P and Chudakov, E and Churchwell, S and Cisbani,
             E and Dale, DS and Leo, RD and Deur, A and Diederich, B and Domingo, JJ and Epstein, MB and Ewell, LA and Fissum, KG and Fleck, A and Fonvieille, H and Frullani, S and Gao, J and Garibaldi, F and Gasparian, A and Gerstner,
             G and Gilad, S and Gilman, R and Glamazdin, A and Glashausser, C and Gomez,
             J and Gorbenko, V et al.},
   Title = {Erratum: Proton elastic form factor ratios to Q2=3.5GeV2 by
             polarization transfer (Physical Review C (2005) 71
             (055202))},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {71},
   Number = {6},
   Year = {2005},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.71.069902},
   Abstract = {This paper was published online on 20 May 2005 without
             several of the authors' corrections incorporated. Equation
             (13) has been replaced. The captions of Figs. 16-18 have
             also been replaced. Typographical errors on pages 4, 6, 14,
             15, 18, 19, 22, and 24 have all been corrected. The paper
             has been corrected as of 8 June 2005. The text is correct in
             the printed version of the journal. © 2005 The American
             Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.71.069902},
   Key = {fds246661}
}

@article{fds246643,
   Author = {Lee, S and Dong, H and McKisson, J and McKisson, JE and Weisenberger,
             AG and Xi, W and Howell, CR and Reid, CD and Smith, MF},
   Title = {Ethernet-based flash ADC for a plant PET detector
             system},
   Journal = {IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference
             Record},
   Pages = {1320-1322},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {1095-7863},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/NSSMIC.2012.6551322},
   Abstract = {We have developed a flash analog to digital (ADC) based read
             out system to be used for a Positron Emission Tomography
             (PET) system. The custom designed 16 channel 12-bit
             Ethernet-based flash ADC (EFADC-16) unit operates at 250
             MHz/s/channel utilizing a gigabit Ethernet interface to
             parse time-stamped event signals. Each unit allows the user
             to define a custom coincidence table for triggering. Each
             EFADC-16 unit can digitize four H8500 position sensitive
             photomultiplier tubes (PSPMT) equipped with a Jefferson Lab
             designed 4 channel resistive readout (a total of 16
             channels). We present initial performance results of the
             EFADC-16 with four PET detector modules in a plant biology
             application to acquire tomographic images of the
             translocation of 11C within an oak seedling. © 2012
             IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/NSSMIC.2012.6551322},
   Key = {fds246643}
}

@article{fds246705,
   Author = {Stephenson, SL and Crawford, BE and Furman, WI and Lychagin, EV and Muzichka, AY and Nekhaev, GV and Sharapov, EI and Shvetsov, VN and Strelkov, AV and Levakov, BG and Lyzhin, AE and Chernukhin, YI and Howell, CR and Mitchell, GE and Tornow, W and Showalter-Bucher,
             RA},
   Title = {Experiment on direct nn scattering - The radiation-induced
             outgassing complication},
   Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
   Volume = {895},
   Pages = {33-43},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {0375-9474},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2012.09.005},
   Abstract = {The first direct neutron-neutron scattering experiment using
             the YAGUAR pulsed reactor has yielded initial results. They
             show a unforeseen significant thermal neutron background as
             a result of radiation-induced desorption within the
             scattering chamber. Thermal neutrons are mostly scattering
             not from other neutrons but instead from the desorbed gas
             molecules. Analysis of the obtained neutron time-of-flight
             spectra suggests neutron scattering from H 2 molecules. The
             presented desorption model agrees with our experimental
             value of the desorption yield η γ=0.02molecules/gamma.
             Possible techniques to reduce the effect of the desorption
             background are presented. © 2012 Elsevier
             B.V.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2012.09.005},
   Key = {fds246705}
}

@article{fds246726,
   Author = {Kapadia, AJ and Tourassi, GD and Sharma, AC and Crowell, AS and Kiser,
             MR and Howell, CR},
   Title = {Experimental detection of iron overload in liver through
             neutron stimulated emission spectroscopy.},
   Journal = {Physics in Medicine and Biology},
   Volume = {53},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {2633-2649},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0031-9155},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18443387},
   Abstract = {Iron overload disorders have been the focus of several
             quantification studies involving non-invasive imaging
             modalities. Neutron spectroscopic techniques have
             demonstrated great potential in detecting iron
             concentrations within biological tissue. We are developing a
             neutron spectroscopic technique called neutron stimulated
             emission computed tomography (NSECT), which has the
             potential to diagnose iron overload in the liver at
             clinically acceptable patient dose levels through a
             non-invasive scan. The technique uses inelastic scatter
             interactions between atomic nuclei in the sample and
             incoming fast neutrons to non-invasively determine the
             concentration of elements in the sample. This paper
             discusses a non-tomographic application of NSECT
             investigating the feasibility of detecting elevated iron
             concentrations in the liver. A model of iron overload in the
             human body was created using bovine liver tissue housed
             inside a human torso phantom and was scanned with a 5 MeV
             pulsed beam using single-position spectroscopy. Spectra were
             reconstructed and analyzed with algorithms designed
             specifically for NSECT. Results from spectroscopic
             quantification indicate that NSECT can currently detect
             liver iron concentrations of 6 mg g(-1) or higher and has
             the potential to detect lower concentrations by optimizing
             the acquisition geometry to scan a larger volume of tissue.
             The experiment described in this paper has two important
             outcomes: (i) it demonstrates that NSECT has the potential
             to detect clinically relevant concentrations of iron in the
             human body through a non-invasive scan and (ii) it provides
             a comparative standard to guide the design of iron overload
             phantoms for future NSECT liver iron quantification
             studies.},
   Doi = {10.1088/0031-9155/53/10/013},
   Key = {fds246726}
}

@article{fds246724,
   Author = {Elhami, E and Orce, JN and Scheck, M and Mukhopadhyay, S and Choudry,
             SN and McEllistrem, MT and Yates, SW and Angell, C and Boswell, M and Fallin, B and Howell, CR and Hutcheson, A and Karwowski, HJ and Kelley,
             JH and Parpottas, Y and Tonchev, AP and Tornow, W},
   Title = {Experimental study of the low-lying structure of Zr94 with
             the (n,n'γ) reaction},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {78},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {064303},
   Year = {2008},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.78.064303},
   Abstract = {The low-lying structure of 4094Zr was studied with the
             (n,n'γ) reaction, and a level scheme was established based
             on excitation function and γγ coincidence measurements.
             Branching ratios, multipole mixing ratios, and spin
             assignments were determined from angular distribution
             measurements. Lifetimes of levels up to 3.4 MeV were
             measured by the Doppler-shift attenuation method, and for
             many transitions the reduced transition probabilities were
             determined. In addition to the anomalous 22+ state, which
             has a larger B(E2;22+→01+) value than the B(E2;21+→01+),
             the experimental results revealed interesting and unusual
             properties of the low-lying states in Zr94. In a simple
             interpretation, the excited states are classified in two
             distinct categories, i.e., those populating the 22+ state
             and those decaying to the 21+ state. © 2008 The American
             Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.78.064303},
   Key = {fds246724}
}

@article{fds246634,
   Author = {Bhatia, C and Fallin, BF and Gooden, ME and Howell, CR and Kelley, JH and Tornow, W and Arnold, CW and Bond, E and Bredeweg, TA and Fowler, MM and Moody, W and Rundberg, RS and Rusev, GY and Vieira, DJ and Wilhelmy, JB and Becker, JA and Macri, R and Ryan, C and Sheets, SA and Stoyer, MA and Tonchev, AP},
   Title = {Exploratory study of fission product yields of
             neutron-induced fission of , and at 8.9 MeV},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {91},
   Number = {6},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.91.064604},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.91.064604},
   Key = {fds246634}
}

@article{fds246725,
   Author = {Kiser, MR and Reid, CD and Crowell, AS and Phillips, RP and Howell,
             CR},
   Title = {Exploring the transport of plant metabolites using positron
             emitting radiotracers},
   Journal = {HFSP Journal},
   Volume = {2},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {189-204},
   Year = {2008},
   ISSN = {1955-2068},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2976/1.2921207},
   Abstract = {Short-lived positron-emitting radiotracer techniques provide
             time-dependent data that are critical for developing models
             of metabolite transport and resource distribution in plants
             and their microenvironments. Until recently these techniques
             were applied to measure radiotracer accumulation in coarse
             regions along transport pathways. The recent application of
             positron emission tomography (PET) techniques to plant
             research allows for detailed quantification of real-time
             metabolite dynamics on previously unexplored spatial scales.
             PET provides dynamic information with millimeter-scale
             resolution on labeled carbon, nitrogen, and water transport
             over a small plant-size field of view. Because details at
             the millimeter scale may not be required for all regions of
             interest, hybrid detection systems that combine
             high-resolution imaging with other radiotracer counting
             technologies offer the versatility needed to pursue
             wide-ranging plant physiological and ecological research. In
             this perspective we describe a recently developed hybrid
             detection system at Duke University that provides
             researchers with the flexibility required to carry out
             measurements of the dynamic responses of whole plants to
             environmental change using short-lived radiotracers.
             Following a brief historical development of radiotracer
             applications to plant research, the role of radiotracers is
             presented in the context of various applications at the leaf
             to the whole-plant level that integrates cellular and
             subcellular signals and/or controls. © HFSP
             Publishing.},
   Doi = {10.2976/1.2921207},
   Key = {fds246725}
}

@article{fds246639,
   Author = {Howell, CR},
   Title = {Extracting the neutron-neutron scattering length from
             neutron-deuteron breakup},
   Journal = {Chiral Dynamics 2006 - Proceedings of the 5th International
             Workshop on Chiral Dynamics, Theory and Experiment, CD
             2006},
   Pages = {344-345},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {This article provides a brief summary of the values for the
             1 S 0 neutron-neutron scattering length obtained from
             neutron-deuteron breakup cross-section measurements. The
             results of recent kinematically incomplete and complete
             experiments are reported, and a description of a new
             measurement at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory
             (TUNL) is given.},
   Key = {fds246639}
}

@article{fds246698,
   Author = {Anderson, B and Auberbach, L and Averett, T and Bertozzi, W and Black,
             T and Calarco, J and Cardman, L and Cates, GD and Chai, ZW and Chen, JP and Choi, S and Chudakov, E and Churchwell, S and Corrado, GS and Crawford,
             C and Dale, D and Deur, A and Djawotho, P and Dutta, D and Finn, JM and Gao,
             H and Gilman, R and Glamazdin, AV and Glashausser, C and Glöckle, W and Golak, J and Gomez, J and Gorbenko, VG and Hansen, J-O and Hersman, FW and Higinbotham, DW and Holmes, R and Howell, CR and Hughes, E and Humensky,
             B and Incerti, S and Jager, CWD and Jensen, JS and Jiang, X and Jones, CE and Jones, M and Kahl, R et al.},
   Title = {Extraction of the neutron magnetic form factor from
             quasielastic 3He→(e→,e') at Q2=0.1-0.6
             (GeV/c)2},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {75},
   Number = {3},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.75.034003},
   Abstract = {We have measured the transverse asymmetry AT' in the
             quasielastic 3He→(e→,e') process with high precision at
             Q2 values from 0.1 to 0.6(GeV/c)2. The neutron magnetic form
             factor GMn was extracted at Q2 values of 0.1 and 0.2(GeV/c)2
             using a nonrelativistic Faddeev calculation which includes
             both final-state interactions (FSI) and meson-exchange
             currents (MEC). Theoretical uncertainties due to the FSI and
             MEC effects were constrained with a precision measurement of
             the spin-dependent asymmetry in the threshold region of
             3He→(e→,e'). We also extracted the neutron magnetic form
             factor GMn at Q2 values of 0.3 to 0.6(GeV/c)2 based on plane
             wave impulse approximation calculations. © 2007 The
             American Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.75.034003},
   Key = {fds246698}
}

@article{fds246783,
   Author = {Tornow, W and Howell, CR and Walter, RL},
   Title = {Few-body physics investigated through polarized neutron
             experiments in A ≤ 3 systems at TUNL},
   Journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section
             B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms},
   Volume = {40-41},
   Number = {PART 1},
   Pages = {470-473},
   Year = {1989},
   ISSN = {0168-583X},
   Abstract = {Accurate polarization data obtained with neutrons below 20
             MeV in the A ≤ 3 systems provide important new information
             on details of the nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction. The
             two-nucleon and three-nucleon data favor the Paris potential
             over the new Bonn (OBEPQ) potential. However, none of the
             realistic potential models describes the elastic
             neutron-deuteron analyzing power satisfactorily. Charge
             independence breaking in the 3P NN interactions and/or
             three-body force effects must be considered. ©
             1989.},
   Key = {fds246783}
}

@booklet{Tornow89,
   Author = {W. Tornow and C. R. Howell and R. L. Walter},
   Title = {Few-body physics investigated through polarized neutron
             experiments in a-less-than-or-equal-to 3 systems at
             tunl},
   Journal = {Nuclear Instruments \& Methods In Physics Research Section
             B-beam Interactions With Materials And Atoms},
   Volume = {40-1},
   Pages = {470 -- 473},
   Year = {1989},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {Tornow89}
}

@article{fds322000,
   Author = {Howell, CR and Tornow, W and Witała, H},
   Title = {Few-Nucleon Research at TUNL: Probing Two- and Three-Nucleon
             Interactions with Neutrons},
   Journal = {EPJ Web of Conferences},
   Volume = {113},
   Pages = {04008-04008},
   Editor = {Elster, C and Phillips, DR and Roberts, CD},
   Year = {2016},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/epjconf/201611304008},
   Doi = {10.1051/epjconf/201611304008},
   Key = {fds322000}
}

@article{fds246814,
   Author = {Schreiber, EC and Canon, RS and Crowley, BT and Howell, CR and Kelley,
             JH and Litvinenko, VN and Nelson, SO and Park, SH and Pinayev, LV and Prior, RM and Sabourov, K and Spraker, M and Tornow, W and Wu, Y and Wulf,
             EA and Weller, HR},
   Title = {First Measurement of the Near-Threshold Analyzing Power
             Using a Free-Electron Laser Based g-Ray Source},
   Journal = {Phys. Rev. C},
   Volume = {61},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {061604},
   Year = {2000},
   Abstract = {The first measurement of the 2H(γ→,n)p analyzing
             power near threshold has been performed using the
             High-Intensity Gamma-ray Source (HIGS) at the Duke
             Free-Electron Laser Laboratory. A 3.58 MeV γ-ray beam
             having an energy resolution of 2.5% and 100% linear
             polarization was incident on an active C6D12 target.
             Outgoing neutrons were detected parallel and perpendicular
             to the plane of γ-ray polarization at a lab angle of
             150°. The experimentally determined analyzing power
             provides a sensitive measurement of the relative E1 and M1
             contributions to the total cross section.},
   Key = {fds246814}
}

@article{fds304576,
   Author = {Schreiber, EC and Canon, RS and Crowley, BT and Howell, CR and Kelley,
             JH and Litvinenko, VN and Nelson, SO and Park, SH and Pinayev, IV and Prior, RM and Sabourov, K and Spraker, M and Tornow, W and Wu, Y and Wulf,
             EA and Weller, HR},
   Title = {First measurement of the near-threshold 2H(γ,n)p
             analyzing power using a free-electron laser based γ-ray
             source},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {61},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {616041-616044},
   Year = {2000},
   Abstract = {The first measurement of the 2H(γ→,n)p analyzing power
             near threshold has been performed using the High-Intensity
             Gamma-ray Source (HIGS) at the Duke Free-Electron Laser
             Laboratory. A 3.58 MeV γ-ray beam having an energy
             resolution of 2.5% and 100% linear polarization was incident
             on an active C6D12 target. Outgoing neutrons were detected
             parallel and perpendicular to the plane of γ-ray
             polarization at a lab angle of 150°. The experimentally
             determined analyzing power provides a sensitive measurement
             of the relative E1 and M1 contributions to the total cross
             section.},
   Key = {fds304576}
}

@article{fds330199,
   Author = {Schreiber, EC and Canon, RS and Crowley, BT and Howell, CR and Kelley,
             JH and Litvinenko, VN and Nelson, SO and Park, SH and Pinayev, IV and Prior, RM and Sabourov, K and Spraker, M and Tornow, W and Wu, Y and Wulf,
             EA and Weller, HR},
   Title = {First measurement of the near-threshold H-2((gamma)over-right-arrow,n)p
             analyzing power using a free-electron laser based gamma-ray
             source},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {61},
   Number = {6},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.61.061604},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.61.061604},
   Key = {fds330199}
}

@article{fds311602,
   Author = {C. Bhatia et al. (including J. H. Kelley and C. R. Howell and W. Tornow)},
   Title = {Fission Product Yield Study of 235U, 238U, and 239Pu Using
             Dual Fission Chambers},
   Journal = {Nuclear Data Sheets},
   Volume = {119},
   Pages = {324},
   Year = {2014},
   Key = {fds311602}
}

@article{fds322933,
   Author = {Seo, PN and Crabb, DG and Duve, R and Norum, B and Tkachenko, S and Howell,
             CR and Weller, HR and Miskimen, R and Ahmed, M},
   Title = {Frozen spin target system for high intensive gamma-ray
             source at DFELL of TUNL},
   Journal = {PoS - Proceedings of Science},
   Volume = {09-13-September-2013},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {June},
   Abstract = {© Copyright owned by the author(s) under the terms of the
             Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike
             Licence. The UVa group in collaboration with the TUNL group
             is currently building a frozen spin target system for the
             high intensity gamma-ray source (HIγS) at the Duke Free
             Electron Laser Laboratory (HIFROST). The heart of the system
             is a dilution refrigerator which we rebuilt from the one
             originally designed by T. Niinikoski and used at CERN and
             subsequently at GKSS (now HGZ), Germany. The use of a
             polarized target together with ∼100% polarized beams
             available at HIγS make the HIγS facility ideal for double
             polarization experiments. The first experiment will utilize
             a polarized deuteron target with the ∼100% circularly
             polarized gamma-ray beams to measure the
             Drell-Hearn-Gerasimov sum rule integrand for the deuteron
             below pion threshold. We report the status of developing
             this system and describe the first experiment using
             HIFROST.},
   Key = {fds322933}
}

@article{fds329805,
   Author = {Jones, MK and Aniol, KA and Baker, FT and Berthot, J and Bertin, PY and Bertozzi, W and Besson, A and Bimbot, L and Boeglin, WU and Brash, EJ and Brown, D and Calarco, JR and Cardman, LS and Chang, CC and Chen, JP and Chudakov, E and Churchwell, S and Cisbani, E and Dale, DS and de Leo, R and Deur, A and Diederich, B and Domingo, JJ and Epstein, MB and Ewell, LA and Fissum, KG and Fleck, A and Fonvieille, H and Frullani, S and Gao, J and Garibaldi, F and Gasparian, A and Gerstner, G and Gilad, S and Gilman,
             R and Glamazdin, A and Glashausser, C and Gomez, J and Gorbenko, V and Green, A and Hansen, JO and Howell, CR et al.},
   Title = {GEp/GMpRatio by Polarization Transfer
             in ep → ep},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {84},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {1398-1402},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {February},
   Key = {fds329805}
}

@article{fds304575,
   Author = {Jones, MK and Aniol, KA and Baker, FT and Berthot, J and Bertin, PY and Bertozzi, W and Besson, A and Bimbot, L and Boeglin, WU and Brash, EJ and Brown, D and Calarco, JR and Cardman, LS and Chang, C-C and Chen, J-P and Chudakov, E and Churchwell, S and Cisbani, E and Dale, DS and Leo, RD and Deur, A and Diederich, B and Domingo, JJ and Epstein, MB and Ewell, LA and Fissum, KG and Fleck, A and Fonvieille, H and Frullani, S and Gao, J and Garibaldi, F and Gasparian, A and Gerstner, G and Gilad, S and Gilman,
             R and Glamazdin, A and Glashausser, C and Gomez, J and Gorbenko, V and Green, A and Hansen, J-O et al.},
   Title = {GEp/GMp Ratio by Polarization Transfer
             in ep → ep},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {84},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {1398-1402},
   Year = {2000},
   ISSN = {0031-9007},
   Key = {fds304575}
}

@booklet{Litvinenko97,
   Author = {Litvinenko, VN and Burnham, B and Emamian, M and Hower, N and Madey,
             JMJ and Morcombe, P and O'Shea, PG and Park, SH and Sachtschale, R and Straub, KD and Swift, G and Wang, P and Wu, Y and Canon, RS and Howell, CR and Roberson, NR and Schreiber, EC and Spraker, M and Tornow, W and Weller,
             HR and Pinayev, IV and Gavrilov, NG and Fedotov, MG and Kulipanov, GN and Kurkin, GY and Mikhailov, SF and Popik, VM and Skrinsky, AN and Vinokurov, NA and Norum, BE and Lumpkin, A and Yang,
             B},
   Title = {Gamma-ray production in a storage ring free-electron
             laser},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {78},
   Number = {24},
   Pages = {4569-4572},
   Year = {1997},
   Abstract = {A nearly monochromatic beam of 100% linearly polarized γ
             rays has been produced via Compton backscattering inside a
             free electron laser optical cavity. The beam of 12.2 MeV γ
             rays was obtained by backscattering 379.4 nm free-electron
             laser photons from 500 MeV electrons circulating in a
             storage ring. A detailed description of the γ-ray beam and
             the outlook for future improvements are presented.},
   Key = {Litvinenko97}
}

@booklet{Park92,
   Author = {Park, BK and Rapaport, J and Ullmann, JL and Ling, AG and Sorenson, DS and Brady, FP and Romero, JL and Howell, CR and Tornow, W and Rönnqvist,
             CT},
   Title = {Gamow-Teller and dipole strength distribution in
             40Ca(n,p)40K reaction.},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1791-1802},
   Year = {1992},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9967932},
   Key = {Park92}
}

@article{fds185179,
   Author = {Charles D. Bowman and R. Bruce Vogelaar and Edward G. Bilpuch and Calvin R. Howell and Anton P. Tonchev and Werner Tornow and R. L.
             Walter},
   Title = {GEM*STAR: The Alternative Reactor Technology Comprising
             Graphite, Molten Salt, and Accelerators},
   Booktitle = {Handbook of Nuclear Engineering},
   Publisher = {Springer},
   Address = {New York, NY},
   Editor = {Dan Gabriel Cacuci},
   Year = {2010},
   ISBN = {978-0387-98130-7},
   Key = {fds185179}
}

@article{fds246806,
   Author = {Jones, MK and Howell, TJE-0CICR and Macri, RA},
   Title = {GEp/GMp Ratio form 0.5 to 3.5 GeV2 by Polarization Transfer
             in ep --> e'p},
   Journal = {Phys. Rev. Lett.},
   Volume = {84},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {1398},
   Year = {2000},
   ISSN = {0031-9007},
   Key = {fds246806}
}

@booklet{Ling91,
   Author = {Ling, A and Aslanoglou, X and Brady, FP and Finlay, RW and Haight, RC and Howell, CR and King, NS and Lisowski, PW and Park, BK and Rapaport, J and Romero, JL and Sorenson, DS and Tornow, W and Ullmann,
             JL},
   Title = {Ground-state Gamow-Teller strength in 64Ni(n,p)64Co cross
             sections at 90-240 MeV.},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {44},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {2794-2800},
   Year = {1991},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9967715},
   Key = {Ling91}
}

@article{fds246635,
   Author = {Lee, S and Kross, B and McKisson, J and McKisson, JE and Weisenberger,
             AG and Xi, W and Zorn, C and Bonito, G and Howell, CR and Reid, CD and Crowell, A and Cumberbatch, LC and Topp, C and Smith,
             MF},
   Title = {Imaging corn plants with PhytoPET, a modular PET system for
             plant biology},
   Journal = {IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference
             Record},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1095-7863},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/NSSMIC.2013.6829796},
   Abstract = {PhytoPET is a modular positron emission tomography (PET)
             system designed specifically for plant imaging. The PhytoPET
             design allows flexible arrangements of PET detectors based
             on individual standalone detector modules built from single
             Hamamatsu H8500 position sensitive photomultiplier tubes and
             pixelated LYSO arrays. We have used the PhytoPET system to
             perform preliminary corn plant imaging studies at the Duke
             University Biology Department Phytotron. Initial evaluation
             of the PhytoPET system to image the biodistribution of the
             positron emitting tracer 11 C in corn plants is presented.
             11 CO 2 is loaded into corn seedlings by a leaf-labeling
             cuvette and translocation of 11 C-sugars is imaged by a
             flexible arrangement of PhytoPET modules on each side. The
             PhytoPET system successfully images 11 C within corn plants
             and allows for the dynamic measurement of 11 C-sugar
             translocation from the leaf to the roots. © 2013
             IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/NSSMIC.2013.6829796},
   Key = {fds246635}
}

@booklet{Howell98a,
   Author = {Howell, CR and Setze, HR and Tornowa, W and Braun, RT and Glöckle, W and Hussein, AH and Lambert, JM and Mertens, G and Roper, CD and Salinas, F and Šlaus, I and Trotter, DEG and Vlahović, B and Walter, RL and Witała,
             H},
   Title = {Implications of the space-star anomaly in nd
             breakup},
   Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
   Volume = {631},
   Pages = {692c-696c},
   Year = {1998},
   Abstract = {Cross-section measurements of six exit-channel
             configurations in nd breakup at 13.0 MeV are reported and
             compared to rigorous calculations. Except for the
             coplanar-star configuration, our data are consistent with
             previous data. The present data for all configurations, with
             the exception of the space star, are in good agreement with
             theoretical predictions. The previously observed large
             discrepancy between theory and data for the space-star
             configuration is confirmed in the present work. The
             inclusion of the Tucson-Melbourne 2π exchange three-nucleon
             force with a cutoff parameter that correctly binds the
             triton only changes the predicted cross section by 2%, a
             factor of 10 smaller than the amount needed to bring theory
             into agreement with data.},
   Key = {Howell98a}
}

@article{fds246670,
   Author = {Floyd, CE and Bender, JE and Sharma, AC and Kapadia, A and Xia, J and Harrawood, B and Tourassi, GD and Lo, JY and Crowell, A and Howell,
             C},
   Title = {Introduction to neutron stimulated emission computed
             tomography.},
   Journal = {Physics in Medicine and Biology},
   Volume = {51},
   Number = {14},
   Pages = {3375-3390},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0031-9155},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16825736},
   Abstract = {Neutron stimulated emission computed tomography (NSECT) is
             presented as a new technique for in vivo tomographic
             spectroscopic imaging. A full implementation of NSECT is
             intended to provide an elemental spectrum of the body or
             part of the body being interrogated at each voxel of a
             three-dimensional computed tomographic image. An external
             neutron beam illuminates the sample and some of these
             neutrons scatter inelastically, producing characteristic
             gamma emission from the scattering nuclei. These
             characteristic gamma rays are acquired by a gamma
             spectrometer and the emitting nucleus is identified by the
             emitted gamma energy. The neutron beam is scanned over the
             body in a geometry that allows for tomographic
             reconstruction. Tomographic images of each element in the
             spectrum can be reconstructed to represent the spatial
             distribution of elements within the sample. Here we offer
             proof of concept for the NSECT method, present the first
             single projection spectra acquired from multi-element
             phantoms, and discuss potential biomedical
             applications.},
   Doi = {10.1088/0031-9155/51/14/006},
   Key = {fds246670}
}

@article{fds246671,
   Author = {Tonchev, AP and Angell, C and Boswell, M and Howell, CR and Karwowski,
             HJ and Kelley, JH and Tornow, W and Tsoneva, N},
   Title = {Low-energy dipole modes of excitation below the neutron
             separation energy},
   Journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings},
   Volume = {819},
   Pages = {350-354},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {0094-243X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2187883},
   Abstract = {The nuclear resonance fluorescence experiments have been
             performed at the High Intensity Gamma Source (HIγS) on
             138Ba nuclei using four 60% efficient HPGe detectors.
             Excitation energies, spin, parities, and decay branching
             ratios were measured for the low-energy dipole modes of
             excitations. Experimental results on the parity measurement
             below the neutron separation energy shows that all dipole
             states in this energy region exhibit E1 excitation. These
             results are consistent with theoretical prediction of the
             collective isoscalar nature of this low-energy mode of
             excitation. © 2006 American Institute of
             Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.2187883},
   Key = {fds246671}
}

@booklet{Tornow88,
   Author = {Tornow, W and Howell, CR and Roberts, ML and Felsher, PD and Chen, ZM and Walter, RL and Mertens, G and Slaus, I},
   Title = {Low-energy neutron-proton analyzing power and the new Bonn
             potential and Paris potential predictions.},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {37},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {2326-2331},
   Year = {1988},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9954713},
   Key = {Tornow88}
}

@article{fds246807,
   Author = {Tornow, W and Czakon, NG and Howell, CR and Hutcheson, A and Kelley, JH and Litvinenko, VN and Mikhailov, SF and Pinayev, IV and Weisel, GJ and Witała, H},
   Title = {Low-energy photodisintegration of the deuteron and Big-Bang
             nucleosynthesis},
   Journal = {Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and
             High-Energy Physics},
   Volume = {574},
   Number = {1-2},
   Pages = {8-13},
   Year = {2003},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2003.08.078},
   Abstract = {The photon analyzing power for the photodisintegration of
             the deuteron was measured for seven gamma-ray energies
             between 2.39 and 4.05 MeV using the linearly polarized
             gamma-ray beam of the high-intensity gamma-ray source at the
             Duke Free-Electron Laser Laboratory. The data provide a
             stringent test of theoretical calculations for the inverse
             reaction, the neutron-proton radiative capture reaction at
             energies important for Big-Bang nucleosynthesis. Our data
             are in excellent agreement with potential model and
             effective field theory calculations. Therefore, the
             uncertainty in the baryon density Ω Bh2 obtained from
             Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis can be reduced at least by 20%. ©
             2003 Published by Elsevier B.V.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.physletb.2003.08.078},
   Key = {fds246807}
}

@article{fds43989,
   Author = {C.D. Roper and W. Tornow and R.T. Braun and Q. Chen and A. Crowell and D.
             Gonzalez Trotter and C.R. Howell and F. Salinas and R. Setze and R.L.
             Walter, Z. Chen and H. Tang and Z. Zhou},
   Title = {Measurement of Ay(θ)
             for 12C(n,n)12 from En =
             2.2 to 8.5 MeV},
   Journal = {Phy. Rev. C},
   Volume = {72},
   Pages = {024605},
   Year = {2005},
   Key = {fds43989}
}

@booklet{Roberts91,
   Author = {Roberts, ML and Felsher, PD and Weisel, GJ and Chen, Z and Howell, CR and Tornow, W and Walter, RL and Horen, DJ},
   Title = {Measurement of Ay( theta ) for n+208Pb from 6 to 10 MeV and
             the neutron-nucleus interaction over the energy range from
             bound states at -17 MeV up to scattering at 40
             MeV.},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {44},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {2006-2024},
   Year = {1991},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9967624},
   Key = {Roberts91}
}

@article{fds154079,
   Author = {A. P. Tonchev and C. T. Angell and M. Boswell and A. S. Crowell and B.
             Fallin, S. Hammond and C. R. Howell and A. Hutcheson and H. J.
             Karwowski and J. H. Kelley and R. S. Pedroni and W. Tornow and J.A.
             Becker, D. Dashdor and J. Kenneally and R.A. Macri and M.A. Stoyer and C.Y.Wu, E. Bond and M.B. Chadwick and J. Fitzpatrick and T. Kawano and R.S. Rundberg and A. Slemmons and D. J. Vieira and J. B.
             Wilhelmy},
   Title = {Measurement of the 241Am(n, 2n) Reaction Cross
             Section from 7.6 to 14.5 MeV},
   Journal = {Phys. Rev. C},
   Volume = {77},
   Pages = {54610},
   Year = {2008},
   Key = {fds154079}
}

@article{fds185178,
   Author = {A. P. Tonchev and S. L. Hammond and C. R. Howell and C. Huibregtse and A. Hutcheson and J. H. Kelley and E. Kwan and R. Raut and G. Rusev and W.
             Tornow, T. Kawano and D. J. Vieira and J. B.
             Wilhelmy},
   Title = {Measurement of the 241Am(γ,n)240Am
             reaction in the giant dipole resonance region},
   Journal = {Physical Review C},
   Volume = {82},
   Pages = {054620},
   Year = {2010},
   Key = {fds185178}
}

@article{fds246731,
   Author = {Tonchev, AP and Angell, CT and Boswell, M and Crowell, AS and Fallin, B and Hammond, S and Howell, CR and Hutcheson, A and Karwowski, HJ and Kelley,
             JH and Pedroni, RS and Tornow, W and Becker, JA and Dashdorj, D and Kenneally, J and MacRi, RA and Stoyer, MA and Wu, CY and Bond, E and Chadwick, MB and Fitzpatrick, J and Kawano, T and Rundberg, RS and Slemmons, A and Vieira, DJ and Wilhelmy, JB},
   Title = {Measurement of the Am241(n,2n) reaction cross section from
             7.6 MeV to 14.5 MeV},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {77},
   Number = {5},
   Year = {2008},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.77.054610},
   Abstract = {The (n,2n) cross section of the radioactive isotope Am241
             (T1/2=432.6 y) has been measured in the incident neutron
             energy range from 7.6 to 14.5 MeV in steps of a few MeV
             using the activation technique. Monoenergetic neutron beams
             were produced via the H2(d,n)He3 reaction by bombarding a
             pressurized deuterium gas cell with an energetic deuteron
             beam at the TUNL 10-MV Van de Graaff accelerator facility.
             The induced γ-ray activity of Am240 was measured with
             high-resolution HPGe detectors. The cross section was
             determined relative to Al, Ni, and Au neutron activation
             monitor foils, measured in the same geometry. Good agreement
             is obtained with previous measurements at around 9 and 14
             MeV, whereas for a large discrepancy is observed when our
             data are compared to those reported by Perdikakis near 11
             MeV. Very good agreement is found with the END-B/VII
             evaluation, whereas the JENDL-3.3 evaluation is in fair
             agreement with our data. © 2008 The American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.77.054610},
   Key = {fds246731}
}

@article{fds246716,
   Author = {Tonchev, AP and Hammond, SL and Howell, CR and Huibregtse, C and Hutcheson, A and Kelley, JH and Kwan, E and Raut, R and Rusev, G and Tornow, W and Kawano, T and Vieira, DJ and Wilhelmy,
             JB},
   Title = {Measurement of the Am241(γ,n)Am240
             reaction in the giant dipole resonance region},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {82},
   Number = {5},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.82.054620},
   Abstract = {The photodisintegration cross section of the radioactive
             nucleus Am 241 has been obtained using activation techniques
             and monoenergetic γ-ray beams from the HIγS facility. The
             induced activity of Am 240 produced via the Am241(γ,n)
             reaction was measured in the energy interval from 9 to 16
             MeV utilizing high-resolution γ-ray spectroscopy. The
             experimental data for the Am241(γ ,n) reaction in the giant
             dipole resonance energy region are compared with statistical
             nuclear-model calculations. © 2010 The American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.82.054620},
   Key = {fds246716}
}

@article{fds303667,
   Author = {MacMullin, S and Kidd, M and Henning, R and Tornow, W and Howell, CR and Brown, M},
   Title = {Measurement of the elastic scattering cross section of
             neutrons from argon and neon},
   Volume = {87},
   Pages = {054613},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1212.2992v1},
   Abstract = {Background: The most significant source of background in
             direct dark matter searches are neutrons that scatter
             elastically from nuclei in the detector's sensitive volume.
             Experimental data for the elastic scattering cross section
             of neutrons from argon and neon, which are target materials
             of interest to the dark matter community, were previously
             unavailable. Purpose: Measure the differential cross section
             for elastic scattering of neutrons from argon and neon in
             the energy range relevant to backgrounds from (alpha,n)
             reactions in direct dark matter searches. Method:
             Cross-section data were taken at the Triangle Universities
             Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) using the neutron time-of-flight
             technique. These data were fit using the spherical optical
             model. Results: The differential cross section for elastic
             scatting of neutrons from neon at 5.0 and 8.0 MeV and argon
             at 6.0 MeV was measured. Optical-model parameters for the
             elastic scattering reactions were determined from the best
             fit to these data. The total elastic scattering cross
             section for neon was found to differ by 6% at 5.0 MeV and
             13% at 8.0 MeV from global optical-model predictions.
             Compared to a local optical-model for 40Ar, the elastic
             scattering cross section was found to differ from the data
             by 8% at 6.0 MeV. Conclusions: These new data are important
             for improving Monte-Carlo simulations and background
             estimates for direct dark matter searches and for
             benchmarking optical models of neutron elastic scattering
             from these nuclei.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.87.054613},
   Key = {fds303667}
}

@article{fds246800,
   Author = {Laveissière, G and Todor, L and Degrande, N and Jaminion, S and Jutier,
             C and Salvo, RD and Hoorebeke, LV and Alexa, LC and Anderson, BD and Aniol,
             KA and Arundell, K and Audit, G and Auerbach, L and Baker, FT and Baylac,
             M and Berthot, J and Bertin, PY and Bertozzi, W and Bimbot, L and Boeglin,
             WU and Brash, EJ and Breton, V and Breuer, H and Burtin, E and Calarco, JR and Cardman, LS and Cavata, C and Chang, C-C and Chen, J-P and Chudakov, E and Cisbani, E and Dale, DS and Jager, CWD and Leo, RD and Deur, A and D'Hose,
             N and Dodge, GE and Domingo, JJ and Elouadrhiri, L and Epstein, MB and Ewell, LA and Finn, JM et al.},
   Title = {Measurement of the generalized polarizabilities of the
             proton in virtual compton scattering at Q2 = 0.92
             and 1.76 GeV2},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {93},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {122001-1-122001-5},
   Year = {2004},
   ISSN = {0031-9007},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.93.122001},
   Abstract = {The generalized polarizabilities (GP) of proton at low c.m.
             energies were investigated in virtual Compton scattering
             (VCS). At momentum transfer Q 2 = 0.92 and 1.76 GeV2, the
             structure functions and the electric and magnetic GP were
             determined. The global behavior of electric GP did not
             follow a simple dipole form and indicated a strong falloff
             with Q 2. A paramagnetic contribution from πN intermediate
             states at higher Q2 compensated the dominance of a
             long-distance diamagnetic pion cloud at low
             Q2.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.93.122001},
   Key = {fds246800}
}

@article{fds246636,
   Author = {Broussard, LJ and Back, HO and Boswell, MS and Crowell, AS and Dendooven, P and Giri, GS and Howell, CR and Kidd, MF and Jungmann, K and Kruithof, WL and Mol, A and Onderwater, CJG and Pattie, RW and Shidling,
             PD and Sohani, M and van der Hoek, DJ and Rogachevskiy, A and Traykov,
             E and Versolato, OO and Willmann, L and Wilschut, HW and Young,
             AR},
   Title = {Measurement of the Half-Life of the Mirror Decay of and its
             Implication on Physics Beyond the Standard
             Model},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {112},
   Number = {21},
   Pages = {212301},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0031-9007},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.212301},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.212301},
   Key = {fds246636}
}

@article{fds246655,
   Author = {Reichelt, T and Madey, R and Semenov, AY and Taylor, S and Aghalaryan,
             A and Crouse, E and MacLachlan, G and Plaster, B and Tajima, S and Tireman,
             W and Yan, C and Ahmidouch, A and Andersen, BD and Asaturyan, R and Baker,
             O and Baldwin, AR and Breuer, H and Carlini, R and Christy, E and Churchwell, S and Cole, L and Danagoulian, S and Day, D and Elaasar, M and Ent, R and Farkondeh, M and Fenker, H and Finn, FM and Gan, L and Garrow,
             K and Gueye, P and Howell, C and Hu, B and Jones, MK and Kelly, JJ and Keppel,
             C and Khandaker, M and Kim, WY and Kowalski, S and Lung, A and Mack, D and Manley, DM and Markowitz, P et al.},
   Title = {Measurement of the neutron electric form factor via recoil
             polarimetry},
   Journal = {European Physical Journal A},
   Volume = {18},
   Number = {2-3},
   Pages = {181-183},
   Year = {2003},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epja/i2002-10296-0},
   Abstract = {The ratio Gem/Gmn of the electric to the magnetic form
             factor of the neutron has been measured by analyzing the
             polarization of the recoiling neutron in quasi-elastic
             scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons from
             deuterium at the Q2 values of 0.45, 1.15, and 1.47 (GeV/c)2.
             The experiment has been performed in Hall C of the Thomas
             Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. With Gmn being
             known Gen, can be deduced. The preliminary results show that
             the lowest Q2 points follow the Galster parametrization and
             that the 1.47 (GeV/c)2 point rises above this
             parametrization.},
   Doi = {10.1140/epja/i2002-10296-0},
   Key = {fds246655}
}

@article{fds246729,
   Author = {Chen, Q and Howell, CR and Carman, TS and Gibbs, WR and Gibson, BF and Hussein, A and Kiser, MR and Mertens, G and Moore, CF and Morris, C and Obst, A and Pasyuk, E and Roper, CD and Salinas, F and Setze, HR and Slaus,
             I and Sterbenz, S and Tornow, W and Walter, RL and Whiteley, CR and Whitton, M},
   Title = {Measurement of the neutron-neutron scattering length using
             the π-d capture reaction},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {77},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {054002},
   Year = {2008},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.77.054002},
   Abstract = {We have determined a value for the 1S0 neutron-neutron
             scattering length (ann) from high-precision measurements of
             time-of-flight spectra of neutrons from the H2(π-,nγ)n
             capture reaction. The measurements were done at the Los
             Alamos Meson Physics Facility by the E1286 Collaboration.
             The high spatial resolution of our γ-ray detector enabled
             us to make a detailed assessment of the systematic
             uncertainties in our techniques. The value obtained in the
             present work is ann=-18.63±0.10 (statistical) ± 0.44
             (systematic) ± 0.30 (theoretical) fm. This result is
             consistent with previous determinations of ann from the π-d
             capture reaction. We found that the analysis of the data
             with calculations that use a relativistic phase-space factor
             gives a more negative value for ann by 0.33 fm over the
             analysis done using a nonrelativistic phase-space factor.
             Combining the present result with the previous ones from
             π-d capture gives ann=-18.63±0.27(expt) ±0.30 fm
             (theory). For the first time the combined statistical and
             systematic experimental uncertainty in ann is smaller than
             the theoretical uncertainty and comparable to the
             uncertainty in the proton-proton 1S0 scattering length
             (app). This average value of ann when corrected for the
             magnetic-moment interaction of the two neutrons becomes
             -18.9 ± 0.4 fm, which is 1.6 ± 0.5 fm different from the
             recommended value of app, thereby confirming charge symmetry
             breaking at the 1% confidence level. © 2008 The American
             Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.77.054002},
   Key = {fds246729}
}

@article{fds246732,
   Author = {Roper, CD and Tornow, W and Braun, RT and Chen, Q and Crowell, A and Trotter, DG and Howell, CR and Salinas, F and Setze, R and Walter, RL and Chen, Z and Tang, H and Zhou, Z},
   Title = {Measurements of Aγ(θ) for 12C(n,n)12C from En =
             2.2 to 8.5 MeV},
   Journal = {Phys. Rev},
   Volume = {C},
   Number = {72},
   Pages = {024605},
   Year = {2005},
   Key = {fds246732}
}

@booklet{Tornow83,
   Author = {Tornow, W and Byrd, RC and Howell, CR and Pedroni, RS and Walter,
             RL},
   Title = {Measurements of analyzing power for H2(n, n)H2 scattering at
             14.1 MeV and comparisons to H2(p, p)H2},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {2439-2442},
   Year = {1983},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.27.2439},
   Abstract = {Data for the analyzing power Ay() for the elastic scattering
             of neutrons from deuterons have been measured at 14.1 MeV
             for the range from 30°to 153°(c.m.) to accuracies between
             0.003 and 0.006. The results are compared to previous n-d
             data at 14 MeV and are in significant disagreement with the
             most recent measurement. The present data are in excellent
             agreement with a Faddeev calculation by Doleschall. The data
             are also very similar to p-d scattering data at 14.1 MeV,
             although systematic deviations are observed at forward
             angles and near the maximum of Ay() at 130°. Recent
             calculations indicate that Coulomb effects can explain most
             of these differences, although some features will require
             further investigation. NUCLEAR REACTIONS H2(n, n)H2, E=14.1
             MeV; measured Ay(), compared to H2(p, p)H2, compared to
             Faddeev calculations. © 1983 The American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.27.2439},
   Key = {Tornow83}
}

@article{fds246662,
   Author = {Roper, CD and Tornow, W and Braun, RT and Chen, Q and Crowell, A and Trotter, DG and Howell, CR and Salinas, F and Setze, R and Walter, RL and Chen, Z and Tang, H and Zhou, Z},
   Title = {Measurements of Ay(θ) for C12(n,n)C12 from En=2.2 to 8.5
             MeV},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {72},
   Number = {2},
   Year = {2005},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.72.024605},
   Abstract = {The analyzing power Ay(θ) for neutron elastic scattering
             from C12 has been measured for 33 neutron energies between
             En=2.2 and 8.5 MeV in the angular range from 25° to 145°
             in the laboratory system. The primary motivation for these
             measurements is the need for an accurate knowledge of Ay(θ)
             for C12(n,n)C12 elastic scattering to enable corrections to
             high-precision neutron-proton and neutron-deuteron Ay(θ)
             data in the neutron-energy range below En=30 MeV. In their
             own right, C12(n,n)C12 Ay(θ) data are of crucial importance
             for improving both the parametrization of n-C12 scattering
             and our knowledge of the level scheme of C13. The present
             Ay(θ) data are compared with published data and previous
             phase-shift-analysis results. © 2005 The American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.72.024605},
   Key = {fds246662}
}

@article{fds304578,
   Author = {Madey, R and Semenov, AY and Taylor, S and Plaster, B and Aghalaryan, A and Crouse, E and MacLachlan, G and Tajima, S and Tireman, W and Yan, C and Ahmidouch, A and Anderson, BD and Arenhövel, H and Asaturyan, R and Baker, OK and Baldwin, AR and Barkhuff, D and Breuer, H and Carlini, R and Christy, E and Churchwell, S and Cole, L and Danagoulian, S and Day, D and Eden, T and Elaasar, M and Ent, R and Farkhondeh, M and Fenker, H and Finn,
             JM and Gan, L and Garrow, K and Gasparian, A and Gueye, P and Howell, CR and Hu, B and Jones, MK and Kelly, JJ and Keppel, C and Khandaker, M and Kim,
             W-Y and Kowalski, S and Lai, A et al.},
   Title = {Measurements of GEn/GMn
             from the 2H(e, e′n)1H
             Reaction to Q2 = 1.45 (GeV/c)2},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {91},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {1220021-1220025},
   Year = {2003},
   Abstract = {The measurements of GEn/GMn obtained via recoil polarimetry
             from the quasielastic 2H(e→,e′n→)1H reaction at three
             central Q2 values of 0.45, 1.15 and 1.47 (GeV/c)2 were
             reported. A beam of longitudinally polarized electrons was
             found to scatter quasielastically from a neutron in a 15-cm
             liquid deuterium target. A scattered electron was detected
             in the High Momentum Spectrometer (HMS) in coincidence with
             the recoil neutron.},
   Key = {fds304578}
}

@article{fds246804,
   Author = {Churchwell, RMEAIS and Howell, CR and Tajima, S},
   Title = {Measurements of Gen/Gmn from the 2H(e,e'n) Reaction to
             Q2=1.45 (GeV/c)2},
   Journal = {Phys. Rev. Lett.},
   Volume = {91},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {1220021-1220025},
   Year = {2003},
   Abstract = {The measurements of GEn/GMn obtained via recoil polarimetry
             from the quasielastic 2H(e→,e′n→)1H
             reaction at three central Q2 values of 0.45, 1.15 and 1.47
             (GeV/c)2 were reported. A beam of longitudinally polarized
             electrons was found to scatter quasielastically from a
             neutron in a 15-cm liquid deuterium target. A scattered
             electron was detected in the High Momentum Spectrometer
             (HMS) in coincidence with the recoil neutron.},
   Key = {fds246804}
}

@article{fds246710,
   Author = {Tompkins, JR and Arnold, CW and Karwowski, HJ and Rich, GC and Sobotka,
             LG and Howell, CR},
   Title = {Measurements of the 48Ca(γ,n) reaction},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {84},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {044331},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.84.044331},
   Abstract = {The 48Ca(γ,n) cross section was measured by using γ-ray
             beams of energies between 9.5 and 15.3 MeV generated at the
             Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory high-intensity
             γ-ray source. Prior to this experiment, no direct
             measurements had been made with γ-ray beams of sufficiently
             low energy spread to observe a structure in this energy
             range. The cross sections were measured at 34 different
             γ-ray energies with an enriched 48Ca target. Neutron
             emission is the dominant decay mechanism in the measured
             energy range that spans from the threshold, across the
             previously identified M1 strength, and up the low-energy
             edge of the E1 giant dipole resonance. This paper found
             B(M1)=6.8±0.5μN2 for the 10.23-MeV resonance, a value
             greater than previously measured. Structures in the cross
             section have been observed whose magnitudes are in agreement
             with existing data and that are commensurate with extended
             random-phase approximation calculations. © 2011 American
             Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.84.044331},
   Key = {fds246710}
}

@article{fds246691,
   Author = {Alexa, LC and Anderson, BD and Aniol, KA and Arundell, K and Auerbach,
             L and Baker, FT and Berthot, J and Bertin, PY and Bertozzi, W and Bimbot,
             L and Boeglin, WU and Brash, EJ and Breton, V and Breuer, H and Burtin, E and Calarco, JR and Cardman, LS and Cavata, C and Chang, C-C and Chen, J-P and Chudakov, E and Cisbani, E and Dale, DS and Degrande, N and Leo, RD and Deur, A and d'Hose, N and Diederich, B and Domingo, JJ and Epstein, MB and Ewell, LA and Finn, JM and Fissum, KG and Fonvieille, H and Frois, B and Frullani, S and Gao, H and Gao, J and Garibaldi, F and Gasparian, A and Gilad, S and Gilman, R et al.},
   Title = {Measurements of the deuteron elastic structure function
             A(Q2) for 0.7 ≤ Q2 ≤ 6.0
             (GeV/c)2 at Jefferson laboratory},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {82},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {1374-1378},
   Year = {1999},
   ISSN = {0031-9007},
   Key = {fds246691}
}

@article{fds246738,
   Author = {Plaster, B and Semenov, AY and Aghalaryan, A and Crouse, E and MacLachlan, G and Tajima, S and Tireman, W and Ahmidouch, A and Anderson, BD and Arenhövel, H and Asaturyan, R and Baker, OK and Baldwin, AR and Barkhuff, D and Breuer, H and Carlini, R and Christy, E and Churchwell, S and Cole, L and Danagoulian, S and Day, D and Eden, T and Elaasar, M and Ent, R and Farkhondeh, M and Fenker, H and Finn, JM and Gan,
             L and Gasparian, A and Garrow, K and Gueye, P and Howell, CR and Hu, B and Jones, MK and Kelly, JJ and Keppel, C and Khandaker, M and Kim, W-Y and Kowalski, S and Lung, A and Mack, D and Madey, R et
             al.},
   Title = {Measurements of the neutron electric to magnetic form factor
             ratio GEn/GMn via the H2(e→,e'n→)H1 reaction to Q2=1.45
             (GeV/c)2},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {73},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {025205},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.73.025205},
   Abstract = {We report values for the neutron electric to magnetic form
             factor ratio, GEn/GMn, deduced from measurements of the
             neutron's recoil polarization in the quasielastic
             H2(e→,e'n→)H1 reaction, at three Q2 values of 0.45,
             1.13, and 1.45 (GeV/c)2. The data at Q2=1.13 and 1.45
             (GeV/c)2 are the first direct experimental measurements of
             GEn employing polarization degrees of freedom in the Q2>1
             (GeV/c)2 region and stand as the most precise determinations
             of GEn for all values of Q2. © 2006 The American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.73.025205},
   Key = {fds246738}
}

@article{fds246651,
   Author = {Gueorguiev, GP and Howell, CR and Mitchell, GE and Sharapov, EI and Tornow, W},
   Title = {Modeling fast neutron shielding for the direct nn-scattering
             experiment},
   Journal = {International Meeting on Nuclear Applications of Accelerator
             Technology: Accelerator Application in a Nuclear
             Renaissance},
   Pages = {53-58},
   Year = {2003},
   Abstract = {Modern high power accelerators and reactors provide the
             possibility of a direct measurement of neutron-neutron
             scattering. This experiment addresses the fundamental
             problem of charge symmetry in the nuclear force by comparing
             the proton-proton, pp, and neutron-neutron, nn, scattering
             lengths. The high flux pulsed reactor YAGUAR will be used to
             perform the experiment, with a neutron detector placed in an
             evacuated underground channel. Of paramount importance is
             the detector background. Here we address the fission neutron
             background component due to the delayed neutrons multiplied
             in the subcritical reactor. The Monte Carlo MCNP4-C code
             with the weight window variance reduction technique was
             chosen to calculate the neutron transport for a 6-m model of
             the shield consisting of water, concrete, and earth, with a
             7-cm diameter channel lined with boron carbide. The present
             calculations are important for refining the background
             calculations for the real nn-experiment. These results can
             also be extended to design studies of biological shields at
             accelerators.},
   Key = {fds246651}
}

@article{fds246803,
   Author = {Gueorguiev, GP and Howell, CR and Mitchell, GE and sharapov, EI and Tornow, W},
   Title = {Modeling Fast Neutron Shielding for the nn-Experiment},
   Journal = {Accelerator Applications in a Nuclear Renaissance},
   Pages = {53},
   Publisher = {(American Nuclear Society, La Grange Park,
             Illinois)},
   Year = {2004},
   Key = {fds246803}
}

@article{fds30177,
   Author = {G.E. Mitchell and B.E. Crawford and C.D. Bowman and C.B. Dallas and W.I.
             Furman, C.R. Howell and B.G. Levakov and V.I. Litvin and E.V.
             Lychagin, A.E. Lyzhin and E.P. Magda and M.E. Morris and A.Yu.
             Muzichka, G.V. Nekhaev and Yu.V. Safronov and E.I. Sharapov and V.N.
             Shvetsov, S.L. Stephenson},
   Title = {Modeling of the Neutron Field and Count Rates for the
             NN-experiment},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the IIIrd International Conference on
             Nuclear-pumped Lasers and Pulse Reactors, Snezhinsk,
             Russia},
   Pages = {632},
   Publisher = {(Russian Federal Center - All-Russian Scientific Institute
             of Technical Physics, Snezhinsk, Russia)},
   Year = {2003},
   Key = {fds30177}
}

@article{fds43987,
   Author = {B.E. Crawford and W.I. Furman and C.R. Howell and B.G. Levakov and V.I.
             Litvin, E.V. Lychagin and A.E. Lyzhin and E.P. Magda and G.E.
             Mitchell, A.Yu. Muzichka and G.V. Nekhaev and Yu.V. Safronov and E.I.
             Sharapov, V.N. Shvetsov and S.L. Stephenson and A.V. Strelkov and W. Tornow},
   Title = {Modeling of the YAGUAR Reactor Neutron Field and Detector
             Count Rates for the Direct nn-scattering
             experiment},
   Journal = {Few-Body Problems in Physics: Proceedings of the 17th
             International IUPAP Conference on Few-Body Problems in
             Physics, (Elsevier)},
   Pages = {S178},
   Year = {2004},
   Key = {fds43987}
}

@article{fds17226,
   Author = {C.D. Bowman and B.E. Crawford and C.B. Dallas and W.I. Furman and C.R.
             Howell, B.G. Levakov and V.I. Litvin and E.V. Lychagin and A.E.
             Lyzhin, E.P. Magda and G.E. Mitchell and M.E. Morris and A.Yu.
             Muzichka, G.V. Nekhaev and Yu.V. Safronov and E.I. Sharapov and V.N.
             Shvetsov, A.V. Strelkov and an},
   Title = {Monte Carlo Modeling of the Neutron Field inside the YAGUAR
             Through Channel},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the X International Seminar on Interactions
             of Neutrons with Nuclei, ISINN-X},
   Pages = {427},
   Year = {2003},
   Key = {fds17226}
}

@article{fds329803,
   Author = {Han, Z and Friesen, FQL and Howell, CR and Ahmed, MW and Crowe, BJ and Crowell, AS and Cumberbatch, LC and Fallin, B and Ticehurst, D and Tornow, W and Witała, H},
   Title = {Monte-Carlo Simulation of 3 H( γ , pn ) n and 3 He( γ , pp
             ) n Experiments at HI γ S},
   Journal = {EPJ Web of Conferences},
   Volume = {113},
   Pages = {08009-08009},
   Editor = {Elster, C and Phillips, DR and Roberts, CD},
   Year = {2016},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/epjconf/201611308009},
   Doi = {10.1051/epjconf/201611308009},
   Key = {fds329803}
}

@article{fds246722,
   Author = {Trotter, DEG and Meneses, FS and Tornow, W and Crowell, AS and Howell,
             CR and Schmidt, D and Walter, RL},
   Title = {Neutron detection efficiency determinations for the TUNL
             neutron-neutron and neutron-proton scattering-length
             measurements},
   Journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section
             A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated
             Equipment},
   Volume = {599},
   Number = {2-3},
   Pages = {234-242},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {0168-9002},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2008.10.036},
   Abstract = {The methods employed and the results obtained from
             measurements and calculations of the detection efficiency
             for the neutron detectors used at Triangle Universities
             Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) in the simultaneous determination
             of the 1S0 neutron-neutron and neutron-proton scattering
             lengths ann and anp, respectively, are described. Typical
             values for the detector efficiency were 0.3. Very good
             agreement between the different experimental methods and
             between data and calculation has been obtained in the
             neutron energy range below En = 13 MeV. © 2008 Elsevier
             B.V. All rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.nima.2008.10.036},
   Key = {fds246722}
}

@booklet{Dave82,
   Author = {Dave, JH and Gould, CR and Seagondollar, LW and Howell, CR and Pedroni,
             RS and Purser, FO and Walter, RL},
   Title = {NEUTRON ELASTIC AND INELASTIC SCATTERING CROSS SECTIONS FOR
             CARBON-13 BETWEEN 10 AND 18 Mev.},
   Journal = {Nuclear Science and Engineering},
   Volume = {80},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {388-392},
   Year = {1982},
   Abstract = {Fast neutron scattering cross sections have been measured
             for **1**3C. Angular distributions for elastic scattering
             over an angular range from 20 to 155 deg are presented for
             incident neutron energies of 9. 97, 11. 96, 13. 94, 15. 94,
             and 17. 92 Mev. Inelastic scattering data were obtained at
             9. 97 Mev for states at excitation energy 3. 09 Mev and for
             the unresolved states at 3. 68 and 3. 85 Mev. The data were
             corrected for finite sample and source effects using a Monte
             Carlo simulation. Legendre polynomial coefficients for
             angular distributions and optical model fits to the elastic
             scattering data are reported.},
   Key = {Dave82}
}

@article{fds311477,
   Author = {DAVE, JH and GOULD, CR and SEAGONDOLLAR, LW and GLENDENNING, SG and HOWELL, CR and PEDRONI, RS and PURSER, FO and WALTER,
             RL},
   Title = {NEUTRON ELASTIC-SCATTERING FROM 1P-SHELL NUCLEI BETWEEN
             10-15 MEV},
   Journal = {Bulletin- American Physical Society},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {551-551},
   Year = {1981},
   ISSN = {0003-0503},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1981LG91200140&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds311477}
}

@article{fds246653,
   Author = {Madey, R and Semenov, AY and Taylor, S and Aghalaryan, A and Crouse, E and MacLachlan, G and Plaster, B and Tajima, S and Tireman, W and Yan, C and Ahmidouch, A and Anderson, BD and Arenhövel, H and Asaturyan, R and Baker, O and Baldwin, AR and Breuer, H and Carlini, R and Christy, E and Churchwell, S and Cole, L and Danagoulian, S and Day, D and Elaasar, M and Ent, R and Farkhondeh, M and Fenker, H and Finn, JM and Gan, L and Garrow,
             K and Gueye, P and Howell, C and Hu, B and Jones, MK and Kelly, JJ and Keppel,
             C and Khandaker, M and Kim, W-Y and Kowalski, S and Lung, A and Mack, D and Manley, DM and Markowitz, P et al.},
   Title = {Neutron electric form factor up to Q2 = 1.47
             (GeV/c)2},
   Journal = {European Physical Journal A},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {323-327},
   Year = {2003},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epja/i2002-10169-6},
   Abstract = {The ratio of the electric to the magnetic form factor of the
             neutron, g ≡ GEn/GMn, was measured via recoil polarimetry
             (R.G. Arnold, C.E. Carlson, F. Gross, Phys. Rev. C 23, 363
             (1981)) from the quasielastic 2H(e→, e′ n→) 1H
             reaction at three values of Q2 (viz, 0.45, 1.15, and 1.47
             (GeV/c)2) in Hall C of the Thomas Jefferson National
             Accelerator Facility. The data reveal that Gen continues to
             follow the Galster parameterization up to Q2 = 1.15 (GeV/c)2
             and rises above the Galster parameterization at Q2 = 1.47
             (GeV/c)2.},
   Doi = {10.1140/epja/i2002-10169-6},
   Key = {fds246653}
}

@article{fds246690,
   Author = {Al-Ohali, MA and Delaroche, JP and Howell, CR and Nagadi, MM and Naqvi,
             AA and Tornow, W and Walter, RL and Weisel, GJ},
   Title = {Neutron scattering from 28Si and 32S from 8.0 to 18.9 MeV,
             dispersive optical model analyses, and ground-state
             correlations},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {86},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {034603},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.86.034603},
   Abstract = {Background: The nucleon-nucleus dispersive optical model
             (DOM) has been successful in providing good fits to
             scattering data and in making valuable predictions for
             bound-state properties in single- and double-closed shell
             nuclei. However, the generalizability of the DOM remains an
             ongoing issue. Purpose: We investigate the DOM in the
             continuum and bound-state regions of the open-shell,
             self-conjugate nuclei 28Si and 32S. We collect new
             differential cross section and analyzing power data for
             elastic scattering at incident neutron energies between 8.0
             and 18.9 MeV. Methods: The measurements were conducted using
             a pulsed deuteron beam, the 2He(d,n)3He source reaction, and
             time-of-flight techniques. All data were corrected for
             finite-geometry effects. Phenomenological DOM potentials
             were tailored to fit the differential and total cross
             section data, and then extrapolated to the bound-state
             regions. The DOM bound-state predictions were then compared
             to experimental data available for single-particle energies,
             occupation probabilities, root-mean-square radii, and
             spectroscopic factors. Results: The DOM bound-state
             predictions are in only fair agreement with experimental
             data and with USD shell-model predictions. Similar results
             are found after converting our neutron DOMs into proton
             DOMs. We investigate the separate effects of the dispersive
             surface and volume potential components on occupation
             probability and find that the volume component leads to a
             uniform depletion of the hole states, while the surface
             component acts mainly to deplete the valence orbitals. We
             compare these results to those of a variational
             multiparticle multihole configuration mixing (mp-mh CM)
             calculation using the Gogny D1S effective force.
             Conclusions: We find that the phenomenological DOM, which
             was originally designed for spherical nuclei, show certain
             deficiencies when applied to open-shell nuclei and suggest
             possible avenues of improvement. We also find that the
             predictions of occupation probability by the DOM using the
             dispersive surface component are similar to those by the
             mp-mh CM. This lends support to the interpretation that the
             surface absorption in the optical model originates from
             particle-vibration couplings, that is, long-range
             correlations. © 2012 American Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.86.034603},
   Key = {fds246690}
}

@article{fds246796,
   Author = {Chen, ZM and Baird, K and Howell, CR and Roberts, ML and Tornow, W and Walter, RL},
   Title = {Neutron scattering from 12C between 15.6 and 17.3
             MeV},
   Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
             Physics},
   Volume = {19},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {877-887},
   Year = {1993},
   ISSN = {0954-3899},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0954-3899/19/6/008},
   Abstract = {The differential cross section sigma ( theta ) for neutron
             elastic scattering from 12C and for inelastic scattering
             from the 4.44 MeV state was measured at 15.57, 16.75 and
             17.29 MeV. The sigma ( theta ) data, together with published
             analysing power Ay( theta ) data, were analysed in the
             framework of the spherical optical model and in the
             coupled-channels formalism. It was concluded that the
             present 12C(n,n)12C data and published data at higher
             energies appear to be well suited for determining properties
             of valence single-particle excitations in 11C and 13C via an
             iterative-moment approach or a dispersive optical-model
             analysis.},
   Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/19/6/008},
   Key = {fds246796}
}

@article{fds246728,
   Author = {Kapadia, AJ and Sharma, AC and Tourassi, GD and Bender, JE and Howell,
             CR and Crowell, AS and Kiser, MR and Harrawood, BP and Pedroni, RS and Jr,
             CEF},
   Title = {Neutron stimulated emission computed tomography for
             diagnosis of breast cancer},
   Journal = {IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science},
   Volume = {55},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {501-509},
   Year = {2008},
   ISSN = {0018-9499},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNS.2007.909847},
   Abstract = {Neutron stimulated emission computed tomography (NSECT) is
             being developed as a non-invasive spectroscopic imaging
             technique to determine element concentrations in the human
             body. NSECT uses a beam of fast neutrons that scatter
             inelastically from atomic nuclei in tissue, causing them to
             emit characteristic gamma photons that are detected and
             identified using an energy-sensitive gamma detector. By
             measuring the energy and number of emitted gamma photons,
             the system can determine the elemental composition of the
             target tissue. Such determination is useful in detecting
             several disorders in the human body that are characterized
             by changes in element concentration, such as breast cancer.
             In this paper we describe our experimental implementation of
             a prototype NSECT system for the diagnosis of breast cancer
             and present experimental results from sensitivity studies
             using this prototype. Results are shown from three sets of
             samples: (a) excised breast tissue samples with unknown
             element concentrations, (b) a multi-element calibration
             sample used for sensitivity studies, and (c) a small-animal
             specimen, to demonstrate detection ability from in-vivo
             tissue. Preliminary results show that NSECT has the
             potential to detect elements in breast tissue. Several
             elements were identified common to both benign and malignant
             samples, which were confirmed through neutron activation
             analysis (NAA). Statistically significant differences were
             seen for peaks at energies corresponding to 37Cl, 56Fe,
             58Ni, 59Co, 66Zn, 79Br and 87Rb. The spectrum from the small
             animal specimen showed the presence of 12C from tissue, 40Ca
             from bone, and elements 39K, 27Al, 37Cl, 56Fe, 68Zn and
             25Mg. Threshold sensitivity for the four elements analyzed
             was found to range from 0.3 grams to 1 gram, which is higher
             than the microgram sensitivity required for cancer
             detection. Patient dose levels from NSECT were found to be
             comparable to those of screening mammography. © 2008
             IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/TNS.2007.909847},
   Key = {fds246728}
}

@article{fds246700,
   Author = {Jr, CEF and Howell, C and Harrawood, B and Crowell, A and Kapadia, A and Macri, R and Xia, J and Pedroni, R and Bowsher, J and Kiser, M and Tourassi, G and Tornow, W and Walter, R},
   Title = {Neutron stimulated emission computed tomography of stable
             isotopes},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical
             Engineering},
   Volume = {5368},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {248-254},
   Year = {2004},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.535350},
   Abstract = {Here we report on the development of a new molecular imaging
             technique using inelastic scattering of fast neutrons.
             Earlier studies demonstrated a significant difference in
             trace element concentrations between benign and malignant
             tissue for several cancers including breast, lung, and
             colon. Unfortunately, the measurement techniques were not
             compatible with living organisms and this discovery did not
             translate into diagnostic techniques. Recently we have
             developed a tomographic approach to measuring the trace
             element concentrations using neutrons to stimulate
             characteristic gamma emission from atomic nuclei in the
             body. Spatial projections of the emitted energy spectra
             allow tomographic image reconstruction of the elemental
             concentrations. In preliminary experiments, spectra have
             been acquired using a 7.5MeV neutron beam incident on
             several multielement phantoms. These experiments demonstrate
             our ability to determine the presence of Oxygen, Carbon,
             Copper, Iron, and Calcium. We desribe the experimental
             technique and present acquired spectra.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.535350},
   Key = {fds246700}
}

@article{fds246733,
   Author = {Jr, CEF and Sharma, AC and Bender, JE and Kapadia, AJ and Xia, JQ and Harrawood, BP and Tourassi, GD and Lo, JY and Kiser, MR and Crowell, AS and Pedroni, RS and Macri, RA and Tajima, S and Howell,
             CR},
   Title = {Neutron stimulated emission computed tomography: Background
             corrections},
   Journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section
             B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms},
   Volume = {254},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {329-336},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {0168-583X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2006.11.098},
   Abstract = {Neutron stimulated emission computed tomography (NSECT) is
             an imaging technique that provides an in-vivo tomographic
             spectroscopic image of the distribution of elements in a
             body. To achieve this, a neutron beam illuminates the body.
             Nuclei in the body along the path of the beam are stimulated
             by inelastic scattering of the neutrons in the beam and emit
             characteristic gamma photons whose unique energy identifies
             the element. The emitted gammas are collected in a
             spectrometer and form a projection intensity for each
             spectral line at the projection orientation of the neutron
             beam. Rotating and translating either the body or the beam
             will allow a tomographic projection set to be acquired.
             Images are reconstructed to represent the spatial
             distribution of elements in the body. Critical to this
             process is the appropriate removal of background gamma
             events from the spectrum. Here we demonstrate the
             equivalence of two background correction techniques and
             discuss the appropriate application of each. © 2006
             Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.nimb.2006.11.098},
   Key = {fds246733}
}

@article{fds246717,
   Author = {Weisel, GJ and Tornow, W and Crowe, BJ and Crowell, AS and Esterline,
             JH and Howell, CR and Kelley, JH and Macri, RA and Pedroni, RS and Walter,
             RL and Witala, H},
   Title = {Neutron-deuteron analyzing power at 19.0
             MeV},
   Journal = {Phys. Rev.},
   Volume = {C 81},
   Pages = {024003},
   Year = {2010},
   Key = {fds246717}
}

@article{fds246684,
   Author = {Weisel, GJ and Tornow, W and Crowe, BJ and Crowell, AS and Esterline,
             JH and Howell, CR and Kelley, JH and Macri, RA and Pedroni, RS and Walter,
             RL and Witała, H},
   Title = {Neutron-deuteron analyzing power data at 19.0
             MeV},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {81},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {024003},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/4259 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {Measurements of neutron-deuteron (n-d) analyzing power
             Ay(θ) at En=19.0 MeV are reported at 16 angles from
             θc.m.=46.7 to 152.0°. The objective of the experiment is
             to better characterize the discrepancies between n-d data
             and the predictions of three-nucleon calculations for
             neutron energies above 16.0 MeV. The experiment used a
             shielded neutron source, which produced polarized neutrons
             via the H2(d-,n-)He3 reaction, a deuterated liquid
             scintillator center detector (CD) and liquid-scintillator
             neutron side detectors. A coincidence between the CD and the
             side detectors isolated the elastic-scattering events. The
             CD pulse height spectrum associated with each side detector
             was sorted by using pulse-shape discrimination,
             time-of-flight techniques, and by removing accidental
             coincidences. A Monte Carlo computer simulation of the
             experiment accounted for effects due to finite geometry,
             multiple scattering, and CD edge effects. The resulting
             high-precision data (with absolute uncertainties ranging
             from 0.0022 to 0.0132) have a somewhat lower discrepancy
             with the predictions of three-body calculations, as compared
             to those found at lower energies. © 2010 The American
             Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.81.024003},
   Key = {fds246684}
}

@article{fds225745,
   Author = {G. J. Weisel and W. Tornow and A. S. Crowell and J. H. Esterline and G.
             M. Hale and C. R. Howell and P. D. O’Malley and J. R. Tompkins and H. Witala},
   Title = {Neutron-Deuteron Analyzing Power Data at En= 22.5
             MeV},
   Journal = {Phys. Rev. C},
   Volume = {89},
   Pages = {054001},
   Year = {2014},
   Key = {fds225745}
}

@article{fds311599,
   Author = {G.J. Weisel and W. Tornow and A.S. Crowell and J.H. Esterline and G.M.
             Hale, C.R. Howell and P.D. O’Malley and J.R. Tomkins and H.
             Witała},
   Title = {Neutron-deuteron analyzing power data at En=22.5
             MeV},
   Journal = {Phys. Rev. C},
   Volume = {89},
   Pages = {054001},
   Year = {2014},
   Key = {fds311599}
}

@article{fds246736,
   Author = {Trotter, DEG and Meneses, FS and Tornow, W and Howell, CR and Chen, Q and Crowell, AS and Roper, CD and Walter, RL and Schmidt, D and Witała, H and Glöckle, W and Tang, H and Zhou, Z and Šlaus, I},
   Title = {Neutron-deuteron breakup experiment at En=13MeV:
             Determination of the 1S0 neutron-neutron scattering length
             ann},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {73},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {034001},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.73.034001},
   Abstract = {We report on results of a kinematically complete
             neutron-deuteron breakup experiment performed at Triangle
             Universities Nuclear Laboratory using an En=13 MeV incident
             neutron beam. The 1S0 neutron-neutron scattering length ann
             has been determined for four production angles of the
             neutron-neutron final-state interaction configuration. The
             absolute cross-section data were analyzed with rigorous
             three-nucleon calculations. Our average value of
             ann=-18.7±0.7 fm is in excellent agreement with
             ann=-18.6±0.4 fm obtained from capture experiments of
             negative pions on deuterons. We also performed a shape
             analysis of the final-state interaction cross-section
             enhancements by allowing the normalization of the data to
             float. From these relative data, we obtained an average
             value of ann=-18.8±0.5 fm, in agreement with the result
             obtained from the absolute cross-section measurements. Our
             result deviates from the world average of ann=-16.7±0.5 fm
             determined from previous kinematically complete
             neutron-deuteron breakup experiments, including the most
             recent one carried out at Bonn. However, this low value for
             ann is at variance with theoretical expectation and other
             experimental information about the sign of charge-symmetry
             breaking of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. In agreement
             with theoretical predictions, no evidence was found of
             significant three-nucleon force effects on the
             neutron-neutron final-state interaction cross sections. ©
             2006 The American Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.73.034001},
   Key = {fds246736}
}

@booklet{Howell91,
   Author = {Howell, CR and Tornow, W and Pfützner, HG and Roberts, ML and Murphy,
             K and Felsher, PD and Weisel, GJ and Mertens, G and Walter, RL and Lambert,
             JM and Treado, PA and Slaus, I},
   Title = {Neutron-deuteron elastic scattering and breakup reactions
             below 20 MeV},
   Journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section
             B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms},
   Volume = {56-57},
   Number = {PART 1},
   Pages = {459-463},
   Year = {1991},
   ISSN = {0168-583X},
   Abstract = {In this paper we review the results of a series of
             high-accuracy measurements on the neutron-deuteron (n-d)
             scattering system at incident neutron energies below 20 MeV.
             These measurements were designed to: 1) provide data of
             sufficient accuracy to be used to refine the parametrization
             of the nucleon-nucleon force, 2) to test the reaction
             dynamics in the "rigorous" calculations of three-nucleon
             (3N) breakup reactions, and 3) identify 3N scattering
             observables that are specifically sensitive to three-nucleon
             forces and/or off-shell effects. At TUNL we have measured
             vector analyzing powers Ay (θ) for n-d elastic scattering
             and the breakup reaction to an accuracy better than ± 0.005
             and ± 0.020, respectively. Recent results on items 1) and
             2) will be presented. Also, results of cross-section
             measurements for n-d and p-d breakup will be compared to a
             "rigorous" 3N calculation. © 1991.},
   Key = {Howell91}
}

@article{fds329804,
   Author = {Malone, RC and Crowe, B and Crowell, AS and Cumberbatch, LC and Esterline, JH and Fallin, BA and Friesen, FQL and Han, Z and Howell, CR and Markoff, D and Ticehurst, D and Tornow, W and Witała,
             H},
   Title = {Neutron-neutron quasifree scattering in nd breakup at 10
             MeV},
   Journal = {EPJ Web of Conferences},
   Volume = {113},
   Pages = {04010-04010},
   Editor = {Elster, C and Phillips, DR and Roberts, CD},
   Year = {2016},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/epjconf/201611304010},
   Doi = {10.1051/epjconf/201611304010},
   Key = {fds329804}
}

@article{fds246730,
   Author = {Braun, RT and Tornow, W and Howell, CR and Trotter, DEG and Roper, CD and Salinas, F and Setze, HR and Walter, RL and Weisel,
             GJ},
   Title = {Neutron-proton analyzing power at 12 MeV and inconsistencies
             in parametrizations of nucleon-nucleon data},
   Journal = {Physics Letters B},
   Volume = {660},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {161-166},
   Year = {2008},
   ISSN = {0370-2693},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2007.12.039},
   Abstract = {We present the most accurate and complete data set for the
             analyzing power Ay (θ) in neutron-proton scattering. The
             experimental data were corrected for the effects of multiple
             scattering, both in the center detector and in the neutron
             detectors. The final data at En = 12.0 MeV deviate
             considerably from the predictions of nucleon-nucleon
             phase-shift analyses and potential models. The impact of the
             new data on the value of the charged pion-nucleon coupling
             constant is discussed in a model study. © 2008 Elsevier
             B.V. All rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.physletb.2007.12.039},
   Key = {fds246730}
}

@booklet{Weisel90,
   Author = {WEISEL, GJ and TORNOW, W and HOWELL, CR and FELSHER, PD and ALOHALI, M and CHEN, ZP and WALTER, RL and LAMBERT, JM and TREADO,
             PA},
   Title = {NEUTRON-PROTON ANALYZING POWER DATA AT 7.6, 12.0, 14.1,
             16.0, 18.5 MEV},
   Journal = {Journal de Physique},
   Volume = {51},
   Number = {22},
   Pages = {C6515-C6518},
   Year = {1990},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0302-0738},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1990ER13200065&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {Weisel90}
}

@booklet{Weisel92,
   Author = {Weisel, GJ and Tornow, W and Howell, CR and Felsher, PD and AlOhali, M and Chen, ZP and Walter, RL and Lambert, JM and Treado, PA and Slaus,
             I},
   Title = {Neutron-proton analyzing power data between 7.6 and 18.5
             MeV.},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {46},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1599-1606},
   Year = {1992},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9968278},
   Key = {Weisel92}
}

@booklet{Chen93,
   Author = {Z. M. Chen and K. Baird and C. R. Howell and M. L. Roberts and W. Tornow and R. L. Walter},
   Title = {Neutron-scattering from c-12 between 15.6 and 17.3
             mev},
   Journal = {Journal Of Physics G-nuclear And Particle
             Physics},
   Volume = {19},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {877 -- 887},
   Year = {1993},
   Month = {June},
   Key = {Chen93}
}

@article{fds246727,
   Author = {Floyd, CE and Kapadia, AJ and Bender, JE and Sharma, AC and Xia, JQ and Harrawood, BP and Tourassi, GD and Lo, JY and Crowell, AS and Kiser, MR and Howell, CR},
   Title = {Neutron-stimulated emission computed tomography of a
             multi-element phantom.},
   Journal = {Physics in Medicine and Biology},
   Volume = {53},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {2313-2326},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0031-9155},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18421119},
   Abstract = {This paper describes the implementation of
             neutron-stimulated emission computed tomography (NSECT) for
             non-invasive imaging and reconstruction of a multi-element
             phantom. The experimental apparatus and process for
             acquisition of multi-spectral projection data are described
             along with the reconstruction algorithm and images of the
             two elements in the phantom. Independent tomographic
             reconstruction of each element of the multi-element phantom
             was performed successfully. This reconstruction result is
             the first of its kind and provides encouraging proof of
             concept for proposed subsequent spectroscopic tomography of
             biological samples using NSECT.},
   Doi = {10.1088/0031-9155/53/9/008},
   Key = {fds246727}
}

@article{fds246721,
   Author = {Bowman, CD and Bowman, DC and Bilpuch, EG and Crowell, AS and Howell,
             CR and McCabe, K and Smith, GA and Tonchev, AP and Tornow, W and Vylet, V and Walter, RL},
   Title = {Neutrons from a proton-driven deuterium target as a possible
             competitor to spallation for nuclear energy
             applications},
   Journal = {Nuclear science and engineering : the journal of the
             American Nuclear Society},
   Volume = {161},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {119-124},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {0029-5639},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.13182/NSE161-119},
   Abstract = {Measurements are reported on the yield of neutrons from
             protons in the energy range from 7 to 17 MeV striking a
             stopping-length target of deuterium gas. This combination of
             beam and target is being investigated as an alternative to
             spallation for accelerator-driven transmutation technology
             with perhaps equivalent or lower energy cost per neutron.
             The concept includes neutrons produced from a cascade of
             reactions starting with the p + d reaction giving rise to
             subsequent fusion neutrons and neutrons from higher-order
             breakup reactions. In our application the incident proton
             energy is expected to be -100 MeV so that most of the
             neutrons produced in these reactions will be higher-energy
             neutrons that can undergo multiplication in surrounding
             beryllium or lead. The results reported here for lower
             proton energies indicate that the expected fusion and
             higher-order breakup reactions have been observed, and they
             provide the basis for a measurement at 100 MeV to confirm
             the larger proton-induced cascade benefits expected at
             higher proton energies.},
   Doi = {10.13182/NSE161-119},
   Key = {fds246721}
}

@article{fds304574,
   Author = {Trotter, DEG and Tornow, W and Howell, CR and Walter,
             RL},
   Title = {Neutron–deuteron analyzing power at En=2.0 MeV},
   Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
   Volume = {684},
   Number = {1-4},
   Pages = {701-703},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0375-9474},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000167628700152&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0375-9474(01)00466-3},
   Key = {fds304574}
}

@booklet{Trotter99,
   Author = {Trotter, DEG and Salinas, F and Chen, Q and Crowell, AS and Glöckle, W and Howell, CR and Roper, CD and Schmidt, D and Šlaus, and Tang, H and Tornow, W and Walter, RL and Witała, H and Zhou,
             Z},
   Title = {New Measurement of the 1 S0 Neutron-Neutron
             Scattering Length Using the Neutron-Proton Scattering Length
             as a Standard},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {83},
   Number = {19},
   Pages = {3788-3791},
   Year = {1999},
   Abstract = {This paper reports high-accuracy cross-section data taken
             for identical kinematic conditions of the neutron-proton
             (np) and neutron-neutron (nn) final-state interactions in
             the 2H(n, nnp) reaction at an incident mean neutron energy
             of 13.0 MeV. These data were analyzed with rigorous
             three-nucleon calculations to determine the 1S0 np and nn
             scattering lengths, anp and ann. Our results are ann = -18.7
             ± 0.6 fm and anp = -23.5 ± 0.8 fm. The value obtained for
             ann in the present work is in agreement with that from π-d
             measurements but disagrees with values obtained from earlier
             neutron-deuteron breakup studies.},
   Key = {Trotter99}
}

@article{fds246675,
   Author = {Kapadia, AJ and Sharma, AC and Tourassi, GD and Bender, JE and Crowell,
             AS and Kiser, MR and Howell, CR and Jr, CEF},
   Title = {Non-invasive estimation of potassium (39K) in Bovine Liver
             using Neutron Stimulated Emission Computed Tomography
             (NSECT)},
   Journal = {IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference
             Record},
   Volume = {4},
   Pages = {2076-2078},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {1095-7863},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/NSSMIC.2006.354322},
   Abstract = {Neutron stimulated emission computed tomography (NSECT) is
             being developed as a non-invasive technique to measure
             element concentration in in-vivo tissue at molecular levels.
             We have developed a system that performs this task using an
             incident neutron beam that scatters inelastically with an
             atomic nucleus causing it to emit a characteristic gamma
             photon. An energy-sensitive gamma detector is used to detect
             this energy and identify the target atom. Here we describe
             an experiment to determine the concentration of natural
             potassium (39K) in bovine liver without the need for a
             biopsy. A 5 MeV neutron beam was used to scan a known
             quantity of bovine liver to obtain a gamma spectrum showing
             element concentration in the liver. An aqueous KCl solution
             calibration sample was then scanned to establish a ratio of
             potassium concentration to gamma counts for the experimental
             setup. Counts from gamma peaks corresponding to excited
             states in 39K were summed and compared with counts from the
             known calibration sample, to give the concentration of 39K
             in the liver. A high purity germanium (HPGe) clover detector
             was used to measure the emitted gamma energy. The results
             were validated through neutron activation analysis (NAA) of
             the liver sample. The concentration of 39K reported by NSECT
             was found to be within 13% of the NAA result, clearly
             demonstrating the ability of NSECT for non-invasive
             quantification of element concentration in tissue. © 2006
             IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/NSSMIC.2006.354322},
   Key = {fds246675}
}

@article{fds246658,
   Author = {Kapadia, AJ and Jr, CEF and Bender, JE and Howell, CR and Crowell, AS and Kiser, MR},
   Title = {Non-invasive quantification of iron56Fe in beef
             liver using neutron stimulated emission computed
             tomography},
   Journal = {IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference
             Record},
   Volume = {4},
   Pages = {2232-2234},
   Year = {2005},
   ISSN = {1095-7863},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/NSSMIC.2005.1596778},
   Abstract = {Neutron spectroscopy is being developed as a noninvasive
             tool to measure element concentration in the body at
             molecular levels. We are developing a neutron stimulated
             emission computed tomography (NSECT) system to identify
             element concentrations in tissue, using inelastic scattering
             of neutrons by target nuclei. An incident neutron scatters
             inelastically with an atomic nucleus to emit a gamma photon
             whose energy is characteristic of the scattering nucleus.
             This energy is detected by an energy-sensitive gamma
             detector to identify the target atom. Here we describe an
             experiment to noninvasively determine the concentration of
             natural iron (56Fe) in beef liver. A 7.5 MeV neutron beam
             was used to scan a known quantity of solid iron and
             establish a ratio of iron concentration to gamma counts for
             the experimental setup. A known quantity of beef liver was
             then scanned using the same experimental setup, to obtain
             gamma spectra showing element concentrations in the liver.
             Counts from gamma peaks corresponding to excited states in
             iron were compared with counts from the known iron sample,
             to yield the iron concentration in the liver. A high purity
             germanium (HPGe) detector was used to measure the emitted
             gamma energy. Although the results obtained in this
             experiment are slightly higher than normal iron limits
             reported in various studies, they demonstrate the
             technique's ability to noninvasively quantify iron
             concentration in a biological organ. © 2005
             IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/NSSMIC.2005.1596778},
   Key = {fds246658}
}

@booklet{Howell93,
   Author = {Howell, CR and Felsher, PD and Tornow, W and Roberts, ML and Hanly, JM and Weisel, GJ and Al Ohali M, and Walter, RL and Slaus, I and Lambert, JM and Treado, PA and Mertens, G},
   Title = {Novel probe of charge symmetry breaking: Deuteron-induced
             deuteron breakup.},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {48},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {2855-2863},
   Year = {1993},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9969162},
   Key = {Howell93}
}

@article{fds246689,
   Author = {Weisenberger, AG and Kross, B and Lee, SJ and McKisson, J and McKisson,
             JE and Xi, W and Zorn, C and Howell, CR and Crowell, AS and Reid, CD and al,
             E},
   Title = {Nuclear physics detector technology applied to plant biology
             research},
   Journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section
             A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated
             Equipment},
   Volume = {718},
   Pages = {157-159},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {0168-9002},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2012.08.097},
   Abstract = {The ability to detect the emissions of radioactive isotopes
             through radioactive decay (e.g. beta particles, x-rays and
             gamma-rays) has been used for over 80 years as a tracer
             method for studying natural phenomena. More recently a
             positron emitting radioisotope of carbon: 11C has been
             utilized as a 11CO 2 tracer for plant ecophysiology
             research. Because of its ease of incorporation into the
             plant via photosynthesis, the 11CO 2 radiotracer is a
             powerful tool for use in plant biology research. Positron
             emission tomography (PET) imaging has been used to study
             carbon transport in live plants using 11CO 2. Presently
             there are several groups developing and using new PET
             instrumentation for plant based studies. Thomas Jefferson
             National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) in
             collaboration with the Duke University Phytotron and the
             Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) is involved
             in PET detector development for plant imaging utilizing
             technologies developed for nuclear physics research. The
             latest developments of the use of a LYSO scintillator based
             PET detector system for 11CO 2 tracer studies in plants will
             be briefly outlined. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.nima.2012.08.097},
   Key = {fds246689}
}

@booklet{Tornow98a,
   Author = {Tornow, W and DeBraeckeleer, L and Howell, CR and Roberson, NR and Walter, RL and Weller, HR},
   Title = {Nuclear research at Duke [5]},
   Journal = {Science},
   Volume = {279},
   Number = {5350},
   Pages = {462-463},
   Year = {1998},
   Key = {Tornow98a}
}

@article{fds246819,
   Author = {González Trotter and DE and Tornow, W and Howell, CR and Walter,
             RL},
   Title = {Nucleon-Deuteron Analyzing Power at En = 2.0
             MeV},
   Journal = {Nucl. Phys. A},
   Volume = {684},
   Pages = {701c},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0375-9474},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000167628700152&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds246819}
}

@article{fds304577,
   Author = {Howell, CR},
   Title = {Nucleon-deuteron breakup: Truths and implications},
   Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
   Volume = {689},
   Number = {1-2},
   Pages = {298c-307c},
   Year = {2001},
   Abstract = {The results of recent nucleon-deuteron breakup experiments
             are reviewed, and a comparative evaluation of the data is
             presented. Discrepancies between data from different
             experiments are identified, and modest attempts to resolve
             the discrepancies are made. Differences between the
             evaluated data and theory are noted and discussed.
             Recommendations for prioritizing the analysis of certain
             breakup configurations in completed experiments are given.
             In addition, a call for accurate measurements of
             neutron-deuteron breakup integrated cross section for
             energies between 10 and 30 MeV is made.},
   Key = {fds304577}
}

@article{fds246818,
   Author = {Howell, CR},
   Title = {Nucleon-Deuteron Breakup: Truths and Implications},
   Journal = {Nucl. Phys. A},
   Volume = {689},
   Number = {1-2},
   Pages = {2986},
   Year = {2001},
   Abstract = {The results of recent nucleon-deuteron breakup experiments
             are reviewed, and a comparative evaluation of the data is
             presented. Discrepancies between data from different
             experiments are identified, and modest attempts to resolve
             the discrepancies are made. Differences between the
             evaluated data and theory are noted and discussed.
             Recommendations for prioritizing the analysis of certain
             breakup configurations in completed experiments are given.
             In addition, a call for accurate measurements of
             neutron-deuteron breakup integrated cross section for
             energies between 10 and 30 MeV is made.},
   Key = {fds246818}
}

@booklet{Park98,
   Author = {S. H. Park and V. N. Litvinenko and B. Burnham and Y. Wu and J. M. J. Madey and R. S. Canon and C. R. Howell and N. R.
             Roberson and E. C. Schreiber and M. Spraker and W. Tornow and H. R. Weller and I. V. Pinayev},
   Title = {OK-4/Duke monochromatic gamma-ray source: performance and
             prediction},
   Journal = {Nuclear Instruments \& Methods In Physics Research Section
             A-accelerators Spectrometers Detectors And Associated
             Equipment},
   Volume = {407},
   Number = {1-3},
   Pages = {224 -- 228},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {Park98}
}

@article{fds246745,
   Author = {Park, SH and Litvinenko, VN and Burnham, B and Wu, Y and Madey, JMJ and Canon, RS and Howell, CR and Roberson, NR and Schreiber, EC and Spraker,
             M and Tornow, W and Weller, HR and Pinayev, IV},
   Title = {OK-4/Duke monochromatic γ-ray source: Performance and
             prediction},
   Journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section
             A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated
             Equipment},
   Volume = {407},
   Number = {1-3},
   Pages = {224-228},
   Year = {1998},
   ISSN = {0168-9002},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0168-9002(97)01400-9},
   Abstract = {A beam of nearly monochromatic γ-rays was produced via
             intracavity Compton backscattering in the OK-4/Duke storage
             ring FEL. The OK-4 FEL operated in the near-UV range
             (345-413 nm) with electron energies of 260-550 MeV. The
             energy of the produced γ-rays varied from 3 to 16 MeV. In
             the near future we plan to increase the energy of the
             γ-rays to 50 MeV by increasing the electron energy and
             reducing FEL wavelength. Results from direct measurements of
             the γ-ray flux and energy resolution (using a 3 mm diameter
             lead collimator) (Litvinenko et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 78
             (1997) 4569) are very close to our theoretical predictions.
             The energy resolution of the γ-rays was ∼ 1%. In this
             paper we present a comparison of our measurements with
             theoretical predictions and our plans for future
             improvements. We discuss upgrades of our system to attain an
             energy resolution down to 0.1% and to increase the flux. A
             brief description of the experimental program utilizing the
             OK-4/Duke monochromatic γ-ray source is presented. © 1998
             Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0168-9002(97)01400-9},
   Key = {fds246745}
}

@booklet{Guss89,
   Author = {Guss, PP and Byrd, RC and Howell, CR and Pedroni, RS and Tungate, G and Walter, RL and Delaroche, JP},
   Title = {Optical model description of the neutron interaction with
             Sn116 and Sn120 over a wide energy range},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {39},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {405-414},
   Year = {1989},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.39.405},
   Abstract = {Differential cross sections for neutron elastic scattering
             and inelastic scattering to the first 2+ and 3- excited
             states have been measured at 10, 14, and 17 MeV for Sn120
             and at 10 and 14 MeV for Sn116. Analyzing powers have also
             been measured at 10 and 14 MeV for elastic scattering from
             both isotopes and at 10 MeV for inelastic scattering from
             Sn120. These data have been analyzed in the framework of the
             coupled-channels formalism for vibrational nuclei.
             Previously reported neutron scattering measurements
             performed below 25 MeV, along with total cross-section
             measurements from 10 keV to 100 MeV, and s- and p-wave
             strength functions were also considered in the analysis in
             order to place additional constraints on the optical
             potential parameters. Neutron scattering deformations have
             been deduced for the quadrupole and octupole vibrations.
             These deformations have been compared with those derived
             from earlier (n,n) and (p,p) scattering measurements which
             were reanalyzed in the present work. © 1989 The American
             Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.39.405},
   Key = {Guss89}
}

@article{fds225747,
   Author = {M.E. Gooden and B.A. Fallin and S.W. Finch and J.H. Kelley and C.R.
             Howell, G. Rusev and A.P. Tonchev and W. Tornow and V.
             Stanislav},
   Title = {Partial Cross Sections for Neutron-Induced Reactions on
             natCu at En=6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 MeV for 0-neutrino
             double beta decay Background Studies},
   Journal = {Int. Nuclear Data Conference, New York, 2013, Nucl. Data
             Sheets},
   Volume = {119},
   Pages = {121},
   Year = {2014},
   Key = {fds225747}
}

@article{fds246680,
   Author = {Tonchev, AP and Hammond, S and Howell, CR and Huibregtse, C and Hutcheson, A and Karwowski, HJ and Kelley, JH and Kwan, E and Rusev, G and Tornow, W and Vieira, DJ and Wilhelmy, JB},
   Title = {Photodisintegration cross section of241Am},
   Journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings},
   Volume = {1099},
   Pages = {820-823},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {0094-243X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3120165},
   Abstract = {The photodisintegration cross section of radioactive 241Am
             has been obtained for the first time using monoenergetic
             γ-ray beams from the HIγS facility. The induced activity
             of240Am produced via the 241Am(γ,n) reaction in the γ-ray
             energy range from 9.5 to 16 MeV was measured by the
             activation technique utilizing high resolution HPGe
             detectors. The 241Am(γ,n) cross section was determined both
             by measuring the absolute γ-ray flux and by comparison to
             the 197Au(γ,n) and 58Ni(γ,n) cross section standards. The
             experimental data for the 241Am(γ,n ) reaction in the giant
             dipole resonance energy region is compared with statistical
             nuclear-model calculations. © 2009 American Institute of
             Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.3120165},
   Key = {fds246680}
}

@article{fds329800,
   Author = {Krishichayan, and Bhike, M and Finch, SW and Howell, CR and Tonchev,
             AP and Tornow, W},
   Title = {Photofission cross-section ratio measurement of 235 U/ 238 U
             using monoenergetic photons in the energy range of
             9.0–16.6 MeV},
   Journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section
             A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated
             Equipment},
   Volume = {854},
   Pages = {40-44},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2017.02.043},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.nima.2017.02.043},
   Key = {fds329800}
}

@article{fds246660,
   Author = {Tornow, W and Esterline, JH and Howell, CR and Karwowski, HJ and Kelley,
             JH and Tonchev, AP and Li, J and Mikhailov, SF and Pinayev, IV and Wu, YK and Weisel, GJ and Witała, H},
   Title = {Photon analyzing power for the three-body breakup of
             3He at Eγ = 15.0 MeV},
   Journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings},
   Volume = {768},
   Pages = {138-140},
   Year = {2005},
   ISSN = {0094-243X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1932890},
   Abstract = {Photon analyzing power for the three-body breakup of 3He has
             been studied at Eγ = 15.0 MeV. The measurements were done
             at the HIγS facility at Duke University. © 2005 American
             Institute of Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.1932890},
   Key = {fds246660}
}

@article{fds246706,
   Author = {Weisenberger, AG and Kross, B and Lee, S and McKisson, J and McKisson,
             JE and Xi, W and Zorn, C and Reid, CD and Howell, CR and Crowell, AS and Cumberbatch, L and Fallin, B and Stolin, A and Smith,
             MF},
   Title = {PhytoBeta imager: A positron imager for plant
             biology},
   Journal = {Physics in Medicine and Biology},
   Volume = {57},
   Number = {13},
   Pages = {4195-4210},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {0031-9155},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0031-9155/57/13/4195},
   Abstract = {Several positron emitting radioisotopes such as 11C and 13N
             can be used in plant biology research. The 11CO 2tracer is
             used to facilitate plant biology research toward
             optimization of plant productivity, biofuel development and
             carbon sequestration in biomass. Positron emission
             tomography (PET) imaging has been used to study carbon
             transport in live plants using 11CO 2. Because plants
             typically have very thin leaves, little medium is present
             for the emitted positrons to undergo an annihilation event.
             The emitted positrons from 11C (maximum energy 960keV) could
             require up to approximately 4mm of water equivalent material
             for positron annihilation. Thus many of the positrons do not
             annihilate inside the leaf, resulting in limited sensitivity
             for PET imaging. To address this problem we have developed a
             compact beta-positive, beta-minus particle imager (PhytoBeta
             imager) for 11CO 2leaf imaging. The detector is based on a
             Hamamatsu H8500 position sensitive photomultiplier tube
             optically coupled via optical grease to a 0.5mm thick Eljen
             EJ-212 plastic scintillator. The detector is equipped with a
             flexible arm to allow its placement and orientation over or
             under the leaf to be studied while maintaining the leaf's
             original orientation. To test the utility of the system the
             detector was used to measure carbon translocation in a leaf
             of the spicebush (Lindera benzoin) under two transient light
             conditions. © 2012 Institute of Physics and Engineering in
             Medicine.},
   Doi = {10.1088/0031-9155/57/13/4195},
   Key = {fds246706}
}

@article{fds246642,
   Author = {Lee, S and Kross, B and McKisson, J and McKisson, JE and Weisenberger,
             AG and Xi, W and Zorn, C and Howell, CR and Reid, CD and Smith,
             MF},
   Title = {PhytoPET: Design and initial results of modular PET for
             plant biology},
   Journal = {IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference
             Record},
   Pages = {1323-1325},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {1095-7863},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/NSSMIC.2012.6551323},
   Abstract = {We have developed a positron emission tomography (PET)
             system designed specifically for plant imaging in Phytotron
             at Duke University. Initial evaluation of a PhytoPET system
             to image the biodistribution of the positron emitting tracer
             11C in live plants is presented. The mechanical arrangement
             of the detectors is designed to accommodate the
             unpredictable and random distribution in space of the plant
             parts such as stems, leaves, and roots. Prototyping such a
             system requires a completely new PET system design strategy
             different from preclinical and clinical applications. This
             PhytoPET design allows flexible arrangements of PET
             detectors based on individual standalone detector modules
             built from single 5 cm × 5 cm Hamamatsu H8500 position
             sensitive photomultiplier tubes. Each H8500 is coupled to a
             LYSO:Ce scintillator array composed of 48 × 48 elements
             that are 10 mm thick with a 1 mm pitch. Initial results
             provide planar PET images from two different arrangements (1
             × 4 or 2 × 2) for flexible imaging capability. © 2012
             IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/NSSMIC.2012.6551323},
   Key = {fds246642}
}

@article{fds304581,
   Author = {Xu, W and Anderson, B and Auberbach, L and Averett, T and Bertozzi, W and Black, T and Calarco, J and Cardman, L and Cates, GD and Chai, ZW and Chen,
             JP and Choi, S and Chudakov, E and Churchwell, S and Corrado, GS and Crawford, C and Dale, D and Deur, A and Djawotho, P and Donnelly, TW and Dutta, D and Finn, JM and Gao, H and Gilman, R and Glamazdin, AV and Glashausser, C and Glöckle, W and Golak, J and Gomez, J and Gorbenko,
             VG and Hansen, J-O and Hersman, FW and Higinbotham, DW and Holmes, R and Howell, CR and Hughes, E and Humensky, B and Incerti, S and Jager, CWD and Jensen, JS and Jiang, X and Jones, CE et al.},
   Title = {Plane-wave impulse approximation extraction of the neutron
             magnetic form factor from quasielastic 3He(e,e′)
             at Q2 = 0.3 to 0.6 (GeV/c)2},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {67},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {122011-122015},
   Year = {2003},
   Abstract = {A high precision measurement of the transverse
             spin-dependent asymmetry AT′ in 3He→(e→,e′)
             quasielastic scattering was performed in Hall A at Jefferson
             Lab at values of the squared four-momentum transfer, Q2,
             between 0.1 and 0.6 (GeV/c)2. AT′ is sensitive to the
             neutron magnetic form factor, GMn. Values of GMn at Q2 = 0.1
             and 0.2 (GeV/c)2, extracted using Faddeev calculations, were
             reported previously. Here, we report the extraction of GMn
             for the remaining Q2 values in the range from 0.3 to 0.6
             (GeV/c)2 using a plane-wave impulse approximation
             calculation. The results are in good agreement with recent
             precision data from experiments using a deuterium
             target.},
   Key = {fds304581}
}

@article{fds246739,
   Author = {Hamilton, DJ and Mamyan, VH and Aniol, KA and Annand, JRM and Bertin,
             PY and Bimbot, L and Bosted, P and Calarco, JR and Camsonne, A and Chang,
             GC and Chang, T-H and Chen, J-P and Choi, S and Chudakov, E and Danagoulian, A and Degtyarenko, P and Jager, CWD and Deur, A and Dutta,
             D and Egiyan, K and Gao, H and Garibaldi, F and Gayou, O and Gilman, R and Glamazdin, A and Glashausser, C and Gomez, J and Hansen, J-O and Hayes,
             D and Higinbotham, D and Hinton, W and Horn, T and Howell, C and Hunyady,
             T and Hyde-Wright, CE and Jiang, X and Jones, MK and Khandaker, M and Ketikyan, A and Kubarovsky, V and Kramer, K et
             al.},
   Title = {Polarization transfer in proton compton scattering at high
             momentum transfer},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {94},
   Number = {24},
   Pages = {242001},
   Year = {2005},
   ISSN = {0031-9007},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.94.242001},
   Abstract = {Compton scattering from the proton was investigated at
             s=6.9GeV2 and t=-4.0GeV2 via polarization transfer from
             circularly polarized incident photons. The longitudinal and
             transverse components of the recoil proton polarization were
             measured. The results are in disagreement with a prediction
             of perturbative QCD based on a two-gluon exchange mechanism,
             but agree well with a prediction based on a reaction
             mechanism in which the photon interacts with a single quark
             carrying the spin of the proton. © 2005 The American
             Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.94.242001},
   Key = {fds246739}
}

@article{fds246649,
   Author = {Malov, S and Wijesooriya, K and Baker, FT and Bimbot, L and Brash, EJ and Chang, CC and Finn, JM and Fissum, KG and Gao, J and Gilman, R and Glashausser, C and Jones, MK and Kelly, JJ and Kumbartzki, G and Liyanage, N and McIntyre, J and Nanda, S and Perdrisat, CF and Punjabi,
             VA and Quéméner, G and Ransome, RD and Rutt, PM and Zainea, DG and Anderson, BD and Aniol, KA and Auerbach, L and Berthot, J and Bertozzi,
             W and Bertin, P-Y and Boeglin, WU and Breton, V and Breuer, H and Burtin,
             E and Calarco, JR and Cardman, L and Cates, GD and Cavata, C and Chen, J-P and Cisbani, E and Dale, DS and Leo, RD and Deur, A et
             al.},
   Title = {Polarization transfer in the 16o(e→,e′p→)15n
             reaction},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {62},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {573021-573025},
   Year = {2000},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   Key = {fds246649}
}

@article{fds246683,
   Author = {Weisenberger, AG and Kross, B and McKisson, J and Stolin, A and Zorn, C and Howell, CR and Crowell, AS and Reid, CD and Majewski, S and Smith,
             MF},
   Title = {Positron emission tomography detector development for plant
             biology},
   Journal = {IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference
             Record},
   Pages = {2323-2328},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {1095-7863},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/NSSMIC.2009.5402259},
   Abstract = {There are opportunities for the development of new tools to
             advance plant biology research through the use of
             radionuclides. Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator
             Facility, Duke University, West Virginia University and the
             University of Maryland are collaborating on the development
             of radionuclide imaging technologies to facilitate plant
             biology research. Biological research into optimizing plant
             productivity under various environmental constraints,
             biofuel and carbon sequestration research are areas that
             could potentially benefit from new imaging technologies.
             Using 11CO2 tracers, the investigators at Triangle
             University Nuclear Laboratory / Duke University Phytotron
             are currently researching the dynamical responses of plants
             to environmental changes forecasted from increasing
             greenhouse trace gases involved in global change. The
             biological research primary focus is to investigate the
             impact of elevated atmospheric CO2 and nutrients limitation
             on carbon and nitrogen dynamics in plants. We report here on
             preliminary results of 11CO2 plant imaging experiments
             involving barley plants using Jefferson Lab dual planar
             positron emission tomography detectors to image 11CO2 in
             live barley plants. New detector designs will be developed
             based on the preliminary studies reported here and further
             planned. ©2009 IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/NSSMIC.2009.5402259},
   Key = {fds246683}
}

@article{fds246693,
   Author = {Xiong, F and Dutta, D and Xu, W and Anderson, B and Auberbach, L and Averett, T and Bertozzi, W and Black, T and Calarco, J and Cardman, L and Cates, GD and Chai, ZW and Chen, JP and Choi, S and Chudakov, E and Churchwell, S and Corrado, GS and Crawford, C and Dale, D and Deur, A and Djawotho, P and Filippone, BW and Finn, JM and Gao, H and Gilman, R and Glamazdin, AV and Glashausser, C and Glöckle, W and Golak, J and Gomez,
             J and Gorbenko, VG and Hansen, J-O and Hersman, FW and Higinbotham, DW and Holmes, R and Howell, CR and Hughes, E and Humensky, B and Incerti, S and Jager, CWD and Jensen, JS and Jiang, X et al.},
   Title = {Precision measurement of the spin-dependent asymmetry in the
             threshold region of 3H→e(e→,
             e′)},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {87},
   Number = {24},
   Pages = {2425011-2425015},
   Year = {2001},
   ISSN = {0031-9007},
   Abstract = {Experiments were carried out for the first precision
             measurements of spin-dependent asymmetry in the threshold
             region of 3He→(e→, e′). The analysis was performed for
             the probing of 3He ground-state structure and extracting the
             neutron electromagnetic form factors from electron
             scattering. Results showed that the data and nonrelativistic
             Faddeev calculations which included final-state interactions
             and meson-exchange current effects were in agreement with
             each other.},
   Key = {fds246693}
}

@booklet{Howell95,
   Author = {C. R. Howell and H. R. Setze and R. T. Braun and D. E. G.
             Trotter and A. H. Hussein and C. D. Roper and F. Salinas and I. Slaus and W. Tornow and B. Vlahovic and R. L. Walter and G. Mertens and J. M. Lambert and H. Witala},
   Title = {Probing the 3-nucleon force using nucleon-deuteron breakup
             reactions},
   Journal = {Nuclear Instruments \& Methods In Physics Research Section
             B-beam Interactions With Materials And Atoms},
   Volume = {99},
   Number = {1-4},
   Pages = {316 -- 319},
   Year = {1995},
   Month = {May},
   Key = {Howell95}
}

@article{fds246764,
   Author = {Howell, CR and Setze, HR and Braun, RT and Trotter, DEG and Hussein, AH and Roper, CD and Salinas, F and Slaus, I and Tornow, W and Vlahovic, B and Walter, RL and Mertens, G and Lambert, JM and Witala,
             H},
   Title = {Probing the three-nucleon force using nucleon-deuteron
             breakup reactions},
   Journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section
             B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms},
   Volume = {99},
   Number = {1-4},
   Pages = {316-319},
   Year = {1995},
   ISSN = {0168-583X},
   Abstract = {Results of our recent kinematically complete cross-section
             measurements of the space-star and coplanar-star
             configurations in n-d breakup at 13.0 MeV are reported. The
             experimental setup and details of the analysis are
             described. The new data for the space-star configuration are
             in good agreement with previous n-d data but differ
             significantly from both "exact" n-d calculations and p-d
             data. In constrast, the new coplanar-star data are in fair
             agreement with the calculations but are in gross
             disagreement with previous n-d data. The implications of
             these data for three-nucleon forces are discussed. ©
             1995.},
   Key = {fds246764}
}

@article{fds246688,
   Author = {Tornow, W and Howell, CR and Crowell, AS},
   Title = {Proposal for the Simultaneous Measurement of the
             Neutron-Neutron and Neutron-Proton Quasi-Free Scattering
             Cross Section via the Neutron-Deuteron Breakup Reaction at E
             n = 19 MeV},
   Journal = {Few-Body Systems},
   Pages = {1-4},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {0177-7963},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00601-012-0488-x},
   Abstract = {In order to confirm or refute the present discrepancy
             between data and calculation for the neutron-neutron
             quasi-free scattering cross section in the neutron-deuteron
             breakup reaction, we describe a new experimental approach
             currently being pursued at TUNL. © 2012
             Springer-Verlag.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s00601-012-0488-x},
   Key = {fds246688}
}

@article{fds246640,
   Author = {Tornow, W and Howell, CR and Crowell, AS},
   Title = {Proposal for the Simultaneous Measurement of the
             Neutron-Neutron and Neutron-Proton Quasi-Free Scattering
             Cross Section via the Neutron-Deuteron Breakup Reaction at
             En = 19 MeV},
   Journal = {Few-Body Systems},
   Volume = {54},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {2171-2174},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0177-7963},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00601-012-0488-x},
   Abstract = {In order to confirm or refute the present discrepancy
             between data and calculation for the neutron-neutron
             quasi-free scattering cross section in the neutron-deuteron
             breakup reaction, we describe a new experimental approach
             currently being pursued at TUNL. © 2012
             Springer-Verlag.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s00601-012-0488-x},
   Key = {fds246640}
}

@article{fds246743,
   Author = {Punjabi, V and Perdrisat, CF and Aniol, KA and Baker, FT and Berthot, J and Bertin, PY and Bertozzi, W and Besson, A and Bimbot, L and Boeglin, WU and Brash, EJ and Brown, D and Calarco, JR and Cardman, LS and Chai, Z and Chang, C-C and Chen, J-P and Chudakov, E and Churchwell, S and Cisbani,
             E and Dale, DS and Leo, RD and Deur, A and Diederich, B and Domingo, JJ and Epstein, MB and Ewell, LA and Fissum, KG and Fleck, A and Fonvieille, H and Frullani, S and Gao, J and Garibaldi, F and Gasparian, A and Gerstner,
             G and Gilad, S and Gilman, R and Glamazdin, A and Glashausser, C and Gomez,
             J and Gorbenko, V et al.},
   Title = {Proton elastic form factor ratios to Q2=3.5GeV2 by
             polarization transfer},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {71},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {069902},
   Year = {2005},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.71.055202},
   Abstract = {The ratio of the proton elastic electromagnetic form
             factors, GEp/GMp, was obtained by measuring Pt and P, the
             transverse and longitudinal recoil proton polarization
             components, respectively, for the elastic e→p→ep→
             reaction in the four-momentum transfer squared range of 0.5
             to 3.5GeV2. In the single-photon exchange approximation,
             GEp/GMp is directly proportional to Pt/P. The simultaneous
             measurement of Pt and P in a polarimeter reduces systematic
             uncertainties. The results for GEp/GMp show a systematic
             decrease with increasing Q2, indicating for the first time a
             definite difference in the distribution of charge and
             magnetization in the proton. The data have been reanalyzed
             and their systematic uncertainties have become significantly
             smaller than those reported previously. © 2005 The American
             Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.71.055202},
   Key = {fds246743}
}

@article{fds246734,
   Author = {Hutcheson, A and Angell, CT and Becker, JA and Boswell, M and Crowell,
             AS and Dashdorj, D and Fallin, B and Fotiades, N and Howell, CR and Karwowski, HJ and Kelley, JH and Kiser, M and Macri, RA and Nelson, RO and Pedroni, RS and Tonchev, AP and Tornow, W and Vieira, DJ and Weisel, GJ and Wilhelmy, JB},
   Title = {Pulsed and monoenergetic beams for neutron cross-section
             measurements using activation and scattering techniques at
             Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory},
   Journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section
             B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms},
   Volume = {261},
   Number = {1-2 SPEC. ISS.},
   Pages = {369-372},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {0168-583X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2007.04.097},
   Abstract = {In support of the Stewardship Science Academic Alliances
             initiative, an experimental program has been developed at
             Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) to measure
             (n,xn) cross-sections with both in-beam and activation
             techniques with the goal of improving the partial
             cross-section database for the NNSA Stockpile Stewardship
             Program. First experimental efforts include excitation
             function measurements on 235,238U and 241Am using pulsed and
             monoenergetic neutron beams with En = 5-15 MeV.
             Neutron-induced partial cross-sections were measured by
             detecting prompt γ rays from the residual nuclei using
             various combinations of clover and planar HPGe detectors in
             the TUNL shielded neutron source area. Complimentary
             activation measurements using DC neutron beams have also
             been performed in open geometry in our second target area.
             The neutron-induced activities were measured in the TUNL
             low-background counting area. In this presentation, we
             include detailed information about the irradiation
             procedures and facilities and preliminary data on first
             measurements using this capability.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.nimb.2007.04.097},
   Key = {fds246734}
}

@article{fds246808,
   Author = {Churchwell, WXEAIS and Dutta, D and Gao, H and Howell,
             CR},
   Title = {PWIA Extraction of the Neutron Magnetic Form Factor from
             Quasi-Elastic 3He(e,e') at Q2=0.3 to 0.6
             (GeV/c)2,},
   Journal = {Phys. Rev. C},
   Volume = {67},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {012201(R)},
   Year = {2003},
   Abstract = {A high precision measurement of the transverse
             spin-dependent asymmetry AT′ in 3He→(e→,e′)
             quasielastic scattering was performed in Hall A at Jefferson
             Lab at values of the squared four-momentum transfer, Q2,
             between 0.1 and 0.6 (GeV/c)2. AT′ is sensitive to the
             neutron magnetic form factor, GMn. Values of GMn at Q2 = 0.1
             and 0.2 (GeV/c)2, extracted using Faddeev calculations, were
             reported previously. Here, we report the extraction of GMn
             for the remaining Q2 values in the range from 0.3 to 0.6
             (GeV/c)2 using a plane-wave impulse approximation
             calculation. The results are in good agreement with recent
             precision data from experiments using a deuterium
             target.},
   Key = {fds246808}
}

@article{fds30174,
   Author = {G.E. Mitchell and C.D. Bowman and Yu.I. Chernuhin and B.E. Crawford and W.I. Furman and C.R. Howell and B.G. Levakov and V.I. Litvin and E.P.
             Magda, A.Yu. Muzichka and G.V. Nekhaev and Yu.V. Safronov and E.V.
             Lychagin, A.E. Lyzhin and V.N. Shvetsov and S.L. Stephenson and A.V.
             Strelkov, E.I. Shar},
   Title = {Reactor YAGUAR as a Pulsed Source for a Direct nn-Scattering
             Measurement},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the ICANS XVI},
   Pages = {79},
   Publisher = {(Forschungzentrum Julich GmbH, Julich)},
   Editor = {G. Mank and H. Conrad},
   Year = {2003},
   Key = {fds30174}
}

@article{fds246812,
   Author = {Howell, CR and Chen, Q and Trotter, DEG and Salinas, F and Carman, TS and Crowell, AS and Hussein, A and Gibbs, WR and Gibson, BF and Mertens, G and Moore, CF and Morris, C and Obst, A and Pasyuk, E and Roper, CD and Slaus,
             I and Sterbenz, S and Tang, H and Tornow, W and Walter, RL and Whiteley,
             CR and Whitton, M and Zhou, Z and Glockle, W and Witala,
             H},
   Title = {Recent high-accuracy measurements of the S-1(0)
             neutron-neutron scattering length},
   Journal = {Few-Body Systems},
   Volume = {12},
   Pages = {451-456},
   Year = {2000},
   ISSN = {0177-8811},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000166770100080&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds246812}
}

@article{fds246659,
   Author = {Wut, YK and Busch, M and Emamian, M and Faircloth, J and Gustavsson, J and Hartman, S and Howell, C and Johnson, M and Li, J and Mikhailov, S and Oakley, O and Patterson, J and Pentico, M and Popov, V and Rathbone, V and Swift, G and Wallace, P and Wang, P},
   Title = {Recommissioning of duke storage ring with a rom-damped RF
             cavity and a new straight section lattice for
             fels},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the IEEE Particle Accelerator
             Conference},
   Volume = {2005},
   Pages = {3934-3936},
   Year = {2005},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/PAC.2005.1591674},
   Abstract = {The Duke FEL lab operates a unique UV/VUV storage ring FEL
             and an FEL driven nearly monochromatic, highly polarized,
             high intensity Compton gamma-ray source. The Duke storage
             ring light source is undergoing several phases of upgrade in
             order to significantly improve its light source capabilities
             and performance. The recent upgrade in 2004 included an
             upgrade of the RF system with a high-order mode damped RF
             cavity and a new 34 meter long straight section lattice
             designed to host new FEL wigglers. This upgrade was
             completed in August 2004, followed by the storage ring and
             light source commissioning. This paper provides an overview
             of this upgrade project and reports the commissioning
             experience of the Duke storage ring and light sources. ©
             2005 IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/PAC.2005.1591674},
   Key = {fds246659}
}

@article{fds246720,
   Author = {Bowman, CD and Bilpuch, EG and Bowman, DC and Crowell, AS and Howell,
             CR and McCabe, K and Smith, GA and Tonchev, AP and Tornow, W and Violet, V and Vogelaar, RB and Walter, RL and Yingling, J},
   Title = {Reducing parasitic thermal neutron absorption in graphite
             reactors by 30%},
   Journal = {Nuclear science and engineering : the journal of the
             American Nuclear Society},
   Volume = {161},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {68-77},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {0029-5639},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.13182/NSE161-68},
   Abstract = {The results of two experiments combined show that the
             diffusion length D for thermal neutrons in the graphite
             studied is 24% larger than expected from classical
             experiments and that the boron equivalent absorption is
             smaller than expected and consistent with zero. Taken
             together, the results indicate a reduction in parasitic
             thermal neutron absorption in heterogeneous graphite
             reactors by about 30%. The first experiment measured the
             z-dependence of thermal neutron flux in a column of 12 t of
             granular graphite with a neutron source at the bottom. A
             second measurement was made by pulsing the column with a
             neutron source at its center and measuring the neutron decay
             rate as a function of time after a pure exponential decay
             had been established. The diffusion coefficient D adjusted
             to a density of 1.60 g/cm 3 is 1.05 ± 0.03 cm compared with
             the commonly accepted value of 0.85 ± 0.013 cm. The
             absorption in our graphite owing to impurities was found to
             be < 10% of that from carbon alone. The parameter ∑ a/D
             that measures neutron loss was determined to be 0.000235 ±
             0.000026 cm -2 for a density of 1.60 g/cm 3 and may be
             compared with the commonly accepted value of 0.000340. The
             performance of graphite thermal spectrum reactors
             constructed using our graphite would be significantly
             enhanced over present expectations because neutron loss to
             graphite is a major factor in the neutron economy of
             graphite-moderated thermal reactors.},
   Doi = {10.13182/NSE161-68},
   Key = {fds246720}
}

@booklet{Howell94,
   Author = {Howell, CR and Tornow, W and Setze, HR and Braun, RT and Trotter, DEG and Roper, CD and Pedroni, RS and Grimes, SM and Brient, CE and Al-Niemi, N and Goeckner, FC and Mertens, G},
   Title = {Resolution of discrepancy between backward angle
             cross-section data for neutron-deuteron elastic
             scattering},
   Journal = {Few-Body Systems},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {127-142},
   Year = {1994},
   ISSN = {0177-7963},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01355285},
   Abstract = {High-accuracy differential cross-section data for
             neutron-deuteron elastic scattering at centre-of-mass
             backward angles in the range from 140° to 178° have been
             measured to accuracies better than ±3% for incident neutron
             energies of 8.0, 10.0, and 14.0 MeV. The measurements were
             made by detection of the recoil deuterons and protons from a
             mixed CD2-CH2 foil. The new data are compared to existing
             data and to three-nucleon calculations with the Bonn-B
             nucleon-nucleon potential. We conclude that the present
             measurements unambiguously resolve the discrepancies among
             previously reported data of the same type. © 1994
             Springer-Verlag.},
   Doi = {10.1007/BF01355285},
   Key = {Howell94}
}

@article{fds246755,
   Author = {Aksoy, A and Coban, A and Naqvi, AA and Khiari, FZ and Hanly, JM and Howell, CR and Tornow, W and Felsher, PD and Al-Ohali, MA and Walter,
             RL},
   Title = {Response-function measurement of an NE213 scintillator using
             the 2H(d, n)3He reaction},
   Journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section
             A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated
             Equipment},
   Volume = {337},
   Number = {2-3},
   Pages = {486-491},
   Year = {1994},
   ISSN = {0168-9002},
   Abstract = {The response function of a 12.5 cm diameter NE213
             scintillator detector has been measured over neutron
             energies ranging from 4.9 to 16.6 MeV. Beams of
             monoenergetic neutrons were produced using the 2H(d, n)3He
             reaction. The response function is about 12% lower than
             previously reported values for a similar detector obtained
             using a continuous spectrum of neutrons from a 252Cf fission
             source. However, the present response function agrees with
             portions of data sets obtained in published work that used
             monoenergetic neutron source reactions. ©
             1994.},
   Key = {fds246755}
}

@booklet{Aksoy94,
   Author = {A. Aksoy and A. Coban and A. A. Naqvi and F. Z. Khiari and J. M. Hanly and C. R. Howell and W. Tornow and P. D. Felsher and M. A. Alohali and R. L. Walter},
   Title = {Response-function measurement of an ne213 scintillator using
             the h-2(d, n)he-3 reaction},
   Journal = {Nuclear Instruments \& Methods In Physics Research Section
             A-accelerators Spectrometers Detectors And Associated
             Equipment},
   Volume = {337},
   Number = {2-3},
   Pages = {486 -- 491},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {Aksoy94}
}

@article{fds17302,
   Author = {C.R. Howell},
   Title = {Results From Indirect Measurements Of the
             1S0 Neutron-Neutron Scattering
             Length},
   Journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings of the 17th International
             Conference on Applications of Accelerators in Research and
             Industry},
   Volume = {680},
   Pages = {283},
   Editor = {Jerome L. Duggan and I.L. Morgan},
   Year = {2003},
   Key = {fds17302}
}

@article{fds17245,
   Author = {C.R. Howell},
   Title = {Review of Indirect Methods used to Determine the
             1S0 Neutron-Neutron Scatteing
             Length},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the X International Seminar on Interactions
             of Neutrons with Nuclei, ISINN-10},
   Pages = {71},
   Year = {2003},
   Key = {fds17245}
}

@booklet{Howell88a,
   Author = {Howell, CR and Tornow, W and Slaus, I and Felsher, PD and Roberts, ML and Pfützner, HG and Li, A and Murphy, K and Walter, RL and Lambert, JM and Treado, PA and Witala, H and Glöckle, W and Cornelius,
             T},
   Title = {Rigorous calculations and measurements of Ay( theta ) for
             n+d elastic-scattering and breakup processes.},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {61},
   Number = {14},
   Pages = {1565-1568},
   Year = {1988},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10038838},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.61.1565},
   Key = {Howell88a}
}

@article{fds246666,
   Author = {Sharma, A and Floyd, C and Harrawood, B and Tourassi, G and Kapadia, A and Bender, J and Lo, J and Howell, C},
   Title = {Rotating slat collimator design for high-energy near-field
             imaging},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE},
   Volume = {6142 I},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {1605-7422},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.653929},
   Abstract = {Certain elements (such as Fe, Cu, Zn, etc.) are vital to the
             body and an imbalance of such elements can either be a
             symptom or cause of certain pathologies. Neutron Stimulated
             Emission Computed Tomography (NSECT) is a spectroscopic
             imaging technique whereby the body is illuminated via a beam
             of neutrons causing elemental nuclei to become excited and
             emit characteristic gamma radiation. Acquiring the gamma
             energy spectra in a tomographic geometry allows
             reconstruction of elemental concentration images. Previously
             we have demonstrated the feasibility of NSECT using first
             generation CT approaches; while successful, the approach
             does not scale well and has limited resolution.
             Additionally, current gamma cameras operate in an energy
             range too low for NSECT imaging. However, the orbiting
             Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager
             (RHESSI) captures and images gamma rays over the high-energy
             range equivalent to NSECT's (3 keV to 17 MeV) by utilizing
             Collimator-based Fourier transform imaging. A High Purity
             Germanium (HPGe) detector counts the number of energy events
             per unit of time, providing spectroscopic data. While a pair
             of rotating collimators placed in front of the detector
             modulates the number of gamma events, providing spatial
             information. Knowledge of the number of energy events at
             each discrete collimator angle allows for 2D image
             reconstruction. This method has proven successful at a focus
             of infinity in the RHESSI application. Our goal is to
             achieve similar results at a reasonable near-field focus.
             Here we describe the results of our simulations to implement
             a rotating modulation collimator (RMC) gamma imager for use
             in NSECT using simulations in Matlab. To determine feasible
             collimator setups and the stability of the inverse problem a
             Matlab environment was created that uses the geometry of the
             system to generate ID observation data from 2D images and
             then to reconstruct 2D images using the MLEM algorithm.
             Reasonable collimator geometries were determined, successful
             reconstruction was achieved and the inverse problem was
             found to be stable.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.653929},
   Key = {fds246666}
}

@booklet{Tornow98,
   Author = {Tornow, W and Carman, TS and Chen, Q and Gibbs, WR and Gibson, BF and Trotter, DEG and Howell, CR and Hussein, AH and Mertens, G and Moore,
             CF and Morris, C and Obst, A and Pasyuk, E and Roper, CD and Salinas, F and Schmidt, D and Setze, HR and Slaus, I and Sterbenz, S and Tang, H and Walter, RL and Whiteley, CR and Witala, H and Zhou,
             Z},
   Title = {Scattering length measurements from radiative pion capture
             and neutron-deuteron breakup},
   Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
   Volume = {631},
   Pages = {421c-425c},
   Year = {1998},
   Abstract = {The neutron-neutron and neutron-proton 1So scattering
             lengths ann and anp, respectively, were determined
             simultaneously from the neutron-deuteron breakup reaction.
             Their comparison with the recommended values obtained from
             "two-body" reactions gives a measure of the importance of
             three-nucleon force effects in the three-nucleon continuum.
             In order to check on the result obtained for ann from the
             "two-body" π--d capture reaction, a new measurement was
             performed at LANL. Preliminary results of the three
             experiments are given.},
   Key = {Tornow98}
}

@booklet{Pedroni91,
   Author = {Pedroni, RS and Byrd, RC and Honoré, GM and Howell, CR and Walter,
             RL},
   Title = {Scattering of polarized and unpolarized neutrons from Nb93
             from 8 to 17 MeV and optical model descriptions},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {43},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {2336-2345},
   Year = {1991},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.43.2336},
   Abstract = {Differential cross sections and analyzing powers for neutron
             elastic scattering from Nb93 have been measured at energies
             from 8 to 17 MeV using pulsed-beam time-of-flight methods.
             These data plus total cross-section data from 1 to 20 MeV
             are interpreted in terms of the spherical optical model.
             Several sets of optical potential parameters with systematic
             energy dependences have been derived in searches that used
             different initial parameter sets. In addition, comparisons
             of the data to calculations based on previously reported
             optical potentials are presented. It is concluded that the
             data favor the inclusion of a small imaginary spin-orbit
             term. © 1991 The American Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.43.2336},
   Key = {Pedroni91}
}

@booklet{Howell85,
   Author = {C. R. Howell},
   Title = {Scattering of polarized and unpolarized neutrons from si-28
             and s-32},
   Journal = {Aip Conference Proceedings},
   Number = {124},
   Pages = {72 -- 89},
   Year = {1985},
   Key = {Howell85}
}

@booklet{Howell88,
   Author = {Howell, CR and Pedroni, RS and Honoré, GM and Murphy, K and Byrd, RC and Tungate, G and Walter, RL},
   Title = {Scattering of polarized and unpolarized nucleons from
             Si28},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1552-1570},
   Year = {1988},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.38.1552},
   Abstract = {Measurements of the differential cross sections and
             analyzing powers have been made for 28Si(n,n0) and
             28Si(n,n1) for incident neutron energies between 8 and 17
             MeV. These data have been combined with previous
             differential and total cross-section data to obtain the most
             complete data set for neutron scattering from Si28 over the
             840 MeV energy range. The data have been described within
             the framework of a symmetric rotational model using
             phenomenological coupled-channels calculations. Nuclear
             moments were deduced and they are in good agreement with
             those obtained from electron scattering and Coulomb
             excitation measurements. Various calculations were performed
             to determine the sensitivity of the data and calculations to
             the signs of the potential deformation parameters 2 and 4.
             The systematic analysis of the analyzing power data enabled
             the determination of the deformation length for the
             spin-orbit potential. Comparisons between neutron- and
             proton-scattering data and calculations were made to test
             the sensitivity of this type of data to charge symmetry
             breaking in the nuclear force and to investigate the isospin
             dependence of the absorptive part of the nucleon-nucleus
             scattering potential for Si28. The results of these
             comparisons suggest that the differences between 28Si+n and
             28Si+p scattering can be attributed solely to Coulomb
             effects. © 1988 The American Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.38.1552},
   Key = {Howell88}
}

@booklet{Tornow87,
   Author = {Tornow, W and Howell, CR and Pfützner, HG and Roberts, ML and Felsher,
             PD and Chen, ZM and Walter, RL},
   Title = {Search for a purported resonance in 13C at 20 MeV via
             analyzing power measurements of 12C(n,n).},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {35},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1578-1580},
   Year = {1987},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9953937},
   Key = {Tornow87}
}

@article{fds246645,
   Author = {Howell, CR and Walter, RL},
   Title = {SIMULTANEOUS MEASUREMENTS OF ANALYZING POWERS AND
             DIFFERENTIAL CROSS SECTIONS FOR n plus **2**8Si.},
   Journal = {IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science},
   Volume = {NS-30},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {1132-1135},
   Year = {1982},
   Abstract = {Scattering experiments conducted with beams of polarized
             neutrons give special information about the spin sensitive
             part of the neutron-nucleus interaction. Carefully
             controlled measurements of the analyzing power for the
             scattering of polarized neutron beams can also give accurate
             values for the more conventional observable, the
             differential cross section. An attempt is made to obtain
             both from an experiment originally intended to determine
             only the analyzing power function. As a test the data are
             compared to cross sections measured in a conventional
             neutron scattering experiment.},
   Key = {fds246645}
}

@booklet{Howell83,
   Author = {HOWELL, CR and WALTER, RL},
   Title = {SIMULTANEOUS MEASUREMENTS OF ANALYZING POWERS AND
             DIFFERENTIAL CROSS-SECTIONS FOR N+SI-28},
   Journal = {IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science},
   Volume = {30},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {1132-1135},
   Year = {1983},
   ISSN = {0018-9499},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1983QK12300070&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1109/TNS.1983.4332471},
   Key = {Howell83}
}

@booklet{Guss82,
   Author = {Guss, PP and Floyd, CE and Murphy, K and Howell, CR and Pedroni, RS and Honore, GM and Pfutzner, HG and Tungate, G and Byrd, RC and Walter, RL and Delaroche, JP},
   Title = {Spin-orbit deformations deduced from analyzing powers for
             inelastic neutron scattering from Fe54, Fe56, Ni58, Ni60,
             Sn120, and Pb208},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {2854-2857},
   Year = {1982},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.25.2854},
   Abstract = {Analyzing powers Ay() for inelastic scattering of 10-MeV
             neutrons to the first excited states of Fe54, Fe56, Ni58,
             Ni60, Sn120, and Pb208 have been measured at a few selected
             angles. These data were analyzed using a coupled channels
             code in which the full Thomas form of the spin-orbit
             potential is assumed. The magnitudes of the observed
             spin-orbit deformations, which were found to be similar to
             those of (p,p) in each case, contradict recent suggestions
             based on microscopic nuclear structure considerations.
             NUCLEAR REACTIONS Fe54,56, Ni58,60, Sn120, Pb208(n,n) En=10
             MeV; measured Ay(); deduced soc. © 1982 The American
             Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.25.2854},
   Key = {Guss82}
}

@article{fds246672,
   Author = {Tonchev, AP and Angell, C and Boswell, M and Chyzh, A and Howell, CR and Karwowski, HJ and Kelley, JH and Tornow, W and Tsoneva, N and Wu,
             YK},
   Title = {Study of collective dipole excitations below the giant
             dipole resonance at HIγS},
   Journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings},
   Volume = {891},
   Pages = {339-347},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {0094-243X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2713535},
   Abstract = {The High-Intensity Gamma-ray Source utilizing intra-cavity
             back-scattering of free electron laser photons from
             relativistic electrons allows one to produce a unique beam
             of high-flux gamma rays with 100% polarization and
             selectable energy and energy resolution which is ideal for
             low-energy γ-ray scattering experiments. Nuclear resonance
             fluorescence experiments have been performed on N=82 nuclei.
             High sensitivity studies of E1 and M1 excitations at
             energies close to the neutron emission threshold have been
             performed. The method allows the determination of excitation
             energies, spin, parities, and decay branching ratios of the
             pygmy dipole mode of excitation. The observations are
             compared with calculations using statistical and
             quasi-particle random-phase approximations. © 2007 American
             Institute of Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.2713535},
   Key = {fds246672}
}

@article{fds327431,
   Author = {Kapadia, A and Crowell, A and Fallin, B and Howell, C and Agasthya, G and Lakshmanan, M and Newton, J and Juang, T and Oldham,
             M},
   Title = {SU-E-T-108: 3D Measurement of Neutron Dose from a Novel
             Neutron Imaging Technique.},
   Journal = {Medical physics},
   Volume = {39},
   Number = {6Part11},
   Pages = {3727},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1118/1.4735166},
   Abstract = {We have been developing a fast-neutron spectroscopic
             technique to quantitatively image the distribution of
             elements in the body using quasi-monochromatic neutron
             beams. Previously, we demonstrated the ability of the
             technique to quantify specific elements in the liver and
             breast while limiting radiation dose to clinically
             acceptable levels. Here we present the results of a physical
             dose measurement performed through neutron irradiation of 3D
             PRESAGE dosimetry phantoms.Two PRESAGE optical-CT dosimeters
             were placed inside a physical phantom of the human torso and
             irradiated with 8 MeV neutrons produced via the 2H(d,n)
             reaction using a tandem Van-de-Graaff accelerator. The
             dosimeters, measuring 10 cm and 4 cm in diameter, were
             located in regions corresponding to the liver (10 cm), and
             the kidney (4 cm). Irradiation was performed with the
             neutron beam incident directly on the larger dosimeter.
             Cumulative neutron fluence incident upon each dosimeter was
             determined using an aluminum-foil activation technique.
             Following irradiation, the change in optical density in both
             dosimeters was measured to determine the relative
             irradiation and dose distribution in each volume.Both
             PRESAGE dosimeters exhibited detectable changes in optical
             density corresponding to the dose deposited in the volume.
             The two dosimeters registered doses of 8.5 Gy (direct
             incidence, 4.5 hour irradiation) and 0.25 Gy (off-axis, 20
             hour irradiation), respectively. The larger dosimeter showed
             highest intensity at the entry point of the beam with
             exponential drop-off along the beam direction. The smaller
             dosimeter registered a more uniform change in intensity,
             consistent with the higher incidence of scattered neutrons
             at this location.The results demonstrate the utility of
             PRESAGE dosimeters in measuring dose from neutron
             irradiation and highlight the difference in relative doses
             between primary and proximal organs when exposed to neutron
             beams. This work was supported by the United States
             Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics under Grant
             No. DE-FG02-97ER41033, the National Cancer Institute under
             grant R01CA100835, and by the Department of Defense under
             award W81XWH-09-1-0066.},
   Doi = {10.1118/1.4735166},
   Key = {fds327431}
}

@article{fds327635,
   Author = {Brady, S and Gunasingha, R and Howell, C and Crowell, A and Fallin, B and Yoshizumi, T},
   Title = {SU-FF-T-372: Novel Neutron Dosimetry Using Radiochromic
             Films for 10 MeV Neutrons},
   Journal = {Medical physics},
   Volume = {36},
   Number = {6Part14},
   Pages = {2607-2607},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1118/1.3181853},
   Doi = {10.1118/1.3181853},
   Key = {fds327635}
}

@article{fds327433,
   Author = {Gunasingha, R and Howell, C and Crowell, A and Fallin, B and Yoshizumi,
             T and Song, H and Tonchev, A and Brady, S and Anderson-Evans,
             C},
   Title = {SU-FF-T-436: Comparison of Neutron Doses to a Water Target
             Exposed to a 10 MeV Neutron Beam: Foil Activation Method Vs.
             Monte Carlo Simulations},
   Journal = {Medical physics},
   Volume = {36},
   Number = {6Part15},
   Pages = {2622-2623},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1118/1.3181918},
   Doi = {10.1118/1.3181918},
   Key = {fds327433}
}

@article{fds327432,
   Author = {Kapadia, A and Agasthya, G and Cumberbatch, L and Howell,
             C},
   Title = {SU-GG-I-159: In-Vivo Iron Measurement through Nuclear
             Resonance Fluorescence},
   Journal = {Medical physics},
   Volume = {37},
   Number = {6Part5},
   Pages = {3138-3138},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1118/1.3468195},
   Doi = {10.1118/1.3468195},
   Key = {fds327432}
}

@article{fds246756,
   Author = {Howell, CR and Tornow, W and Pfützner, HG and Li, A and Roberts, ML and Murphy, K and Felsher, PD and Weisel, GJ and Naqvi, A and Walter, RL and Lambert, JM and Treado, PA and Šlaus, I},
   Title = {Techniques for vector analyzing power measurements of the
             2H(n, np)n breakup reaction at low
             energies},
   Journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section
             A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated
             Equipment},
   Volume = {290},
   Number = {2-3},
   Pages = {424-436},
   Year = {1990},
   ISSN = {0168-9002},
   Abstract = {Experimental methods to measure the vector analyzing powers
             over a broad range of kinematic configurations in the n-d
             breakup reaction have been developed at TUNL. These
             techniques employ the polarized beam facilities at TUNL and
             use the 2H(d, n)3He reaction as a source of low-energy
             polarized neutrons. Our methods permit measurements to a
             high statistical accuracy over a large fraction of
             three-nucleon phase space. The techniques are described and
             experimental spectra along with kinematic calculations are
             presented. © 1990.},
   Key = {fds246756}
}

@booklet{Howell90,
   Author = {C. R. Howell and W. Tornow and H. G. Pfutzner and A. L. Li and M. L. Roberts and K. Murphy and P. D. Felsher and G. J.
             Weisel and A. Naqvi and R. L. Walter and J. M. Lambert and P. A. Treado and I. Slaus},
   Title = {Techniques for vector analyzing power measurements of the
             h-2(n-],np)n breakup reaction at low energies},
   Journal = {Nuclear Instruments \& Methods In Physics Research Section
             A-accelerators Spectrometers Detectors And Associated
             Equipment},
   Volume = {290},
   Number = {2-3},
   Pages = {424 -- 436},
   Year = {1990},
   Month = {May},
   Key = {Howell90}
}

@article{fds246702,
   Author = {Walter, RL and Weisel, GJ and Das, RK and Tornow, W and Howell,
             CR},
   Title = {The dispersive optical model for n + 208Pb and n
             + 209Bi},
   Journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section
             B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms},
   Volume = {79},
   Number = {1-4},
   Pages = {282-285},
   Year = {1993},
   ISSN = {0168-583X},
   Abstract = {The dispersive optical model (DOM) provides a natural
             connection between the shell model potential for bound
             states and the optical model for nucleon scattering at
             positive energies. At TUNL we have developed DOMs for
             neutron scattering for ten nuclei between 27Al and 209Bi. In
             these studies we rely on TUNL measurements of differential
             cross-section (σ(θ)) and analyzing power, as well as a
             wealth of σ(θ) and total cross section measurements from
             numerous other laboratories. In this paper we briefly
             outline the DOM method and the achievements in describing
             scattering data for n + 208Pb and n + 209Bi and
             single-particle bound-state data for neutrons in 208Pb. ©
             1993.},
   Key = {fds246702}
}

@booklet{Walter93,
   Author = {WALTER, RL and WEISEL, GJ and DAS, RK and TORNOW, W and HOWELL,
             CR},
   Title = {THE DISPERSIVE OPTICAL-MODEL FOR N+PB-208 AND
             N+BI-209},
   Journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section
             B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms},
   Volume = {79},
   Number = {1-4},
   Pages = {282-285},
   Year = {1993},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0168-583X},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1993LH98400078&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1016/0168-583X(93)95344-5},
   Key = {Walter93}
}

@article{fds246740,
   Author = {Tonchev, AP and Boswell, M and Howell, CR and Karwowski, HJ and Kelley,
             JH and Tornow, W and Wu, YK},
   Title = {The high intensity gamma-ray source (HI gamma S) and recent
             results},
   Journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section
             B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms},
   Volume = {241},
   Number = {1-4},
   Pages = {170-175},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0168-583X},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000234260000039&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.nimb.2005.07.080},
   Key = {fds246740}
}

@article{fds43990,
   Author = {A.P. Tonchev and M. Boswell and C.R. Howell and H.J. Karwowski and J.H.
             Kelley, W. Tornow and Y.K. Wu},
   Title = {The high intensity gamma-ray source HIGS and recent
             measurements},
   Journal = {Nucl. Instr. Methods B},
   Volume = {241},
   Pages = {170 - 175},
   Year = {2005},
   Key = {fds43990}
}

@article{fds246664,
   Author = {Tonchev, AP and Boswell, M and Howell, CR and Karwowski, HJ and Kelley,
             JH and Tornow, W and Wu, YK},
   Title = {The high intensity γ-ray source (HIγS) and recent
             results},
   Journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section
             B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms},
   Volume = {241},
   Number = {1-4},
   Pages = {170-175},
   Year = {2005},
   ISSN = {0168-583X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2005.07.080},
   Abstract = {The high intensity γ-ray source (HIγS) utilizes
             intra-cavity backscattering of free electron laser photons
             from the Duke electron storage ring to produce a unique
             monoenergetic beam of high-flux γ-rays with high
             polarization and selectable energy resolution. At present,
             γ-ray beams with energies from 2 to 58 MeV are available
             with intensities as high as 10 5-5 × 106 γ/s, energy
             spreads of 3% or better, and nearly 100% linear
             polarization. The quality and intensity of the γ-ray beams
             at HIγS are responsible for the unprecedented performance
             of this facility in a broad range of research programs in
             nuclear structure, nuclear astrophysics and nuclear
             applications. Recent results from excitation of isomeric
             states in (γ, n) reactions and parity assignments of dipole
             states determined via the (γ, γ′) reaction are
             presented. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights
             reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.nimb.2005.07.080},
   Key = {fds246664}
}

@article{fds246669,
   Author = {Sabourov, A and Ahmed, MW and Blackston, MA and Crowell, AS and Howell,
             CR and Joshi, K and Nelson, SO and Perdue, BA and Sabourov, K and Tonchev,
             A and Weller, HR and Prior, RM and Spraker, MC and Braizinha, B and Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N},
   Title = {The Li7(d→,n0)Be8 and Li7(d→,n1)Be8 reactions below 160
             keV},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {74},
   Number = {6},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.74.064611},
   Abstract = {The polarization observables have been determined for the
             Li7(d→,n0)Be8 and Li7(d→,n1)Be8 reactions at beam
             energies between 80 and 160 keV. A Transition Matrix Element
             (TME) analysis revealed unique, dominant p-wave solutions
             for both neutron channels. The polarization observables were
             compared with distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) and
             coupled reaction channels (CRC) calculations. The general
             features of the data can be reproduced by the CRC
             calculations when a large target spin-orbit interaction is
             included. However, serious discrepancies are observed when
             the TMEs of the theory and experiment are compared. © 2006
             The American Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.74.064611},
   Key = {fds246669}
}

@booklet{Tornow91,
   Author = {Tornow, W and Howell, CR and Alohali, M and Chen, ZP and Felsher, PD and Hanly, JM and Walter, RL and Weisel, G and Mertens, G and Slaus, I and Witala, H and Glöckle, W},
   Title = {The low-energy neutron-deuteron analyzing power and the
             3P0,1,2 interactions of
             nucleon-nucleon potentials},
   Journal = {Physics Letters B},
   Volume = {257},
   Number = {3-4},
   Pages = {273-277},
   Year = {1991},
   ISSN = {0370-2693},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0370-2693(91)91892-Y},
   Abstract = {Data for the analyzing power Ay(θ) for the elastic
             scattering of neutrons from deuterons have been measured at
             5.0, 6.5 and 8.5 MeV to an accuracy of ±0.0035.
             Surprisingly large differences have been observed at these
             low energies between the data and rigorous Faddeev
             calculations using the Paris and Bonn B nucleon-nucleon
             potentials. The Ay(θ) data provide a stringent test for our
             present understanding of the on-shell and off-shell 3P0,1,2
             nucleon-nucleon interactions. © 1991.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0370-2693(91)91892-Y},
   Key = {Tornow91}
}

@article{fds246668,
   Author = {MacLachlan, G and Aghalaryan, A and Ahmidouch, A and Anderson, BD and Asaturyan, R and Baker, O and Baldwin, AR and Barkhuff, D and Breuer, H and Carlini, R and Christy, E and Churchwell, S and Cole, L and Crouse, E and Danagoulian, S and Day, D and Eden, T and Elaasar, M and Ent, R and Farkhondeh, M and Fenker, H and Finn, JM and Gan, L and Garrow, K and Gueye, P and Howell, CR and Hu, B and Jones, MK and Kelly, JJ and Keppel,
             C and Khandaker, M and Kim, W-Y and Kowalski, S and Lai, A and Lung, A and Mack, D and Madey, R and Manley, DM and Markowitz, P and Mitchell, J and Mkrtchyan, H and Opper, AK and Plaster, B et al.},
   Title = {The ratio of proton electromagnetic form factors via recoil
             polarimetry at Q2 = 1.13 (GeV/c)2},
   Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
   Volume = {764},
   Number = {1-4},
   Pages = {261-273},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {0375-9474},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2005.09.012},
   Abstract = {Recoil polarimetry was used to extract the ratio of the
             proton electromagnetic form factors, μp GEp/ GMp = 0.878 ±
             0.064(stat) ± 0.012(sys), at Q2 = 1.13 (GeV/c)2 from the
             reaction 1H(e, ep). This was an ancillary measurement in
             which the proton polarization was determined as part of a
             larger program utilizing a stand-alone polarimeter designed
             to measure μn GEn/GMn. This measurement complements
             previous recoil polarimetry measurements of μp GEp/GMp made
             at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. ©
             2006 Published by Elsevier B.V.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2005.09.012},
   Key = {fds246668}
}

@article{fds53234,
   Author = {W.I. Furman and the DIANNA Collaboration (including C.R.
             Howell and G.E. Mitchell and W. Tornow)},
   Title = {The Reactor YAGUAR Pulse Shape and Neutron Density
             Measurements},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the X International Seminar on Interactions
             of Neutrons with Nuclei, Dubna, May 2002},
   Year = {2002},
   Key = {fds53234}
}

@article{fds246817,
   Author = {Zhou, Z and Crowell, AS and Deng, J and Glockle, W and Howell, CR and Kamada, H and Qi, B and Macri, RA and Ruan, X and Tang, H and Walter, RL and Witala, H},
   Title = {The space-star anomaly in nd breakup at 25
             MeV},
   Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
   Volume = {684},
   Pages = {545C-548C},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0375-9474},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000167628700106&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds246817}
}

@article{fds246816,
   Author = {Xu, W and the JLab E95-001 Collaboration including H Gao and SC and Howell, CR},
   Title = {The Transverse Asymmetry A’T from Quasielastic Polarized
             Process and the Neutron Magnetic Form Factor},
   Journal = {Phys. Rev. Lett.},
   Volume = {85},
   Number = {14},
   Pages = {2900},
   Year = {2000},
   Abstract = {We have measured the transverse asymmetry AT′ in 3H +
             (Combining right arrow above sign)e(e + (Combining right
             arrow above sign), e′) quasielastic scattering in Hall
             A at Jefferson Laboratory with high precision for Q2 values
             from 0.1 to 0.6 (GeV/c)2. The neutron magnetic form factor
             GMn was extracted based on Faddeev calculations for Q2 = 0.1
             and 0.2 (GeV/c)2 with an experimental uncertainty of less
             than 2%. © 2000 The American Physical
             Society.},
   Key = {fds246816}
}

@inproceedings{fds4298,
   Author = {B.G. Levakov and V.I. Litvin and A.E. Lyzhin and E.V. Lychagin and A.
             Yu. Muzichka and G.V. Nekhaev and A.V. Strelkov and E.I. Sharapov and V.N. Shvetsov and C.R. Howell and G.E. Mitchell and W. Tornow and C.D.
             Bowman, B.E. Crawford and S.L. Stephenson},
   Title = {Thermal Neutron Fluxes at the Reactor Yaguar for the
             NN-Scattering Experiment},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the IX International Seminar on Interactions
             of Neutrons with Nuclei, Dubna, Russia, May
             2001},
   Pages = {27},
   Year = {2002},
   Key = {fds4298}
}

@booklet{Howell98,
   Author = {Howell, CR and Chen, Q and Carman, TS and Hussein, A and Gibbs, WR and Gibson, BF and Mertens, G and Moore, CF and Morris, C and Obst, A and Pasyuk, E and Roper, CD and Salinas, F and Slaus, I and Sterbenz, S and Tornow, W and Walter, RL and Whiteley, CR and Whitton,
             M},
   Title = {Toward a resolution of the neutron-neutron scattering-length
             issue},
   Journal = {Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and
             High-Energy Physics},
   Volume = {444},
   Number = {3-4},
   Pages = {252-259},
   Year = {1998},
   Abstract = {We report a high-precision determination of the 1S0
             neutron-neutron scattering length (ann) using the
             2H(π-,ny)n reaction. The value obtained in the present work
             is -18.50 ± 0.05 (statistical) ± 0.44 (systematic) ± 0.30
             (theoretical) fm, which is consistent with the values from
             previous measurements. Combining our result with previous
             measurements reduces the total uncertainty in the world
             average of ann to ±0.4 fm, matching the accuracy to which
             the charge-symmetric parameter app is determined. © 1998
             Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.},
   Key = {Howell98}
}

@article{fds304580,
   Author = {Xu, W and Dutta, D and Xiong, F and Anderson, B and Auberbach, L and Averett, T and Bertozzi, W and Black, T and Calarco, J and Cardman, L and Cates, GD and Chai, ZW and Chen, JP and Choi, S and Chudakov, E and Churchwell, S and Corrado, GS and Crawford, C and Dale, D and Deur, A and Djawotho, P and Filippone, BW and Finn, JM and Gao, H and Gilman, R and Glamazdin, AV and Glashausser, C and Glöckle, W and Golak, J and Gomez,
             J and Gorbenko, VG and Hansen, J-O and Hersman, FW and Higinbotham, DW and Holmes, R and Howell, CR and Hughes, E and Humensky, B and Incerti, S and Jager, CWD and Jensen, JS and Jiang, X et al.},
   Title = {Transverse asymmetry AT′ from the quasielastic
             3H + (Combining right arrow above sign)e (e +
             (Combining right arrow above sign), e′) process and the
             neutron magnetic form factor},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {85},
   Number = {14},
   Pages = {2900-2904},
   Year = {2000},
   Abstract = {We have measured the transverse asymmetry AT′ in 3H +
             (Combining right arrow above sign)e(e + (Combining right
             arrow above sign), e′) quasielastic scattering in Hall A
             at Jefferson Laboratory with high precision for Q2 values
             from 0.1 to 0.6 (GeV/c)2. The neutron magnetic form factor
             GMn was extracted based on Faddeev calculations for Q2 = 0.1
             and 0.2 (GeV/c)2 with an experimental uncertainty of less
             than 2%. © 2000 The American Physical Society.},
   Key = {fds304580}
}

@booklet{Setze96,
   Author = {Setze, HR and Howell, CR and Tornow, W and Braun, RT and Glöckle, W and Hussein, AH and Lambert, JM and Mertens, G and Roper, CD and Salinas, F and Šlaus, I and Trotter, DEG and Vlahović, B and Walter, RL and Witała,
             H},
   Title = {Verification of the space-star anomaly in nd
             breakup},
   Journal = {Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and
             High-Energy Physics},
   Volume = {388},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {229-234},
   Year = {1996},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0370-2693(96)01069-6},
   Abstract = {Cross-section measurements of a collinear configuration, the
             space-star and the coplanar-star configurations in nd
             breakup at En = 13.0 MeV are reported. The present
             measurements for the collinear configuration are in good
             agreement with pd and nd data. Our coplanar-star data are
             consistent with theoretical predictions and resolve the
             reported problem with this configuration. The previously
             observed large discrepancy between theory and nd
             cross-section data for the space-star configuration is
             confirmed in the present work.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0370-2693(96)01069-6},
   Key = {Setze96}
}

@article{fds246699,
   Author = {Laveissière, G and Degrande, N and Jaminion, S and Jutier, C and Todor,
             L and Salvo, RD and Hoorebeke, LV and Alexa, LC and Anderson, BD and Aniol,
             KA and Arundell, K and Audit, G and Auerbach, L and Baker, FT and Baylac,
             M and Berthot, J and Bertin, PY and Bertozzi, W and Bimbot, L and Boeglin,
             WU and Brash, EJ and Breton, V and Breuer, H and Burtin, E and Calarco, JR and Cardman, LS and Cavata, C and Chang, C-C and Chen, J-P and Chudakov, E and Cisbani, E and Dale, DS and Jager, CWD and Leo, RD and Deur, A and D'Hose,
             N and Dodge, GE and Domingo, JJ and Elouadrhiri, L and Epstein, MB and Ewell, LA and Finn, JM et al.},
   Title = {Virtual Compton scattering and neutral pion
             electroproduction in the resonance region up to the deep
             inelastic region at backward angles},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {79},
   Number = {1},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.79.015201},
   Abstract = {We have made the first measurements of the virtual Compton
             scattering (VCS) process via the H(e, e'p)γ exclusive
             reaction in the nucleon resonance region, at backward
             angles. Results are presented for the W-dependence at fixed
             Q2=1 GeV2 and for the Q2 dependence at fixed W near 1.5 GeV.
             The VCS data show resonant structures in the first and
             second resonance regions. The observed Q2 dependence is
             smooth. The measured ratio of H(e, e'p)γ to H(e, e'p)π0
             cross sections emphasizes the different sensitivity of these
             two reactions to the various nucleon resonances. Finally,
             when compared to real Compton scattering (RCS) at high
             energy and large angles, our VCS data at the highest W
             (1.8-1.9 GeV) show a striking Q2 independence, which may
             suggest a transition to a perturbative scattering mechanism
             at the quark level. © 2009 The American Physical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.79.015201},
   Key = {fds246699}
}

@article{fds246704,
   Author = {Fonvieille, H and Laveissière, G and Degrande, N and Jaminion, S and Jutier, C and Todor, L and Salvo, RD and Hoorebeke, LV and Alexa, LC and Anderson, BD and Aniol, KA and Arundell, K and Audit, G and Auerbach, L and Baker, FT and Baylac, M and Berthot, J and Bertin, PY and Bertozzi, W and Bimbot, L and Boeglin, WU and Brash, EJ and Breton, V and Breuer, H and Burtin, E and Calarco, JR and Cardman, LS and Cavata, C and Chang, C-C and Chen, J-P and Chudakov, E and Cisbani, E and Dale, DS and Jager, CWD and Leo, RD and Deur, A and D'Hose, N and Dodge, GE and Domingo, JJ and Elouadrhiri, L and Epstein, MB et al.},
   Title = {Virtual Compton scattering and the generalized
             polarizabilities of the proton at Q2=0.92 and 1.76
             GeV2},
   Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {86},
   Number = {1},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {0556-2813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.86.015210},
   Abstract = {Virtual Compton scattering (VCS) on the proton has been
             studied at the Jefferson Laboratory using the exclusive
             photon electroproduction reaction ep→epγ. This paper
             gives a detailed account of the analysis which has led to
             the determination of the structure functions P LL-P TT/ε
             and P LT and the electric and magnetic generalized
             polarizabilities (GPs) α E(Q2) and β M(Q2) at values of
             the four-momentum transfer squared Q2=0.92 and 1.76 GeV2.
             These data, together with the results of VCS experiments at
             lower momenta, help building a coherent picture of the
             electric and magnetic GPs of the proton over the full
             measured Q2 range and point to their nontrivial behavior. ©
             2012 American Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.86.015210},
   Key = {fds246704}
}

@article{fds329801,
   Author = {Carlson, J and Carpenter, MP and Casten, R and Elster, C and Fallon, P and Gade, A and Gross, C and Hagen, G and Hayes, AC and Higinbotham, DW and Howell, CR and Horowitz, CJ and Jones, KL and Kondev, FG and Lapi, S and Macchiavelli, A and McCutchen, EA and Natowitz, J and Nazarewicz, W and Papenbrock, T and Reddy, S and Riley, MA and Savage, MJ and Savard, G and Sherrill, BM and Sobotka, LG and Stoyer, MA and Betty Tsang and M and Vetter, K and Wiedenhoever, I and Wuosmaa, AH and Yennello,
             S},
   Title = {White paper on nuclear astrophysics and low-energy nuclear
             physics, Part 2: Low-energy nuclear physics},
   Journal = {Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics},
   Volume = {94},
   Pages = {68-124},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ppnp.2016.11.002},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.ppnp.2016.11.002},
   Key = {fds329801}
}


%% Preprints   
@article{fds221247,
   Author = {M.W. Ahmed and A.E. Champagne and B.R. Holstein and C.R. Howell and W.M.
             Snow, R.P. Springer and W.K. Wu.},
   Title = {Parity Violation in Photonuclear Reactions at HIGS --
             Submission to Snowmass 2013: Intensity Frontier},
   Journal = {arXiv:1307.8178 [nucl-th]},
   Year = {2013},
   Key = {fds221247}
}