Publications of G. Allan Johnson    :chronological  alphabetical  by type listing:

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@article{fds329027,
   Author = {Wei, H and Gibbs, E and Zhao, P and Wang, N and Cofer, GP and Zhang, Y and Johnson, GA and Liu, C},
   Title = {Susceptibility tensor imaging and tractography of collagen
             fibrils in the articular cartilage.},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance in Medicine},
   Volume = {78},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1683-1690},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrm.26882},
   Abstract = {To investigate the B0 orientation-dependent magnetic
             susceptibility of collagen fibrils within the articular
             cartilage and to determine whether susceptibility tensor
             imaging (STI) can detect the 3D collagen network within
             cartilage.Multiecho gradient echo datasets (100-μm
             isotropic resolution) were acquired from fixed porcine
             articular cartilage specimens at 9.4 T. The susceptibility
             tensor was calculated using phase images acquired at 12 or
             15 different orientations relative to B0 . The
             susceptibility anisotropy of the collagen fibril was
             quantified and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was compared
             against STI. 3D tractography was performed to visualize and
             track the collagen fibrils with DTI and STI.STI experiments
             showed the distinct and significant anisotropic magnetic
             susceptibility of collagen fibrils within the articular
             cartilage. STI can be used to measure and quantify
             susceptibility anisotropy maps. Furthermore, STI provides
             orientation information of the underlying collagen network
             via 3D tractography.The findings of this study demonstrate
             that STI can characterize the orientation variation of
             collagen fibrils where diffusion anisotropy fails. We
             believe that STI could serve as a sensitive and noninvasive
             marker to study the collagen fibrils microstructure. Magn
             Reson Med 78:1683-1690, 2017. © 2017 International Society
             for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.},
   Doi = {10.1002/mrm.26882},
   Key = {fds329027}
}

@article{fds311651,
   Author = {Vetreno, RP and Yaxley, R and Paniagua, B and Johnson, GA and Crews,
             FT},
   Title = {Adult rat cortical thickness changes across age and
             following adolescent intermittent ethanol
             treatment.},
   Journal = {Addiction Biology},
   Volume = {22},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {712-723},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {1355-6215},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/adb.12364},
   Abstract = {Human studies have established that adolescence is a period
             of brain maturation that parallels the development of adult
             behaviors. However, little is known regarding cortical
             development in the adult rat brain. We used magnetic
             resonance imaging (MRI) and histology to assess the impact
             of age on adult Wistar rat cortical thickness on postnatal
             day (P)80 and P220 as well as the effect of adolescent binge
             ethanol exposure on adult (P80) cortical thickness. MRI
             revealed changes in cortical thickness between P80 and P220
             that differ across cortical region. The adult P220 rat
             prefrontal cortex increased in thickness whereas cortical
             thinning occurred in both the cingulate and parietal
             cortices relative to young adult P80 rats. Histological
             analysis confirmed the age-related cortical thinning. In the
             second series of experiments, an animal model of adolescent
             intermittent ethanol (AIE; 5.0 g/kg, intragastrically, 20
             percent ethanol w/v, 2 days on/2 days off from P25 to
             P55) was used to assess the effects of alcohol on cortical
             thickness in young adult (P80) rats. MRI revealed that AIE
             resulted in region-specific cortical changes. A small region
             within the prefrontal cortex was significantly thinner
             whereas medial cortical regions were significantly thicker
             in young adult (P80) AIE-treated rats. The observed increase
             in cortical thickness was confirmed by histology. Thus, the
             rat cerebral cortex continues to undergo cortical thickness
             changes into adulthood, and adolescent alcohol exposure
             alters the young adult cortex that could contribute to brain
             dysfunction in adulthood.},
   Doi = {10.1111/adb.12364},
   Key = {fds311651}
}

@article{fds320199,
   Author = {Xie, L and Bennett, KM and Liu, C and Johnson, GA and Zhang, JL and Lee,
             VS},
   Title = {MRI tools for assessment of microstructure and nephron
             function of the kidney.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physiology: Renal Physiology},
   Volume = {311},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {F1109-F1124},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajprenal.00134.2016},
   Abstract = {MRI can provide excellent detail of renal structure and
             function. Recently, novel MR contrast mechanisms and imaging
             tools have been developed to evaluate microscopic kidney
             structures including the tubules and glomeruli. Quantitative
             MRI can assess local tubular function and is able to
             determine the concentrating mechanism of the kidney
             noninvasively in real time. Measuring single nephron
             function is now a near possibility. In parallel to advancing
             imaging techniques for kidney microstructure is a need to
             carefully understand the relationship between the local
             source of MRI contrast and the underlying physiological
             change. The development of these imaging markers can impact
             the accurate diagnosis and treatment of kidney disease. This
             study reviews the novel tools to examine kidney
             microstructure and local function and demonstrates the
             application of these methods in renal pathophysiology.},
   Doi = {10.1152/ajprenal.00134.2016},
   Key = {fds320199}
}

@article{fds316054,
   Author = {Wei, H and Xie, L and Dibb, R and Li, W and Decker, K and Zhang, Y and Johnson, GA and Liu, C},
   Title = {Imaging whole-brain cytoarchitecture of mouse with MRI-based
             quantitative susceptibility mapping.},
   Journal = {NeuroImage},
   Volume = {137},
   Pages = {107-115},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {1053-8119},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2016.05.033},
   Abstract = {The proper microstructural arrangement of complex neural
             structures is essential for establishing the functional
             circuitry of the brain. We present an MRI method to resolve
             tissue microstructure and infer brain cytoarchitecture by
             mapping the magnetic susceptibility in the brain at high
             resolution. This is possible because of the heterogeneous
             magnetic susceptibility created by varying concentrations of
             lipids, proteins and irons from the cell membrane to
             cytoplasm. We demonstrate magnetic susceptibility maps at a
             nominal resolution of 10-μm isotropic, approaching the
             average cell size of a mouse brain. The maps reveal many
             detailed structures including the retina cell layers,
             olfactory sensory neurons, barrel cortex, cortical layers,
             axonal fibers in white and gray matter. Olfactory glomerulus
             density is calculated and structural connectivity is traced
             in the optic nerve, striatal neurons, and brainstem nerves.
             The method is robust and can be readily applied on MRI
             scanners at or above 7T.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2016.05.033},
   Key = {fds316054}
}

@article{fds292751,
   Author = {Spiliopoulos, D and Kagadis, GC and Karnabatidis, D and Johnson, GA and Badea, CT},
   Title = {Digital Subtracted Angiography of Small Animals},
   Pages = {67-75},
   Booktitle = {Handbook of Small Animal Imaging: Preclinical Imaging,
             Therapy, and Applications},
   Publisher = {Taylor & Francis Books, Inc., CRC Press},
   Editor = {Kagadis, GC and Ford, NL and Loudos, GK and Karnabatidis,
             D},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {March},
   ISBN = {1466555688},
   Key = {fds292751}
}

@article{fds292753,
   Author = {Subashi, E and Cordero, FJ and Halvorson, KG and Qi, Y and Nouls, JC and Becher, OJ and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Tumor location, but not H3.3K27M, significantly influences
             the blood-brain-barrier permeability in a genetic mouse
             model of pediatric high-grade glioma.},
   Journal = {Journal of Neuro-Oncology},
   Volume = {126},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {243-251},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0167-594X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11060-015-1969-9},
   Abstract = {Pediatric high-grade gliomas (pHGGs) occur with strikingly
             different frequencies in infratentorial and supratentorial
             regions. Although histologically these malignancies appear
             similar, they represent distinct diseases. Recent genomic
             studies have identified histone K27M H3.3/H3.1 mutations in
             the majority of brainstem pHGGs; these mutations are rarely
             encountered in pHGGs that arise in the cerebral cortex.
             Previous research in brainstem pHGGs suggests a restricted
             permeability of the blood-brain-barrier (BBB). In this work,
             we use dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI to evaluate BBB
             permeability in a genetic mouse model of pHGG as a function
             of location (cortex vs. brainstem, n = 8 mice/group) and
             histone mutation (mutant H3.3K27M vs. wild-type H3.3, n = 8
             mice/group). The pHGG models are induced either in the
             brainstem or the cerebral cortex and are driven by PDGF
             signaling and p53 loss with either H3.3K27M or wild-type
             H3.3. T2-weighted MRI was used to determine tumor
             location/extent followed by 4D DCE-MRI for estimating the
             rate constant (K (trans) ) for tracer exchange across the
             barrier. BBB permeability was 67 % higher in cortical pHGGs
             relative to brainstem pHGGs (t test, p = 0.012) but was not
             significantly affected by the expression of mutant H3.3K27M
             versus wild-type H3.3 (t-test, p = 0.78). Although mice
             became symptomatic at approximately the same time, the mean
             volume of cortical tumors was 3.6 times higher than the mean
             volume of brainstem tumors. The difference between the mean
             volume of gliomas with wild-type and mutant H3.3 was
             insignificant. Mean K (trans) was significantly correlated
             to glioma volume. These results present a possible
             explanation for the poor response of brainstem pHGGs to
             systemic therapy. Our findings illustrate a potential role
             played by the microenvironment in shaping tumor growth and
             BBB permeability.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s11060-015-1969-9},
   Key = {fds292753}
}

@article{fds292754,
   Author = {Xie, L and Layton, AT and Wang, N and Larson, PEZ and Zhang, JL and Lee,
             VS and Liu, C and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Dynamic contrast-enhanced quantitative susceptibility
             mapping with ultrashort echo time MRI for evaluating renal
             function.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physiology: Renal Physiology},
   Volume = {310},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {F174-F182},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1931-857X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajprenal.00351.2015},
   Abstract = {Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI can provide key insight
             into renal function. DCE MRI is typically achieved through
             an injection of a gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agent,
             which has desirable T1 quenching and tracer kinetics.
             However, significant T2* blooming effects and signal voids
             can arise when Gd becomes very concentrated, especially in
             the renal medulla and pelvis. One MRI sequence designed to
             alleviate T2* effects is the ultrashort echo time (UTE)
             sequence. In the present study, we observed T2* blooming in
             the inner medulla of the mouse kidney, despite using UTE at
             an echo time of 20 microseconds and a low dose of 0.03
             mmol/kg Gd. We applied quantitative susceptibility mapping
             (QSM) and resolved the signal void into a positive
             susceptibility signal. The susceptibility values [in parts
             per million (ppm)] were converted into molar concentrations
             of Gd using a calibration curve. We determined the
             concentrating mechanism (referred to as the concentrating
             index) as a ratio of maximum Gd concentration in the inner
             medulla to the renal artery. The concentrating index was
             assessed longitudinally over a 17-wk course (3, 5, 7, 9, 13,
             17 wk of age). We conclude that the UTE-based DCE method is
             limited in resolving extreme T2* content caused by the
             kidney's strong concentrating mechanism. QSM was able to
             resolve and confirm the source of the blooming effect to be
             the large positive susceptibility of concentrated Gd. UTE
             with QSM can complement traditional magnitude UTE and offer
             a powerful tool to study renal pathophysiology.},
   Doi = {10.1152/ajprenal.00351.2015},
   Key = {fds292754}
}

@article{fds320200,
   Author = {Johnson, GA and Anderson, RJ and Cook, JJ and Long, C and Badea,
             A},
   Title = {Image-processing pipelines: Applications in magnetic
             resonance histology},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE},
   Volume = {9784},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9781510600195},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2203525},
   Abstract = {© 2016 SPIE. Image processing has become ubiquitous in
             imaging research - so ubiquitous that it is easy to loose
             track of how diverse this processing has become. The Duke
             Center for In Vivo Microscopy has pioneered the development
             of Magnetic Resonance Histology (MRH), which generates large
             multidimensional data sets that can easily reach into the
             tens of gigabytes. A series of dedicated image-processing
             workstations and associated software have been assembled to
             optimize each step of acquisition, reconstruction,
             post-processing, registration, visualization, and
             dissemination. This talk will describe the image-processing
             pipelines from acquisition to dissemination that have become
             critical to our everyday work.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.2203525},
   Key = {fds320200}
}

@article{fds268697,
   Author = {Calabrese, E and Badea, A and Cofer, G and Qi, Y and Johnson,
             GA},
   Title = {A Diffusion MRI Tractography Connectome of the Mouse Brain
             and Comparison with Neuronal Tracer Data.},
   Journal = {Cerebral Cortex},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {4628-4637},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {1047-3211},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/10325 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {Interest in structural brain connectivity has grown with the
             understanding that abnormal neural connections may play a
             role in neurologic and psychiatric diseases. Small animal
             connectivity mapping techniques are particularly important
             for identifying aberrant connectivity in disease models.
             Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging tractography can
             provide nondestructive, 3D, brain-wide connectivity maps,
             but has historically been limited by low spatial resolution,
             low signal-to-noise ratio, and the difficulty in estimating
             multiple fiber orientations within a single image voxel.
             Small animal diffusion tractography can be substantially
             improved through the combination of ex vivo MRI with
             exogenous contrast agents, advanced diffusion acquisition
             and reconstruction techniques, and probabilistic fiber
             tracking. Here, we present a comprehensive, probabilistic
             tractography connectome of the mouse brain at microscopic
             resolution, and a comparison of these data with a neuronal
             tracer-based connectivity data from the Allen Brain Atlas.
             This work serves as a reference database for future
             tractography studies in the mouse brain, and demonstrates
             the fundamental differences between tractography and
             neuronal tracer data.},
   Doi = {10.1093/cercor/bhv121},
   Key = {fds268697}
}

@article{fds292755,
   Author = {Calabrese, E and Hickey, P and Hulette, C and Zhang, J and Parente, B and Lad, SP and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Postmortem Diffusion MRI of the Human Brainstem and Thalamus
             for Deep Brain Stimulator Electrode Localization},
   Journal = {Movement Disorders},
   Volume = {30},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {E6-E6},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0885-3185},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000360759500015&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds292755}
}

@article{fds268695,
   Author = {Calabrese, E and Badea, A and Coe, CL and Lubach, GR and Shi, Y and Styner,
             MA and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {A diffusion tensor MRI atlas of the postmortem rhesus
             macaque brain.},
   Journal = {NeuroImage},
   Volume = {117},
   Pages = {408-416},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {1053-8119},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.05.072},
   Abstract = {The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is the most widely used
             nonhuman primate for modeling the structure and function of
             the brain. Brain atlases, and particularly those based on
             magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), have become important
             tools for understanding normal brain structure, and for
             identifying structural abnormalities resulting from disease
             states, exposures, and/or aging. Diffusion tensor imaging
             (DTI)-based MRI brain atlases are widely used in both human
             and macaque brain imaging studies because of the unique
             contrasts, quantitative diffusion metrics, and diffusion
             tractography that they can provide. Previous MRI and DTI
             atlases of the rhesus brain have been limited by low
             contrast and/or low spatial resolution imaging. Here we
             present a microscopic resolution MRI/DTI atlas of the rhesus
             brain based on 10 postmortem brain specimens. The atlas
             includes both structural MRI and DTI image data, a detailed
             three-dimensional segmentation of 241 anatomic structures,
             diffusion tractography, cortical thickness estimates, and
             maps of anatomic variability among atlas specimens. This
             atlas incorporates many useful features from previous work,
             including anatomic label nomenclature and ontology, data
             orientation, and stereotaxic reference frame, and further
             extends prior analyses with the inclusion of high-resolution
             multi-contrast image data.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.05.072},
   Key = {fds268695}
}

@article{fds268696,
   Author = {Calabrese, E and Hickey, P and Hulette, C and Zhang, J and Parente, B and Lad, SP and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Postmortem diffusion MRI of the human brainstem and thalamus
             for deep brain stimulator electrode localization.},
   Journal = {Human Brain Mapping},
   Volume = {36},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {3167-3178},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {1065-9471},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.22836},
   Abstract = {Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established surgical
             therapy for medically refractory tremor disorders including
             essential tremor (ET) and is currently under investigation
             for use in a variety of other neurologic and psychiatric
             disorders. There is growing evidence that the anti-tremor
             effects of DBS for ET are directly related to modulation of
             the dentatorubrothalamic tract (DRT), a white matter pathway
             that connects the cerebellum, red nucleus, and ventral
             intermediate nucleus of the thalamus. Emerging white matter
             targets for DBS, like the DRT, will require improved
             three-dimensional (3D) reference maps of deep brain anatomy
             and structural connectivity for accurate electrode
             targeting. High-resolution diffusion MRI of postmortem brain
             specimens can provide detailed volumetric images of
             important deep brain nuclei and 3D reconstructions of white
             matter pathways with probabilistic tractography techniques.
             We present a high spatial and angular resolution diffusion
             MRI template of the postmortem human brainstem and thalamus
             with 3D reconstructions of the nuclei and white matter
             tracts involved in ET circuitry. We demonstrate registration
             of these data to in vivo, clinical images from patients
             receiving DBS therapy, and correlate electrode proximity to
             tractography of the DRT with improvement of ET
             symptoms.},
   Doi = {10.1002/hbm.22836},
   Key = {fds268696}
}

@article{fds268694,
   Author = {Borg, JS and Vu, M-A and Badea, C and Badea, A and Johnson, GA and Dzirasa,
             K},
   Title = {Localization of Metal Electrodes in the Intact Rat Brain
             Using Registration of 3D Microcomputed Tomography Images to
             a Magnetic Resonance Histology Atlas.},
   Journal = {eNeuro},
   Volume = {2},
   Number = {4},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/10327 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {Simultaneous neural recordings taken from multiple areas of
             the rodent brain are garnering growing interest due to the
             insight they can provide about spatially distributed neural
             circuitry. The promise of such recordings has inspired great
             progress in methods for surgically implanting large numbers
             of metal electrodes into intact rodent brains. However,
             methods for localizing the precise location of these
             electrodes have remained severely lacking. Traditional
             histological techniques that require slicing and staining of
             physical brain tissue are cumbersome, and become
             increasingly impractical as the number of implanted
             electrodes increases. Here we solve these problems by
             describing a method that registers 3-D computerized
             tomography (CT) images of intact rat brains implanted with
             metal electrode bundles to a Magnetic Resonance Imaging
             Histology (MRH) Atlas. Our method allows accurate
             visualization of each electrode bundle's trajectory and
             location without removing the electrodes from the brain or
             surgically implanting external markers. In addition, unlike
             physical brain slices, once the 3D images of the electrode
             bundles and the MRH atlas are registered, it is possible to
             verify electrode placements from many angles by "re-slicing"
             the images along different planes of view. Further, our
             method can be fully automated and easily scaled to
             applications with large numbers of specimens. Our digital
             imaging approach to efficiently localizing metal electrodes
             offers a substantial addition to currently available
             methods, which, in turn, may help accelerate the rate at
             which insights are gleaned from rodent network
             neuroscience.},
   Key = {fds268694}
}

@article{fds268706,
   Author = {Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Magnetic resonance histology.},
   Journal = {Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging},
   Volume = {42},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {1-2},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {1053-1807},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmri.24774},
   Doi = {10.1002/jmri.24774},
   Key = {fds268706}
}

@book{fds292752,
   Author = {Paxinos, G and Watson, C and Calabrese, E and Badea, A and Johnson,
             G},
   Title = {An MRI/DTI Atlas of the Rat Brain},
   Pages = {224 pages},
   Publisher = {Elsevier Academic Press},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {May},
   ISBN = {978-0-12-417313-2},
   Abstract = {MRI/DTI Atlas of the Rat Brain offers two major enhancements
             when compared with earlier attempts to make MRI/DTI rat
             brain atlases. First, the spatial resolution at 25μm is
             considerably higher than previous data published. Secondly,
             the comprehensive set of MRI/DTI contrasts provided has
             enabled the authors to identify more than 80% of structures
             identified in The Rat Brain in Stereotaxic
             Coordinates.},
   Key = {fds292752}
}

@article{fds268698,
   Author = {Subashi, E and Qi, Y and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR microscopy identifies regions
             of therapeutic response in a preclinical model of colorectal
             adenocarcinoma.},
   Journal = {Medical physics},
   Volume = {42},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {2482-2488},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0094-2405},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1118/1.4917525},
   Abstract = {A typical dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI study often
             compares the derived pharmacokinetic parameters on manually
             selected tumor regions or over the entire tumor volume.
             These measurements include domains where the interpretation
             of the biomarkers may be unclear (such as in necrotic
             areas). Here, the authors describe a technique for
             increasing the sensitivity and specificity of DCE-MRI by
             identifying tumor regions with a variable response to
             therapy.Two cohorts (n = 8/group) of nu/nu mice with LS-174T
             implanted in the mammary fat pad were imaged at five time
             points over four weeks. The treatment/control group received
             bevacizumab/saline at a dose of 5 mg/kg or 5 ml/kg twice
             weekly; imaging experiments were performed weekly. MR images
             were acquired at an isotropic resolution of 156 μm(3)(2.4
             nl) and with a sampling rate of 9.9 s. The histogram of the
             time-to-peak (TTP) was used to identify two (fast- and
             slow-enhancing) regions based on a threshold of TTP = 1000
             s. The regions were correlated with histology, and the
             effect of therapy was locally examined.Tumors in the
             treatment group had a significantly longer doubling time.
             The regions defined by thresholding the TTP histogram
             identified two distinct domains correlating significantly
             with tumor permeability and microvessel density. In the
             fast-enhancing region, the mean permeability constant
             (K(trans)) was significantly lower in the treatment group at
             day 9; in the slow-enhancing region, K(trans) was not
             different between the control and treatment groups. At day
             9, the relative volume of the fast-enhancing region was
             significantly lower in the treatment group, while that of
             the slow-enhancing region was significantly higher.Two
             regions with distinct kinetic parameters were identified
             based on the histogram of TTP. The effect of bevacizumab, as
             measured by a decrease in K(trans), was confined to one of
             these regions. High spatiotemporal resolution MR studies may
             contribute unique insights into the response of the tumor
             microenvironment to therapy.},
   Doi = {10.1118/1.4917525},
   Key = {fds268698}
}

@article{fds268700,
   Author = {Xie, L and Qi, Y and Subashi, E and Liao, G and Miller-DeGraff, L and Jetten, AM and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {4D MRI of polycystic kidneys from rapamycin-treated
             Glis3-deficient mice.},
   Journal = {Nmr in Biomedicine},
   Volume = {28},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {546-554},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0952-3480},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nbm.3281},
   Abstract = {Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a life-threatening
             disease that leads to a grotesque enlargement of the kidney
             and significant loss of function. Several imaging studies
             with MRI have demonstrated that cyst size in polycystic
             kidneys can determine disease severity and progression. In
             the present study, we found that, although kidney volume and
             cyst volume decreased with drug treatment, renal function
             did not improve with treatment. Here, we applied dynamic
             contrast-enhanced MRI to study PKD in a Glis3 (GLI-similar
             3)-deficient mouse model. Cysts from this model have a wide
             range of sizes and develop at an early age. To capture this
             crucial stage and assess cysts in detail, we imaged during
             early development (3-17 weeks) and applied high
             spatiotemporal resolution MRI (125 × 125 × 125 cubic
             microns every 7.7 s). A drug treatment with rapamycin
             (also known as sirolimus) was applied to determine whether
             disease progression could be halted. The effect and synergy
             (interaction) of aging and treatment were evaluated using an
             analysis of variance (ANOVA). Structural measurements,
             including kidney volume, cyst volume and cyst-to-kidney
             volume ratio, changed significantly with age. Drug treatment
             significantly decreased these metrics. Functional
             measurements of time-to-peak (TTP) mean and TTP variance
             were determined. TTP mean did not change with age, whereas
             TTP variance increased with age. Treatment with rapamycin
             generally did not affect these functional metrics.
             Synergistic effects of treatment and age were not found for
             any measurements. Together, the size and volume ratio of
             cysts decreased with drug treatment, whereas renal function
             remained the same. The quantification of renal structure and
             function with MRI can comprehensively assess the
             pathophysiology of PKD and response to treatment.},
   Doi = {10.1002/nbm.3281},
   Key = {fds268700}
}

@article{fds268717,
   Author = {Xie, L and Dibb, R and Cofer, GP and Li, W and Nicholls, PJ and Johnson,
             GA and Liu, C},
   Title = {Susceptibility tensor imaging of the kidney and its
             microstructural underpinnings.},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance in Medicine},
   Volume = {73},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {1270-1281},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0740-3194},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrm.25219},
   Abstract = {The purpose of this study was to determine whether
             susceptibility tensor imaging (STI) could overcome
             limitations of current techniques to detect tubules
             throughout the kidney.Normal mouse kidneys (n = 4) were
             imaged at 9.4T using a three-dimensional gradient multi-echo
             sequence (55-micron isotropic resolution). Phase images from
             12 orientations were obtained to compute the susceptibility
             tensor. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with 12 encoding
             directions was compared with STI. Tractography was performed
             to visualize and track the course of tubules with DTI and
             STI. Confocal microscopy was used to identify which tubular
             segments of the nephron were detected by DTI and
             STI.Diffusion anisotropy was limited to the inner medulla of
             the kidney. DTI did not find a significant number of
             coherent tubular tracks in the outer medulla or cortex. With
             STI, we found strong susceptibility anisotropy and many
             tracks in the inner and outer medulla and in limited areas
             of the cortex.STI was able to track tubules throughout the
             kidney, whereas DTI was limited to the inner medulla. STI
             provides a novel contrast mechanism related to local tubule
             microstructure and may offer a powerful method to study the
             nephron.},
   Doi = {10.1002/mrm.25219},
   Key = {fds268717}
}

@article{fds268699,
   Author = {Papp, EA and Leergaard, TB and Calabrese, E and Johnson, GA and Bjaalie,
             JG},
   Title = {Addendum to “Waxholm Space atlas of the Sprague Dawley rat
             brain” [NeuroImage 97 (2014) 374-386].},
   Journal = {NeuroImage},
   Volume = {105},
   Pages = {561-562},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1053-8119},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.10.017},
   Abstract = {The main focus of our original article was to describe the
             anatomical delineations constituting the first version of
             the WHS Sprague Dawley atlas, apply the Waxholm Space
             coordinate system, and publish the associated MRI/DTI
             template and segmentation volume in their original format.
             To increase usability of the dataset, we have recently
             shared an updated version of the volumetric image material
             (v1.01). The aims of this addendum are to inform about the
             improvements in the updated dataset, in particular related
             to navigation in the WHS coordinate system, and provide
             guidance for transforming coordinates acquired in the first
             version of the atlas.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.10.017},
   Key = {fds268699}
}

@article{fds268701,
   Author = {Xie, L and Dibb, R and Cofer, GP and Li, W and Nicholls, PJ and Johnson,
             GA and Liu, C},
   Title = {Susceptibility tensor imaging of the kidney and its
             microstructural underpinnings},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance in Medicine},
   Volume = {73},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {1270-1281},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0740-3194},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrm.25219},
   Abstract = {© 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Purpose: The purpose of this
             study was to determine whether susceptibility tensor imaging
             (STI) could overcome limitations of current techniques to
             detect tubules throughout the kidney. Methods: Normal mouse
             kidneys (n=4) were imaged at 9.4T using a three-dimensional
             gradient multi-echo sequence (55-micron isotropic
             resolution). Phase images from 12 orientations were obtained
             to compute the susceptibility tensor. Diffusion tensor
             imaging (DTI) with 12 encoding directions was compared with
             STI. Tractography was performed to visualize and track the
             course of tubules with DTI and STI. Confocal microscopy was
             used to identify which tubular segments of the nephron were
             detected by DTI and STI. Results: Diffusion anisotropy was
             limited to the inner medulla of the kidney. DTI did not find
             a significant number of coherent tubular tracks in the outer
             medulla or cortex. With STI, we found strong susceptibility
             anisotropy and many tracks in the inner and outer medulla
             and in limited areas of the cortex. Conclusion: STI was able
             to track tubules throughout the kidney, whereas DTI was
             limited to the inner medulla. STI provides a novel contrast
             mechanism related to local tubule microstructure and may
             offer a powerful method to study the nephron.},
   Doi = {10.1002/mrm.25219},
   Key = {fds268701}
}

@article{fds268704,
   Author = {Cao, W and Li, W and Han, H and O'Leary-Moore, SK and Sulik, KK and Allan
             Johnson, G and Liu, C},
   Title = {Prenatal alcohol exposure reduces magnetic susceptibility
             contrast and anisotropy in the white matter of mouse
             brains.},
   Journal = {NeuroImage},
   Volume = {102 Pt 2},
   Pages = {748-755},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {1053-8119},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.08.035},
   Abstract = {Prenatal alcohol exposure can result in long-term cognitive
             and behavioral deficits. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder
             (FASD) refers to a range of permanent birth defects caused
             by prenatal alcohol exposure, and is the most common
             neurodevelopmental disorder in the US. Studies by autopsy
             and conventional structural MRI indicate that the midline
             structures of the brain are particularly vulnerable to
             prenatal alcohol exposure. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)
             has shown that abnormalities in brain white matter
             especially the corpus callosum are very common in FASD.
             Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is a novel
             technique that measures tissue's magnetic property. Such
             magnetic property is affected by tissue microstructure and
             molecular composition including that of myelin in the white
             matter. In this work, we studied three major white matter
             fiber bundles of a mouse model of FASD and compared it to
             control mice using both QSM and DTI. QSM revealed clear and
             significant abnormalities in anterior commissure, corpus
             callosum, and hippocampal commissure, which were likely due
             to reduced myelination. Our data also suggested that QSM may
             be even more sensitive than DTI for examining changes due to
             prenatal alcohol exposure. Although this is a preclinical
             study, the technique of QSM is readily translatable to human
             brain.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.08.035},
   Key = {fds268704}
}

@article{fds268712,
   Author = {Calabrese, E and Badea, A and Coe, CL and Lubach, GR and Styner, MA and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Investigating the tradeoffs between spatial resolution and
             diffusion sampling for brain mapping with diffusion
             tractography: time well spent?},
   Journal = {Human Brain Mapping},
   Volume = {35},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {5667-5685},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {1065-9471},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.22578},
   Abstract = {Interest in mapping white matter pathways in the brain has
             peaked with the recognition that altered brain connectivity
             may contribute to a variety of neurologic and psychiatric
             diseases. Diffusion tractography has emerged as a popular
             method for postmortem brain mapping initiatives, including
             the ex-vivo component of the human connectome project, yet
             it remains unclear to what extent computer-generated tracks
             fully reflect the actual underlying anatomy. Of particular
             concern is the fact that diffusion tractography results vary
             widely depending on the choice of acquisition protocol. The
             two major acquisition variables that consume scan time,
             spatial resolution, and diffusion sampling, can each have
             profound effects on the resulting tractography. In this
             analysis, we determined the effects of the temporal tradeoff
             between spatial resolution and diffusion sampling on
             tractography in the ex-vivo rhesus macaque brain, a close
             primate model for the human brain. We used the wealth of
             autoradiography-based connectivity data available for the
             rhesus macaque brain to assess the anatomic accuracy of six
             time-matched diffusion acquisition protocols with varying
             balance between spatial and diffusion sampling. We show that
             tractography results vary greatly, even when the subject and
             the total acquisition time are held constant. Further, we
             found that focusing on either spatial resolution or
             diffusion sampling at the expense of the other is
             counterproductive. A balanced consideration of both sampling
             domains produces the most anatomically accurate and
             consistent results.},
   Doi = {10.1002/hbm.22578},
   Key = {fds268712}
}

@article{fds268703,
   Author = {Angeli, S and Befera, N and Peyrat, J-M and Calabrese, E and Johnson,
             GA and Constantinides, C},
   Title = {A high-resolution cardiovascular magnetic resonance
             diffusion tensor map from ex-vivo C57BL/6 murine
             hearts.},
   Journal = {Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance},
   Volume = {16},
   Pages = {77},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {1097-6647},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12968-014-0077-x},
   Abstract = {The complex cardiac fiber structural organization and
             spatial arrangement of cardiomyocytes in laminar sheetlets
             contributes greatly to cardiac functional and contractile
             ejection patterns. This study presents the first
             comprehensive, ultra-high resolution, fully quantitative
             statistical tensor map of the fixed murine heart at
             isotropic resolution of 43 μm using diffusion tensor (DT)
             cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR).Imaging was
             completed in approximately 12 hours using a six-directional
             encoding scheme, in five ex vivo healthy C57BL/6 mouse
             hearts. The tensor map constructed from this data provides
             an average description of the murine fiber architecture
             visualized with fiber tractography, and its population
             variability, using the latest advances in image tensor
             analysis and statistics.Results show that non-normalized
             cardiac tensor maps are associated with mean fractional
             anisotropy of 0.25 ± 0.07 and mean diffusivity of 8.9
             ± 1.6 × 10⁻⁴mm²/s. Moreover, average
             mid-ventricular helical angle distributions ranged between
             -41 ± 3° and +52 ± 5° and were highly correlated
             with transmural depth, in agreement with prior published
             results in humans and canines. Calculated variabilities of
             local myocyte orientations were 2.0° and 1.4°. Laminar
             sheet orientation variability was found to be less stable at
             2.6°. Despite such variations, the murine heart seems to be
             highly structured, particularly when compared to canines and
             humans.This tensor map has the potential to yield an
             accurate mean representation and identification of common or
             unique features of the cardiac myocyte architecture, to
             establish a baseline standard reference of DTI indices, and
             to improve detection of biomarkers, especially in
             pathological states or post-transgenetic
             modifications.},
   Doi = {10.1186/s12968-014-0077-x},
   Key = {fds268703}
}

@article{fds268705,
   Author = {Johnson, GA and Badea, A and Calabrese, E and Liu, C and Xie,
             L},
   Title = {Magnetic resonance histology—Applications in
             toxicology},
   Journal = {Toxicology Letters},
   Volume = {229},
   Pages = {S31-S32},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0378-4274},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2014.06.148},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.toxlet.2014.06.148},
   Key = {fds268705}
}

@article{fds268710,
   Author = {Xie, L and Subashi, E and Qi, Y and Knepper, MA and Johnson,
             GA},
   Title = {Four-dimensional MRI of renal function in the developing
             mouse.},
   Journal = {Nmr in Biomedicine},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {1094-1102},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0952-3480},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nbm.3162},
   Abstract = {The major roles of filtration, metabolism and high blood
             flow make the kidney highly vulnerable to drug-induced
             toxicity and other renal injuries. A method to follow kidney
             function is essential for the early screening of toxicity
             and malformations. In this study, we acquired high
             spatiotemporal resolution (four dimensional) datasets of
             normal mice to follow changes in kidney structure and
             function during development. The data were acquired with
             dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (via keyhole imaging) and a
             cryogenic surface coil, allowing us to obtain a full
             three-dimensional image (isotropic resolution,
             125 microns) every 7.7 s over a 50-min scan. This time
             course permitted the demonstration of both contrast
             enhancement and clearance. Functional changes were measured
             over a 17-week course (at 3, 5, 7, 9, 13 and 17 weeks).
             The time dimension of the MRI dataset was processed to
             produce unique image contrasts to segment the four regions
             of the kidney: cortex (CO), outer stripe (OS) of the outer
             medulla (OM), inner stripe (IS) of the OM and inner medulla
             (IM). Local volumes, time-to-peak (TTP) values and decay
             constants (DC) were measured in each renal region. These
             metrics increased significantly with age, with the exception
             of DC values in the IS and OS. These data will serve as a
             foundation for studies of normal renal physiology and future
             studies of renal diseases that require early detection and
             intervention.},
   Doi = {10.1002/nbm.3162},
   Key = {fds268710}
}

@article{fds268716,
   Author = {Papp, EA and Leergaard, TB and Calabrese, E and Johnson, GA and Bjaalie,
             JG},
   Title = {Waxholm Space atlas of the Sprague Dawley rat
             brain.},
   Journal = {NeuroImage},
   Volume = {97},
   Pages = {374-386},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {1053-8119},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.04.001},
   Abstract = {Three-dimensional digital brain atlases represent an
             important new generation of neuroinformatics tools for
             understanding complex brain anatomy, assigning location to
             experimental data, and planning of experiments. We have
             acquired a microscopic resolution isotropic MRI and DTI
             atlasing template for the Sprague Dawley rat brain with 39
             μm isotropic voxels for the MRI volume and 78 μm isotropic
             voxels for the DTI. Building on this template, we have
             delineated 76 major anatomical structures in the brain.
             Delineation criteria are provided for each structure. We
             have applied a spatial reference system based on internal
             brain landmarks according to the Waxholm Space standard,
             previously developed for the mouse brain, and furthermore
             connected this spatial reference system to the widely used
             stereotaxic coordinate system by identifying cranial sutures
             and related stereotaxic landmarks in the template using
             contrast given by the active staining technique applied to
             the tissue. With the release of the present atlasing
             template and anatomical delineations, we provide a new tool
             for spatial orientation analysis of neuroanatomical
             location, and planning and guidance of experimental
             procedures in the rat brain. The use of Waxholm Space and
             related infrastructures will connect the atlas to
             interoperable resources and services for multi-level data
             integration and analysis across reference
             spaces.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.04.001},
   Key = {fds268716}
}

@article{fds268723,
   Author = {Calabrese, E and Du, F and Garman, RH and Johnson, GA and Riccio, C and Tong, LC and Long, JB},
   Title = {Diffusion tensor imaging reveals white matter injury in a
             rat model of repetitive blast-induced traumatic brain
             injury.},
   Journal = {Journal of Neurotrauma},
   Volume = {31},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {938-950},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24392843},
   Abstract = {Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is one of the
             most common combat-related injuries seen in U.S. military
             personnel, yet relatively little is known about the
             underlying mechanisms of injury. In particular, the effects
             of the primary blast pressure wave are poorly understood.
             Animal models have proven invaluable for the study of
             primary bTBI, because it rarely occurs in isolation in human
             subjects. Even less is known about the effects of repeated
             primary blast wave exposure, but existing data suggest
             cumulative increases in brain damage with a second blast.
             MRI and, in particular, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), have
             become important tools for assessing bTBI in both clinical
             and preclinical settings. Computational statistical methods
             such as voxelwise analysis have shown promise in localizing
             and quantifying bTBI throughout the brain. In this study, we
             use voxelwise analysis of DTI to quantify white matter
             injury in a rat model of repetitive primary blast exposure.
             Our results show a significant increase in microstructural
             damage with a second blast exposure, suggesting that primary
             bTBI may sensitize the brain to subsequent
             injury.},
   Doi = {10.1089/neu.2013.3144},
   Key = {fds268723}
}

@article{fds268718,
   Author = {Johnson, GA and Calabrese, E and Little, PB and Hedlund, L and Qi, Y and Badea, A},
   Title = {Quantitative mapping of trimethyltin injury in the rat brain
             using magnetic resonance histology.},
   Journal = {NeuroToxicology},
   Volume = {42},
   Pages = {12-23},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0161-813X},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/10329 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {The growing exposure to chemicals in our environment and the
             increasing concern over their impact on health have elevated
             the need for new methods for surveying the detrimental
             effects of these compounds. Today's gold standard for
             assessing the effects of toxicants on the brain is based on
             hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained histology, sometimes
             accompanied by special stains or immunohistochemistry for
             neural processes and myelin. This approach is time-consuming
             and is usually limited to a fraction of the total brain
             volume. We demonstrate that magnetic resonance histology
             (MRH) can be used for quantitatively assessing the effects
             of central nervous system toxicants in rat models. We show
             that subtle and sparse changes to brain structure can be
             detected using magnetic resonance histology, and correspond
             to some of the locations in which lesions are found by
             traditional pathological examination. We report for the
             first time diffusion tensor image-based detection of changes
             in white matter regions, including fimbria and corpus
             callosum, in the brains of rats exposed to 8 mg/kg and 12
             mg/kg trimethyltin. Besides detecting brain-wide changes,
             magnetic resonance histology provides a quantitative
             assessment of dose-dependent effects. These effects can be
             found in different magnetic resonance contrast mechanisms,
             providing multivariate biomarkers for the same spatial
             location. In this study, deformation-based morphometry
             detected areas where previous studies have detected cell
             loss, while voxel-wise analyses of diffusion tensor
             parameters revealed microstructural changes due to such
             things as cellular swelling, apoptosis, and inflammation.
             Magnetic resonance histology brings a valuable addition to
             pathology with the ability to generate brain-wide
             quantitative parametric maps for markers of toxic insults in
             the rodent brain.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuro.2014.02.009},
   Key = {fds268718}
}

@article{fds268729,
   Author = {Befera, NT and Badea, CT and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Comparison of 4D-microSPECT and microCT for murine cardiac
             function.},
   Journal = {Molecular Imaging and Biology},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {235-245},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24037175},
   Abstract = {PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to compare a new
             generation of four-dimensional micro-single photon emission
             computed tomography (microSPECT) with microCT for the
             quantitative in vivo assessment of murine cardiac function.
             PROCEDURES: Four-dimensional isotropic cardiac images were
             acquired from anesthetized normal C57BL/6 mice with either
             microSPECT (n = 6) or microCT (n = 6). One additional mouse
             with myocardial infarction (MI) was scanned with both
             modalities. Prior to imaging, mice were injected with either
             technetium tetrofosmin for microSPECT or a liposomal blood
             pool contrast agent for microCT. Segmentation of the left
             ventricle (LV) was performed using Vitrea (Vital Images)
             software, to derive global and regional function. RESULTS:
             Measures of global LV function between microSPECT and
             microCT groups were comparable (e.g., ejection fraction = 71
             ± 6 % microSPECT and 68 ± 4 % microCT). Regional
             functional indices (wall motion, wall thickening, regional
             ejection fraction) were also similar for the two modalities.
             In the mouse with MI, microSPECT identified a large
             perfusion defect that was not evident with microCT.
             CONCLUSIONS: Despite lower spatial resolution, microSPECT
             was comparable to microCT in the quantitative evaluation of
             cardiac function. MicroSPECT offers an advantage over
             microCT in the ability to evaluate simultaneously myocardial
             radiotracer distribution and function, simultaneously.
             MicroSPECT should be considered as an alternative to microCT
             and magnetic resonance for preclinical cardiac imaging in
             the mouse.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s11307-013-0686-z},
   Key = {fds268729}
}

@article{fds268719,
   Author = {Lee, C-L and Min, H and Befera, N and Clark, D and Qi, Y and Das, S and Johnson, GA and Badea, CT and Kirsch, DG},
   Title = {Assessing cardiac injury in mice with dual energy-microCT,
             4D-microCT, and microSPECT imaging after partial heart
             irradiation.},
   Journal = {International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology,
             Physics},
   Volume = {88},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {686-693},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0360-3016},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2013.11.238},
   Abstract = {To develop a mouse model of cardiac injury after partial
             heart irradiation (PHI) and to test whether dual energy
             (DE)-microCT and 4-dimensional (4D)-microCT can be used to
             assess cardiac injury after PHI to complement myocardial
             perfusion imaging using micro-single photon emission
             computed tomography (SPECT).To study cardiac injury from
             tangent field irradiation in mice, we used a small-field
             biological irradiator to deliver a single dose of 12 Gy
             x-rays to approximately one-third of the left ventricle (LV)
             of Tie2Cre; p53(FL/+) and Tie2Cre; p53(FL/-) mice, where 1
             or both alleles of p53 are deleted in endothelial cells.
             Four and 8 weeks after irradiation, mice were injected with
             gold and iodinated nanoparticle-based contrast agents, and
             imaged with DE-microCT and 4D-microCT to evaluate myocardial
             vascular permeability and cardiac function, respectively.
             Additionally, the same mice were imaged with microSPECT to
             assess myocardial perfusion.After PHI with tangent fields,
             DE-microCT scans showed a time-dependent increase in
             accumulation of gold nanoparticles (AuNp) in the myocardium
             of Tie2Cre; p53(FL/-) mice. In Tie2Cre; p53(FL/-) mice,
             extravasation of AuNp was observed within the irradiated LV,
             whereas in the myocardium of Tie2Cre; p53(FL/+) mice, AuNp
             were restricted to blood vessels. In addition, data from
             DE-microCT and microSPECT showed a linear correlation (R(2)
             = 0.97) between the fraction of the LV that accumulated AuNp
             and the fraction of LV with a perfusion defect. Furthermore,
             4D-microCT scans demonstrated that PHI caused a markedly
             decreased ejection fraction, and higher end-diastolic and
             end-systolic volumes, to develop in Tie2Cre; p53(FL/-) mice,
             which were associated with compensatory cardiac hypertrophy
             of the heart that was not irradiated.Our results show that
             DE-microCT and 4D-microCT with nanoparticle-based contrast
             agents are novel imaging approaches complementary to
             microSPECT for noninvasive assessment of the change in
             myocardial vascular permeability and cardiac function of
             mice in whom myocardial injury develops after
             PHI.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.ijrobp.2013.11.238},
   Key = {fds268719}
}

@article{fds268720,
   Author = {Subashi, E and Choudhury, KR and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {An analysis of the uncertainty and bias in DCE-MRI
             measurements using the spoiled gradient-recalled echo pulse
             sequence.},
   Journal = {Medical physics},
   Volume = {41},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {032301},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0094-2405},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1118/1.4865790},
   Abstract = {The pharmacokinetic parameters derived from dynamic
             contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI have been used in more than 100
             phase I trials and investigator led studies. A comparison of
             the absolute values of these quantities requires an
             estimation of their respective probability distribution
             function (PDF). The statistical variation of the DCE-MRI
             measurement is analyzed by considering the fundamental
             sources of error in the MR signal intensity acquired with
             the spoiled gradient-echo (SPGR) pulse sequence.The variance
             in the SPGR signal intensity arises from quadrature
             detection and excitation flip angle inconsistency. The noise
             power was measured in 11 phantoms of contrast agent
             concentration in the range [0-1] mM (in steps of 0.1 mM) and
             in onein vivo acquisition of a tumor-bearing mouse. The
             distribution of the flip angle was determined in a uniform
             10 mM CuSO4 phantom using the spin echo double angle method.
             The PDF of a wide range of T1 values measured with the
             varying flip angle (VFA) technique was estimated through
             numerical simulations of the SPGR equation. The resultant
             uncertainty in contrast agent concentration was incorporated
             in the most common model of tracer exchange kinetics and the
             PDF of the derived pharmacokinetic parameters was studied
             numerically.The VFA method is an unbiased technique for
             measuringT1 only in the absence of bias in excitation flip
             angle. The time-dependent concentration of the contrast
             agent measured in vivo is within the theoretically predicted
             uncertainty. The uncertainty in measuring K(trans) with SPGR
             pulse sequences is of the same order, but always higher
             than, the uncertainty in measuring the pre-injection
             longitudinal relaxation time (T10). The lowest achievable
             bias/uncertainty in estimating this parameter is
             approximately 20%-70% higher than the bias/uncertainty in
             the measurement of the pre-injection T1 map. The fractional
             volume parameters derived from the extended Tofts model were
             found to be extremely sensitive to the variance in signal
             intensity. The SNR of the pre-injection T1 map indicates the
             limiting precision with which K(trans) can be
             calculated.Current small-animal imaging systems and pulse
             sequences robust to motion artifacts have the capacity for
             reproducible quantitative acquisitions with DCE-MRI. In
             these circumstances, it is feasible to achieve a level of
             precision limited only by physiologic variability.},
   Doi = {10.1118/1.4865790},
   Key = {fds268720}
}

@article{fds268721,
   Author = {Ashton, JR and Befera, N and Clark, D and Qi, Y and Mao, L and Rockman, HA and Johnson, GA and Badea, CT},
   Title = {Anatomical and functional imaging of myocardial infarction
             in mice using micro-CT and eXIA 160 contrast
             agent.},
   Journal = {Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging},
   Volume = {9},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {161-168},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {1555-4309},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cmmi.1557},
   Abstract = {Noninvasive small animal imaging techniques are essential
             for evaluation of cardiac disease and potential
             therapeutics. A novel preclinical iodinated contrast agent
             called eXIA 160 has recently been developed, which has been
             evaluated for micro-CT cardiac imaging. eXIA 160 creates
             strong contrast between blood and tissue immediately after
             its injection and is subsequently taken up by the myocardium
             and other metabolically active tissues over time. We focus
             on these properties of eXIA and show its use in imaging
             myocardial infarction in mice. Five C57BL/6 mice were imaged
             ~2 weeks after left anterior descending coronary artery
             ligation. Six C57BL/6 mice were used as controls.
             Immediately after injection of eXIA 160, an enhancement
             difference between blood and myocardium of ~340 HU enabled
             cardiac function estimation via 4D micro-CT scanning with
             retrospective gating. Four hours post-injection, the healthy
             perfused myocardium had a contrast difference of ~140 HU
             relative to blood while the infarcted myocardium showed no
             enhancement. These differences allowed quantification of
             infarct size via dual-energy micro-CT. In vivo micro-SPECT
             imaging and ex vivo triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC)
             staining provided validation for the micro-CT findings. Root
             mean squared error of infarct measurements was 2.7% between
             micro-CT and SPECT, and 4.7% between micro-CT and TTC. Thus,
             micro-CT with eXIA 160 can be used to provide both
             morphological and functional data for preclinical studies
             evaluating myocardial infarction and potential therapies.
             Further studies are warranted to study the potential use of
             eXIA 160 as a CT molecular imaging tool for other
             metabolically active tissues in the mouse.},
   Doi = {10.1002/cmmi.1557},
   Key = {fds268721}
}

@article{fds268725,
   Author = {Argyridis, I and Li, W and Johnson, GA and Liu, C},
   Title = {Quantitative magnetic susceptibility of the developing mouse
             brain reveals microstructural changes in the white
             matter.},
   Journal = {NeuroImage},
   Volume = {88},
   Pages = {134-142},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24269576},
   Abstract = {Cerebral development involves a complex cascade of events
             which are difficult to visualize and quantify in vivo. In
             this study we combine information from Diffusion Tensor
             Imaging (DTI) and Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping (QSM)
             to analyze developing mouse brains at five stages up to
             56days postnatal. Susceptibility maps were calculated using
             frequency shifts in gradient echo MR images acquired at
             9.4T. The mean apparent magnetic susceptibility and magnetic
             susceptibility anisotropy of major white matter tracts were
             evaluated as a function of age. During the first two weeks,
             susceptibility of white matter appeared paramagnetic
             relative to surrounding gray matter; it then gradually
             became more diamagnetic. While diffusion anisotropy was
             already apparent and high at postnatal day 2, susceptibility
             anisotropy only became significant during the third week.
             This mismatch indicated different microstructural
             underpinnings for diffusion anisotropy and susceptibility
             anisotropy. Histological exams were also performed to
             evaluate myelin and iron content. It is confirmed that the
             main source of susceptibility contrast in WM is the myelin
             content. The ability to quantify the magnetic properties of
             white matter will provide valuable information on the
             architecture of the brain during development and potentially
             a more specific indicator for myelin degenerative
             diseases.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.11.026},
   Key = {fds268725}
}

@article{fds268693,
   Author = {Johnston, SM and Johnson, GA and Badea, CT},
   Title = {Helical dual source cone-beam micro-CT},
   Journal = {2014 IEEE 11th International Symposium on Biomedical
             Imaging, ISBI 2014},
   Pages = {177-180},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9781467319591},
   Abstract = {© 2014 IEEE. While helical scanning is well established in
             the clinical arena, most micro-CT scanners use circular cone
             beam trajectories and approximate reconstructions based on a
             filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithm. This may be
             sufficient for some applications, but in studies of larger
             animals, such as rats, the size of the detector can
             constrain the field of view and extend scan time. To address
             this problem, we have designed and implemented helical
             scanning and reconstruction procedures for an
             in-house-developed dual source cone-beam micro-CT system.
             The reconstruction uses a simultaneous algebraic
             reconstruction technique combined with total variation
             regularization (SART-TV). We implemented this algorithm on a
             graphics processing unit (GPU) to reduce run time. The
             results demonstrate the speed and accuracy of the GPU-based
             SART-TV algorithm. The helical scan enables the
             reconstruction of volumes with extended field of view for
             whole body micro-CT imaging of large rodents.},
   Key = {fds268693}
}

@article{fds268702,
   Author = {Cutlip, RG and Hollander, MS and Johnson, GA and Johnson, BW and Friend,
             SA and Baker, BA},
   Title = {Magnetic resonance imaging of graded skeletal muscle injury
             in live rats.},
   Journal = {Environmental Health Insights},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {Suppl 1},
   Pages = {31-39},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/10309 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {Increasing number of stretch-shortening contractions (SSCs)
             results in increased muscle injury.Fischer Hybrid rats were
             acutely exposed to an increasing number of SSCs in vivo
             using a custom-designed dynamometer. Magnetic resonance
             imaging (MRI) imaging was conducted 72 hours after exposure
             when rats were infused with Prohance and imaged using a 7T
             rodent MRI system (GE Epic 12.0). Images were acquired in
             the transverse plane with typically 60 total slices acquired
             covering the entire length of the hind legs. Rats were
             euthanized after MRI, the lower limbs removed, and tibialis
             anterior muscles were prepared for histology and quantified
             stereology.Stereological analyses showed myofiber
             degeneration, and cellular infiltrates significantly
             increased following 70 and 150 SSC exposure compared to
             controls. MRI images revealed that the percent affected area
             significantly increased with exposure in all SSC groups in a
             graded fashion. Signal intensity also significantly
             increased with increasing SSC repetitions.These results
             suggest that contrast-enhanced MRI has the sensitivity to
             differentiate specific degrees of skeletal muscle strain
             injury, and imaging data are specifically representative of
             cellular histopathology quantified via stereological
             analyses.},
   Doi = {10.4137/ehi.s15255},
   Key = {fds268702}
}

@article{fds268707,
   Author = {Xie, L and Subashi, E and Qi, Y and Knepper, MA and Johnson,
             GA},
   Title = {Four-dimensional MRI of renal function in the developing
             mouse},
   Journal = {Nmr in Biomedicine},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {1094-1102},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0952-3480},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nbm.3162},
   Abstract = {The major roles of filtration, metabolism and high blood
             flow make the kidney highly vulnerable to drug-induced
             toxicity and other renal injuries. A method to follow kidney
             function is essential for the early screening of toxicity
             and malformations. In this study, we acquired high
             spatiotemporal resolution (four dimensional) datasets of
             normal mice to follow changes in kidney structure and
             function during development. The data were acquired with
             dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (via keyhole imaging) and a
             cryogenic surface coil, allowing us to obtain a full
             three-dimensional image (isotropic resolution, 125microns)
             every 7.7s over a 50-min scan. This time course permitted
             the demonstration of both contrast enhancement and
             clearance. Functional changes were measured over a 17-week
             course (at 3, 5, 7, 9, 13 and 17weeks). The time dimension
             of the MRI dataset was processed to produce unique image
             contrasts to segment the four regions of the kidney: cortex
             (CO), outer stripe (OS) of the outer medulla (OM), inner
             stripe (IS) of the OM and inner medulla (IM). Local volumes,
             time-to-peak (TTP) values and decay constants (DC) were
             measured in each renal region. These metrics increased
             significantly with age, with the exception of DC values in
             the IS and OS. These data will serve as a foundation for
             studies of normal renal physiology and future studies of
             renal diseases that require early detection and
             intervention. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons,
             Ltd.},
   Doi = {10.1002/nbm.3162},
   Key = {fds268707}
}

@article{fds268708,
   Author = {Clark, DP and Johnson, GA and Badea, CT},
   Title = {Robust material decomposition for spectral
             CT},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE},
   Volume = {9038},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9780819498311},
   ISSN = {1605-7422},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2042546},
   Abstract = {There is ongoing interest in extending CT from anatomical to
             functional imaging. Recent successes with dual energy CT,
             the introduction of energy discriminating x-ray detectors,
             and novel, target-specific, nanoparticle contrast agents
             enable functional imaging capabilities via spectral CT.
             However, many challenges related to radiation dose, photon
             flux, and sensitivity still must be overcome. Here, we
             introduce a post-reconstruction algorithm called spectral
             diffusion that performs a robust material decomposition of
             spectral CT data in the presence of photon noise to address
             these challenges. Specifically, we use spectrally joint,
             piece-wise constant kernel regression and the split Bregman
             method to iteratively solve for a material decomposition
             which is gradient sparse, quantitatively accurate, and
             minimally biased relative to the source data. Spectral
             diffusion integrates structural information from multiple
             spectral channels and their corresponding material
             decompositions within the framework of diffusion-like
             denoising algorithms. Using a 3D, digital bar phantom and a
             material sensitivity matrix calibrated for use with a
             polychromatic x-ray source, we quantify the limits of
             detectability (CNR = 5) afforded by spectral diffusion in
             the triple-energy material decomposition of iodine (3.1
             mg/mL), gold (0.9 mg/mL), and gadolinium (2.9 mg/mL)
             concentrations. © 2014 SPIE.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.2042546},
   Key = {fds268708}
}

@article{fds268709,
   Author = {Clark, DP and Johnson, GA and Badea, CT},
   Title = {A multi-resolution approach to retrospectively-gated cardiac
             micro-CT reconstruction},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE},
   Volume = {9033},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9780819498267},
   ISSN = {1605-7422},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2043044},
   Abstract = {In preclinical research, micro-CT is commonly used to
             provide anatomical information; however, there is
             significant interest in using this technology to obtain
             functional information in cardiac studies. The fastest
             acquisition in 4D cardiac micro-CT imaging is achieved via
             retrospective gating, resulting in irregular angular
             projections after binning the projections into phases of the
             cardiac cycle. Under these conditions, analytical
             reconstruction algorithms, such as filtered back projection,
             suffer from streaking artifacts. Here, we propose a novel,
             multi-resolution, iterative reconstruction algorithm
             inspired by robust principal component analysis which
             prevents the introduction of streaking artifacts, while
             attempting to recover the highest temporal resolution
             supported by the projection data. The algorithm achieves
             these results through a unique combination of the split
             Bregman method and joint bilateral filtration. We illustrate
             the algorithm’s performance using a
             contrast-enhanced, 2D slice through the MOBY mouse phantom
             and realistic projection acquisition and reconstruction
             parameters. Our results indicate that the algorithm is
             robust to under sampling levels of only 34 projections per
             cardiac phase and, therefore, has high potential in reducing
             both acquisition times and radiation dose. Another potential
             advantage of the multi-resolution scheme is the natural
             division of the reconstruction problem into a large number
             of independent sub-problems which can be solved in parallel.
             In future work, we will investigate the performance of this
             algorithm with retrospectively-gated, cardiac micro-CT data.
             © 2014 SPIE.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.2043044},
   Key = {fds268709}
}

@article{fds268711,
   Author = {Lipinski, RJ and Holloway, HT and O'Leary-Moore, SK and Ament, JJ and Pecevich, SJ and Cofer, GP and Budin, F and Everson, JL and Johnson, GA and Sulik, KK},
   Title = {Characterization of subtle brain abnormalities in a mouse
             model of Hedgehog pathway antagonist-induced cleft lip and
             palate.},
   Journal = {PloS one},
   Volume = {9},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {e102603},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/11679 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {Subtle behavioral and cognitive deficits have been
             documented in patient cohorts with orofacial clefts (OFCs).
             Recent neuroimaging studies argue that these traits are
             associated with structural brain abnormalities but have been
             limited to adolescent and adult populations where brain
             plasticity during infancy and childhood may be a confounding
             factor. Here, we employed high resolution magnetic resonance
             microscopy to examine primary brain morphology in a mouse
             model of OFCs. Transient in utero exposure to the Hedgehog
             (Hh) signaling pathway antagonist cyclopamine resulted in a
             spectrum of facial dysmorphology, including unilateral and
             bilateral cleft lip and palate, cleft of the secondary
             palate only, and a non-cleft phenotype marked by midfacial
             hypoplasia. Relative to controls, cyclopamine-exposed
             fetuses exhibited volumetric differences in several brain
             regions, including hypoplasia of the pituitary gland and
             olfactory bulbs, hyperplasia of the forebrain septal region,
             and expansion of the third ventricle. However, in affected
             fetuses the corpus callosum was intact and normal division
             of the forebrain was observed. This argues that
             temporally-specific Hh signaling perturbation can result in
             typical appearing OFCs in the absence of
             holoprosencephaly--a condition classically associated with
             Hh pathway inhibition and frequently co-occurring with OFCs.
             Supporting the premise that some forms of OFCs co-occur with
             subtle brain malformations, these results provide a possible
             ontological basis for traits identified in clinical
             populations. They also argue in favor of future
             investigations into genetic and/or environmental modulation
             of the Hh pathway in the etiopathogenesis of orofacial
             clefting.},
   Doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0102603},
   Key = {fds268711}
}

@article{fds268714,
   Author = {Badea, CT and Befera, N and Clark, D and Qi, Y and Johnson,
             GA},
   Title = {Dual-energy micro-CT imaging of pulmonary airway
             obstruction: Correlation with micro-SPECT},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE},
   Volume = {9038},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9780819498311},
   ISSN = {1605-7422},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2043094},
   Abstract = {To match recent clinical dual energy (DE) CT studies
             focusing on the lung, similar developments for DE micro-CT
             of the rodent lung are required. Our group has been actively
             engaged in designing pulmonary gating techniques for micro-
             CT, and has also introduced the first DE micro-CT imaging
             method of the rodent lung. The aim of this study was to
             assess the feasibility of DE micro-CT imaging for the
             evaluation of airway obstruction in mice, and to compare the
             method with micro single photon emission computed tomography
             (micro-SPECT) using technetium-99m labeled macroaggregated
             albumin ( 99m Tc-MAA). The results suggest that the induced
             pulmonary airway obstruction causes either atelectasis, or
             air-trapping similar to asthma or chronic bronchitis.
             Atelectasis could only be detected at early time points in
             DE micro-CT images, and is associated with a large increase
             in blood fraction and decrease in air fraction. Air trapping
             had an opposite effect with larger air fraction and
             decreased blood fraction shown by DE micro-CT. The decrease
             in perfusion to the hypoventilated lung (hypoxic
             vasoconstriction) is also seen in micro-SPECT. The proposed
             DE micro-CT technique for imaging localized airway
             obstruction performed well in our evaluation, and provides a
             higher resolution compared to micro-SPECT. Both DE micro-CT
             and micro-SPECT provide critical, quantitative lung
             biomarkers for image-based anatomical and functional
             information in the small animal. The methods are readily
             linked to clinical methods allowing direct comparison of
             preclinical and clinical results. © 2014
             SPIE.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.2043094},
   Key = {fds268714}
}

@article{fds268715,
   Author = {Befera, NT and Badea, CT and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Comparison of 4D-MicroSPECT and MicroCT for murine cardiac
             function},
   Journal = {Molecular Imaging and Biology},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {235-245},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1536-1632},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11307-013-0686-z},
   Abstract = {Purpose: The objective of this study was to compare a new
             generation of four-dimensional micro-single photon emission
             computed tomography (microSPECT) with microCT for the
             quantitative in vivo assessment of murine cardiac function.
             Procedures: Four-dimensional isotropic cardiac images were
             acquired from anesthetized normal C57BL/6 mice with either
             microSPECT (n = 6) or microCT (n = 6). One additional mouse
             with myocardial infarction (MI) was scanned with both
             modalities. Prior to imaging, mice were injected with either
             technetium tetrofosmin for microSPECT or a liposomal blood
             pool contrast agent for microCT. Segmentation of the left
             ventricle (LV) was performed using Vitrea (Vital Images)
             software, to derive global and regional function. Results:
             Measures of global LV function between microSPECT and
             microCT groups were comparable (e.g., ejection fraction = 71
             ± 6 % microSPECT and 68 ± 4 % microCT). Regional
             functional indices (wall motion, wall thickening, regional
             ejection fraction) were also similar for the two modalities.
             In the mouse with MI, microSPECT identified a large
             perfusion defect that was not evident with microCT.
             Conclusions: Despite lower spatial resolution, microSPECT
             was comparable to microCT in the quantitative evaluation of
             cardiac function. MicroSPECT offers an advantage over
             microCT in the ability to evaluate simultaneously myocardial
             radiotracer distribution and function, simultaneously.
             MicroSPECT should be considered as an alternative to microCT
             and magnetic resonance for preclinical cardiac imaging in
             the mouse. © 2013 World Molecular Imaging
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s11307-013-0686-z},
   Key = {fds268715}
}

@article{fds268713,
   Author = {Gyengesi, E and Calabrese, E and Sherrier, MC and Johnson, GA and Paxinos, G and Watson, C},
   Title = {Semi-automated 3D segmentation of major tracts in the rat
             brain: Comparing DTI with standard histological
             methods},
   Journal = {Brain Structure and Function},
   Volume = {219},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {539-550},
   Year = {2014},
   ISSN = {1863-2653},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00429-013-0516-8},
   Abstract = {Researchers working with rodent models of neurological
             disease often require an accurate map of the anatomical
             organization of the white matter of the rodent brain. With
             the increasing popularity of small animal MRI techniques,
             including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), there is
             considerable interest in rapid segmentation methods of
             neurological structures for quantitative comparisons.
             DTI-derived tractography allows simple and rapid
             segmentation of major white matter tracts, but the anatomic
             accuracy of these computer-generated fibers is open to
             question and has not been rigorously evaluated in the rat
             brain. In this study, we examine the anatomic accuracy of
             tractography-based segmentation in the adult rat brain. We
             analysed 12 major white matter pathways using semi-automated
             tractography-based segmentation alongside manual
             segmentation of Gallyas silver-stained histology sections.
             We applied four fiber-tracking algorithms to the DTI
             data-two integration methods and two deflection methods. In
             many cases, tractography-based segmentation closely matched
             histology-based segmentation; however different tractography
             algorithms produced dramatically different results. Results
             suggest that certain white matter pathways are more amenable
             to tractography-based segmentation than others. We believe
             that these data will help researchers decide whether it is
             appropriate to use tractography-based segmentation of white
             matter structures for quantitative DTI-based analysis of
             neurologic disease models. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s00429-013-0516-8},
   Key = {fds268713}
}

@article{fds268724,
   Author = {Xie, L and Sparks, MA and Li, W and Qi, Y and Liu, C and Coffman, TM and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Quantitative susceptibility mapping of kidney inflammation
             and fibrosis in type 1 angiotensin receptor-deficient
             mice},
   Journal = {Nmr in Biomedicine},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {1853-1863},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0952-3480},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nbm.3039},
   Abstract = {Disruption of the regulatory role of the kidneys leads to
             diverse renal pathologies; one major hallmark is
             inflammation and fibrosis. Conventional magnitude MRI has
             been used to study renal pathologies; however, the
             quantification or even detection of focal lesions caused by
             inflammation and fibrosis is challenging. We propose that
             quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) may be
             particularly sensitive for the identification of
             inflammation and fibrosis. In this study, we applied QSM in
             a mouse model deficient for angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT
             1 ). This model is known for graded pathologies, including
             focal interstitial fibrosis, cortical inflammation,
             glomerulocysts and inner medullary hypoplasia. We acquired
             high-resolution MRI on kidneys from AT 1 -deficient mice
             that were perfusion fixed with contrast agent. Two MR
             sequences were used (three-dimensional spin echo and
             gradient echo) to produce three image contrasts: T 1 , T 2
             (magnitude) and QSM. T 1 and T 2 (magnitude) images were
             acquired to segment major renal structures and to provide
             landmarks for the focal lesions of inflammation and fibrosis
             in the three-dimensional space. The volumes of major renal
             structures were measured to determine the relationship of
             the volumes to the degree of renal abnormalities and
             magnetic susceptibility values. Focal lesions were segmented
             from QSM images and were found to be closely associate d
             with the major vessels. Susceptibilities were relatively
             more paramagnetic in wild-type mice: 1.46±0.36 in the
             cortex, 2.14±0.94 in the outer medulla and 2.10±2.80 in
             the inner medulla (10 -2 ppm). Susceptibilities were more
             diamagnetic in knockout mice: -7.68±4.22 in the cortex,
             -11.46±2.13 in the outer medulla and -7.57±5.58 in the
             inner medulla (10 -2 ppm). This result was consistent with
             the increase in diamagnetic content, e.g. proteins and
             lipids, associated with inflammation and fibrosis. Focal
             lesions were validated with conventional histology. QSM was
             very sensitive in detecting pathology caused by small focal
             inflammation and fibrosis. QSM offers a new MR contrast
             mechanism to study this common disease marker in the kidney.
             © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.},
   Doi = {10.1002/nbm.3039},
   Key = {fds268724}
}

@article{fds268726,
   Author = {Xie, L and Sparks, MA and Li, W and Qi, Y and Liu, C and Coffman, TM and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Quantitative susceptibility mapping of kidney inflammation
             and fibrosis in type 1 angiotensin receptor-deficient
             mice.},
   Journal = {Nmr in Biomedicine},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {1853-1863},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24154952},
   Abstract = {Disruption of the regulatory role of the kidneys leads to
             diverse renal pathologies; one major hallmark is
             inflammation and fibrosis. Conventional magnitude MRI has
             been used to study renal pathologies; however, the
             quantification or even detection of focal lesions caused by
             inflammation and fibrosis is challenging. We propose that
             quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) may be
             particularly sensitive for the identification of
             inflammation and fibrosis. In this study, we applied QSM in
             a mouse model deficient for angiotensin receptor type 1
             (AT1). This model is known for graded pathologies, including
             focal interstitial fibrosis, cortical inflammation,
             glomerulocysts and inner medullary hypoplasia. We acquired
             high-resolution MRI on kidneys from AT1-deficient mice that
             were perfusion fixed with contrast agent. Two MR sequences
             were used (three-dimensional spin echo and gradient echo) to
             produce three image contrasts: T1, T2* (magnitude) and QSM.
             T1 and T2* (magnitude) images were acquired to segment major
             renal structures and to provide landmarks for the focal
             lesions of inflammation and fibrosis in the
             three-dimensional space. The volumes of major renal
             structures were measured to determine the relationship of
             the volumes to the degree of renal abnormalities and
             magnetic susceptibility values. Focal lesions were segmented
             from QSM images and were found to be closely associated with
             the major vessels. Susceptibilities were relatively more
             paramagnetic in wild-type mice: 1.46 ± 0.36 in the cortex,
             2.14 ± 0.94 in the outer medulla and 2.10 ± 2.80 in the
             inner medulla (10(-2) ppm). Susceptibilities were more
             diamagnetic in knockout mice: -7.68 ± 4.22 in the cortex,
             -11.46 ± 2.13 in the outer medulla and -7.57 ± 5.58 in the
             inner medulla (10(-2) ppm). This result was consistent with
             the increase in diamagnetic content, e.g. proteins and
             lipids, associated with inflammation and fibrosis. Focal
             lesions were validated with conventional histology. QSM was
             very sensitive in detecting pathology caused by small focal
             inflammation and fibrosis. QSM offers a new MR contrast
             mechanism to study this common disease marker in the
             kidney.},
   Doi = {10.1002/nbm.3039},
   Key = {fds268726}
}

@article{fds268736,
   Author = {Calabrese, E and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance histology reveals
             microstructural changes in the developing rat
             brain.},
   Journal = {NeuroImage},
   Volume = {79},
   Pages = {329-339},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23648962},
   Abstract = {The postnatal period is a remarkably dynamic phase of brain
             growth and development characterized by large-scale
             macrostructural changes, as well as dramatic microstructural
             changes, including myelination and cortical layering. This
             crucial period of neurodevelopment is uniquely susceptible
             to a wide variety of insults that may lead to neurologic
             disease. MRI is an important tool for studying both normal
             and abnormal neurodevelopmental changes, and quantitative
             imaging strategies like diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) allow
             visualization of many of the complex microstructural changes
             that occur during postnatal life. Diffusion tensor magnetic
             resonance histology (DT-MRH) provides particularly unique
             insight into cytoarchitectural changes in the developing
             brain. In this study, we used DT-MRH to track
             microstructural changes in the rat brain throughout normal
             postnatal neurodevelopment. We provide examples of diffusion
             tensor parameter changes in both white matter and gray
             matter structures, and correlate these changes with changes
             in cytoarchitecture. Finally, we provide a comprehensive
             database of image sets as a foundation for future studies
             using DT-MRH to characterize abnormal neurodevelopment in
             rodent models of neurodevelopmental disease.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.04.101},
   Key = {fds268736}
}

@article{fds268728,
   Author = {Johnson, GA and Badea, A and Calabrese, E and Liu, C and Xie,
             L},
   Title = {Magnetic resonance histology: cool images- but who
             cares?},
   Journal = {Toxicology Letters},
   Volume = {221},
   Pages = {S50-S50},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0378-4274},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000323865800154&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.toxlet.2013.06.183},
   Key = {fds268728}
}

@article{fds268733,
   Author = {O'Leary-Moore, SK and Budin, F and Paniagua, B and Oguz, I and Johnson,
             GA and Sulik, KK},
   Title = {HIGH-RESOLUTION NEUROIMAGING REVEALS A RANGE OF CORPUS
             CALLOSUM INSULT INDUCED BY ETHANOL ON GESTATIONAL DAY 7
             INMICE},
   Journal = {Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research},
   Volume = {37},
   Pages = {167A-167A},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0145-6008},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000318998300625&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds268733}
}

@article{fds268757,
   Author = {Calabrese, E and Badea, A and Watson, C and Johnson,
             GA},
   Title = {A quantitative magnetic resonance histology atlas of
             postnatal rat brain development with regional estimates of
             growth and variability.},
   Journal = {NeuroImage},
   Volume = {71},
   Pages = {196-206},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23353030},
   Abstract = {There has been growing interest in the role of postnatal
             brain development in the etiology of several neurologic
             diseases. The rat has long been recognized as a powerful
             model system for studying neuropathology and the safety of
             pharmacologic treatments. However, the complex
             spatiotemporal changes that occur during rat
             neurodevelopment remain to be elucidated. This work
             establishes the first magnetic resonance histology (MRH)
             atlas of the developing rat brain, with an emphasis on
             quantitation. The atlas comprises five specimens at each of
             nine time points, imaged with eight distinct MR contrasts
             and segmented into 26 developmentally defined brain regions.
             The atlas was used to establish a timeline of morphometric
             changes and variability throughout neurodevelopment and
             represents a quantitative database of rat neurodevelopment
             for characterizing rat models of human neurologic
             disease.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.01.017},
   Key = {fds268757}
}

@article{fds268740,
   Author = {Pandit, P and Johnston, SM and Qi, Y and Story, J and Nelson, R and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {The utility of micro-CT and MRI in the assessment of
             longitudinal growth of liver metastases in a preclinical
             model of colon carcinoma.},
   Journal = {Academic Radiology},
   Volume = {20},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {430-439},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23498983},
   Abstract = {RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Liver is a common site for distal
             metastases in colon and rectal cancer. Numerous clinical
             studies have analyzed the relative merits of different
             imaging modalities for detection of liver metastases.
             Several exciting new therapies are being investigated in
             preclinical models. But, technical challenges in preclinical
             imaging make it difficult to translate conclusions from
             clinical studies to the preclinical environment. This study
             addresses the technical challenges of preclinical magnetic
             resonance imaging (MRI) and micro-computed tomography (CT)
             to enable comparison of state-of-the-art methods for
             following metastatic liver disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS:
             We optimized two promising preclinical protocols to enable a
             parallel longitudinal study tracking metastatic human colon
             carcinoma growth in a mouse model: T2-weighted MRI using
             two-shot PROPELLER (Periodically Rotated Overlapping
             ParallEL Lines with Enhanced Reconstruction) and
             contrast-enhanced micro-CT using a liposomal contrast agent.
             Both methods were tailored for high throughput with
             attention to animal support and anesthesia to limit
             biological stress. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Each modality
             has its strengths. Micro-CT permitted more rapid acquisition
             (<10 minutes) with the highest spatial resolution (88-micron
             isotropic resolution). But detection of metastatic lesions
             requires the use of a blood pool contrast agent, which could
             introduce a confound in the evaluation of new therapies. MRI
             was slower (30 minutes) and had lower anisotropic spatial
             resolution. But MRI eliminates the need for a contrast agent
             and the contrast-to-noise between tumor and normal
             parenchyma was higher, making earlier detection of small
             lesions possible. Both methods supported a relatively
             high-throughput, longitudinal study of the development of
             metastatic lesions.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.acra.2012.09.030},
   Key = {fds268740}
}

@article{fds268806,
   Author = {Moding, EJ and Clark, DP and Qi, Y and Li, Y and Ma, Y and Ghaghada, K and Johnson, GA and Kirsch, DG and Badea, CT},
   Title = {Dual-energy micro-computed tomography imaging of
             radiation-induced vascular changes in primary mouse
             sarcomas.},
   Journal = {International Journal of Radiation: Oncology - Biology -
             Physics},
   Volume = {85},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1353-1359},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23122984},
   Abstract = {PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of radiation therapy on
             primary tumor vasculature using dual-energy (DE)
             micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). METHODS AND MATERIALS:
             Primary sarcomas were generated with mutant Kras and p53.
             Unirradiated tumors were compared with tumors irradiated
             with 20 Gy. A liposomal-iodinated contrast agent was
             administered 1 day after treatment, and mice were imaged
             immediately after injection (day 1) and 3 days later (day 4)
             with DE micro-CT. CT-derived tumor sizes were used to assess
             tumor growth. After DE decomposition, iodine maps were used
             to assess tumor fractional blood volume (FBV) at day 1 and
             tumor vascular permeability at day 4. For comparison, tumor
             vascularity and vascular permeability were also evaluated
             histologically by use of CD31 immunofluorescence and
             fluorescently-labeled dextrans. RESULTS: Radiation treatment
             significantly decreased tumor growth from day 1 to day 4
             (P<.05). There was a positive correlation between CT
             measurement of tumor FBV on day 1 and extravasated iodine on
             day 4 with microvascular density (MVD) on day 4 (R(2)=0.53)
             and dextran accumulation (R(2)=0.63) on day 4, respectively.
             Despite no change in MVD measured by histology, tumor FBV
             significantly increased after irradiation as measured by DE
             micro-CT (0.070 vs 0.091, P<.05). Both dextran and
             liposomal-iodine accumulation in tumors increased
             significantly after irradiation, with dextran fractional
             area increasing 5.2-fold and liposomal-iodine concentration
             increasing 4.0-fold. CONCLUSIONS: DE micro-CT is an
             effective tool for noninvasive assessment of vascular
             changes in primary tumors. Tumor blood volume and vascular
             permeability increased after a single therapeutic dose of
             radiation treatment.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.ijrobp.2012.09.027},
   Key = {fds268806}
}

@article{fds268756,
   Author = {Calabrese, E and Johnson, GA and Watson, C},
   Title = {An ontology-based segmentation scheme for tracking postnatal
             changes in the developing rodent brain with
             MRI.},
   Journal = {NeuroImage},
   Volume = {67},
   Pages = {375-384},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23246176},
   Abstract = {The postnatal period of neurodevelopment has been implicated
             in a number of brain disorders including autism and
             schizophrenia. Rodent models have proven to be invaluable in
             advancing our understanding of the human brain, and will
             almost certainly play a pivotal role in future studies on
             postnatal neurodevelopment. The growing field of magnetic
             resonance microscopy has the potential to revolutionize our
             understanding of neurodevelopment, if it can be successfully
             and appropriately assimilated into the vast body of existing
             neuroscience research. In this study, we demonstrate the
             utility of a developmental neuro-ontology designed
             specifically for tracking regional changes in MR biomarkers
             throughout postnatal neurodevelopment. Using this
             ontological classification as a segmentation guide, we track
             regional changes in brain volume in rats between postnatal
             day zero and postnatal day 80 and demonstrate differential
             growth rates in axial versus paraxial brain regions. Both
             the ontology and the associated label volumes are provided
             as a foundation for future MR-based studies of postnatal
             neurodevelopment in normal and disease states.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.11.037},
   Key = {fds268756}
}

@article{fds268739,
   Author = {Subashi, E and Moding, EJ and Cofer, GP and MacFall, JR and Kirsch, DG and Qi, Y and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {A comparison of radial keyhole strategies for high spatial
             and temporal resolution 4D contrast-enhanced MRI in small
             animal tumor models.},
   Volume = {40},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {022304},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0094-2405},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23387766},
   Abstract = {PURPOSE: Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI has been widely
             used as a quantitative imaging method for monitoring tumor
             response to therapy. The simultaneous challenges of
             increasing temporal and spatial resolution in a setting
             where the signal from the much smaller voxel is weaker have
             made this MR technique difficult to implement in
             small-animal imaging. Existing protocols employed in
             preclinical DCE-MRI acquire a limited number of slices
             resulting in potentially lost information in the third
             dimension. This study describes and compares a family of
             four-dimensional (3D spatial + time), projection
             acquisition, radial keyhole-sampling strategies that support
             high spatial and temporal resolution. METHODS: The 4D method
             is based on a RF-spoiled, steady-state, gradient-recalled
             sequence with minimal echo time. An interleaved 3D radial
             trajectory with a quasi-uniform distribution of points in
             k-space was used for sampling temporally resolved datasets.
             These volumes were reconstructed with three different
             k-space filters encompassing a range of possible radial
             keyhole strategies. The effect of k-space filtering on
             spatial and temporal resolution was studied in a 5 mM
             CuSO(4) phantom consisting of a meshgrid with 350-μm
             spacing and in 12 tumors from three cell lines (HT-29, LoVo,
             MX-1) and a primary mouse sarcoma model (three
             tumors∕group). The time-to-peak signal intensity was used
             to assess the effect of the reconstruction filters on
             temporal resolution. As a measure of heterogeneity in the
             third dimension, the authors analyzed the spatial
             distribution of the rate of transport (K(trans)) of the
             contrast agent across the endothelium barrier for several
             different types of tumors. RESULTS: Four-dimensional radial
             keyhole imaging does not degrade the system spatial
             resolution. Phantom studies indicate there is a maximum 40%
             decrease in signal-to-noise ratio as compared to a fully
             sampled dataset. T1 measurements obtained with the
             interleaved radial technique do not differ significantly
             from those made with a conventional Cartesian spin-echo
             sequence. A bin-by-bin comparison of the distribution of the
             time-to-peak parameter shows that 4D radial keyhole
             reconstruction does not cause significant temporal blurring
             when a temporal resolution of 9.9 s is used for the
             subsamples of the keyhole data. In vivo studies reveal
             substantial tumor heterogeneity in the third spatial
             dimension that may be missed with lower resolution imaging
             protocols. CONCLUSIONS: Volumetric keyhole imaging with
             projection acquisition provides a means to increase
             spatiotemporal resolution and coverage over that provided by
             existing 2D Cartesian protocols. Furthermore, there is no
             difference in temporal resolution between the higher spatial
             resolution keyhole reconstruction and the undersampled
             projection data. The technique allows one to measure complex
             heterogeneity of kinetic parameters with isotropic,
             microscopic spatial resolution.},
   Doi = {10.1118/1.4774050},
   Key = {fds268739}
}

@article{fds312813,
   Author = {Badea, CT and Hedlund, LW and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {A LabVIEW Platform for Preclinical Imaging Using Digital
             Subtraction Angiography and Micro-CT.},
   Journal = {Journal of Medical Engineering},
   Volume = {2013},
   Number = {581617},
   Pages = {581617},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/11992 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {CT and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) are ubiquitous
             in the clinic. Their preclinical equivalents are valuable
             imaging methods for studying disease models and treatment.
             We have developed a dual source/detector X-ray imaging
             system that we have used for both micro-CT and DSA studies
             in rodents. The control of such a complex imaging system
             requires substantial software development for which we use
             the graphical language LabVIEW (National Instruments,
             Austin, TX, USA). This paper focuses on a LabVIEW platform
             that we have developed to enable anatomical and functional
             imaging with micro-CT and DSA. Our LabVIEW applications
             integrate and control all the elements of our system
             including a dual source/detector X-ray system, a mechanical
             ventilator, a physiological monitor, and a power
             microinjector for the vascular delivery of X-ray contrast
             agents. Various applications allow cardiac- and
             respiratory-gated acquisitions for both DSA and micro-CT
             studies. Our results illustrate the application of DSA for
             cardiopulmonary studies and vascular imaging of the liver
             and coronary arteries. We also show how DSA can be used for
             functional imaging of the kidney. Finally, the power of 4D
             micro-CT imaging using both prospective and retrospective
             gating is shown for cardiac imaging.},
   Doi = {10.1155/2013/581617},
   Key = {fds312813}
}

@article{fds268727,
   Author = {Parnell, SE and Holloway, HT and O'Leary-Moore, SK and Dehart, DB and Paniaqua, B and Oguz, I and Budin, F and Styner, MA and Johnson, GA and Sulik, KK},
   Title = {Magnetic resonance microscopy-based analyses of the
             neuroanatomical effects of gestational day 9 ethanol
             exposure in mice},
   Journal = {Neurotoxicology and Teratology},
   Volume = {39},
   Pages = {77-83},
   Year = {2013},
   ISSN = {0892-0362},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ntt.2013.07.009},
   Abstract = {Animal model-based studies have shown that ethanol exposure
             during early gestation induces developmental stage-specific
             abnormalities of the face and brain. The exposure
             time-dependent variability in ethanol's teratogenic outcomes
             is expected to contribute significantly to the wide spectrum
             of effects observed in humans with fetal alcohol spectrum
             disorder (FASD). The work presented here employs a mouse
             FASD model and magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM; high
             resolution magnetic resonance imaging) in studies designed
             to further our understanding of the developmental
             stage-specific defects of the brain that are induced by
             ethanol. At neurulation stages, i.e. at the beginning of
             gestational day (GD) 9 and again 4. hours later, time-mated
             C57Bl/6J dams were intraperitoneally administered 2.9. g/kg
             ethanol or vehicle. Ethanol-exposed fetuses were collected
             on GD 17, processed for MRM analysis, and results compared
             to comparably staged controls. Linear and volume
             measurements as well as shape changes for numerous
             individual brain regions were determined. GD 9 ethanol
             exposure resulted in significantly increased septal region
             width, reduction of cerebellar volume, and enlargement of
             all of the ventricles. Additionally, the results of shape
             analyses showed that many areas of the ethanol-exposed
             brains including the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and right
             striatum were significantly misshapen. These data
             demonstrate that ethanol can induce dysmorphology that may
             not be obvious based on volumetric analyses alone, highlight
             the asymmetric aspects of ethanol-induced defects, and add
             to our understanding of ethanol's developmental
             stage-dependent neuroteratogenesis.© 2013 Elsevier
             Inc.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.ntt.2013.07.009},
   Key = {fds268727}
}

@article{fds268730,
   Author = {Clark, D and Badea, A and Johnson, GA and Badea, CT},
   Title = {Constructing a 4D murine cardiac micro-CT atlas for
             automated segmentation and phenotyping applications},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE},
   Volume = {8669},
   Year = {2013},
   ISSN = {1605-7422},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2007043},
   Abstract = {A number of investigators have demonstrated the potential of
             preclinical micro-CT in characterizing cardiovascular
             disease in mouse models. One major hurdle to advancing this
             approach is the extensive user interaction required to
             derive quantitative metrics from these 4D image arrays
             (space + time). In this work, we present: (1) a method for
             constructing an average anatomic cardiac atlas of the mouse
             based on 4D micro-CT images, (2) a fully automated approach
             for segmenting newly acquired cardiac data sets using the
             atlas, and (3) a quantitative characterization of atlasbased
             segmentation accuracy and consistency. Employing the
             deformable registration toolkit, ANTs, the construction of
             minimal deformation fields, and a novel adaptation of joint
             bilateral filtration, our atlas construction scheme was used
             to integrate 6, C57BL/6 cardiac micro-CT data sets, reducing
             the noise standard deviation from ~70 HU in the individual
             data sets to ~21 HU in the atlas data set. Using the
             segmentation tools in Atropos and our atlas-based
             segmentation, we were able to propagate manual labels to 5,
             C57BL/6 data sets not used in atlas construction. Average
             Dice coefficients and volume accuracies (respectively) over
             phases 1 (ventricular diastole), 3, and 5 (ventricular
             systole) of these 5 data sets were as follows: left
             ventricle, 0.96, 0.96; right ventricle, 0.89, 0.92; left
             atrium, 0.88, 0.89; right atrium, 0.86, 0.92; myocardium,
             0.90, 0.94. Once the atlas was constructed and segmented,
             execution of the proposed automated segmentation scheme took
             ~6.5 hours per data set, versus more than 50 hours required
             for a manual segmentation. © 2013 SPIE.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.2007043},
   Key = {fds268730}
}

@article{fds268731,
   Author = {Clark, D and Johnston, SM and Johnson, GA and Badea,
             CT},
   Title = {The effect of scatter correction on dual energy
             micro-CT},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE},
   Volume = {8668},
   Year = {2013},
   ISSN = {1605-7422},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2006904},
   Abstract = {Dual energy (DE) CT imaging is expected to play a major role
             in the diagnostic arena as it provides a quantitative
             decomposition of basis materials, opening the door for new
             clinical applications without significantly increasing dose
             to the patient. DE-CT provides a particularly unique
             opportunity in preclinical CT where new elemental contrast
             agents are providing novel approaches for quantitative
             tissue characterization. We have implemented DE-CT imaging
             with a preclinical dual source micro-CT scanner. With this
             configuration, both forward and cross-scatter can
             substantially degrade image quality. This work investigated
             the effect of scatter correction on the accuracy of
             post-reconstruction iodine and calcium decomposition.
             Scatter has been estimated using a lead beam stop technique.
             Our approach involves noise reduction in the scatter
             corrected images using bilateral filtering. The scatter
             correction has been quantitatively evaluated using phantom
             experiments and in vivo cancer imaging. As shown by our
             measurements, the dual source scanning is affected more by
             the cross-scatter from the high energy to the low energy
             imaging chain. The scatter correction reduced the presence
             of cupping artifacts and increased both the accuracy and
             precision of dual energy decompositions of calcium and
             iodine. On average, the root mean square errors in
             retrieving true iodine and calcium concentrations via dual
             energy were reduced by 32%. As a result of scatter
             corrections, we expect more accurate quantification of
             important vascular biomarkers such as fractional blood
             volume and vascular permeability in preclinical cancer
             studies. © 2013 SPIE.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.2006904},
   Key = {fds268731}
}

@article{fds268734,
   Author = {Bhavane, R and Badea, C and Ghaghada, KB and Clark, D and Vela, D and Moturu, A and Annapragada, A and Johnson, GA and Willerson, JT and Annapragada, A},
   Title = {Dual-energy computed tomography imaging of atherosclerotic
             plaques in a mouse model using a liposomal-iodine
             nanoparticle contrast agent},
   Journal = {Circulation: Cardiovascular Imaging},
   Volume = {6},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {285-294},
   Year = {2013},
   ISSN = {1941-9651},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCIMAGING.112.000119},
   Abstract = {Background-The accumulation of macrophages in inflamed
             atherosclerotic plaques has long been recognized. In an
             attempt to develop an imaging agent for detection of
             vulnerable plaques, we evaluated the feasibility of a
             liposomaliodine nanoparticle contrast agent for computed
             tomography imaging of macrophage-rich atherosclerotic
             plaques in a mouse model. Methods and Results-Liposomal-iodine
             formulations varying in particle size and polyethylene
             glycol coating were fabricated and shown to stably
             encapsulate the iodine compound. In vitro uptake studies
             using optical and computed tomography imaging in the RAW
             264.7 macrophage cell line identified the formulation that
             promoted maximal uptake. Dual-energy computed tomography
             imaging using this formulation in apolipoprotein E-deficient
             (ApoE-/-) mice (n=8) and control C57BL/6 mice (n=6) followed
             by spectral decomposition of the dual-energy images enabled
             imaging of the liposomes localized in the plaque. Imaging
             cytometry confirmed the presence of liposomes in the plaque
             and their colocalization with a small fraction (≈2%) of
             the macrophages in the plaque. Conclusions-The results
             demonstrate the feasibility of imaging macrophage-rich
             atherosclerotic plaques using a liposomaliodine nanoparticle
             contrast agent and dual-energy computed tomography. © 2013
             American Heart Association, Inc.},
   Doi = {10.1161/CIRCIMAGING.112.000119},
   Key = {fds268734}
}

@article{fds268737,
   Author = {Gyengesi, E and Calabrese, E and Sherrier, MC and Johnson, GA and Paxinos, G and Watson, C},
   Title = {Semi-automated 3D segmentation of major tracts in the rat
             brain: comparing DTI with standard histological
             methods},
   Journal = {Brain Structure and Function},
   Pages = {1-12},
   Year = {2013},
   ISSN = {1863-2653},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00429-013-0516-8},
   Abstract = {Researchers working with rodent models of neurological
             disease often require an accurate map of the anatomical
             organization of the white matter of the rodent brain. With
             the increasing popularity of small animal MRI techniques,
             including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), there is
             considerable interest in rapid segmentation methods of
             neurological structures for quantitative comparisons.
             DTI-derived tractography allows simple and rapid
             segmentation of major white matter tracts, but the anatomic
             accuracy of these computer-generated fibers is open to
             question and has not been rigorously evaluated in the rat
             brain. In this study, we examine the anatomic accuracy of
             tractography-based segmentation in the adult rat brain. We
             analysed 12 major white matter pathways using semi-automated
             tractography-based segmentation alongside manual
             segmentation of Gallyas silver-stained histology sections.
             We applied four fiber-tracking algorithms to the DTI
             data-two integration methods and two deflection methods. In
             many cases, tractography-based segmentation closely matched
             histology-based segmentation; however different tractography
             algorithms produced dramatically different results. Results
             suggest that certain white matter pathways are more amenable
             to tractography-based segmentation than others. We believe
             that these data will help researchers decide whether it is
             appropriate to use tractography-based segmentation of white
             matter structures for quantitative DTI-based analysis of
             neurologic disease models. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin
             Heidelberg.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s00429-013-0516-8},
   Key = {fds268737}
}

@article{fds268738,
   Author = {Moding, EJ and Clark, DP and Qi, Y and Li, Y and Ma, Y and Ghaghada, K and Johnson, GA and Kirsch, DG and Badea, CT},
   Title = {Dual-energy micro-computed tomography imaging of
             radiation-induced vascular changes in primary mouse
             sarcomas},
   Journal = {International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology,
             Physics},
   Volume = {85},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1353-1359},
   Year = {2013},
   ISSN = {0360-3016},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2012.09.027},
   Abstract = {Purpose: To evaluate the effects of radiation therapy on
             primary tumor vasculature using dual-energy (DE)
             micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Methods and Materials:
             Primary sarcomas were generated with mutant Kras and p53.
             Unirradiated tumors were compared with tumors irradiated
             with 20 Gy. A liposomal-iodinated contrast agent was
             administered 1 day after treatment, and mice were imaged
             immediately after injection (day 1) and 3 days later (day 4)
             with DE micro-CT. CT-derived tumor sizes were used to assess
             tumor growth. After DE decomposition, iodine maps were used
             to assess tumor fractional blood volume (FBV) at day 1 and
             tumor vascular permeability at day 4. For comparison, tumor
             vascularity and vascular permeability were also evaluated
             histologically by use of CD31 immunofluorescence and
             fluorescently-labeled dextrans. Results: Radiation treatment
             significantly decreased tumor growth from day 1 to day 4
             (P&lt;.05). There was a positive correlation between CT
             measurement of tumor FBV on day 1 and extravasated iodine on
             day 4 with microvascular density (MVD) on day 4 (R2=0.53)
             and dextran accumulation (R2=0.63) on day 4, respectively.
             Despite no change in MVD measured by histology, tumor FBV
             significantly increased after irradiation as measured by DE
             micro-CT (0.070 vs 0.091, P&lt;.05). Both dextran and
             liposomal-iodine accumulation in tumors increased
             significantly after irradiation, with dextran fractional
             area increasing 5.2-fold and liposomal-iodine concentration
             increasing 4.0-fold. Conclusions: DE micro-CT is an
             effective tool for noninvasive assessment of vascular
             changes in primary tumors. Tumor blood volume and vascular
             permeability increased after a single therapeutic dose of
             radiation treatment. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.ijrobp.2012.09.027},
   Key = {fds268738}
}

@article{fds304894,
   Author = {Badea, A and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Magnetic resonance microscopy.},
   Journal = {Studies in health technology and informatics},
   Volume = {185},
   Pages = {153-184},
   Year = {2013},
   ISSN = {0926-9630},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23542935},
   Abstract = {MRI, one of the major clinical imaging modalities, has
             gained an important role in studying small animal models,
             e.g., rats and mice. But imaging rodents comes with
             challenges, since the image resolution needs to be ~
             3000-times higher to resolve anatomical details at a level
             comparable to clinical imaging. A resolution on the order of
             100 microns or less redefines MR imaging as MR microscopy.
             We discuss in this chapter the basic components of the MR
             imaging chain, with a particular emphasis on small animal
             imaging demands: from hardware design to basic physical
             principles of MR image formation, and contrast mechanisms.
             We discuss special considerations of animal preparation for
             imaging, and staining methods to enhance contrast. Attention
             is given to factors that increase sensitivity, including
             exogenous contrast agents, high performance radiofrequency
             detectors, and advanced MR encoding sequences. Among these,
             diffusion tensor imaging and tractography add novel
             information on white matter tracts, helping to better
             understand important aspects of development and
             neurodegeneration. These developments open avenues for
             efficient phenotyping of small animal models, in vivo - to
             include anatomical as well as functional estimates, or
             ex-vivo - with exquisite anatomical detail. The need for
             higher resolution results in larger image arrays that need
             to be processed efficiently. We discuss image-processing
             approaches for quantitative characterization of animal
             cohorts, and building population atlases. High throughput is
             essential for these methods to become practical. We discuss
             current trends for increasing detector performance, the use
             of cryoprobes, as well as strategies for imaging multiple
             animals at the same time. Ultimately, the development of
             highly specific probes, with the possibility to be used in
             multimodal imaging, will offer new insights into histology.
             MRM, alone or in combination with other imaging modalities,
             will increase the knowledge of fundamental biological
             processes, help understanding the genetic basis of human
             diseases, and test pharmacological interventions.},
   Key = {fds304894}
}

@article{fds268796,
   Author = {Badea, A and Gewalt, S and Avants, BB and Cook, JJ and Johnson,
             GA},
   Title = {Quantitative mouse brain phenotyping based on single and
             multispectral MR protocols.},
   Journal = {NeuroImage},
   Volume = {63},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {1633-1645},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22836174},
   Abstract = {Sophisticated image analysis methods have been developed for
             the human brain, but such tools still need to be adapted and
             optimized for quantitative small animal imaging. We propose
             a framework for quantitative anatomical phenotyping in mouse
             models of neurological and psychiatric conditions. The
             framework encompasses an atlas space, image acquisition
             protocols, and software tools to register images into this
             space. We show that a suite of segmentation tools (Avants,
             Epstein et al., 2008) designed for human neuroimaging can be
             incorporated into a pipeline for segmenting mouse brain
             images acquired with multispectral magnetic resonance
             imaging (MR) protocols. We present a flexible approach for
             segmenting such hyperimages, optimizing registration, and
             identifying optimal combinations of image channels for
             particular structures. Brain imaging with T1, T2* and T2
             contrasts yielded accuracy in the range of 83% for
             hippocampus and caudate putamen (Hc and CPu), but only 54%
             in white matter tracts, and 44% for the ventricles. The
             addition of diffusion tensor parameter images improved
             accuracy for large gray matter structures (by >5%), white
             matter (10%), and ventricles (15%). The use of Markov random
             field segmentation further improved overall accuracy in the
             C57BL/6 strain by 6%; so Dice coefficients for Hc and CPu
             reached 93%, for white matter 79%, for ventricles 68%, and
             for substantia nigra 80%. We demonstrate the segmentation
             pipeline for the widely used C57BL/6 strain, and two test
             strains (BXD29, APP/TTA). This approach appears promising
             for characterizing temporal changes in mouse models of human
             neurological and psychiatric conditions, and may provide
             anatomical constraints for other preclinical imaging, e.g.
             fMRI and molecular imaging. This is the first demonstration
             that multiple MR imaging modalities combined with
             multivariate segmentation methods lead to significant
             improvements in anatomical segmentation in the mouse
             brain.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.07.021},
   Key = {fds268796}
}

@article{fds268794,
   Author = {Clark, D and Badea, A and Liu, Y and Johnson, GA and Badea,
             CT},
   Title = {Registration-based segmentation of murine 4D cardiac
             micro-CT data using symmetric normalization.},
   Journal = {Physics in Medicine and Biology},
   Volume = {57},
   Number = {19},
   Pages = {6125-6145},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22971564},
   Abstract = {Micro-CT can play an important role in preclinical studies
             of cardiovascular disease because of its high spatial and
             temporal resolution. Quantitative analysis of 4D cardiac
             images requires segmentation of the cardiac chambers at each
             time point, an extremely time consuming process if done
             manually. To improve throughput this study proposes a
             pipeline for registration-based segmentation and functional
             analysis of 4D cardiac micro-CT data in the mouse. Following
             optimization and validation using simulations, the pipeline
             was applied to in vivo cardiac micro-CT data corresponding
             to ten cardiac phases acquired in C57BL/6 mice (n = 5).
             After edge-preserving smoothing with a novel adaptation of
             4D bilateral filtration, one phase within each cardiac
             sequence was manually segmented. Deformable registration was
             used to propagate these labels to all other cardiac phases
             for segmentation. The volumes of each cardiac chamber were
             calculated and used to derive stroke volume, ejection
             fraction, cardiac output, and cardiac index. Dice
             coefficients and volume accuracies were used to compare
             manual segmentations of two additional phases with their
             corresponding propagated labels. Both measures were, on
             average, >0.90 for the left ventricle and >0.80 for the
             myocardium, the right ventricle, and the right atrium,
             consistent with trends in inter- and intra-segmenter
             variability. Segmentation of the left atrium was less
             reliable. On average, the functional metrics of interest
             were underestimated by 6.76% or more due to systematic label
             propagation errors around atrioventricular valves; however,
             execution of the pipeline was 80% faster than performing
             analogous manual segmentation of each phase.},
   Doi = {10.1088/0031-9155/57/19/6125},
   Key = {fds268794}
}

@article{fds268795,
   Author = {Johnson, GA and Calabrese, E and Badea, A and Paxinos, G and Watson,
             C},
   Title = {A multidimensional magnetic resonance histology atlas of the
             Wistar rat brain.},
   Journal = {NeuroImage},
   Volume = {62},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {1848-1856},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22634863},
   Abstract = {We have produced a multidimensional atlas of the adult
             Wistar rat brain based on magnetic resonance histology
             (MRH). This MR atlas has been carefully aligned with the
             widely used Paxinos-Watson atlas based on optical sections
             to allow comparisons between histochemical and immuno-marker
             data, and the use of the Paxinos-Watson abbreviation set.
             Our MR atlas attempts to make a seamless connection with the
             advantageous features of the Paxinos-Watson atlas, and to
             extend the utility of the data through the unique
             capabilities of MR histology: a) ability to view the brain
             in the skull with limited distortion from shrinkage or
             sectioning; b) isotropic spatial resolution, which permits
             sectioning along any arbitrary axis without loss of detail;
             c) three-dimensional (3D) images preserving spatial
             relationships; and d) widely varied contrast dependent on
             the unique properties of water protons. 3D diffusion tensor
             images (DTI) at what we believe to be the highest resolution
             ever attained in the rat provide unique insight into white
             matter structures and connectivity. The 3D isotropic data
             allow registration of multiple data sets into a common
             reference space to provide average atlases not possible with
             conventional histology. The resulting multidimensional atlas
             that combines Paxinos-Watson with multidimensional MRH
             images from multiple specimens provides a new, comprehensive
             view of the neuroanatomy of the rat and offers a
             collaborative platform for future rat brain
             studies.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.05.041},
   Key = {fds268795}
}

@article{fds268790,
   Author = {Johnston, SM and Johnson, GA and Badea, CT},
   Title = {Temporal and spectral imaging with micro-CT.},
   Journal = {Medical physics},
   Volume = {39},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {4943-4958},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0094-2405},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22894420},
   Abstract = {PURPOSE: Micro-CT is widely used for small animal imaging in
             preclinical studies of cardiopulmonary disease, but further
             development is needed to improve spatial resolution,
             temporal resolution, and material contrast. We present a
             technique for visualizing the changing distribution of
             iodine in the cardiac cycle with dual source micro-CT.
             METHODS: The approach entails a retrospectively gated dual
             energy scan with optimized filters and voltages, and a
             series of computational operations to reconstruct the data.
             Projection interpolation and five-dimensional bilateral
             filtration (three spatial dimensions + time + energy) are
             used to reduce noise and artifacts associated with
             retrospective gating. We reconstruct separate volumes
             corresponding to different cardiac phases and apply a linear
             transformation to decompose these volumes into components
             representing concentrations of water and iodine. Since the
             resulting material images are still compromised by noise, we
             improve their quality in an iterative process that minimizes
             the discrepancy between the original acquired projections
             and the projections predicted by the reconstructed volumes.
             The values in the voxels of each of the reconstructed
             volumes represent the coefficients of linear combinations of
             basis functions over time and energy. We have implemented
             the reconstruction algorithm on a graphics processing unit
             (GPU) with CUDA. We tested the utility of the technique in
             simulations and applied the technique in an in vivo scan of
             a C57BL∕6 mouse injected with blood pool contrast agent at
             a dose of 0.01 ml∕g body weight. Postreconstruction, at
             each cardiac phase in the iodine images, we segmented the
             left ventricle and computed its volume. Using the maximum
             and minimum volumes in the left ventricle, we calculated the
             stroke volume, the ejection fraction, and the cardiac
             output. RESULTS: Our proposed method produces
             five-dimensional volumetric images that distinguish
             different materials at different points in time, and can be
             used to segment regions containing iodinated blood and
             compute measures of cardiac function. CONCLUSIONS: We
             believe this combined spectral and temporal imaging
             technique will be useful for future studies of
             cardiopulmonary disease in small animals.},
   Doi = {10.1118/1.4736809},
   Key = {fds268790}
}

@article{fds268773,
   Author = {Xie, L and Cianciolo, RE and Hulette, B and Lee, HW and Qi, Y and Cofer, G and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Magnetic resonance histology of age-related nephropathy in
             the Sprague Dawley rat.},
   Journal = {Toxicologic Pathology (Sage)},
   Volume = {40},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {764-778},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22504322},
   Abstract = {Magnetic resonance histology (MRH) has become a valuable
             tool in evaluating drug-induced toxicity in preclinical
             models. However, its application in renal injury has been
             limited. This study tested the hypothesis that MRH could
             detect image-based biomarkers of chronic disease,
             inflammation, or age-related degeneration in the kidney,
             laying the foundation for more extensive use in evaluating
             drug toxicity. We examined the entire intact kidney in a
             spontaneous model of chronic progressive nephropathy.
             Kidneys from male Sprague Dawley rats were imaged at 8 weeks
             (n = 4) and 52 weeks (n =4) on a 9.4 T system dedicated to
             MR microscopy. Several potential contrast mechanisms were
             explored to optimize the scanning protocols. Full coverage
             of the entire kidney was achieved with isotropic spatial
             resolution at 31 microns (voxel volume = 30 pL) using a
             gradient recalled echo sequence. Isotropic spatial
             resolution of 15 microns (voxel volume < 4 pL) was achieved
             in a biopsy core specimen. Qualitative age-related
             structural changes, such as renal cortical microvasculature,
             tubular dilation, interstitial fibrosis, and glomerular
             architecture, were apparent. The nondestructive 3D images
             allowed measurement of quantitative differences of kidney
             volume, pelvis volume, main vessel volume, glomerular size,
             as well as thickness of the cortex, outer medulla, and inner
             medulla.},
   Doi = {10.1177/0192623312441408},
   Key = {fds268773}
}

@article{fds268743,
   Author = {O'Leary-Moore, SK and Johnson, GA and Calabrese, E and Budin, F and Oguz, I and Styner, MA and Parnell, SE and Sulik,
             KK},
   Title = {DIFFUSION TENSOR IMAGING (DTI)-BASED ANALYSIS OF FIBER TRACT
             ABNORMALITIES IN A MOUSE MODEL OF PRENATAL ALCOHOL
             EXPOSURE},
   Journal = {Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research},
   Volume = {36},
   Pages = {312A-312A},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0145-6008},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000304806002399&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds268743}
}

@article{fds325752,
   Author = {Parnell, SE and Holloway, HT and Paniagua, B and Oguz, I and Styner, MA and Johnson, GA and Sulik, KK},
   Title = {EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EARLY GESTATIONAL ETHANOL EXPOSURE ON THE
             DEVELOPING BRAIN: A MAGNETIC RESONANCE MICROSCOPY
             STUDY},
   Journal = {Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research},
   Volume = {36},
   Pages = {279A-279A},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {June},
   Key = {fds325752}
}

@article{fds268812,
   Author = {Perperidis, D and Bucholz, E and Johnson, GA and Constantinides,
             C},
   Title = {Morphological studies of the murine heart based on
             probabilistic and statistical atlases.},
   Journal = {Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics},
   Volume = {36},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {119-129},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {1879-0771},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21820867},
   Keywords = {Algorithms* • Animals • Contrast Media • Data
             Interpretation, Statistical • Gadolinium DTPA •
             Heart • Image Enhancement • Image Interpretation,
             Computer-Assisted • Magnetic Resonance Imaging •
             Male • Mice • Mice, Inbred C57BL •
             Reproducibility of Results • Sensitivity and
             Specificity • Subtraction Technique* • anatomy &
             histology* • diagnostic use* • methods •
             methods*},
   Abstract = {This study directly compares morphological features of the
             mouse heart in its end-relaxed state based on constructed
             morphometric maps and atlases using principal component
             analysis in C57BL/6J (n=8) and DBA (n=5) mice. In
             probabilistic atlases, a gradient probability exists for
             both strains in longitudinal locations from base to apex.
             Based on the statistical atlases, differences in size
             (49.8%), apical direction (15.6%), basal ventricular blood
             pool size (13.2%), and papillary muscle shape and position
             (17.2%) account for the most significant modes of shape
             variability for the left ventricle of the C57BL/6J mice. For
             DBA mice, differences in left ventricular size and direction
             (67.4%), basal size (15.7%), and position of papillary
             muscles (16.8%) account for significant variability.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.compmedimag.2011.07.001},
   Key = {fds268812}
}

@article{fds268810,
   Author = {Liu, C and Li, W and Wu, B and Jiang, Y and Johnson,
             GA},
   Title = {3D fiber tractography with susceptibility tensor
             imaging.},
   Journal = {NeuroImage},
   Volume = {59},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {1290-1298},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1095-9572},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21867759},
   Keywords = {Algorithms* • Animals • Brain • Diffusion
             Tensor Imaging • Image Enhancement • Image
             Interpretation, Computer-Assisted • Imaging,
             Three-Dimensional • Mice • Mice, Inbred C57BL
             • Nerve Fibers, Myelinated • Pattern Recognition,
             Automated • Reproducibility of Results •
             Sensitivity and Specificity • cytology* • methods
             • methods* • ultrastructure*},
   Abstract = {Gradient-echo MRI has revealed anisotropic magnetic
             susceptibility in the brain white matter. This magnetic
             susceptibility anisotropy can be measured and characterized
             with susceptibility tensor imaging (STI). In this study, a
             method of fiber tractography based on STI is proposed and
             demonstrated in the mouse brain. STI experiments of
             perfusion-fixed mouse brains were conducted at 7.0T. The
             magnetic susceptibility tensor was calculated for each voxel
             with regularization and decomposed into its eigensystem. The
             major eigenvector is found to be aligned with the underlying
             fiber orientation. Following the orientation of the major
             eigenvector, we are able to map distinctive fiber pathways
             in 3D. As a comparison, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and
             DTI fiber tractography were also conducted on the same
             specimens. The relationship between STI and DTI fiber tracts
             was explored with similarities and differences identified.
             It is anticipated that the proposed method of STI
             tractography may provide a new way to study white matter
             fiber architecture. As STI tractography is based on physical
             principles that are fundamentally different from DTI, it may
             also be valuable for the ongoing validation of DTI
             tractography.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.07.096},
   Key = {fds268810}
}

@article{fds268815,
   Author = {Guo, X and Johnston, SM and Qi, Y and Johnson, GA and Badea,
             CT},
   Title = {4D micro-CT using fast prospective gating.},
   Journal = {Physics in Medicine and Biology},
   Volume = {57},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {257-271},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1361-6560},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22156062},
   Keywords = {Animals • Cardiac-Gated Imaging Techniques •
             Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography • Heart •
             Mice • Phantoms, Imaging • Rats • Rats,
             Sprague-Dawley • Respiratory-Gated Imaging Techniques
             • Time Factors • methods* •
             radiography},
   Abstract = {Micro-CT is currently used in preclinical studies to provide
             anatomical information. But, there is also significant
             interest in using this technology to obtain functional
             information. We report here a new sampling strategy for 4D
             micro-CT for functional cardiac and pulmonary imaging. Rapid
             scanning of free-breathing mice is achieved with fast
             prospective gating (FPG) implemented on a field programmable
             gate array. The method entails on-the-fly computation of
             delays from the R peaks of the ECG signals or the peaks of
             the respiratory signals for the triggering pulses.
             Projection images are acquired for all cardiac or
             respiratory phases at each angle before rotating to the next
             angle. FPG can deliver the faster scan time of retrospective
             gating (RG) with the regular angular distribution of
             conventional prospective gating for cardiac or respiratory
             gating. Simultaneous cardio-respiratory gating is also
             possible with FPG in a hybrid retrospective/prospective
             approach. We have performed phantom experiments to validate
             the new sampling protocol and compared the results from FPG
             and RG in cardiac imaging of a mouse. Additionally, we have
             evaluated the utility of incorporating respiratory
             information in 4D cardiac micro-CT studies with FPG. A
             dual-source micro-CT system was used for image acquisition
             with pulsed x-ray exposures (80 kVp, 100 mA, 10 ms). The
             cardiac micro-CT protocol involves the use of a liposomal
             blood pool contrast agent containing 123 mg I ml(-1)
             delivered via a tail vein catheter in a dose of 0.01 ml
             g(-1) body weight. The phantom experiment demonstrates that
             FPG can distinguish the successive phases of phantom motion
             with minimal motion blur, and the animal study demonstrates
             that respiratory FPG can distinguish inspiration and
             expiration. 4D cardiac micro-CT imaging with FPG provides
             image quality superior to RG at an isotropic voxel size of
             88 μm and 10 ms temporal resolution. The acquisition time
             for either sampling approach is less than 5 min. The
             radiation dose associated with the proposed method is in the
             range of a typical micro-CT dose (256 mGy for the cardiac
             study). Ignoring respiration does not significantly affect
             anatomic information in cardiac studies. FPG can deliver
             short scan times with low-dose 4D micro-CT imaging without
             sacrificing image quality. FPG can be applied in
             high-throughput longitudinal studies in a wide range of
             applications, including drug safety and cardiopulmonary
             phenotyping.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1088/0031-9155/57/1/257},
   Key = {fds268815}
}

@article{fds319488,
   Author = {Macfall, JS and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Plants, seeds, roots, and soils as applications of magnetic
             resonance microscopy},
   Volume = {1},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {147-154},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470034590.emrstm0396},
   Abstract = {© 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. High-resolution magnetic
             resonance microscopy is discussed as a useful tool in the
             study of plant structure and physiology. In contrast to
             animals, plants have a relatively homogenous distribution of
             water throughout the tissues. High quality images
             highlighting both structural and physiological differences
             can be acquired of plant specimens, however, based on
             traditional MR parameters of T 1 , T 2 and susceptibility
             effects from air filled spaces. Typical in plane resolutions
             of 5-40μm 3 can be acquired, showing significant contrasts
             between tissues. Additionally, MR microscopy offers the
             ability to visualize and study plant roots in situ, without
             removal from the soil substrate. Applications of MR
             microscopy to plants includes studies of developmental
             anatomy, physiological changes with maturation,
             environmental physiology, pathologies, and the study of
             intact roots in soil.},
   Doi = {10.1002/9780470034590.emrstm0396},
   Key = {fds319488}
}

@article{fds268771,
   Author = {Antonsen, BT and Jiang, Y and Veraart, J and Qu, H and Nguyen, HP and Sijbers, J and Hörsten, SV and Johnson, GA and Leergaard,
             TB},
   Title = {Altered diffusion tensor imaging measurements in aged
             transgenic Huntington disease rats},
   Journal = {Brain Structure and Function},
   Volume = {218},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {1-12},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {1863-2653},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00429-012-0427-0},
   Abstract = {Rodent models of Huntington disease (HD) are valuable tools
             for investigating HD pathophysiology and evaluating new
             therapeutic approaches. Non-invasive characterization of
             HD-related phenotype changes is important for monitoring
             progression of pathological processes and possible effects
             of interventions. The first transgenic rat model for HD
             exhibits progressive late-onset affective, cognitive, and
             motor impairments, as well as neuropathological features
             reflecting observations from HD patients. In this report, we
             contribute to the anatomical phenotyping of this model by
             comparing high-resolution ex vivo DTI measurements obtained
             in aged transgenic HD rats and wild-type controls. By region
             of interest analysis supplemented by voxel-based statistics,
             we find little evidence of atrophy in basal ganglia regions,
             but demonstrate altered DTI measurements in the dorsal and
             ventral striatum, globus pallidus, entopeduncular nucleus,
             substantia nigra, and hippocampus. These changes are largely
             compatible with DTI findings in preclinical and clinical HD
             patients. We confirm earlier reports that HD rats express a
             moderate neuropathological phenotype, and provide evidence
             of altered DTI measures in specific HD-related brain
             regions, in the absence of pronounced morphometric changes.
             © 2012 The Author(s).},
   Doi = {10.1007/s00429-012-0427-0},
   Key = {fds268771}
}

@article{fds268772,
   Author = {Howles, GP and Qi, Y and Rosenzweig, SJ and Nightingale, KR and Johnson,
             GA},
   Title = {Functional neuroimaging using ultrasonic blood-brain barrier
             disruption and manganese-enhanced MRI},
   Journal = {Journal of Visualized Experiments},
   Number = {65},
   Pages = {e4055},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {1940-087X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/4055},
   Abstract = {Although mice are the dominant model system for studying the
             genetic and molecular underpinnings of neuroscience,
             functional neuroimaging in mice remains technically
             challenging. One approach, Activation-Induced
             Manganese-enhanced MRI (AIM MRI), has been used successfully
             to map neuronal activity in rodents 1-5. In AIM MRI, Mn 2+
             acts a calcium analog and accumulates in depolarized neurons
             6,7. Because Mn 2+ shortens the T 1 tissue property, regions
             of elevated neuronal activity will enhance in MRI.
             Furthermore, Mn 2+ clears slowly from the activated regions;
             therefore, stimulation can be performed outside the magnet
             prior to imaging, enabling greater experimental flexibility.
             However, because Mn 2+ does not readily cross the
             blood-brain barrier (BBB), the need to open the BBB has
             limited the use of AIM MRI, especially in mice. One tool for
             opening the BBB is ultrasound. Though potentially damaging,
             if ultrasound is administered in combination with gas-filled
             microbubbles (i.e., ultrasound contrast agents), the
             acoustic pressure required for BBB opening is considerably
             lower. This combination of ultrasound and microbubbles can
             be used to reliably open the BBB without causing tissue
             damage 8-11. Here, a method is presented for performing AIM
             MRI by using microbubbles and ultrasound to open the BBB.
             After an intravenous injection of perflutren microbubbles,
             an unfocused pulsed ultrasound beam is applied to the shaved
             mouse head for 3 minutes. For simplicity, we refer to this
             technique of BBB Opening with Microbubbles and UltraSound as
             BOMUS 12. Using BOMUS to open the BBB throughout both
             cerebral hemispheres, manganese is administered to the whole
             mouse brain. After experimental stimulation of the lightly
             sedated mice, AIM MRI is used to map the neuronal response.
             To demonstrate this approach, herein BOMUS and AIM MRI are
             used to map unilateral mechanical stimulation of the
             vibrissae in lightly sedated mice 13. Because BOMUS can open
             the BBB throughout both hemispheres, the unstimulated side
             of the brain is used to control for nonspecific background
             stimulation. The resultant 3D activation map agrees well
             with published representations of the vibrissae regions of
             the barrel field cortex 14. The ultrasonic opening of the
             BBB is fast, noninvasive, and reversible; and thus this
             approach is suitable for high-throughput and/or longitudinal
             studies in awake mice.},
   Doi = {10.3791/4055},
   Key = {fds268772}
}

@article{fds268774,
   Author = {Lipinski, RJ and Hammond, P and O'Leary-Moore, SK and Ament, JJ and Pecevich, SJ and Jiang, Y and Budin, F and Parnell, SE and Suttie, M and Godin, EA and Everson, JL and Dehart, DB and Oguz, I and Holloway, HT and Styner, MA and Johnson, GA and Sulik, KK},
   Title = {Ethanol-induced face-brain dysmorphology patterns are
             correlative and exposure-stage dependent},
   Journal = {PloS one},
   Volume = {7},
   Number = {8},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {1932-6203},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0043067},
   Abstract = {Prenatal ethanol exposure is the leading preventable cause
             of congenital mental disability. Whereas a diagnosis of
             fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) requires identification of a
             specific pattern of craniofacial dysmorphology, most
             individuals with behavioral and neurological sequelae of
             heavy prenatal ethanol exposure do not exhibit these
             defining facial characteristics. Here, a novel integration
             of MRI and dense surface modeling-based shape analysis was
             applied to characterize concurrent face-brain phenotypes in
             C57Bl/6J fetuses exposed to ethanol on gestational day (GD)7
             or GD8.5. The facial phenotype resulting from ethanol
             exposure depended upon stage of insult and was predictive of
             unique patterns of corresponding brain abnormalities.
             Ethanol exposure on GD7 produced a constellation of
             dysmorphic facial features characteristic of human FAS,
             including severe midfacial hypoplasia, shortening of the
             palpebral fissures, an elongated upper lip, and deficient
             philtrum. In contrast, ethanol exposure on GD8.5 caused mild
             midfacial hypoplasia and palpebral fissure shortening, a
             shortened upper lip, and a preserved philtrum. These
             distinct, stage-specific facial phenotypes were associated
             with unique volumetric and shape abnormalities of the septal
             region, pituitary, and olfactory bulbs. By demonstrating
             that early prenatal ethanol exposure can cause more than one
             temporally-specific pattern of defects, these findings
             illustrate the need for an expansion of current diagnostic
             criteria to better capture the full range of facial and
             brain dysmorphology in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. ©
             2012 Lipinski et al.},
   Doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0043067},
   Key = {fds268774}
}

@article{fds268786,
   Author = {Guo, X and Johnston, SM and Johnson, GA and Badea,
             CT},
   Title = {A comparison of sampling strategies for dual energy
             micro-CT},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE},
   Volume = {8313},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {1605-7422},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.911548},
   Abstract = {Micro-CT has become a powerful tool for small animal
             research. Many micro-CT applications require exogenous
             contrast agents, which are most commonly based on iodine.
             Despite advancements in contrast agents, single-energy
             micro-CT is sometimes limited in the separation of two
             different materials that share similar grayscale intensity
             values as in the case of bone and iodine. Dual energy
             micro-CT offers a solution to this separation problem, while
             eliminating the need for pre-injection scanning. Various
             dual energy micro-CT sampling strategies are possible,
             including 1) single source sequential scanning, 2)
             simultaneous dual source acquisition, or 3) single source
             with kVp switching. But, no commercial micro-CT system
             exists in which all these sampling strategies have been
             implemented. This study reports on the implementation and
             comparison of these scanning techniques on the same small
             animal imaging system. Furthermore, we propose a new
             sampling strategy that combines dual source and kVp
             switching. Post-sampling and reconstruction, a simple
             two-material dual energy decomposition was applied to
             differentiate iodine from bone. The results indicate the
             time differences and the potential problems associated with
             each sampling strategy. Dual source scanning allows for the
             fastest acquisition, but is prone to errors in decomposition
             associated with scattering and imperfect geometric alignment
             of the two imaging chains. KVp switching prevents these
             types of artifacts, but requires more time for sampling. The
             novel combination between the dual source and kVp switching
             has the potential to reduce sampling time and provide better
             decomposition performance. © 2012 Copyright Society of
             Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.911548},
   Key = {fds268786}
}

@article{fds268787,
   Author = {Badea, CT and Stanton, IN and Johnston, SM and Johnson, GA and Therien,
             MJ},
   Title = {Investigations on X-ray luminescence CT for small animal
             imaging.},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical
             Engineering},
   Volume = {8313},
   Pages = {83130T},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23227300},
   Abstract = {X-ray Luminescence CT (XLCT) is a hybrid imaging modality
             combining x-ray and optical imaging in which x-ray
             luminescent nanophosphors (NPs) are used as emissive imaging
             probes. NPs are easily excited using common CT energy x-ray
             beams, and the NP luminescence is efficiently collected
             using sensitive light based detection systems. XLCT can be
             recognized as a close analog to fluorescence diffuse optical
             tomography (FDOT). However, XLCT has remarkable advantages
             over FDOT due to the substantial excitation penetration
             depths provided by x-rays relative to laser light sources,
             long term photo-stability of NPs, and the ability to tune NP
             emission within the NIR spectral window. Since XCLT uses an
             x-ray pencil beam excitation, the emitted light can be
             measured and back-projected along the x-ray path during
             reconstruction, where the size of the X-ray pencil beam
             determines the resolution for XLCT. In addition, no
             background signal competes with NP luminescence (i.e., no
             auto fluorescence) in XLCT. Currently, no small animal XLCT
             system has been proposed or tested. This paper investigates
             an XLCT system built and integrated with a dual source
             micro-CT system. Two novel sampling paradigms that result in
             more efficient scanning are proposed and tested via
             simulations. Our preliminary experimental results in
             phantoms indicate that a basic CT-like reconstruction is
             able to recover a map of the NP locations and differences in
             NP concentrations. With the proposed dual source system and
             faster scanning approaches, XLCT has the potential to
             revolutionize molecular imaging in preclinical
             studies.},
   Key = {fds268787}
}

@article{fds268788,
   Author = {Clark, D and Johnson, GA and Badea, CT},
   Title = {Denoising of 4D cardiac micro-CT data using median-centric
             bilateral filtration},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE},
   Volume = {8314},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {1605-7422},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.911478},
   Abstract = {Bilateral filtration has proven an effective tool for
             denoising CT data. The classic filter uses Gaussian domain
             and range weighting functions in 2D. More recently, other
             distributions have yielded more accurate results in specific
             applications, and the bilateral filtration framework has
             been extended to higher dimensions. In this study,
             brute-force optimization is employed to evaluate the use of
             several alternative distributions for both domain and range
             weighting: Andrew's Sine Wave, El Fallah Ford, Gaussian,
             Flat, Lorentzian, Huber's Minimax, Tukey's Bi-weight, and
             Cosine. Two variations on the classic bilateral filter,
             which use median filtration to reduce bias in range weights,
             are also investigated: median-centric and hybrid bilateral
             filtration. Using the 4D MOBY mouse phantom reconstructed
             with noise (stdev. ∼ 65 HU), hybrid bilateral filtration,
             a combination of the classic and median-centric filters,
             with Flat domain and range weighting is shown to provide
             optimal denoising results (PSNRs: 31.69, classic; 31.58
             median-centric; 32.25, hybrid). To validate these phantom
             studies, the optimal filters are also applied to in vivo, 4D
             cardiac micro-CT data acquired in the mouse. In a constant
             region of the left ventricle, hybrid bilateral filtration
             with Flat domain and range weighting is shown to provide
             optimal smoothing (stdev: original, 72.2 HU; classic, 20.3
             HU; median-centric, 24.1 HU; hybrid, 15.9 HU). While the
             optimal results were obtained using 4D filtration, the 3D
             hybrid filter is ultimately recommended for denoising 4D
             cardiac micro-CT data, because it is more computationally
             tractable and less prone to artifacts (MOBY PSNR: 32.05;
             left ventricle stdev: 20.5 HU). © 2012 SPIE.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.911478},
   Key = {fds268788}
}

@article{fds268789,
   Author = {Badea, CT and Athreya, KK and Espinosa, G and Clark, D and Ghafoori, AP and Li, Y and Kirsch, DG and Johnson, GA and Annapragada, A and Ghaghada,
             KB},
   Title = {Computed tomography imaging of primary lung cancer in mice
             using a liposomal-iodinated contrast agent.},
   Journal = {PloS one},
   Volume = {7},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {e34496},
   Year = {2012},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22485175},
   Abstract = {PURPOSE: To investigate the utility of a liposomal-iodinated
             nanoparticle contrast agent and computed tomography (CT)
             imaging for characterization of primary nodules in
             genetically engineered mouse models of non-small cell lung
             cancer. METHODS: Primary lung cancers with mutations in
             K-ras alone (Kras(LA1)) or in combination with p53
             (LSL-Kras(G12D);p53(FL/FL)) were generated. A
             liposomal-iodine contrast agent containing 120 mg Iodine/mL
             was administered systemically at a dose of 16 µl/gm body
             weight. Longitudinal micro-CT imaging with
             cardio-respiratory gating was performed pre-contrast and at
             0 hr, day 3, and day 7 post-contrast administration.
             CT-derived nodule sizes were used to assess tumor growth.
             Signal attenuation was measured in individual nodules to
             study dynamic enhancement of lung nodules. RESULTS: A good
             correlation was seen between volume and diameter-based
             assessment of nodules (R(2)>0.8) for both lung cancer
             models. The LSL-Kras(G12D);p53(FL/FL) model showed rapid
             growth as demonstrated by systemically higher volume changes
             compared to the lung nodules in Kras(LA1) mice (p<0.05).
             Early phase imaging using the nanoparticle contrast agent
             enabled visualization of nodule blood supply. Delayed-phase
             imaging demonstrated significant differential signal
             enhancement in the lung nodules of LSL-Kras(G12D);p53(FL/FL)
             mice compared to nodules in Kras(LA1) mice (p<0.05)
             indicating higher uptake and accumulation of the
             nanoparticle contrast agent in rapidly growing nodules.
             CONCLUSIONS: The nanoparticle iodinated contrast agent
             enabled visualization of blood supply to the nodules during
             the early-phase imaging. Delayed-phase imaging enabled
             characterization of slow growing and rapidly growing nodules
             based on signal enhancement. The use of this agent could
             facilitate early detection and diagnosis of pulmonary
             lesions as well as have implications on treatment response
             and monitoring.},
   Doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0034496},
   Key = {fds268789}
}

@book{fds268793,
   Author = {Badea, A and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Magnetic resonance microscopy.},
   Journal = {Analytical Cellular Pathology},
   Volume = {35},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {205-227},
   Booktitle = {Studies in Health Technology and Informatics},
   Publisher = {IOS Press Ebooks},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {0926-9630},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22142643},
   Abstract = {MRI, one of the major clinical imaging modalities, has
             gained an important role in studying small animal models,
             e.g., rats and mice. But imaging rodents comes with
             challenges, since the image resolution needs to be ~
             3000-times higher to resolve anatomical details at a level
             comparable to clinical imaging. A resolution on the order of
             100 microns or less redefines MR imaging as MR microscopy.
             We discuss in this chapter the basic components of the MR
             imaging chain, with a particular emphasis on small animal
             imaging demands: from hardware design to basic physical
             principles of MR image formation, and contrast mechanisms.
             We discuss special considerations of animal preparation for
             imaging, and staining methods to enhance contrast. Attention
             is given to factors that increase sensitivity, including
             exogenous contrast agents, high performance radiofrequency
             detectors, and advanced MR encoding sequences. Among these,
             diffusion tensor imaging and tractography add novel
             information on white matter tracts, helping to better
             understand important aspects of development and
             neurodegeneration. These developments open avenues for
             efficient phenotyping of small animal models, in vivo - to
             include anatomical as well as functional estimates, or
             ex-vivo - with exquisite anatomical detail. The need for
             higher resolution results in larger image arrays that need
             to be processed efficiently. We discuss image-processing
             approaches for quantitative characterization of animal
             cohorts, and building population atlases. High throughput is
             essential for these methods to become practical. We discuss
             current trends for increasing detector performance, the use
             of cryoprobes, as well as strategies for imaging multiple
             animals at the same time. Ultimately, the development of
             highly specific probes, with the possibility to be used in
             multimodal imaging, will offer new insights into histology.
             MRM, alone or in combination with other imaging modalities,
             will increase the knowledge of fundamental biological
             processes, help understanding the genetic basis of human
             diseases, and test pharmacological interventions.},
   Doi = {10.3233/ACP-2011-0050},
   Key = {fds268793}
}

@article{fds319489,
   Author = {Howles, GP and Qi, Y and Rosenzweig, SJ and Nightingale, KR and Johnson,
             GA},
   Title = {Functional neuroimaging using ultrasonic blood-brain barrier
             disruption and manganese-enhanced MRI.},
   Journal = {Journal of Visualized Experiments},
   Number = {65},
   Pages = {e4055},
   Year = {2012},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/4055},
   Abstract = {Although mice are the dominant model system for studying the
             genetic and molecular underpinnings of neuroscience,
             functional neuroimaging in mice remains technically
             challenging. One approach, Activation-Induced
             Manganese-enhanced MRI (AIM MRI), has been used successfully
             to map neuronal activity in rodents. In AIM MRI, Mn(2+) acts
             a calcium analog and accumulates in depolarized neurons.
             Because Mn(2+) shortens the T1 tissue property, regions of
             elevated neuronal activity will enhance in MRI. Furthermore,
             Mn(2+) clears slowly from the activated regions; therefore,
             stimulation can be performed outside the magnet prior to
             imaging, enabling greater experimental flexibility. However,
             because Mn(2+) does not readily cross the blood-brain
             barrier (BBB), the need to open the BBB has limited the use
             of AIM MRI, especially in mice. One tool for opening the BBB
             is ultrasound. Though potentially damaging, if ultrasound is
             administered in combination with gas-filled microbubbles
             (i.e., ultrasound contrast agents), the acoustic pressure
             required for BBB opening is considerably lower. This
             combination of ultrasound and microbubbles can be used to
             reliably open the BBB without causing tissue damage. Here, a
             method is presented for performing AIM MRI by using
             microbubbles and ultrasound to open the BBB. After an
             intravenous injection of perflutren microbubbles, an
             unfocused pulsed ultrasound beam is applied to the shaved
             mouse head for 3 minutes. For simplicity, we refer to this
             technique of BBB Opening with Microbubbles and UltraSound as
             BOMUS. Using BOMUS to open the BBB throughout both cerebral
             hemispheres, manganese is administered to the whole mouse
             brain. After experimental stimulation of the lightly sedated
             mice, AIM MRI is used to map the neuronal response. To
             demonstrate this approach, herein BOMUS and AIM MRI are used
             to map unilateral mechanical stimulation of the vibrissae in
             lightly sedated mice. Because BOMUS can open the BBB
             throughout both hemispheres, the unstimulated side of the
             brain is used to control for nonspecific background
             stimulation. The resultant 3D activation map agrees well
             with published representations of the vibrissae regions of
             the barrel field cortex. The ultrasonic opening of the BBB
             is fast, noninvasive, and reversible; and thus this approach
             is suitable for high-throughput and/or longitudinal studies
             in awake mice.},
   Doi = {10.3791/4055},
   Key = {fds319489}
}

@article{fds204261,
   Author = {FW Bazer and G Wu and GA Johnson and J Kim and G Song},
   Title = {Uterine histotroph and conceptus development: select
             nutrients and secreted phosphoprotein 1 affect mechanistic
             target of rapamycin cell signaling in ewes.},
   Journal = {Biology of reproduction},
   Volume = {85},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1094-107},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {1529-7268},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.111.094722},
   Abstract = {Interferon tau (IFNT), the pregnancy recognition signal in
             ruminants, abrogates the uterine luteolytic mechanism to
             ensure maintenance of function for the corpora lutea to
             produce progesterone (P4). IFNT also suppresses expression
             of classical IFN-stimulated genes by uterine lumenal
             epithelium (LE) and superficial glandular (sGE) epithelium
             but, acting in concert with progesterone, affects expression
             of a multitude of genes critical to growth and development
             of the conceptus. The LE and sGE secrete proteins and
             transport nutrients into the uterine lumen necessary for
             conceptus development, pregnancy recognition signaling, and
             implantation. Secretions include arginine and secreted
             phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1). Arginine can be metabolized to
             nitric oxide and to polyamines or act directly to activate
             the mechanistic target of rapamycin cell signaling pathway
             to stimulate proliferation, migration, and mRNA translation
             in trophectoderm cells. SPP1 binds alphavbeta3 and
             alpha5beta1 integrins to induce focal adhesion assembly,
             adhesion, and migration of conceptus trophectoderm cells
             during implantation. Thus, arginine and SPP1 mediate growth,
             migration, cytoskeletal remodeling, and adhesion of
             trophectoderm essential for pregnancy recognition signaling
             and implantation. This minireview focuses on components of
             histotroph that affect conceptus development in the
             ewe.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1095/biolreprod.111.094722},
   Key = {fds204261}
}

@article{fds268819,
   Author = {Veraart, J and Leergaard, TB and Antonsen, BT and Van Hecke and W and Blockx, I and Jeurissen, B and Jiang, Y and Van der Linden and A and Johnson, GA and Verhoye, M and Sijbers, J},
   Title = {Population-averaged diffusion tensor imaging atlas of the
             Sprague Dawley rat brain.},
   Journal = {NeuroImage},
   Volume = {58},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {975-983},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {1095-9572},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21749925},
   Keywords = {Algorithms • Animals • Atlases as Topic* •
             Brain • Brain Mapping • Diffusion Tensor Imaging
             • Magnetic Resonance Imaging • Male •
             Nonlinear Dynamics • Rats • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
             • anatomy & histology* • methods*},
   Abstract = {Rats are widely used in experimental neurobiological
             research, and rat brain atlases are important resources for
             identifying brain regions in the context of experimental
             microsurgery, tissue sampling, and neuroimaging, as well as
             comparison of findings across experiments. Currently, most
             available rat brain atlases are constructed from
             histological material derived from single specimens, and
             provide two-dimensional or three-dimensional (3D) outlines
             of diverse brain regions and fiber tracts. Important
             limitations of such atlases are that they represent
             individual specimens, and that finer details of tissue
             architecture are lacking. Access to more detailed 3D brain
             atlases representative of a population of animals is needed.
             Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a unique neuroimaging
             modality that provides sensitive information about
             orientation structure in tissues, and is widely applied in
             basic and clinical neuroscience investigations. To
             facilitate analysis and assignment of location in rat brain
             neuroimaging investigations, we have developed a
             population-averaged three-dimensional DTI atlas of the
             normal adult Sprague Dawley rat brain. The atlas is
             constructed from high resolution ex vivo DTI images, which
             were nonlinearly warped into a population-averaged in vivo
             brain template. The atlas currently comprises a selection of
             manually delineated brain regions, the caudate-putamen
             complex, globus pallidus, entopeduncular nucleus, substantia
             nigra, external capsule, corpus callosum, internal capsule,
             cerebral peduncle, fimbria of the hippocampus, fornix,
             anterior commisure, optic tract, and stria terminalis. The
             atlas is freely distributed and potentially useful for
             several purposes, including automated and manual delineation
             of rat brain structural and functional imaging
             data.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.06.063},
   Key = {fds268819}
}

@article{fds204254,
   Author = {FW Bazer and G Song and J Kim and DW Erikson and GA Johnson and RC
             Burghardt, H Gao and M Carey Satterfield and TE Spencer and G
             Wu},
   Title = {Mechanistic mammalian target of rapamycin (MTOR) cell
             signaling: Effects of select nutrients and secreted
             phosphoprotein 1 on development of mammalian
             conceptuses.},
   Journal = {Molecular and cellular endocrinology},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {1872-8057},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mce.2011.08.026},
   Abstract = {Morphological differentiation of uterine glands in mammals
             is a postnatal event vulnerable to adverse effects of
             endocrine disruptors. Exposure of ewe lambs to a progestin
             from birth to postnatal day 56 prevents development of
             uterine glands and, as adults, the ewes are unable to
             exhibit estrous cycles or maintain pregnancy. Uterine
             epithelia secrete proteins and transport nutrients into the
             uterine lumen necessary for conceptus development, pregnancy
             recognition signaling and implantation, including arginine
             and secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1). Arginine can be
             metabolized to nitric oxide and to polyamines or act
             directly to activate MTOR cell signaling to stimulate
             proliferation, migration, and mRNA translation in
             trophectoderm cells. SPP1 binds αvβ3 and α5β1 integrins
             and induces focal adhesion assembly, adhesion and migration
             of conceptus trophectoderm cells during implantation. Thus,
             arginine and SPP1 mediate growth, migration, cytoskeletal
             remodeling and adhesion of trophectoderm essential for
             pregnancy recognition signaling and implantation.},
   Language = {ENG},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.mce.2011.08.026},
   Key = {fds204254}
}

@article{fds268809,
   Author = {Lin, M and Qi, Y and Chen, AF and Badea, CT and Johnson,
             GA},
   Title = {Phenylephrine-modulated cardiopulmonary blood flow measured
             with use of X-ray digital subtraction angiography.},
   Journal = {Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological
             Methods},
   Volume = {64},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {180-186},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21846505},
   Abstract = {INTRODUCTION: Cardiopulmonary blood flow is an important
             indicator of organ function. Limitations in measuring blood
             flow in live rodents suggest that rapid physiological
             changes may be overlooked. For instance, relative
             measurements limit imaging to whole organs or large sections
             without adequately visualizing vasculature. Additionally,
             current methods use small samples and invasive techniques
             that often require killing animals, limiting sampling speed,
             or both. A recently developed high spatial- and
             temporal-resolution X-ray digital subtraction angiography
             (DSA) system visualizes vasculature and measures blood flow
             in rodents. This study was the first to use this system to
             measure changes in cardiopulmonary blood flow in rats after
             administering the vasoconstrictor phenylephrine. METHODS:
             Cardiopulmonary blood flow and vascular anatomy were
             assessed in 11 rats before, during, and after recovery from
             phenylephrine. After acquiring DSA images at 12 time points,
             a calibrated non-parametric deconvolution technique using
             singular value decomposition (SVD) was applied to calculate
             quantitative aortic blood flow in absolute metrics (mL/min).
             Trans-pulmonary transit time was calculated as the time
             interval between maximum signal enhancement in the pulmonary
             trunk and aorta. Pulmonary blood volume was calculated based
             on the central volume principle. Statistical analysis
             compared differences in trans-pulmonary blood volume and
             pressure, and aortic diameter using paired t-tests on
             baseline, peak, and late-recovery time points. RESULTS:
             Phenylephrine had dramatic qualitative and quantitative
             effects on vascular anatomy and blood flow. Major vessels
             distended significantly (aorta, ~1.2-times baseline) and
             mean arterial blood pressure increased ~2 times. Pulmonary
             blood volume, flow, pressure, and aortic diameter were not
             significantly different between baseline and late recovery,
             but differences were significant between baseline and peak,
             as well as peak and recovery time points. DISCUSSION: The
             DSA system with calibrated SVD technique acquired blood flow
             measurements every 30s with a high level of regional
             specificity, thus providing a new option for in vivo
             functional assessment in small animals.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.vascn.2011.08.001},
   Key = {fds268809}
}

@article{fds268811,
   Author = {Badea, CT and Hedlund, LW and Qi, Y and Berridge, B and Johnson,
             GA},
   Title = {In vivo imaging of rat coronary arteries using bi-plane
             digital subtraction angiography.},
   Journal = {Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological
             Methods},
   Volume = {64},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {151-157},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21683146},
   Abstract = {INTRODUCTION: X-ray based digital subtraction angiography
             (DSA) is a common clinical imaging method for vascular
             morphology and function. Coronary artery characterization is
             one of its most important applications. We show that
             bi-plane DSA of rat coronary arteries can provide a powerful
             imaging tool for translational safety assessment in drug
             discovery. METHODS: A novel, dual tube/detector system,
             constructed explicitly for preclinical imaging, supports
             image acquisition at 10 frames/s with 88-micron spatial
             resolution. Ventilation, x-ray exposure, and contrast
             injection are all precisely synchronized using a biological
             sequence controller implemented as a LabVIEW application. A
             set of experiments were performed to test and optimize the
             sampling and image quality. We applied the DSA imaging
             protocol to record changes in the visualization of
             coronaries and myocardial perfusion induced by a vasodilator
             drug, nitroprusside. The drug was infused into a tail vein
             catheter using a peristaltic infusion pump at a rate of 0.07
             mL/h for 3 min (dose: 0.0875 mg). Multiple DSA sequences
             were acquired before, during, and up to 25 min after drug
             infusion. Perfusion maps of the heart were generated in
             MATLAB to compare the drug effects over time. RESULTS: The
             best trade-off between the injection time, pressure, and
             image quality was achieved at 60 PSI, with the injection of
             150 ms occurring early in diastole (60 ms delay) and
             resulting in the delivery of 113 μL of contrast agent. DSA
             images clearly show the main branches of the coronary
             arteries in an intact, beating heart. The drug test
             demonstrated that DSA can detect relative changes in
             coronary circulation via perfusion maps. CONCLUSIONS: The
             methodology for DSA imaging of rat coronary arteries can
             serve as a template for future translational studies to
             assist in safety evaluation of new pharmaceuticals. Although
             x-ray imaging involves radiation, the associated dose (0.4
             Gy) is not a major limitation.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.vascn.2011.05.008},
   Key = {fds268811}
}

@article{fds268813,
   Author = {Zhang, X and Badea, C and Hood, G and Wetzel, A and Qi, Y and Stiles, J and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {High-resolution reconstruction of fluorescent inclusions in
             mouse thorax using anatomically guided sampling and parallel
             Monte Carlo computing.},
   Journal = {Biomedical Optics Express},
   Volume = {2},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {2449-2460},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {2156-7085},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21991539},
   Abstract = {We present a method for high-resolution reconstruction of
             fluorescent images of the mouse thorax. It features an
             anatomically guided sampling method to retrospectively
             eliminate problematic data and a parallel Monte Carlo
             software package to compute the Jacobian matrix for the
             inverse problem. The proposed method was capable of
             resolving microliter-sized femtomole amount of quantum dot
             inclusions closely located in the middle of the mouse
             thorax. The reconstruction was verified against
             co-registered micro-CT data. Using the proposed method, the
             new system achieved significantly higher resolution and
             sensitivity compared to our previous system consisting of
             the same hardware. This method can be applied to any system
             utilizing similar imaging principles to improve imaging
             performance.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1364/BOE.2.002449},
   Key = {fds268813}
}

@article{fds204268,
   Author = {M Lin and Y Qi and AF Chen and CT Badea and GA Johnson},
   Title = {Phenylephrine-modulated cardiopulmonary blood flow measured
             with use of X-ray digital subtraction angiography.},
   Journal = {Journal of pharmacological and toxicological
             methods},
   Volume = {64},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {180-6},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {1873-488X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vascn.2011.08.001},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary blood flow is an important
             indicator of organ function. Limitations in measuring blood
             flow in live rodents suggest that rapid physiological
             changes may be overlooked. For instance, relative
             measurements limit imaging to whole organs or large sections
             without adequately visualizing vasculature. Additionally,
             current methods use small samples and invasive techniques
             that often require killing animals, limiting sampling speed,
             or both. A recently developed high spatial- and
             temporal-resolution X-ray digital subtraction angiography
             (DSA) system visualizes vasculature and measures blood flow
             in rodents. This study was the first to use this system to
             measure changes in cardiopulmonary blood flow in rats after
             administering the vasoconstrictor phenylephrine. METHODS:
             Cardiopulmonary blood flow and vascular anatomy were
             assessed in 11 rats before, during, and after recovery from
             phenylephrine. After acquiring DSA images at 12 time points,
             a calibrated non-parametric deconvolution technique using
             singular value decomposition (SVD) was applied to calculate
             quantitative aortic blood flow in absolute metrics (mL/min).
             Trans-pulmonary transit time was calculated as the time
             interval between maximum signal enhancement in the pulmonary
             trunk and aorta. Pulmonary blood volume was calculated based
             on the central volume principle. Statistical analysis
             compared differences in trans-pulmonary blood volume and
             pressure, and aortic diameter using paired t-tests on
             baseline, peak, and late-recovery time points. RESULTS:
             Phenylephrine had dramatic qualitative and quantitative
             effects on vascular anatomy and blood flow. Major vessels
             distended significantly (aorta, ~1.2-times baseline) and
             mean arterial blood pressure increased ~2 times. Pulmonary
             blood volume, flow, pressure, and aortic diameter were not
             significantly different between baseline and late recovery,
             but differences were significant between baseline and peak,
             as well as peak and recovery time points. CONCLUSIONS: The
             DSA system with calibrated SVD technique acquired blood flow
             measurements every 30s with a high level of regional
             specificity, thus providing a new option for in vivo
             functional assessment in small animals.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.vascn.2011.08.001},
   Key = {fds204268}
}

@article{fds204245,
   Author = {JD Tobias and GA Johnson and M Patel},
   Title = {Performance of the On-Q pain infusion device during
             hyperbaric therapy.},
   Journal = {Anesthesia and analgesia},
   Volume = {113},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {275-7},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {1526-7598},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0b013e31821c4035},
   Keywords = {Air Pressure • Amides • Anesthesia, Conduction
             • Anesthetics, Local • Data Display • Diving
             • Fluid Therapy • Hyperbaric Oxygenation •
             Infusion Pumps* • Pain, Postoperative •
             Prospective Studies • administration & dosage •
             drug therapy • instrumentation • methods* •
             physiology},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: There are reports in the literature regarding
             the effects of hyperbaric conditions on various medical
             devices. In the current study we evaluated the performance
             of an elastomeric infusion device during exposure to a
             hyperbaric environment. METHODS: Nineteen disposable 400-mL
             On-Q pain ball infusion devices were filled with 0.2%
             ropivacaine and connected to an infusion catheter. The
             regulator of the device was set to deliver 14 mL/h.
             Hyperbaric oxygen therapy included 7 minutes to achieve the
             desired hyperbaric pressure level, 90 minutes at the
             specific pressure (atm), and 7 minutes to return to normal
             atmospheric pressure (1 atm), thereby resulting in a study
             interval or dive of 104 minutes. The trials were performed
             for the devices in the following sequence of dives with a
             return to 1 atm between: 1, 2, 2.4, 2.8, 3, and 1 atm. The
             fluid delivered during each dive was measured with a
             graduated column. Additionally, the collection device was
             weighed before and at the completion of each dive to
             determine the change in weight as a measure of the total
             amount of fluid infused. The output over 104 minutes was
             also studied in 5 infusion devices without hyperbaric
             pressure (control group). RESULTS: No difference in output
             of the devices was noted when comparing the study group and
             the control group. Although there was a decrease in the
             output of the devices over 8 to 9 hours, no difference
             between the 2 groups was noted. CONCLUSIONS: This
             preliminary investigation demonstrates no clinically
             significant change in the function of the On-Q pain device
             during exposure to a hyperbaric environment.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1213/ANE.0b013e31821c4035},
   Key = {fds204245}
}

@article{fds204248,
   Author = {G Wu and FW Bazer and GA Johnson and DA Knabe and RC Burghardt and TE
             Spencer, XL Li and JJ Wang},
   Title = {Triennial Growth Symposium: important roles for L-glutamine
             in swine nutrition and production.},
   Journal = {Journal of animal science},
   Volume = {89},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {2017-30},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {1525-3163},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2527/jas.2010-3614},
   Keywords = {Animal Feed • Animal Nutritional Physiological
             Phenomena* • Animals • Diet • Dietary
             Supplements • Female • Glutamine • Lactation
             • Pregnancy • Swine • blood • growth &
             development* • metabolism* • pharmacology •
             veterinary*},
   Abstract = {L-Glutamine (Gln) has traditionally not been considered a
             nutrient needed in diets for livestock species or even
             mentioned in classic animal nutrition textbooks. This is due
             to previous technical difficulties in Gln analysis and the
             unsubstantiated assumption that animals can synthesize
             sufficient amounts of Gln to meet their needs. Consequently,
             the current (1998) version of NRC does not recommend dietary
             Gln requirements for swine. This lack of knowledge about Gln
             nutrition has contributed to suboptimal efficiency of global
             pig production. Because of recent advances in research, Gln
             is now known to be an abundant AA in physiological fluids
             and proteins and a key regulator of gene expression.
             Additionally, Gln can regulate cell signaling via the
             mammalian target of rapamycin pathway, adenosine
             monophosphate-activated protein kinase, extracellular
             signal-related kinase, Jun kinase, mitogen-activated protein
             kinase, and nitric oxide. The exquisite integration of
             Gln-dependent regulatory networks has profound effects on
             cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, metabolism,
             homeostasis, survival, and function. As a result of
             translating basic research into practice, dietary
             supplementation with 1% Gln maintains gut health and
             prevents intestinal dysfunction in low-birth-weight or
             early-weaned piglets while increasing their growth
             performance and survival. In addition, supplementing 1% Gln
             to a corn- and soybean-meal-based diet between d 90 and 114
             of gestation ameliorates fetal growth retardation in gilts
             and reduces preweaning mortality of piglets. Furthermore,
             dietary supplementation with 1% Gln enhances milk production
             by lactating sows. Thus, adequate amounts of dietary Gln, a
             major nutrient, are necessary to support the maximum growth,
             development, and production performance of
             swine.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.2527/jas.2010-3614},
   Key = {fds204248}
}

@article{fds204265,
   Author = {CT Badea and LW Hedlund and Y Qi and B Berridge and GA
             Johnson},
   Title = {In vivo imaging of rat coronary arteries using bi-plane
             digital subtraction angiography.},
   Journal = {Journal of pharmacological and toxicological
             methods},
   Volume = {64},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {151-7},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {1873-488X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vascn.2011.05.008},
   Keywords = {Angiography, Digital Subtraction • Animals •
             Contrast Media • Coronary Angiography • Coronary
             Circulation • Male • Myocardial Perfusion Imaging
             • Nitroprusside • Rats • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
             • Time Factors • Vasodilator Agents •
             administration & dosage • drug effects* •
             instrumentation • methods* • pharmacology},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: X-ray based digital subtraction angiography
             (DSA) is a common clinical imaging method for vascular
             morphology and function. Coronary artery characterization is
             one of its most important applications. We show that
             bi-plane DSA of rat coronary arteries can provide a powerful
             imaging tool for translational safety assessment in drug
             discovery. METHODS: A novel, dual tube/detector system,
             constructed explicitly for preclinical imaging, supports
             image acquisition at 10 frames/s with 88-micron spatial
             resolution. Ventilation, x-ray exposure, and contrast
             injection are all precisely synchronized using a biological
             sequence controller implemented as a LabVIEW application. A
             set of experiments were performed to test and optimize the
             sampling and image quality. We applied the DSA imaging
             protocol to record changes in the visualization of
             coronaries and myocardial perfusion induced by a vasodilator
             drug, nitroprusside. The drug was infused into a tail vein
             catheter using a peristaltic infusion pump at a rate of 0.07
             mL/h for 3 min (dose: 0.0875 mg). Multiple DSA sequences
             were acquired before, during, and up to 25 min after drug
             infusion. Perfusion maps of the heart were generated in
             MATLAB to compare the drug effects over time. RESULTS: The
             best trade-off between the injection time, pressure, and
             image quality was achieved at 60 PSI, with the injection of
             150 ms occurring early in diastole (60 ms delay) and
             resulting in the delivery of 113 μL of contrast agent. DSA
             images clearly show the main branches of the coronary
             arteries in an intact, beating heart. The drug test
             demonstrated that DSA can detect relative changes in
             coronary circulation via perfusion maps. CONCLUSIONS: The
             methodology for DSA imaging of rat coronary arteries can
             serve as a template for future translational studies to
             assist in safety evaluation of new pharmaceuticals. Although
             x-ray imaging involves radiation, the associated dose (0.4
             Gy) is not a major limitation.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.vascn.2011.05.008},
   Key = {fds204265}
}

@article{fds268820,
   Author = {Badea, CT and Johnston, SM and Qi, Y and Johnson,
             GA},
   Title = {4D micro-CT for cardiac and perfusion applications with view
             under sampling.},
   Journal = {Physics in Medicine and Biology},
   Volume = {56},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {3351-3369},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {1361-6560},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21558587},
   Keywords = {Animals • Artifacts • Four-Dimensional Computed
             Tomography • Heart • Lung • Mice •
             Perfusion Imaging • Phantoms, Imaging • X-Ray
             Microtomography • methods* • radiography •
             radiography*},
   Abstract = {Micro-CT is commonly used in preclinical studies to provide
             anatomical information. There is growing interest in
             obtaining functional measurements from 4D micro-CT. We
             report here strategies for 4D micro-CT with a focus on two
             applications: (i) cardiac imaging based on retrospective
             gating and (ii) pulmonary perfusion using multiple contrast
             injections/rotations paradigm. A dual source micro-CT system
             is used for image acquisition with a sampling rate of 20
             projections per second. The cardiac micro-CT protocol
             involves the use of a liposomal blood pool contrast agent.
             Fast scanning of free breathing mice is achieved using
             retrospective gating. The ECG and respiratory signals are
             used to sort projections into ten cardiac phases. The
             pulmonary perfusion protocol uses a conventional contrast
             agent (Isovue 370) delivered by a micro-injector in four
             injections separated by 2 min intervals to allow for
             clearance. Each injection is synchronized with the rotation
             of the animal, and each of the four rotations is started
             with an angular offset of 22.5 from the starting angle of
             the previous rotation. Both cardiac and perfusion protocols
             result in an irregular angular distribution of projections
             that causes significant streaking artifacts in
             reconstructions when using traditional filtered
             backprojection (FBP) algorithms. The reconstruction involves
             the use of the point spread function of the micro-CT system
             for each time point, and the analysis of the distribution of
             the reconstructed data in the Fourier domain. This enables
             us to correct for angular inconsistencies via deconvolution
             and identify regions where data is missing. The missing
             regions are filled with data from a high quality but
             temporally averaged prior image reconstructed with all
             available projections. Simulations indicate that
             deconvolution successfully removes the streaking artifacts
             while preserving temporal information. 4D cardiac micro-CT
             in a mouse was performed with adequate image quality at
             isotropic voxel size of 88 µm and 10 ms temporal
             resolution. 4D pulmonary perfusion images were obtained in a
             mouse at 176 µm and 687 ms temporal resolution. Compared
             with FBP reconstruction, the streak reduction ratio is 70%
             and the contrast to noise ratio is 2.5 times greater in the
             deconvolved images. The radiation dose associated with the
             proposed methods is in the range of a typical micro-CT dose
             (0.17 Gy for the cardiac study and 0.21 Gy for the perfusion
             study). The low dose 4D micro-CT imaging presented here can
             be applied in high-throughput longitudinal studies in a wide
             range of applications, including drug safety and
             cardiopulmonary phenotyping.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1088/0031-9155/56/11/011},
   Key = {fds268820}
}

@article{fds204259,
   Author = {J Kim and RC Burghardt and G Wu and GA Johnson and TE Spencer and FW
             Bazer},
   Title = {Select nutrients in the ovine uterine lumen. IX.
             Differential effects of arginine, leucine, glutamine, and
             glucose on interferon tau, ornithine decarboxylase, and
             nitric oxide synthase in the ovine conceptus.},
   Journal = {Biology of reproduction},
   Volume = {84},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1139-47},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {1529-7268},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.110.088153},
   Keywords = {Amino Acids • Animals • Arginine • Embryo,
             Mammalian • Embryonic Development • Female •
             Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental • Glucose
             • Glutamine • Interferon Type I • Leucine
             • Nitric Oxide Synthase • Ornithine Decarboxylase
             • Pregnancy • Pregnancy Proteins • RNA,
             Messenger • Sheep • Uterus • drug effects
             • genetics • metabolism • metabolism* •
             pharmacology • pharmacology* • physiology •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {Nutrients are primary requirements for development of
             conceptuses (embryo and extraembryonic membranes), including
             protein synthesis. We have shown that arginine (Arg),
             leucine (Leu), and glucose stimulate protein synthesis
             through phosphorylation of MTOR signaling molecules, thereby
             increasing proliferation of ovine trophectoderm cells. This
             study determined whether Arg, Leu, glutamine (Gln), and
             glucose influence gene expression and protein synthesis in
             explant cultures of ovine conceptuses recovered from ewes on
             Day 16 of pregnancy. Conceptuses were deprived of select
             nutrients and then cultured with either Arg, Leu, Gln, or
             glucose for 18 h, after which they were analyzed for
             abundance of MTOR, RPS6K, RPS6, EIF4EBP1 (also known as
             4EBP1), IFNT, NOS2, NOS3, GCH1, and ODC1 mRNAs and proteins.
             Levels of MTOR, RPS6K, RPS6, and EIF4EBP1 mRNAs were not
             affected by treatment with any of the select nutrients.
             Similarly, expression of IFNT, NOS2, NOS3, and ODC1 mRNAs
             were not different. Interestingly, GCH1 mRNA levels
             increased in response to Arg treatment. Importantly, Arg,
             Leu, Gln, and glucose increased the abundance of
             phosphorylated MTOR, RPS6K, RPS6, and EIF4EBP1 proteins as
             well as NOS and ODC1 proteins, but only Arg increased the
             abundance of IFNT protein. These findings indicate that Arg,
             Leu, Gln, and glucose stimulate translation of mRNAs to
             increase synthesis of proteins through phosphorylation and
             activation of components of the MTOR signaling pathway.
             Increases in abundance of IFNT protein (the pregnancy
             recognition signal), NOS2, NOS3 and GCH1 for conversion of
             Arg to nitric oxide, and ODC1 for synthesis of polyamines
             are all important for growth and development of the ovine
             conceptus during pregnancy.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1095/biolreprod.110.088153},
   Key = {fds204259}
}

@article{fds268807,
   Author = {Jiang, Y and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Microscopic diffusion tensor atlas of the mouse
             brain.},
   Journal = {NeuroImage},
   Volume = {56},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {1235-1243},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {1095-9572},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21419226},
   Keywords = {Analysis of Variance • Animals • Atlases as Topic*
             • Brain • Databases, Factual • Diffusion
             Tensor Imaging • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
             • Informatics • Internet • Male • Mice
             • Mice, Inbred C57BL • anatomy & histology* •
             methods*},
   Abstract = {Eight diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) datasets of normal
             adult C57BL/6J mouse brains were acquired with an isotropic
             Nyquist limited resolution of 43 μm (voxel volume ~80 pl).
             Each specimen was scanned with a b0 image and 6
             diffusion-weighted images. T1- and T2*-weighted data were
             acquired with each specimen to aid nonlinear registration of
             the data to a common reference space (called "Waxholm
             Space"). We identified 80 different discrete landmarks in
             Waxholm Space to provide the gold standard for measuring the
             registration quality. The accuracy of the registration was
             established by measuring displacement of the 80 landmarks in
             each registered brain from the same landmarks in the
             reference brain. The accuracy was better than 130 μm for
             95% of the landmarks (overall landmark displacement is
             65±40 μm, n=640). Mean and coefficient of variation
             atlases of DTI indices were generated with potential
             application for both voxel-based and region of
             interest-based analysis. To examine consistency of DTI data
             among individual subjects in this study and difference in
             diffusion indices between separate brain structures within
             each subject, averaged values of DTI indices (axial
             diffusivity, radial diffusivity, fractional anisotropy, and
             angular deviation of the primary eigenvector) were computed
             in 9 white matter structures in each brain. The variation of
             the DTI indices across the population was very small, e.g.,
             ~5% for axial diffusivity for each white matter structure,
             enabling confident differentiation of differences in these
             structures within each subject. ANOVA tests indicated that
             the current protocol is able to provide consistent DTI data
             of individual brains (p>0.25), and distinguish difference of
             diffusion indices between white matter structures (p<0.001).
             Power analysis was also performed to provide an estimate of
             the number of specimens required to detect a 10% change of
             the DTI indices in each white matter structure. The data
             provide a critical addition to Waxholm Space, the
             International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility
             (www.incf.org) online comprehensive atlas of the mouse
             brain.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.03.031},
   Key = {fds268807}
}

@article{fds268808,
   Author = {Liu, C and Li, W and Johnson, GA and Wu, B},
   Title = {High-field (9.4 T) MRI of brain dysmyelination by
             quantitative mapping of magnetic susceptibility.},
   Journal = {NeuroImage},
   Volume = {56},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {930-938},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {1095-9572},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21320606},
   Keywords = {Algorithms • Animals • Anisotropy • Axons
             • Brain • Brain Mapping • Demyelinating
             Diseases • Diffusion Tensor Imaging • Echo-Planar
             Imaging • Electromagnetic Fields* • Fourier
             Analysis • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted •
             Mice • Mice, Inbred C3H • Mice, Neurologic Mutants
             • Myelin Sheath • Tissue Fixation • methods*
             • pathology • pathology* •
             physiology},
   Abstract = {The multilayered myelin sheath wrapping around nerve axons
             is essential for proper functioning of the central nervous
             system. Abnormal myelination leads to a wide range of
             neurological diseases and developmental disorders.
             Non-invasive imaging of myelin content is of great clinical
             importance. The present work demonstrated that loss of
             myelin in the central nervous system of the shiverer mouse
             results in a dramatic reduction of magnetic susceptibility
             in white matter axons. The reduction resulted in a near
             extinction of susceptibility contrast between gray and white
             matter. Quantitative magnetic susceptibility imaging and
             diffusion tensor imaging were conducted on a group of
             control and shiverer mice at 9.4 T. We measured the
             resonance frequency distribution of the whole brain for each
             mouse. Magnetic susceptibility maps were computed and
             compared between the two groups. It was shown that the
             susceptibility contrast between gray and white matter was
             reduced by 96% in the shiverer compared to the controls.
             Diffusion measurements further confirmed intact fiber
             pathways in the shiverer mice, ruling out the possibility of
             axonal injury and its potential contribution to the altered
             susceptibility. As an autosomal recessive mutation, shiverer
             is characterized by an almost total lack of central nervous
             system myelin. Our data provide new evidences indicating
             that myelin is the predominant source of susceptibility
             differences between deep gray and white matter observed in
             magnetic resonance imaging. More importantly, the present
             study suggests that quantitative magnetic susceptibility is
             a potential endogenous biomarker for myelination.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.02.024},
   Key = {fds268808}
}

@article{fds325753,
   Author = {Lipinski, RJ and Hammond, P and Ament, JJ and Pecevich, SJ and Jiang, Y and Dehart, DB and Johnson, GA and Sulik, KK},
   Title = {MAGNETIC RESONANCE MICROSCOPY-BASED 3D FACE-BRAIN
             CORRELATIONS IN AN FASD MOUSE MODEL},
   Journal = {Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research},
   Volume = {35},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {266A-266A},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {June},
   Key = {fds325753}
}

@article{fds268750,
   Author = {Sulik, KK and O'Leary-Moore, SK and Parnell, SE and Lipinski, RJ and Pecevich, S and Holloway, HT and Ament, J and Oguz, I and Budin, F and Jiang, Y and Dehart, DB and Styner, MA and Johnson,
             GA},
   Title = {Magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor imaging of pre- and
             postnatal brains in a mouse Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders
             model},
   Journal = {Alcohol},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {282-282},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0741-8329},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000289538300070&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds268750}
}

@article{fds292756,
   Author = {Rajagopal, S and Kovacs, J and Badea, C and Johnson, GA and Rockman, HA and Piantadosi, CA and Lefkowitz, RJ},
   Title = {BETA-ARRESTINS REGULATE SIGNALING BY BONE MORPHOGENETIC
             PROTEIN TYPE II RECEPTOR IN PULMONARY ARTERIAL
             HYPERTENSION},
   Journal = {JACC - Journal of the American College of
             Cardiology},
   Volume = {57},
   Number = {14},
   Pages = {E2046-E2046},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0735-1097},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000291695102051&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds292756}
}

@article{fds204260,
   Author = {C Abad and DF Antczak and J Carvalho and LW Chamley and Q Chen and S Daher and AE Damiano and V Dantzer and P Díaz and CE Dunk and E Daly and C Escudero and B Falcón and M Guillomot and YW Han and LK Harris and JP Huidobro-Toro and N Illsley and H Jammes and T Jansson and GA Johnson, JR Kfoury Jr and R
             Marín, P Murthi and B Novakovic and L Myatt and MG Petroff and FT
             Pereira, C Pfarrer and CW Redman and G Rice and R Saffery and JM Tolosa and C Vaillancourt and M Wareing and R Yuen and GE Lash},
   Title = {IFPA Meeting 2010 Workshop Report I: Immunology; ion
             transport; epigenetics; vascular reactivity;
             epitheliochorial placentation; proteomics.},
   Journal = {Placenta},
   Volume = {32 Suppl 2},
   Pages = {S81-9},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {1532-3102},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.placenta.2010.12.019},
   Keywords = {Animals • Education • Epigenesis, Genetic •
             Female • Fetus • Humans • Ion Transport
             • Maternal-Fetal Exchange • Placenta •
             Placentation • Pregnancy • Proteomics •
             Trophoblasts • blood supply • cytology •
             immunology • methods • physiology •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {Workshops are an important part of the IFPA annual meeting.
             At IFPA Meeting 2010 there were twelve themed workshops, six
             of which are summarized in this report. 1. The immunology
             workshop focused on normal and pathological functions of the
             maternal immune system in pregnancy. 2. The transport
             workshop dealt with regulation of ion and water transport
             across the syncytiotrophoblast of human placenta. 3. The
             epigenetics workshop covered DNA methylation and its
             potential role in regulating gene expression in placental
             development and disease. 4. The vascular reactivity workshop
             concentrated on methodological approaches used to study
             placental vascular function. 5. The workshop on
             epitheliochorial placentation covered current advances from
             in vivo and in vitro studies of different domestic species.
             6. The proteomics workshop focused on a variety of
             techniques and procedures necessary for proteomic analysis
             and how they may be implemented for placental
             research.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.placenta.2010.12.019},
   Key = {fds204260}
}

@article{fds268817,
   Author = {Bowden, DM and Johnson, GA and Zaborsky, L and Green, WDK and Moore, E and Badea, A and Dubach, MF and Bookstein, FL},
   Title = {A symmetrical Waxholm canonical mouse brain for
             NeuroMaps.},
   Journal = {Journal of Neuroscience Methods},
   Volume = {195},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {170-175},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {1872-678X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21163300},
   Keywords = {Animals • Brain • Brain Mapping* • Functional
             Laterality • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted •
             Magnetic Resonance Imaging • Mice • Mice, Inbred
             C57BL • Models, Neurological • anatomy &
             histology* • methods • methods*},
   Abstract = {NeuroMaps (2010) is a Web-based application that enables
             investigators to map data from macaque studies to a
             canonical atlas of the macaque brain. It currently serves as
             an image processor enabling them to create figures suitable
             for publication, presentation and archival purposes.
             Eventually it will enable investigators studying any of
             several species to analyze the overlap between their data
             and multimodality data mapped by others. The purpose of the
             current project was to incorporate the Waxholm canonical
             mouse brain (Harwylycz, 2009) into NeuroMaps. An enhanced
             gradient echo (T2*) magnetic resonance image (MRI) of the
             Waxholm canonical brain (Johnson et al., 2010) was warped to
             bring the irregular biological midplane of the MRI into line
             with the mathematically flat midsagittal plane of the
             Waxholm space. The left hemisphere was deleted and the right
             hemisphere reflected to produce a symmetrical 3D MR image.
             The symmetrical T2* image was imported into NeuroMaps. The
             map executing this warp was applied to four other voxellated
             volumes based on the same canonical specimen and maintained
             at the Center for In-Vitro Microscopy (CIVM): a T2-weighted
             MRI, a T1-weighted MRI, a segmented image and an image
             reconstructed from Nissl-stained histological sections of
             the specimen. Symmetric versions of those images were
             returned to the CIVM repository where they are made
             available to other laboratories. Utility of the symmetric
             atlas was demonstrated by mapping and comparing a number of
             cortical areas as illustrated in three conventional mouse
             brain atlases. The symmetric Waxholm mouse brain atlas is
             now accessible in NeuroMaps where investigators can map
             image data to standard templates over the Web and process
             them for publication, presentation and archival purposes:
             http://braininfo.rprc.washington.edu/MapViewData.aspx.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jneumeth.2010.11.028},
   Key = {fds268817}
}

@article{fds268821,
   Author = {Hawrylycz, M and Baldock, RA and Burger, A and Hashikawa, T and Johnson,
             GA and Martone, M and Ng, L and Lau, C and Larson, SD and Nissanov, J and Puelles, L and Ruffins, S and Verbeek, F and Zaslavsky, I and Boline,
             J},
   Title = {Digital atlasing and standardization in the mouse
             brain.},
   Journal = {PLoS computational biology},
   Volume = {7},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {e1001065},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {1553-7358},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21304938},
   Keywords = {Anatomy, Artistic • Animals • Atlases as Topic
             • Brain • Computational Biology • Male •
             Mice • Mice, Inbred C57BL • Models, Anatomic*
             • Models, Neurological • anatomy & histology*
             • standards • statistics & numerical
             data},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1371/journal.pcbi.1001065},
   Key = {fds268821}
}

@article{fds268827,
   Author = {Pandit, P and Qi, Y and King, KF and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Reduction of artifacts in T2 -weighted PROPELLER in
             high-field preclinical imaging.},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance in Medicine},
   Volume = {65},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {538-543},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {1522-2594},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20928875},
   Keywords = {Animals • Artifacts* • Image Enhancement •
             Lung Neoplasms • Magnetic Resonance Imaging • Mice
             • Neoplasm Transplantation • Phantoms, Imaging
             • diagnosis • methods*},
   Abstract = {A simple technique is implemented for correction of
             artifacts arising from nonuniform T(2) -weighting of k-space
             data in fast spin echo-based PROPELLER (periodically rotated
             overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction). An
             additional blade with no phase-encoding gradients is
             acquired to generate the scaling factor used for the
             correction. Results from simulations and phantom
             experiments, as well as in vivo experiments in
             free-breathing mice, demonstrate the advantages of the
             proposed method. This technique is developed specifically
             for high-field imaging applications where T(2) decay is
             rapid.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1002/mrm.22624},
   Key = {fds268827}
}

@article{fds268742,
   Author = {Peterson, RA and Gabrielson, KL and Johnson, GA and Pomper, MG and Coatney, RW and Winkelmann, CT},
   Title = {Continuing Education Course #1: Non-Invasive Imaging as a
             Problem-Solving Tool and Translational Biomarker Strategy in
             Toxicologic Pathology},
   Journal = {Toxicologic Pathology (Sage)},
   Volume = {39},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {267-272},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0192-6233},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000293379600029&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1177/0192623310390392},
   Key = {fds268742}
}

@article{fds268792,
   Author = {Johnson, GA and Badea, A and Jiang, Y},
   Title = {Quantitative neuromorphometry using magnetic resonance
             histology.},
   Journal = {Toxicologic Pathology (Sage)},
   Volume = {39},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {85-91},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21119052},
   Abstract = {Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), now common in the clinical
             domain, has been adapted for use by the neuropathologist by
             increasing the spatial resolution over 100,000 times what is
             common in human clinical imaging. This increase in spatial
             resolution has been accomplished through a variety of
             technical advances-higher magnetic fields, more sensitive
             receivers, and clever encoding methods. Magnetic resonance
             histology (MRH), that is, the application of MRI to study
             tissue specimens, now makes three-dimensional imaging of the
             fixed brain in the cranium routine. Active staining
             (perfusion fixation with a paramagnetic contrast agent) has
             allowed us to reduce the scan time by more than 8 times over
             earlier methods. The result is a three-dimensional isotropic
             image array that can be viewed along any direction without
             loss of spatial resolution. Homologous slices can be chosen
             interactively. Since the tissue is still fully hydrated in
             the cranium, tissue shrinkage and distortion are virtually
             eliminated. Volume measurements of neural structures can be
             made with a high degree of precision and accuracy. MRH will
             not replace more traditional methods, but it promises
             enormous value in choosing particular areas and times for
             more traditional sectioning and assessment.},
   Doi = {10.1177/0192623310389622},
   Key = {fds268792}
}

@article{fds268818,
   Author = {Ghaghada, KB and Badea, CT and Karumbaiah, L and Fettig, N and Bellamkonda, RV and Johnson, GA and Annapragada,
             A},
   Title = {Evaluation of tumor microenvironment in an animal model
             using a nanoparticle contrast agent in computed tomography
             imaging.},
   Journal = {Academic Radiology},
   Volume = {18},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {20-30},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1878-4046},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21145026},
   Keywords = {Animals • Contrast Media • Disease Models, Animal
             • Female • Imaging, Three-Dimensional •
             Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental • Mice • Mice,
             Inbred BALB C • Nanoparticles • Radiographic Image
             Enhancement • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain
             Reaction • Tomography, X-Ray Computed •
             Triiodobenzoic Acids • Tumor Microenvironment* •
             blood supply* • diagnostic use • diagnostic use*
             • methods • methods* • radiography*},
   Abstract = {RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Non-invasive longitudinal imaging
             of tumor vasculature could provide new insights into the
             development of solid tumors, facilitating efficient delivery
             of therapeutics. In this study, we report three-dimensional
             imaging and characterization of tumor vascular architecture
             using a nanoparticle contrast agent and high-resolution
             computed tomography (CT) imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS:
             Five Balb/c mice implanted with 4T1/Luc syngeneic breast
             tumors cells were used for the study. The nanoparticle
             contrast agent was systemically administered and
             longitudinal CT imaging was performed pre-contrast and at
             serial time points post-contrast, for up to 7 days for
             studying the characteristics of tumor-associated blood
             vessels. Gene expression of tumor angiogenic biomarkers was
             measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain
             reaction. RESULTS: Early-phase imaging demonstrated the
             presence of co-opted and newly developed tumor vessels. The
             co-opted vessels demonstrated wall-permeability and
             "leakiness" characteristics evident by an increase in
             extravascular nanoparticle-based signal enhancement visible
             well beyond the margins of tumor. Diameters of
             tumor-associated vessels were larger than the contralateral
             normal vessels. Delayed-phase imaging also demonstrated
             significant accumulation of nanoparticle contrast agent both
             within and in areas surrounding the tumor. A heterogeneous
             pattern of signal enhancement was observed both within and
             among individual tumors. Gene-expression profiling
             demonstrated significant variability in several angiogenic
             biomarkers both within and among individual tumors.
             CONCLUSIONS: The nanoparticle contrast agent and
             high-resolution CT imaging facilitated visualization of
             co-opted and newly developed tumors vessels as well as
             imaging of nanoparticle accumulation within tumors. The use
             of this agent could provide novel insights into tumor
             vascular biology and could have implications on the
             monitoring of tumor status.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.acra.2010.09.003},
   Key = {fds268818}
}

@article{fds268833,
   Author = {Badea, CT and Hedlund, LW and Cook, J and Berridge, BR and Johnson,
             GA},
   Title = {Micro-CT imaging assessment of dobutamine-induced cardiac
             stress in rats.},
   Journal = {Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological
             Methods},
   Volume = {63},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {24-29},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1873-488X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20399875},
   Keywords = {Animals • Cardiac Output • Dobutamine •
             Echocardiography • Electrocardiography • Heart
             • Heart Rate • Heart Ventricles • Magnetic
             Resonance Imaging • Male • Rats • Rats,
             Sprague-Dawley • Stress, Physiological • X-Ray
             Microtomography • administration & dosage • drug
             effects • drug effects* • methods* •
             pathology • pharmacology* • physiology •
             radiography*},
   Abstract = {INTRODUCTION: Dobutamine (DOB) stress in animal models of
             heart disease has been imaged so far using echocardiography
             and magnetic resonance imaging. The purpose of this study
             was to assess normal response to DOB stress in rats using
             anatomical and functional data using micro-computed
             tomography (CT). METHODS: Ten normal adult male rats were
             first injected with a liposomal-based blood pool contrast
             agent and next infused with DOB via a tail vein catheter.
             Using prospective gating, 5 pairs of systole/diastole
             micro-CT images were acquired (a) pre-infusion baseline; (b)
             at heart rate plateau during infusion of 10 μg/kg/min DOB;
             (c) at post-DOB infusion baseline; (d) at heart rate plateau
             during infusion of 30 μg/kg/min DOB; and (e) after
             post-infusion return to baseline. Heart rate, peripheral and
             breathing distensions were monitored by oximetry. Micro-CT
             images with 88-μm isotropic voxels were segmented to obtain
             cardiac function based on volumetric measurements of the
             left ventricle. RESULTS: DOB stress increased heart rate and
             cardiac output with both doses. Ejection fraction increased
             above baseline by an average of 35.9% with the first DOB
             dose and 18.4% with the second dose. No change was observed
             in the relative peripheral arterial pressures associated
             with the significant increases in cardiac output.
             DISCUSSION: Micro-CT proved to be a robust imaging method
             able to provide isotropic data on cardiac morphology and
             function. Micro-CT has the advantage of being faster and
             more cost-effective than MR and is able to provide higher
             accuracy than echocardiography. The impact of such an
             enabling technology can be enormous in evaluating
             cardiotoxic effects of various test drugs.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.vascn.2010.04.002},
   Key = {fds268833}
}

@article{fds268770,
   Author = {Bolon, B and Garman, RH and Gundersen, HJG and Johnson, GA and Kaufmann,
             W and Krinke, G and Little, PB and Makris, SL and Mellon, RD and Sulik, KK and Jensen, K},
   Title = {Continuing education course #3: current practices and future
             trends in neuropathology assessment for developmental
             neurotoxicity testing.},
   Journal = {Toxicologic Pathology (Sage)},
   Volume = {39},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {289-293},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {1533-1601},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192623310386247},
   Abstract = {The continuing education course on Developmental
             Neurotoxicity Testing (DNT) was designed to communicate
             current practices for DNT neuropathology, describe promising
             innovations in quantitative analysis and noninvasive
             imaging, and facilitate a discussion among experienced
             neuropathologists and regulatory scientists regarding
             suitable DNT practices. Conventional DNT neuropathology
             endpoints are qualitative histopathology and morphometric
             endpoints of particularly vulnerable sites (e.g., cerebral,
             cerebellar, or hippocampal thickness). Novel imaging and
             stereology measurements hold promise for automated analysis
             of factors that cannot be effectively examined in routinely
             processed specimens (e.g., cell numbers, fiber tract
             integrity). The panel recommended that dedicated DNT
             neuropathology data sets be acquired on a minimum of 8
             sections (for qualitative assessment) or 3 sections (for
             quantitative linear and stereological analyses) using a
             small battery of stains to examine neurons and myelin. Where
             guidelines permit discretion, immersion fixation is
             acceptable for younger animals (postnatal day 22 or
             earlier), and peripheral nerves may be embedded in paraffin.
             Frequent concerns regarding DNT data sets include
             false-negative outcomes due to processing difficulties
             (e.g., lack of concordance among sections from different
             animals) and insensitive analytical endpoints (e.g.,
             qualitative evaluation) as well as false-positive results
             arising from overinterpretation or misreading by
             inexperienced pathologists.},
   Doi = {10.1177/0192623310386247},
   Key = {fds268770}
}

@article{fds268785,
   Author = {Badea, CT and Johnston, SM and Qi, Y and Ghaghada, K and Johnson,
             GA},
   Title = {Dual-energy micro-CT imaging for differentiation of iodine-
             and gold-based nanoparticles},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE},
   Volume = {7961},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {1605-7422},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.878043},
   Abstract = {Spectral CT imaging is expected to play a major role in the
             diagnostic arena as it provides material decomposition on an
             elemental basis. One fascinating possibility is the ability
             to discriminate multiple contrast agents targeting different
             biological sites. We investigate the feasibility of dual
             energy micro-CT for discrimination of iodine (I) and gold
             (Au) contrast agents when simultaneously present in the
             body. Simulations and experiments were performed to measure
             the CT enhancement for I and Au over a range of voltages
             from 40-to-150 kVp using a dual source micro-CT system. The
             selected voltages for dual energy micro-CT imaging of Au and
             I were 40 kVp and 80 kVp. On a massconcentration basis, the
             relative average enhancement of Au to I was 2.75 at 40 kVp
             and 1.58 at 80 kVp. We have demonstrated the method in a
             preclinical model of colon cancer to differentiate vascular
             architecture and extravasation. The concentration maps of Au
             and I allow quantitative measure of the bio-distribution of
             both agents. In conclusion, dual energy micro-CT can be used
             to discriminate probes containing I and Au with immediate
             impact in pre-clinical research. © 2011
             SPIE.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.878043},
   Key = {fds268785}
}

@article{fds204250,
   Author = {GA Johnson},
   Title = {Ways to communicate the threat of climate change to
             health.},
   Journal = {BMJ (Clinical research ed.)},
   Volume = {343},
   Pages = {d7376},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {1468-5833},
   Keywords = {Climate Change* • Communication* • Greenhouse
             Effect • Humans • Public Health* • Social
             Behavior},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds204250}
}

@article{fds204262,
   Author = {GA Johnson},
   Title = {Changes imposed on GPs make it harder to respond to
             patients' needs.},
   Journal = {BMJ (Clinical research ed.)},
   Volume = {343},
   Pages = {d7700},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {1468-5833},
   Keywords = {General Practice • Great Britain •
             Physician-Patient Relations* • Quality Assurance,
             Health Care* • State Medicine •
             standards*},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds204262}
}

@article{fds204263,
   Author = {FW Bazer and TE Spencer and GA Johnson and RC Burghardt},
   Title = {Uterine receptivity to implantation of blastocysts in
             mammals.},
   Journal = {Frontiers in bioscience (Scholar edition)},
   Volume = {3},
   Pages = {745-67},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {1945-0524},
   Keywords = {Animals • Embryo Implantation • Endometrium •
             Female • Humans • Pregnancy • Receptors,
             Steroid • Species Specificity • Trophoblasts
             • Uterus • metabolism • metabolism* •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {Reproduction in mammals is a highly complex biological
             process. The critical importance of reproduction to
             propagation of species required the natural evolution of
             various strategies that vary considerably across species.
             Regardless of species, a dialogue between the developing
             conceptus (embryo-fetus and associated placental membranes)
             and maternal uterus must be established during the
             peri-implantation period. The uterus must provide a
             microenvironment that supports growth and development of the
             conceptus and is receptive to implantation. During the same
             period, the conceptus must provide its pregnancy recognition
             signaling to sustain the functional life of corpora lutea
             for production of progesterone which is essential for
             implantation and placentation; critical events for
             successful pregnancy. However, it is within the
             peri-implantation period that most embryonic deaths occur
             due to deficiencies attributed to uterine functions or to
             the failure of the conceptus to develop appropriately,
             signal pregnancy recognition and/or undergo implantation and
             placentation. The challenge is to understand the complexity
             of key mechanisms that are characteristic of successful
             reproduction in humans and animals and to use that knowledge
             to enhance fertility and reproductive health or to establish
             acceptable methods for control of fertility.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds204263}
}

@article{fds204266,
   Author = {KJ Bayless and GA Johnson},
   Title = {Role of the cytoskeleton in formation and maintenance of
             angiogenic sprouts.},
   Journal = {Journal of vascular research},
   Volume = {48},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {369-85},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {1423-0135},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000324751},
   Keywords = {Animals • Cytoskeleton • Humans •
             Neovascularization, Physiologic • Wound Healing •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from
             pre-existing structures, and is a key step in tissue and
             organ development, wound healing and pathological events.
             Changes in cell shape orchestrated by the cytoskeleton are
             integral to accomplishing the various steps of angiogenesis,
             and an intact cytoskeleton is also critical for maintaining
             newly formed structures. This review focuses on how the 3
             main cytoskeletal elements--microfilaments, microtubules,
             and intermediate filaments--regulate the formation and
             maintenance of angiogenic sprouts. Multiple classes of
             compounds target microtubules and microfilaments, revealing
             much about the role of actin and tubulin and their
             associated molecules in angiogenic sprout formation and
             maintenance. In contrast, intermediate filaments are much
             less studied, yet intriguing evidence suggests a vital, but
             unresolved, role in angiogenic sprouting. This review
             discusses evidence for regulatory molecules and
             pharmacological compounds that affect actin, microtubule and
             intermediate filament dynamics to alter various steps of
             angiogenesis, including endothelial sprout formation and
             maintenance.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1159/000324751},
   Key = {fds204266}
}

@article{fds204271,
   Author = {D Srinivasan and N Muthukrishnan and GA Johnson and A Erazo-Oliveras and J Lim and EE Simanek and JP Pellois},
   Title = {Conjugation to the cell-penetrating peptide TAT potentiates
             the photodynamic effect of carboxytetramethylrhodamine.},
   Journal = {PloS one},
   Volume = {6},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {e17732},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {1932-6203},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017732},
   Keywords = {Amino Acid Sequence • Animals • Carotenoids •
             Cell Death • Cell Line • Cell Membrane • Cell
             Membrane Permeability • Cell-Penetrating Peptides
             • Drug Synergism • Endocytosis • Endosomes
             • Humans • Light • Molecular Sequence Data
             • Photochemotherapy* • Photolysis • Protein
             Processing, Post-Translational • Rhodamines •
             Singlet Oxygen • chemistry • drug effects •
             metabolism • metabolism* • pharmacology •
             radiation effects • therapeutic use*},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) can transport
             macromolecular cargos into live cells. However, the cellular
             delivery efficiency of these reagents is often suboptimal
             because CPP-cargo conjugates typically remain trapped inside
             endosomes. Interestingly, irradiation of fluorescently
             labeled CPPs with light increases the release of the peptide
             and its cargos into the cytosol. However, the mechanism of
             this phenomenon is not clear. Here we investigate the
             molecular basis of the photo-induced endosomolytic activity
             of the prototypical CPPs TAT labeled to the fluorophore
             5(6)-carboxytetramethylrhodamine (TMR). RESULTS: We report
             that TMR-TAT acts as a photosensitizer that can destroy
             membranes. TMR-TAT escapes from endosomes after exposure to
             moderate light doses. However, this is also accompanied by
             loss of plasma membrane integrity, membrane blebbing, and
             cell-death. In addition, the peptide causes the destruction
             of cells when applied extracellularly and also triggers the
             photohemolysis of red blood cells. These photolytic and
             photocytotoxic effects were inhibited by hydrophobic singlet
             oxygen quenchers but not by hydrophilic quenchers.
             CONCLUSIONS: Together, these results suggest that TAT can
             convert an innocuous fluorophore such as TMR into a potent
             photolytic agent. This effect involves the targeting of the
             fluorophore to cellular membranes and the production of
             singlet oxygen within the hydrophobic environment of the
             membranes. Our findings may be relevant for the design of
             reagents with photo-induced endosomolytic activity. The
             photocytotoxicity exhibited by TMR-TAT also suggests that
             CPP-chromophore conjugates could aid the development of
             novel Photodynamic Therapy agents.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0017732},
   Key = {fds204271}
}

@article{fds204264,
   Author = {GA Johnson and JN Bloom and L Szczotka-Flynn and D Zauner and RL
             Tomsak},
   Title = {A comparative study of resident performance on standardized
             training examinations and the american board of
             ophthalmology written examination.},
   Journal = {Ophthalmology},
   Volume = {117},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {2435-9},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {1549-4713},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2010.03.056},
   Keywords = {Adult • Certification • Clinical Competence •
             Cohort Studies • Education, Medical, Graduate •
             Educational Measurement* • Female • Humans •
             Internship and Residency • Licensure • Male •
             Ophthalmology • United States • Young Adult •
             education* • standards • standards*},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationships between
             ophthalmology resident performance on the United States
             Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE), the Ophthalmic
             Knowledge Assessment Program (OKAP) exam and the American
             Board of Ophthalmology written qualifying examination
             (ABO-WQE). METHODS: Cohort study. METHODS: We included 76
             residents from 15 consecutive training classes (1991-2006)
             at 1 ophthalmologic residency training program. METHODS:
             Numeric scores on the USMLE Step 1 and OKAP examinations
             during the 3 years of residency, and first attempt pass rate
             on the ABO-WQE were recorded for 76 residents. Age and
             gender were also noted. Spearman's rank correlations and
             univariate and multivariate logistic analyses were performed
             to determine relevant associations. METHODS: First-time
             attempt pass rate on the ABO-WQE and/or successful
             completion of the ABO-WQE within 3 years of graduation from
             the residency program. RESULTS: The ABO-WQE first-attempt
             pass rate was 72.6%, consistent with the national average.
             Resident USMLE scores were not significantly associated with
             ABO-WQE performance. The ABO-WQE pass rate was significantly
             associated with OKAP examination scores during the 3
             residency years (year 1: odds ratio [OR], 8.85 and 95%
             confidence interval [CI] 1.82-42.79; year 2: OR, 5.28 and
             95% CI, 1.15-25.27; year 3: OR, 11.08 and 95% CI,
             1.86-68.96). Passing the OKAP examinations in all 3 years
             during residency training was associated with 5.43-fold
             increased odds of passing the ABO-WQE and failing all 3 OKAP
             examinations was associated with >9-fold lower odds of
             passing the ABO-WQE on the first attempt. CONCLUSIONS: Our
             results suggest that OKAP examination performance is a
             predictor of a resident's success in passing the ABO-WQE on
             the first attempt, as well as within 3 years of graduation
             from an ophthalmologic training program. Awareness of this
             association may permit identification of residents at risk
             for failing the ABO-WQE and encourage educational
             remediation to prevent this failure.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.ophtha.2010.03.056},
   Key = {fds204264}
}

@article{fds268722,
   Author = {Johnston, SM and Johnson, GA and Badea, CT},
   Title = {GPU-based iterative reconstruction with total variation
             minimization for micro-CT},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE},
   Volume = {7622},
   Number = {PART 2},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {December},
   ISBN = {9780819480231},
   ISSN = {1605-7422},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.844368},
   Abstract = {Dynamic imaging with micro-CT often produces
             poorly-distributed sets of projections, and reconstructions
             of this data with filtered backprojection algorithms (FBP)
             may be affected by artifacts. Iterative reconstruction
             algorithms and total variation (TV) denoising are promising
             alternatives to FBP, but may require running times that are
             frustratingly long. This obstacle can be overcome by
             implementing reconstruction algorithms on graphics
             processing units (GPU). This paper presents an
             implementation of a family of iterative reconstruction
             algorithms with TV denoising on a GPU, and a series of tests
             to optimize and compare the ability of different algorithms
             to reduce artifacts. The mathematical and computational
             details of the implementation are explored. The performance,
             measured by the accuracy of the reconstruction versus the
             running time, is assessed in simulations with a virtual
             phantom and in an in vivo scan of a mouse. We conclude that
             the simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique with TV
             minimization (SART-TV) is a time-effective reconstruction
             algorithm for producing reconstructions with fewer artifacts
             than FBP. © 2010 SPIE.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.844368},
   Key = {fds268722}
}

@article{fds268825,
   Author = {Johnson, GA and Badea, A and Brandenburg, J and Cofer, G and Fubara, B and Liu, S and Nissanov, J},
   Title = {Waxholm space: an image-based reference for coordinating
             mouse brain research.},
   Journal = {NeuroImage},
   Volume = {53},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {365-372},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {1095-9572},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20600960},
   Keywords = {Animals • Atlases as Topic • Brain •
             Databases, Factual • Histology • Image Processing,
             Computer-Assisted • Imaging, Three-Dimensional •
             Magnetic Resonance Imaging • Male • Mice •
             Mice, Inbred C57BL • Reference Standards •
             Staining and Labeling • Thalamus • anatomy &
             histology • anatomy & histology* • methods •
             standards*},
   Abstract = {We describe an atlas of the C57BL/6 mouse brain based on MRI
             and conventional Nissl histology. Magnetic resonance
             microscopy was performed on a total of 14 specimens that
             were actively stained to enhance tissue contrast. Images
             were acquired with three different MR protocols yielding
             contrast dependent on spin lattice relaxation (T1), spin
             spin relaxation (T2), and magnetic susceptibility (T2*).
             Spatial resolution was 21.5 mum (isotropic). Conventional
             histology (Nissl) was performed on a limited set of these
             same specimens and the Nissl images were registered
             (3D-to-3D) to the MR data. Probabilistic atlases for 37
             structures are provided, along with average atlases. The
             availability of three different MR protocols, the Nissl
             data, and the labels provides a rich set of options for
             registration of other atlases to the same coordinate system,
             thus facilitating data-sharing. All the data is available
             for download via the web.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.06.067},
   Key = {fds268825}
}

@article{fds268826,
   Author = {O'Leary-Moore, SK and Parnell, SE and Godin, EA and Dehart, DB and Ament, JJ and Khan, AA and Johnson, GA and Styner, MA and Sulik,
             KK},
   Title = {Magnetic resonance microscopy-based analyses of the brains
             of normal and ethanol-exposed fetal mice.},
   Journal = {Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular
             Teratology},
   Volume = {88},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {953-964},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {1542-0760},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20842647},
   Keywords = {Abnormalities, Drug-Induced • Animals • Brain
             • Disease Models, Animal • Ethanol • Female
             • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome • Fetus •
             Gestational Age • Humans • Magnetic Resonance
             Imaging • Male • Mice • Mice, Inbred C57BL
             • Microscopy • Pregnancy • Prenatal Exposure
             Delayed Effects • abnormalities • chemically
             induced • drug effects* • embryology •
             methods • methods* • pathology •
             toxicity*},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: The application of magnetic resonance microscopy
             (MRM) to the study of normal and abnormal prenatal mouse
             development has facilitated discovery of dysmorphology
             following prenatal ethanol insult. The current analyses
             extend this work, providing a regional brain volume-based
             description of normal brain growth and illustrating the
             consequences of gestational day (GD) 10 ethanol exposure in
             the fetal mouse. METHODS: To assess normal growth, control
             C57Bl/6J fetuses collected on GD 16, GD 16.5, and GD 17 were
             scanned using a 9.4-T magnet, resulting in 29-μm isotropic
             resolution images. For the ethanol teratogenicity studies,
             C57Bl/6J dams were administered intraperitoneal ethanol (2.9
             g/kg) at 10 days, 0 hr, and 10 days, 4 hr, after
             fertilization, and fetuses were collected for analyses on GD
             17. From individual MRM scans, linear measurements and
             regional brain volumes were determined and compared.
             RESULTS: In control fetuses, each of the assessed brain
             regions increased in volume, whereas ventricular volumes
             decreased between GD 16 and GD 17. Illustrating a global
             developmental delay, prenatal ethanol exposure resulted in
             reduced body volumes, crown-rump lengths, and a generalized
             decrease in regional brain volumes compared with GD 17
             controls. However, compared with GD 16.5, morphologically
             matched controls, ethanol exposure resulted in volume
             increases in the lateral and third ventricles as well as a
             disproportionate reduction in cortical volume. CONCLUSIONS:
             The normative data collected in this study facilitate the
             distinction between GD 10 ethanol-induced developmental
             delay and frank dysmorphology. This work illustrates the
             utility of MRM-based analyses for developmental toxicology
             studies and extends our knowledge of the stage-dependency of
             ethanol teratogenesis.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1002/bdra.20719},
   Key = {fds268826}
}

@article{fds180938,
   Author = {DW Bailey and KA Dunlap and DW Erikson and AK Patel and FW Bazer and RC
             Burghardt, GA Johnson},
   Title = {Effects of long-term progesterone exposure on porcine
             uterine gene expression: progesterone alone does not induce
             secreted phosphoprotein 1 (osteopontin) in glandular
             epithelium.},
   Journal = {Reproduction (Cambridge, England)},
   Volume = {140},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {595-604},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {1741-7899},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/REP-10-0169},
   Abstract = {Pigs experience significant conceptus loss near
             mid-gestation, correlating with increasing glandular
             epithelial (GE) development and secretory activity. Secreted
             phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1, osteopontin) increases in GE between
             days 30 and 40 of pregnancy and is expressed in the GE of
             day 90 pseudopregnant pigs, suggesting that progesterone
             (P(4)) from corpora lutea is responsible for induction of
             SPP1 in GE. In this study, pigs were ovariectomized and
             treated daily with P(4) to assess effects of 40 days of P(4)
             exposure on SPP1, P(4) receptor (PGR), uteroferrin (ACP5),
             and fibroblast growth factor 7 (FGF7) expression in porcine
             endometria. PGR mRNA decreased in pigs injected with P(4)
             compared with pigs injected with corn oil (CO), and PGRs
             were downregulated in the luminal epithelium (LE) and GE.
             ACP5 mRNA increased in pigs injected with P(4) compared with
             pigs injected with CO, and ACP5 was induced in the GE of
             P(4)-treated pigs. FGF7 mRNA increased in pigs injected with
             P(4) compared with pigs injected with CO, and FGF7 was
             induced in the LE and GE of P(4)-treated pigs. SPP1 mRNA was
             not different between pigs injected with P(4) compared with
             pigs injected with CO, and SPP1 was not present in the GE of
             P(4)-treated pigs. Therefore, long-term P(4), in the absence
             of ovarian and/or conceptus factors, does not induce SPP1
             expression in GE. We hypothesize that a servomechanism
             involving sequential effects of multiple hormones and
             cytokines, similar to those for sheep and humans, is
             required for GE differentiation and function, including the
             synthesis and secretion of SPP1.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1530/REP-10-0169},
   Key = {fds180938}
}

@article{fds180940,
   Author = {DW Bailey and KA Dunlap and JW Frank and DW Erikson and BG White and FW
             Bazer, RC Burghardt and GA Johnson},
   Title = {Effects of long-term progesterone on developmental and
             functional aspects of porcine uterine epithelia and
             vasculature: progesterone alone does not support development
             of uterine glands comparable to that of pregnancy.},
   Journal = {Reproduction (Cambridge, England)},
   Volume = {140},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {583-94},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {1741-7899},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/REP-10-0170},
   Abstract = {In pigs, endometrial functions are regulated primarily by
             progesterone and placental factors including estrogen.
             Progesterone levels are high throughout pregnancy to
             stimulate and maintain secretion of histotroph from uterine
             epithelia necessary for growth, implantation, placentation,
             and development of the conceptus (embryo and its
             extra-embryonic membranes). This study determined effects of
             long-term progesterone on development and histoarchitecture
             of endometrial luminal epithelium (LE), glandular epithelium
             (GE), and vasculature in pigs. Pigs were ovariectomized
             during diestrus (day 12), and then received daily injections
             of either corn oil or progesterone for 28 days. Prolonged
             progesterone treatment resulted in increased weight and
             length of the uterine horns, and thickness of the
             endometrium and myometrium. Hyperplasia and hypertrophy of
             GE were not evident, but LE cell height increased,
             suggesting elevated secretory activity. Although GE
             development was deficient, progesterone supported increased
             endometrial angiogenesis comparable to that of pregnancy.
             Progesterone also supported alterations to the apical and
             basolateral domains of LE and GE. Dolichos biflorus
             agglutinin lectin binding and α(v) integrin were
             downregulated at the apical surfaces of LE and GE.
             Claudin-4, α(2)β(1) integrin, and vimentin were increased
             at basolateral surfaces, whereas occludins-1 and -2,
             claudin-3, and E-cadherin were unaffected by progesterone
             treatment indicating structurally competent trans-epithelial
             adhesion and tight junctional complexes. Collectively, the
             results suggest that progesterone affects LE, GE, and
             vascular development and histoarchitecture, but in the
             absence of ovarian or placental factors, it does not support
             development of GE comparable to pregnancy. Furthermore, LE
             and vascular development are highly responsive to the
             effects of progesterone.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1530/REP-10-0170},
   Key = {fds180940}
}

@article{fds268822,
   Author = {Brinegar, C and Schmitter, SS and Mistry, NN and Johnson, GA and Liang,
             Z-P},
   Title = {Improving temporal resolution of pulmonary perfusion imaging
             in rats using the partially separable functions
             model.},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance in Medicine},
   Volume = {64},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1162-1170},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {1522-2594},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20564601},
   Keywords = {Algorithms* • Animals • Blood Flow Velocity •
             Computer Simulation • Female • Image Enhancement
             • Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted •
             Magnetic Resonance Angiography • Models,
             Cardiovascular* • Pulmonary Artery • Pulmonary
             Circulation • Rats • Rats, Inbred F344 •
             Reproducibility of Results • Sensitivity and
             Specificity • anatomy & histology • methods •
             methods* • physiology • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (or DCE-MRI) is a useful tool
             for measuring blood flow and perfusion, and it has found use
             in the study of pulmonary perfusion in animal models.
             However, DCE-MRI experiments are difficult in small animals
             such as rats. A recently developed method known as
             Interleaved Radial Imaging and Sliding window-keyhole (IRIS)
             addresses this problem by using a data acquisition scheme
             that covers (k,t)-space with data acquired from multiple
             bolus injections of a contrast agent. However, the temporal
             resolution of IRIS is limited by the effects of temporal
             averaging inherent in the sliding window and keyhole
             operations. This article describes a new method to cover
             (k,t)-space based on the theory of partially separable
             functions (PSF). Specifically, a sparse sampling of
             (k,t)-space is performed to acquire two data sets, one with
             high-temporal resolution and the other with extended k-space
             coverage. The high-temporal resolution training data are
             used to determine the temporal basis functions of the PSF
             model, whereas the other data set is used to determine the
             spatial variations of the model. The proposed method was
             validated by simulations and demonstrated by an experimental
             study. In this particular study, the proposed method
             achieved a temporal resolution of 32 msec.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1002/mrm.22500},
   Key = {fds268822}
}

@article{fds268824,
   Author = {Howles, GP and Bing, KF and Qi, Y and Rosenzweig, SJ and Nightingale,
             KR and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Contrast-enhanced in vivo magnetic resonance microscopy of
             the mouse brain enabled by noninvasive opening of the
             blood-brain barrier with ultrasound.},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance in Medicine},
   Volume = {64},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {995-1004},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {1522-2594},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20740666},
   Keywords = {Animals • Blood-Brain Barrier • Brain •
             Contrast Media • Fluorocarbons • Gadolinium DTPA
             • Image Enhancement • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
             • Mice • Mice, Inbred C57BL • Microscopy
             • Sonication • anatomy & histology* •
             diagnostic use • diagnostic use* • metabolism*
             • methods • methods* • pharmacokinetics
             • pharmacokinetics* • radiation
             effects},
   Abstract = {The use of contrast agents for neuroimaging is limited by
             the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which restricts entry into
             the brain. To administer imaging agents to the brain of
             rats, intracarotid infusions of hypertonic mannitol have
             been used to open the BBB. However, this technically
             challenging approach is invasive, opens only a limited
             region of the BBB, and is difficult to extend to mice. In
             this work, the BBB was opened in mice, using unfocused
             ultrasound combined with an injection of microbubbles. This
             technique has several notable features: it (a) can be
             performed transcranially in mice; (b) takes only 3 min and
             uses only commercially available components; (c) opens the
             BBB throughout the brain; (d) causes no observed histologic
             damage or changes in behavior (with peak-negative acoustic
             pressures of 0.36 MPa); and (e) allows recovery of the BBB
             within 4 h. Using this technique, Gadopentetate Dimeglumine
             (Gd-DTPA) was administered to the mouse brain parenchyma,
             thereby shortening T(1) and enabling the acquisition of
             high-resolution (52 × 52 × 100 micrometers(3)) images in
             51 min in vivo. By enabling the administration of both
             existing anatomic contrast agents and the newer
             molecular/sensing contrast agents, this technique may be
             useful for the study of mouse models of neurologic function
             and pathology with MRI.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1002/mrm.22411},
   Key = {fds268824}
}

@article{fds180933,
   Author = {JY Kim and RC Burghardt and G Wu and GA Johnson and TE Spencer and FW
             Bazer},
   Title = {Select Nutrients in the Ovine Uterine Lumen. VIII. Arginine
             Stimulates Proliferation of Ovine Trophectoderm Cells
             Through MTOR-RPS6K-RPS6 Signaling Cascade and Synthesis of
             Nitric Oxide and Polyamines.},
   Journal = {Biology of reproduction},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {1529-7268},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.110.085753},
   Abstract = {During the peri-implantation period in sheep, L-arginine
             (L-Arg) in the uterine lumen is an essential substrate for
             synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) by nitric oxide synthase
             (NOS) and polyamines via arginase and ornithine
             decarboxylase (ODC1) required for survival and development
             of ovine conceptuses (embryo and its extra-embryonic
             membranes). L-Arg can stimulate hypertrophy, hyperplasia and
             differentiation of the ovine conceptus trophectoderm;
             however, the responsible signal transduction cascade has not
             been determined. Therefore, this study examined possible
             signaling pathways mediated by L-Arg, as well as effects of
             two NO donors, SNAP and DETA, and putrescine (precursor for
             spermidine and spermine) on oTr cell proliferation. Further,
             the inhibition of these effects by L-NAME (an inhibitor of
             NOS) and Nor-NOHA (an inhibitor of arginase) was assessed.
             L-Arg treatment increased the abundance of phosphorylated
             MTOR, RPS6K and EIF4EBP1 in oTr cells. Consistent with
             activation of these cell signaling molecules, L-Arg
             increased protein synthesis and reduced protein degradation
             in oTr cells. Both NO and polyamines enhanced cell
             proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. The effects of
             L-Arg were partially inhibited by both L-NAME and Nor-NOHA.
             These results indicate that L-Arg enhances production of
             polyamines and NO and activates the MTOR/FRAP1-RPS6K-RPS6
             signaling pathway to stimulate proliferation and migration
             of oTr cells.},
   Language = {ENG},
   Doi = {10.1095/biolreprod.110.085753},
   Key = {fds180933}
}

@article{fds180937,
   Author = {JY Kim and RC Burghardt and G Wu and GA Johnson and TE Spencer and FW
             Bazer},
   Title = {Select Nutrients in the Ovine Uterine Lumen. VII. Effects of
             Arginine, Leucine, Glutamine, and Glucose on Trophectoderm
             Cell Signaling, Proliferation, and Migration.},
   Journal = {Biology of reproduction},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {1529-7268},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.110.085738},
   Abstract = {Histotroph is required for survival and development of ovine
             conceptuses (embryo and extra-embryonic membranes). Results
             from our laboratory indicate that arginine (Arg), leucine
             (Leu), glutamine (Gln) and glucose increase in the uterine
             lumen between Days 10 and 15 of pregnancy, coincident with
             increases in expression of amino acid and glucose
             transporters by uterine epithelia, as well as trophectoderm
             and yolk sac of conceptuses, and elongation of the conceptus
             trophectoderm. Therefore, we hypothesized that Arg, Leu, Gln
             and glucose have differential effects on hypertrophy,
             hyperplasia and differentiated functions of trophectoderm
             cells that are critical to conceptus development. Primary
             ovine trophectoderm (oTr) cells isolated from Day 15
             conceptuses were serum-starved for 24h in a customized
             medium, deprived of select nutrients and then treated with
             either Arg, Leu, Gln or glucose. Western blot analyses of
             whole oTr cell extracts revealed that Arg, Leu and glucose,
             but not Gln, increased phosphorylated AKT1 (pAKT1) 2.8-,
             2.5-, and 1.8-fold, respectively, within 15 min and the
             increase was maintained to 60 min. Arg, Leu and glucose also
             stimulated 4.2-, 4.7-, and 2.3-fold increases in
             phosphorylated RPS6K (pRPS6K) within 15 min, as well as
             increases in pRPS6 protein between 0 and 30 min
             post-treatment that were sustained to 60 min. When oTr cells
             were treated with Arg, pRPS6K protein increased in nuclei,
             but this was not observed in nuclei of oTr cells treated
             with Leu and glucose. Immunocytochemical analyses also
             revealed abundant amounts of phosphorylated RPS6 protein in
             the cytoplasm of oTr cells treated with Arg, Leu and
             glucose. Further, Arg and Leu increased proliferation and
             migration of oTr cells. Collectively, these results indicate
             that Arg, Leu and glucose, but not Gln, in histotroph
             coordinately activate AKT1-MTOR and RPS6K-RPS6 cell
             signaling pathways to stimulate hypertrophy, hyperplasia,
             and migration of oTr cells.},
   Language = {ENG},
   Doi = {10.1095/biolreprod.110.085738},
   Key = {fds180937}
}

@article{fds180931,
   Author = {G Wu and FW Bazer and RC Burghardt and GA Johnson and SW Kim and DA Knabe and P Li and X Li, JR McKnight and MC Satterfield and TE
             Spencer},
   Title = {Proline and hydroxyproline metabolism: implications for
             animal and human nutrition.},
   Journal = {Amino acids},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {1438-2199},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00726-010-0715-z},
   Abstract = {Proline plays important roles in protein synthesis and
             structure, metabolism (particularly the synthesis of
             arginine, polyamines, and glutamate via pyrroline-5-carboxylate),
             and nutrition, as well as wound healing, antioxidative
             reactions, and immune responses. On a per-gram basis,
             proline plus hydroxyproline are most abundant in collagen
             and milk proteins, and requirements of proline for
             whole-body protein synthesis are the greatest among all
             amino acids. Therefore, physiological needs for proline are
             particularly high during the life cycle. While most mammals
             (including humans and pigs) can synthesize proline from
             arginine and glutamine/glutamate, rates of endogenous
             synthesis are inadequate for neonates, birds, and fish.
             Thus, work with young pigs (a widely used animal model for
             studying infant nutrition) has shown that supplementing 0.0,
             0.35, 0.7, 1.05, 1.4, and 2.1% proline to a proline-free
             chemically defined diet containing 0.48% arginine and 2%
             glutamate dose dependently improved daily growth rate and
             feed efficiency while reducing concentrations of urea in
             plasma. Additionally, maximal growth performance of chickens
             depended on at least 0.8% proline in the diet. Likewise,
             dietary supplementation with 0.07, 0.14, and 0.28%
             hydroxyproline (a metabolite of proline) to a plant
             protein-based diet enhanced weight gains of salmon. Based on
             its regulatory roles in cellular biochemistry, proline can
             be considered as a functional amino acid for mammalian,
             avian, and aquatic species. Further research is warranted to
             develop effective strategies of dietary supplementation with
             proline or hydroxyproline to benefit health, growth, and
             development of animals and humans.},
   Language = {ENG},
   Doi = {10.1007/s00726-010-0715-z},
   Key = {fds180931}
}

@article{fds325754,
   Author = {Sulik, KK and O'Leary-Moore, SK and Parnell, SE and Godin, EA and Styner, MA and Lipinski, RJ and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING-BASED ANALYSES OF A FETAL ALCOHOL
             SPECTRUM DISORDERS MOUSE MODEL},
   Journal = {Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research},
   Volume = {34},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {31A-31A},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {August},
   Key = {fds325754}
}

@article{fds268823,
   Author = {Pandit, P and Qi, Y and Story, J and King, KF and Johnson,
             GA},
   Title = {Multishot PROPELLER for high-field preclinical
             MRI.},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance in Medicine},
   Volume = {64},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {47-53},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {1522-2594},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20572138},
   Keywords = {Animals • Disease Models, Animal • Female •
             Image Processing, Computer-Assisted • Liver Neoplasms,
             Experimental • Magnetic Resonance Imaging • Mice
             • Mice, Inbred C57BL • Radiography, Abdominal
             • diagnosis • methods*},
   Abstract = {With the development of numerous mouse models of cancer,
             there is a tremendous need for an appropriate imaging
             technique to study the disease evolution. High-field
             T(2)-weighted imaging using PROPELLER (Periodically Rotated
             Overlapping ParallEL Lines with Enhanced Reconstruction) MRI
             meets this need. The two-shot PROPELLER technique presented
             here provides (a) high spatial resolution, (b) high contrast
             resolution, and (c) rapid and noninvasive imaging, which
             enables high-throughput, longitudinal studies in
             free-breathing mice. Unique data collection and
             reconstruction makes this method robust against motion
             artifacts. The two-shot modification introduced here retains
             more high-frequency information and provides higher
             signal-to-noise ratio than conventional single-shot
             PROPELLER, making this sequence feasible at high fields,
             where signal loss is rapid. Results are shown in a liver
             metastases model to demonstrate the utility of this
             technique in one of the more challenging regions of the
             mouse, which is the abdomen.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1002/mrm.22376},
   Key = {fds268823}
}

@article{fds268751,
   Author = {O'Leary-Moore, SK and Parnell, SE and Godin, EA and Johnson, GA and Styner, M and Oguz, I and Budin, F and Jiang, Y and Dehart, DB and Sulik,
             KK},
   Title = {MAGNETIC RESONANCE MICROSCOPY AND DIFFUSION TENSOR IMAGING
             DEFINE STAGE-DEPENDENT CHANGES IN BRAIN MORPHOLOGY AFTER
             PRENATAL ETHANOL EXPOSURE IN MICE},
   Journal = {Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research},
   Volume = {34},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {298A-298A},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0145-6008},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000291641500215&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds268751}
}

@article{fds174156,
   Author = {KA Dunlap and HI Kwak and RC Burghardt and FW Bazer and RR Magness and GA
             Johnson, KJ Bayless},
   Title = {The sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) signaling pathway is
             regulated during pregnancy in sheep.},
   Journal = {Biology of reproduction},
   Volume = {82},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {876-87},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {1529-7268},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.109.081604},
   Abstract = {Because sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a potent stimulator
             of angiogenesis, we hypothesized that the S1P pathway is
             activated to stimulate endometrial/placental angiogenesis
             during pregnancy. We initially localized S1P signaling
             pathway members in the gravid and nongravid uterine horns of
             unilaterally pregnant ewes. Sphingosine kinase-1 expression
             was greater in gravid compared to nongravid horns. In situ
             hybridization revealed elevated expression of sphingosine
             1-phosphate phosphatase (SGPP1) in gravid interplacentomal
             endometrial stroma on Days 20 and 40 compared to the
             nongravid uterine horn, but expression increased in
             endometrium of the nongravid uterine horn between Days 40
             and 120. SGPP1 expression increased in placentomes late in
             gestation. Sphingosine 1-phosphate lyase mRNA was modestly
             expressed at Day 20 and then decreased. In contrast,
             sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) mRNA increased in
             endometrium and caruncular stroma of the gravid uterine
             horn. Treatment with FTY720 and VPC23019, S1P receptor
             antagonists, blocked human and ovine endothelial cell
             invasion using an in vitro model of sprouting angiogenesis.
             Knockdown of S1PR1 with siRNA reduced invasion responses as
             well. We previously reported that delta-like 4 (DLL4) and A
             disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin-like
             repeats 1 (ADAMTS1) participate in endothelial cell invasion
             stimulated by S1P and growth factors in vitro, and thus
             investigated whether their expression correlated with areas
             undergoing angiogenesis in vivo. DLL4 expression was similar
             to S1PR1, while ADAMTS1 mRNA was expressed by endometria of
             both nongravid and gravid horns, as well as conceptus and
             placentomes. These results establish that S1P signaling
             pathway members and S1P- and growth factor-regulated genes
             are prominent in uterine and placental tissue and in some
             cases are correlated with areas undergoing angiogenesis.
             Thus, S1P signaling may be crucial for proper
             fetal-placental development.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1095/biolreprod.109.081604},
   Key = {fds174156}
}

@article{fds174172,
   Author = {G Song and DW Bailey and KA Dunlap and RC Burghardt and TE Spencer and FW
             Bazer, GA Johnson},
   Title = {Cathepsin B, cathepsin L, and cystatin C in the porcine
             uterus and placenta: potential roles in endometrial/placental
             remodeling and in fluid-phase transport of proteins secreted
             by uterine epithelia across placental areolae.},
   Journal = {Biology of reproduction},
   Volume = {82},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {854-64},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {1529-7268},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.109.080929},
   Abstract = {Cathepsins (CTSB and CTSL1) and their inhibitor, cystatin C
             (CST3), remodel uterine endometrium and placenta for
             transport of gases, micronutrients, and macromolecules
             essential for development and growth of the conceptus
             (embryo/fetus and placental membranes). We examined the
             temporal/spatial control of expression for CTSB, CTSL1, and
             CST3 mRNAs in endometria and placentae of pigs using three
             developmental models: 1) pigs were hysterectomized during
             the estrous cycle or pregnancy; 2) cyclic pigs were injected
             with estrogen to induce pseudopregnancy and were
             hysterectomized; and 3) pigs were ovariectomized, injected
             with progesterone, and hysterectomized. The abundance of
             CTSB, CTSL1, and CST3 mRNAs increased in endometrial
             epithelia during pregnancy and in response to exogenous
             progesterone but not estrogen. CST3 was also expressed in
             cells scattered within the stratum compactum stroma.
             Progesterone decreased epithelial but increased stromal
             compartment expression of CST3. CTSB increased in all
             chorionic epithelia, but CTSL1 was limited to chorionic
             epithelia that form areolae to absorb secretions from
             uterine glands. Based on the placental and endometrial
             distribution of CTSL1, we examined expression in the
             neonatal enterocytes known to transport immunoglobulins from
             colostrum. CTSL1 was also expressed in enterocytes of
             intestine from neonatal piglets. Therefore, CTSL1 is
             expressed by endometrial epithelia, placental areolae, and
             neonatal intestine, and it may function in the transport of
             macromolecules across these epithelia. Our results support
             the idea that reciprocal interactions between CSTL1, CTSB,
             and CST3 may be required to remodel endometrial and
             placental tissues for close apposition between maternal and
             fetal vasculatures and to facilitate transplacental
             transport of gases, micronutrients (amino acids, glucose),
             and macromolecules (proteins). Cysteine proteases and their
             inhibitors may also specifically modify proteins for
             successful utilization and fluid-phase transport across
             uterine, placental, and neonatal gut epithelia.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1095/biolreprod.109.080929},
   Key = {fds174172}
}

@article{fds268839,
   Author = {Howles, GP and Qi, Y and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Ultrasonic disruption of the blood-brain barrier enables in
             vivo functional mapping of the mouse barrel field cortex
             with manganese-enhanced MRI.},
   Journal = {NeuroImage},
   Volume = {50},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1464-1471},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {1095-9572},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20096789},
   Keywords = {Animals • Blood-Brain Barrier • Brain Mapping
             • Cerebral Cortex • Conscious Sedation •
             Imaging, Three-Dimensional • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
             • Manganese • Mice • Mice, Inbred C57BL
             • Microbubbles • Physical Stimulation • Touch
             Perception • Ultrasonics • Ultrasonography,
             Doppler, Transcranial • Vibrissae • metabolism
             • metabolism* • methods* • physiology •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {Though mice are the dominant model system for studying the
             genetic and molecular underpinnings of neuroscience,
             functional neuroimaging in mice remains technically
             challenging. One approach, Activation-Induced
             Manganese-enhanced MRI (AIM MRI), has been used successfully
             to map neuronal activity in rodents. In AIM MRI,
             manganese(2+) acts a calcium analog and accumulates in
             depolarized neurons. Because manganese(2+) shortens T1,
             regions of elevated neuronal activity enhance in MRI.
             However, because manganese does not cross the blood-brain
             barrier (BBB), the need to osmotically disrupt the BBB has
             limited the use of AIM MRI, particularly in mice. In this
             work, the BBB was opened in mice using unfocused,
             transcranial ultrasound in combination with gas-filled
             microbubbles. Using this noninvasive technique to open the
             BBB bilaterally, manganese could be quickly administered to
             the whole mouse brain. With this approach, AIM MRI was used
             to map the neuronal response to unilateral mechanical
             stimulation of the vibrissae in lightly sedated mice. The
             resultant 3D activation map agreed well with published
             representations of the vibrissae regions of the barrel field
             cortex. The anterior portions of the barrel field cortex
             corresponding to the more rostral vibrissae showed greater
             activation, consistent with previous literature. Because the
             ultrasonic opening of the BBB is simple, fast, and
             noninvasive, this approach is suitable for high-throughput
             and longitudinal studies in awake mice. This approach
             enables a new way to map neuronal activity in mice with
             manganese.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.01.050},
   Key = {fds268839}
}

@article{fds174151,
   Author = {X Li and FW Bazer and GA Johnson and RC Burghardt and DW Erikson and JW
             Frank, TE Spencer and I Shinzato and G Wu},
   Title = {Dietary Supplementation with 0.8% L-Arginine between Days 0
             and 25 of Gestation Reduces Litter Size in
             Gilts.},
   Journal = {The Journal of nutrition},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {1541-6100},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/jn.110.121350},
   Abstract = {In this study, we determined the effects of l-arginine
             supplementation during early pregnancy on embryonic/fetal
             survival and growth in gilts. Gilts were housed individually
             in pens and fed twice daily 1 kg of a corn- and soybean
             meal-based diet supplemented with 0.0, 0.4, or 0.8%
             l-arginine (wt:wt) between d 0 and 25 of gestation (10
             gilts/treatment). The diets were made isonitrogenous by
             addition of appropriate amounts of l-alanine. At d 25 of
             gestation, gilts were fed l-alanine or l-arginine and
             hysterectomized 30 min later to obtain uteri and conceptuses
             (embryos and associated fetal membranes and fluids). Dietary
             supplementation with 0.4 or 0.8% l-arginine enhanced (P <
             0.05) its concentrations in maternal plasma (64 and 98%,
             respectively) as well as the vascularity of chorionic and
             allantoic membranes, compared with the control group.
             Reproductive performance [numbers of corpora lutea (CL) and
             fetuses, placental and fetal weights, and embryonic
             mortality] did not differ between the 0.4% Arg and control
             groups. However, supplementation with 0.8% l-arginine
             decreased (P < 0.05) uterine weight (-20%), total number of
             fetuses (-24%), CL number (-17%), total fetal weight (-34%),
             total volume of allantoic and amniotic fluids (-34 to 42%),
             concentrations of progesterone in maternal plasma (-33%), as
             well as total amounts of progesterone (-35%), estrone
             (-40%), and estrone sulfate (-37%) in allantoic fluid,
             compared with the control group. These results indicate that
             dietary supplementation with 0.8% l-arginine between d 0 and
             25 of gestation, while increasing placental vascularity,
             adversely affects the reproductive performance of
             gilts.},
   Language = {ENG},
   Doi = {10.3945/jn.110.121350},
   Key = {fds174151}
}

@article{fds174171,
   Author = {J Kim and DW Erikson and RC Burghardt and TE Spencer and G Wu and KJ
             Bayless, GA Johnson and FW Bazer},
   Title = {Secreted phosphoprotein 1 binds integrins to initiate
             multiple cell signaling pathways, including FRAP1/mTOR, to
             support attachment and force-generated migration of
             trophectoderm cells.},
   Journal = {Matrix biology : journal of the International Society for
             Matrix Biology},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {1569-1802},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matbio.2010.04.001},
   Abstract = {Attachment and migration of trophectoderm (Tr) cells,
             hallmarks of blastocyst implantation in mammals, are unique
             uterine events. Secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1) in the
             uterus binds integrins on conceptus Tr and uterine luminal
             epithelium (LE), affecting cell-cell and cell-matrix
             interactions. The signal transduction pathways activated by
             SPP1 and integrins in conceptuses have not been elucidated.
             Results of this study demonstrate that SPP1 binds
             alphavbeta3 and alpha5beta1 integrins to induce focal
             adhesion assembly, a prerequisite for adhesion and migration
             of Tr, through activation of: 1) P70S6K via crosstalk
             between FRAP1/mTOR and MAPK pathways; 2) mTOR, PI3K,
             MAPK3/MAPK1 (Erk1/2) and MAPK14 (p38) signaling to stimulate
             Tr cell migration; and 3) focal adhesion assembly and myosin
             II motor activity to induce migration of Tr cells. These
             cell signaling pathways, acting in concert, mediate
             adhesion, migration and cytoskeletal remodeling of Tr cells
             essential for expansion and elongation of conceptuses and
             attachment to uterine LE for implantation.},
   Language = {ENG},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.matbio.2010.04.001},
   Key = {fds174171}
}

@article{fds180932,
   Author = {G Wu and FW Bazer and RC Burghardt and GA Johnson and SW Kim and XL Li and MC
             Satterfield, TE Spencer},
   Title = {Impacts of amino acid nutrition on pregnancy outcome in
             pigs: mechanisms and implications for swine
             production.},
   Journal = {Journal of animal science},
   Volume = {88},
   Number = {13 Suppl},
   Pages = {E195-204},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {1525-3163},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2527/jas.2009-2446},
   Keywords = {Adipose Tissue • Amino Acids • Animal Nutritional
             Physiological Phenomena • Animals • Diet •
             Female • Fetal Development • Fetal Growth
             Retardation • Litter Size • Muscle, Skeletal
             • Placenta • Pregnancy • Pregnancy Outcome
             • Swine • drug effects • embryology •
             growth & development • metabolism • physiology
             • physiology* • veterinary •
             veterinary*},
   Abstract = {Pigs suffer up to 50% embryonic and fetal loss during
             gestation and exhibit the most severe naturally occurring
             intrauterine growth retardation among livestock species.
             Placental insufficiency is a major factor contributing to
             suboptimal reproductive performance and reduced birth
             weights of pigs. Enhancement of placental growth and
             function through nutritional management offers an effective
             solution to improving embryonic and fetal survival and
             growth. We discovered an unusual abundance of the arginine
             family of AA in porcine allantoic fluid (a reservoir of
             nutrients) during early gestation, when placental growth is
             most rapid. Arginine is metabolized to ornithine, proline,
             and nitric oxide, and these compounds possess a plethora of
             physiological functions. Nitric oxide is a vasodilator and
             angiogenic factor, whereas both ornithine and proline are
             substrates for placental synthesis of polyamines, which are
             key regulators of protein synthesis and angiogenesis.
             Additionally, arginine, leucine, glutamine, and proline
             activate the mammalian target of rapamycin cell-signaling
             pathway to enhance protein synthesis and cell proliferation
             in placentae. To translate basic research on AA biochemistry
             and nutrition into application, dietary supplementation with
             0.83% l-arginine to gilts on d 14 to 28 or d 30 to 114 of
             gestation increased the number and litter birth weight of
             live-born piglets. In addition, supplementing the gestation
             diet with 0.4% l-arginine plus 0.6% l-glutamine enhanced the
             efficiency of nutrient utilization, reduced variation in
             piglet birth weight, and increased litter birth weight. By
             regulating syntheses of nitric oxide, polyamines, and
             proteins, functional AA stimulate placental growth and the
             transfer of nutrients from mother to embryo or fetus to
             promote conceptus survival, growth, and development.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.2527/jas.2009-2446},
   Key = {fds180932}
}

@article{fds268829,
   Author = {Bucholz, E and Ghaghada, K and Qi, Y and Mukundan, S and Rockman, HA and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Cardiovascular phenotyping of the mouse heart using a 4D
             radial acquisition and liposomal Gd-DTPA-BMA.},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance in Medicine},
   Volume = {63},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {979-987},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {1522-2594},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20373399},
   Keywords = {Algorithms • Analysis of Variance • Animals •
             Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena* • Contrast
             Media • Gadolinium DTPA • Imaging,
             Three-Dimensional • Liposomes • Magnetic Resonance
             Imaging • Mice • Mice, Inbred C57BL • Mice,
             Inbred DBA • Phenotype • chemistry •
             instrumentation • methods*},
   Abstract = {MR microscopy has enormous potential for small-animal
             cardiac imaging because it is capable of producing
             volumetric images at multiple time points to accurately
             measure cardiac function. MR has not been used as frequently
             as ultrasound to measure cardiac function in the small
             animal because the MR methods required relatively long scan
             times, limiting throughput. Here, we demonstrate
             four-dimensional radial acquisition in conjunction with a
             liposomal blood pool agent to explore functional differences
             in three populations of mice: six C57BL/6J mice, six DBA/2J
             mice, and six DBA/2J CSQ+ mice, all with the same
             gestational age and approximately the same weight.
             Cardiovascular function was determined by measuring both
             left ventricular and right ventricular end diastolic volume,
             end systolic volume, stroke volume, and ejection fraction.
             Statistical significance was observed in end diastolic
             volume, end systolic volume, and ejection fraction for left
             ventricular measurements between all three populations of
             mice. No statistically significant difference was observed
             in stroke volume in either the left or right ventricle for
             any of the three populations of mice. This study shows that
             MRI is capable of efficient, high-throughput,
             four-dimensional cardiovascular phenotyping of the
             mouse.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1002/mrm.22259},
   Key = {fds268829}
}

@article{fds268831,
   Author = {Badea, A and Johnson, GA and Jankowsky, JL},
   Title = {Remote sites of structural atrophy predict later amyloid
             formation in a mouse model of Alzheimer's
             disease.},
   Journal = {NeuroImage},
   Volume = {50},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {416-427},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {1095-9572},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20035883},
   Keywords = {Alzheimer Disease • Amyloid • Animals •
             Atrophy • Brain • Disease Models, Animal •
             Female • Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted •
             Magnetic Resonance Imaging • Male • Mice •
             Mice, Transgenic • Plaque, Amyloid • metabolism
             • methods* • pathology • pathology*},
   Abstract = {Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can provide a longitudinal
             view of neurological disease through repeated imaging of
             patients at successive stages of impairment. Until recently,
             the difficulty of manual delineation has limited volumetric
             analyses of MR data sets to a few select regions and a small
             number of subjects. Increased throughput offered by faster
             imaging methods, automated segmentation, and
             deformation-based morphometry have recently been applied to
             overcome this limitation with mouse models of neurological
             conditions. We use automated analyses to produce an unbiased
             view of volumetric changes in a transgenic mouse model for
             Alzheimer's disease (AD) at two points in the progression of
             disease: immediately before and shortly after the onset of
             amyloid formation. In addition to the cortex and
             hippocampus, where atrophy has been well documented in AD
             patients, we identify volumetric losses in the pons and
             substantia nigra where neurodegeneration has not been
             carefully examined. We find that deficits in cortical volume
             precede amyloid formation in this mouse model, similar to
             presymptomatic atrophy seen in patients with familial AD.
             Unexpectedly, volumetric losses identified by MR outside of
             the forebrain predict locations of future amyloid formation,
             such as the inferior colliculus and spinal nuclei, which
             develop pathology at very late stages of disease. Our work
             provides proof-of-principle that MR microscopy can expand
             our view of AD by offering a complete and unbiased
             examination of volumetric changes that guide us in
             revisiting the canonical neuropathology.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.12.070},
   Key = {fds268831}
}

@article{fds268837,
   Author = {Jiang, Y and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Microscopic diffusion tensor imaging of the mouse
             brain.},
   Journal = {NeuroImage},
   Volume = {50},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {465-471},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {1095-9572},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20034583},
   Keywords = {Animals • Anisotropy • Brain • Brain Mapping
             • Diffusion Tensor Imaging • Image Interpretation,
             Computer-Assisted • Mice • Staining and Labeling
             • Tissue Fixation • anatomy & histology* •
             methods • methods*},
   Abstract = {Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data at 43 mum isotropic
             resolution has been acquired on the intact adult mouse brain
             in 28-h scan time by using a streamlined protocol, including
             specimen fixation and staining, image acquisition,
             reconstruction, post-processing, and distribution. An
             intermediate registration of each component image is
             required to achieve the desired microscopic resolution.
             Multiple parameters have been derived, including fractional
             anisotropy, axial and radial diffusivity, and a color-coded
             orientation map of the primary eigenvector. Each DTI dataset
             was mapped to a common reference space to facilitate future
             standardized analysis. Fiber tracking has also been
             demonstrated, providing 3D connection information. This
             protocol to acquire high-resolution DTI data in a robust and
             repeatable fashion will serve as a foundation to
             quantitatively study mouse brain integrity and white matter
             architecture, at what we believe to be the highest spatial
             resolution yet attained.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.12.057},
   Key = {fds268837}
}

@article{fds174193,
   Author = {FW Bazer and G Wu and TE Spencer and GA Johnson and RC Burghardt and K
             Bayless},
   Title = {Novel pathways for implantation and establishment and
             maintenance of pregnancy in mammals.},
   Journal = {Molecular human reproduction},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {135-52},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {1460-2407},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molehr/gap095},
   Keywords = {Animals • Embryo Implantation • Female •
             Humans • Pregnancy • Pregnancy, Animal* •
             Signal Transduction • Uterus • genetics •
             metabolism • physiology • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Uterine receptivity to implantation varies among species,
             and involves changes in expression of genes that are
             coordinate with attachment of trophectoderm to uterine
             lumenal and superficial glandular epithelia, modification of
             phenotype of uterine stromal cells, silencing of receptors
             for progesterone and estrogen, suppression of genes for
             immune recognition, alterations in membrane permeability to
             enhance conceptus-maternal exchange of factors, angiogenesis
             and vasculogenesis, increased vascularity of the
             endometrium, activation of genes for transport of nutrients
             into the uterine lumen, and enhanced signaling for pregnancy
             recognition. Differential expression of genes by uterine
             epithelial and stromal cells in response to progesterone,
             glucocorticoids, prostaglandins and interferons may
             influence uterine receptivity to implantation in mammals.
             Uterine receptivity to implantation is progesterone-dependent;
             however, implantation is preceded by loss of expression of
             receptors for progesterone (PGR) so that progesterone most
             likely acts via PGR-positive stromal cells throughout
             pregnancy. Endogenous retroviruses expressed by the uterus
             and/or blastocyst also affect implantation and placentation
             in various species. Understanding the roles of the variety
             of hormones, growth factors and endogenous retroviral
             proteins in uterine receptivity for implantation is
             essential to enhancing reproductive health and fertility in
             humans and domestic animals.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1093/molehr/gap095},
   Key = {fds174193}
}

@article{fds174231,
   Author = {DA Massuto and RN Hooper and EC Kneese and GA Johnson and NH Ing and BR
             Weeks, LA Jaeger},
   Title = {Intrauterine infusion of latency-associated peptide (LAP)
             during early porcine pregnancy affects conceptus elongation
             and placental size.},
   Journal = {Biology of reproduction},
   Volume = {82},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {534-42},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {1529-7268},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.109.081893},
   Abstract = {In the pig, transforming growth factor beta (TGFB), TGFB
             receptors (TGFBRs), and integrins are present during the
             peri-implantation period. Latency-associated peptide (LAP),
             a part of latent TGFB, can bind to integrin heterodimers via
             its Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence; therefore, ligand-receptor
             interactions between TGFB and TGFBRs, along with LAP and
             integrin heterodimers, may be functional in mediating events
             supporting conceptus elongation and attachment. With the use
             of surgically implantable osmotic pumps, we were able to
             maintain pregnancy with the aim of mechanistically altering
             in vivo receptor-ligand interactions involving TGFB with
             TGFBRs and LAP with integrins during porcine pregnancy. Day
             9 pregnant gilts received intrauterine infusions of LAP-RGD,
             a recombinant mutant of LAP (LAP-RGE), or vehicle control
             and were ovariohysterectomized on Day 13 or 24 of pregnancy.
             We hypothesized that intrauterine infusion of LAP-RGD would
             decrease downstream signaling of TGFB while increasing
             LAP-integrin interactions and that net effect would enhance
             conceptus survival and attachment early in the
             peri-implantation period but possibly increase the chance of
             abnormal placentation later in pregnancy. Additionally, we
             hypothesized that infusion of LAP-RGE would disrupt TGFB
             signals but not alter integrin signaling, and thus the net
             result would be decreased conceptus survival and abnormal
             development. Unexpectedly, LAP-RGD intrauterine infusions
             resulted in a reduction of conceptus elongation, whereas
             infusions of LAP-RGE permitted implantation and placentation
             but resulted in larger fetal weight, allantois length, and
             allantoic fluid volume. Results suggest TGFB and integrins
             are contributing factors in the regulation of conceptus
             elongation and placental and fetal size.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1095/biolreprod.109.081893},
   Key = {fds174231}
}

@article{fds268834,
   Author = {Mistry, NN and Thomas, A and Kaushik, SS and Johnson, GA and Driehuys,
             B},
   Title = {Quantitative analysis of hyperpolarized 3He ventilation
             changes in mice challenged with methacholine.},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance in Medicine},
   Volume = {63},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {658-666},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {1522-2594},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20187176},
   Keywords = {Administration, Inhalation • Algorithms* • Animals
             • Asthma • Contrast Media • Helium •
             Image Enhancement • Isotopes • Magnetic Resonance
             Imaging • Methacholine Chloride • Mice •
             Mice, Inbred C57BL • Reproducibility of Results •
             Sensitivity and Specificity • administration & dosage
             • diagnosis* • diagnostic use • diagnostic
             use* • methods*},
   Abstract = {The capability to use high-resolution (3)He MRI to depict
             regional ventilation changes and airway narrowing in mice
             challenged with methacholine (MCh) offers the opportunity to
             gain new insights into the study of asthma. However, to
             fully exploit the value of this novel technique, it is
             important to move beyond visual inspection of the images
             toward automated and quantitative analysis. To address this
             gap, we describe a postprocessing approach to create
             ventilation difference maps to better visualize and quantify
             regional ventilation changes before and after MCh challenge.
             We show that difference maps reveal subtle changes in airway
             caliber, and highlight both focal and diffuse regional
             alterations in ventilation. Ventilation changes include both
             hypoventilation and compensatory areas of hyperventilation.
             The difference maps can be quantified by a histogram plot of
             the ventilation changes, in which the standard deviation
             increases with MCh dose (R(2) = 0.89). This method of
             analysis is shown to be more sensitive than simple
             threshold-based detection of gross ventilation
             defects.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1002/mrm.22311},
   Key = {fds268834}
}

@article{fds268836,
   Author = {Mistry, NN and Qi, Y and Hedlund, LW and Johnson,
             GA},
   Title = {Ventilation/perfusion imaging in a rat model of airway
             obstruction.},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance in Medicine},
   Volume = {63},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {728-735},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {1522-2594},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20146375},
   Keywords = {Administration, Inhalation • Airway Obstruction •
             Algorithms* • Animals • Disease Models, Animal*
             • Female • Helium • Humans • Image
             Enhancement • Isotopes • Magnetic Resonance
             Imaging • Perfusion Imaging • Rats • Rats,
             Inbred F344 • Reproducibility of Results •
             Sensitivity and Specificity • administration & dosage
             • diagnosis* • diagnostic use • diagnostic
             use* • methods*},
   Abstract = {The global increase in asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary
             disease, and other pulmonary diseases has stimulated
             interest in preclinical rat models of pulmonary disease.
             Imaging methods for study of these models is particularly
             appealing since the results can be readily translated to the
             clinical setting. Comprehensive understanding of lung
             function can be achieved by performing registered pulmonary
             ventilation and perfusion imaging studies in the same
             animal. While ventilation imaging has been addressed for
             small animals, quantitative pulmonary perfusion imaging has
             not been feasible until recently, with our proposed
             technique for quantitative perfusion imaging using multiple
             contrast-agent injections and a view-sharing radial imaging
             technique. Here, we combine the method with registered
             ventilation imaging using hyperpolarized (3)He in an airway
             obstruction rodent model. To our knowledge, this is the
             first comprehensive quantitative assessment of lung function
             in small animals at high spatial resolution. Standard
             deviation of the log (V/Q) is used as a quantitative
             biomarker to differentiate heterogeneity between the control
             and treatment group. The estimated value of the biomarker
             lies within the normal range of values reported in the
             literature. The biomarker that was extracted using the
             imaging technique described in this work showed
             statistically significant differences between the control
             rats and those with airway obstruction.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1002/mrm.22221},
   Key = {fds268836}
}

@article{fds174066,
   Author = {DA Massuto and EC Kneese and GA Johnson and RC Burghardt and RN Hooper and NH Ing and LA Jaeger},
   Title = {Transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) signaling is
             activated during porcine implantation: proposed role for
             latency-associated peptide interactions with integrins at
             the conceptus-maternal interface.},
   Journal = {Reproduction (Cambridge, England)},
   Volume = {139},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {465-78},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {1741-7899},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/REP-09-0447},
   Keywords = {Animals • Antigens, CD29 • Biotinylation •
             Cell Line • Embryo Implantation* • Female •
             Gestational Age • Immunohistochemistry • Integrin
             beta Chains • Integrin beta3 • Integrins •
             Peptides • Phosphorylation • Pregnancy •
             Protein Binding • Protein Precursors • Receptors,
             Transforming Growth Factor beta • Recombinant Proteins
             • Signal Transduction* • Smad2 Protein •
             Smad3 Protein • Swine • Transforming Growth Factor
             beta • Trophoblasts • Uterus • metabolism
             • metabolism*},
   Abstract = {The process of implantation is mediated by a complex network
             of signaling and adhesive factors. In the pig, latent and
             active transforming growth factor beta (TGFB), TGFB
             receptors (TGFBR), and integrins (ITGs) are present during
             the peri-implantation period. TGFB signals via TGFBR and
             activates downstream effector SMAD proteins 2 and 3
             (p-SMAD2/3). Latency-associated peptide (LAP), part of the
             latent TGFB complex, is known to bind to ITG heterodimers
             and activate TGFB. We hypothesize that active TGFBs and
             TGFBRs along with LAP and ITGs functionally interact at the
             conceptus-maternal interface to mediate events essential for
             conceptus development and attachment in pigs. Uteri and
             conceptuses from days 10, 12, 16, 20, and 24 pregnant gilts
             were immunostained for TGFB, LAP, and ITG subunits (ITGAV,
             ITGB1, ITGB3, ITGB5, ITGB6, and ITGB8). Activation of TGFBRs
             was evaluated by the presence of phosphorylated downstream
             effector SMAD2/3. Binding of LAP to ITGs was also evaluated
             using porcine trophectoderm cells. Abundant active TGFB was
             detected at the apical surfaces of epithelia at the
             conceptus-maternal interface, and p-SMAD2/3 was detected at
             both conceptus attachment and nonattachment sites during
             implantation. Separate aggregates of LAP, ITGB1, ITGB5, and
             later ITGB3 were detected at the porcine conceptus-maternal
             interface, and binding of LAP to ITGs on apical surfaces was
             demonstrated. Results suggest that functional LAP-ITG
             adhesion complexes support conceptus attachment and promote
             TGFB activation leading to TGFB interaction with TGFBR
             supporting events of porcine implantation.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1530/REP-09-0447},
   Key = {fds174066}
}

@article{fds174210,
   Author = {MC Satterfield and H Gao and X Li and G Wu and GA Johnson and TE Spencer and FW Bazer},
   Title = {Select nutrients and their associated transporters are
             increased in the ovine uterus following early progesterone
             administration.},
   Journal = {Biology of reproduction},
   Volume = {82},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {224-31},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1529-7268},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.109.076729},
   Keywords = {Amino Acids • Animals • Blastocyst • Cationic
             Amino Acid Transporter 2 • Embryonic Development*
             • Endometrium • Female • Glucose •
             Glucose Transporter Type 1 • Mifepristone •
             Progesterone • RNA, Messenger • Sheep •
             Sodium-Glucose Transporter 1 • metabolism •
             metabolism* • pharmacology • pharmacology* •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {The intrauterine milieu is a complex mixture of substances
             originating from serum and endometrium that support
             blastocyst growth and development. The present study
             identified alterations in glucose and amino acids in
             response to an early rise in progesterone (P4), which
             accelerates blastocyst growth and development. Bred ewes
             received daily injections of either corn oil (CO) vehicle or
             P4 from 36 h postmating (Day 0) to either Day 9 or Day 12.
             Another group of ewes received P4 to Day 8 and the
             antiprogestin mifepristone (RU486) from Day 8 to Day 12. The
             total amount of glucose, aspartate (acidic amino acid),
             arginine and lysine (basic amino acids), and citrulline,
             asparagine, serine, glutamine, beta-alanine, and alanine
             (neutral amino acids) was greater in uterine flushings from
             early P4- than CO-treated ewes on Day 9. On Day 12, only
             arginine and lysine were higher in uterine flushings from
             P4-treated ewes, whereas citrulline was reduced. Glucose
             transporters, SLC2A1 and SLC5A1, were increased in uterine
             luminal (LE) and superficial glandular (sGE) epithelia of
             early P4-treated ewes on Days 9 and 12 but were reduced in
             endometria from ewes treated with both P4 and RU486 (P4+RU).
             SLC7A2B, a transporter of basic amino acids, increased in
             LE/sGE of P4- versus CO-treated ewes on Day 12 but was
             reduced in P4+RU-treated ewes. Thus, select nutrients are
             increased in the uterine lumen by P4 concomitant with the
             upregulation of epithelial transporters for glucose and
             basic amino acids, suggesting that these nutrients stimulate
             blastocyst growth and development.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1095/biolreprod.109.076729},
   Key = {fds174210}
}

@article{fds268830,
   Author = {Badea, CT and Johnston, SM and Subashi, E and Qi, Y and Hedlund, LW and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Lung perfusion imaging in small animals using 4D micro-CT at
             heartbeat temporal resolution.},
   Journal = {Medical physics},
   Volume = {37},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {54-62},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0094-2405},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20175466},
   Keywords = {Animals • Cardiac-Gated Imaging Techniques •
             Contrast Media • Iopamidol • Lung •
             Microinjections • Perfusion Imaging • Radiographic
             Image Enhancement • Rats • Rats, Inbred F344
             • Reproducibility of Results • Sensitivity and
             Specificity • Tomography, X-Ray Computed •
             administration & dosage • diagnostic use* •
             methods • methods* • radiography* •
             veterinary • veterinary*},
   Abstract = {PURPOSE: Quantitative in vivo imaging of lung perfusion in
             rodents can provide critical information for preclinical
             studies. However, the combined challenges of high temporal
             and spatial resolution have made routine quantitative
             perfusion imaging difficult in small animals. The purpose of
             this work is to demonstrate 4D micro-CT for perfusion
             imaging in rodents at heartbeat temporal resolution and
             isotropic spatial resolution. METHODS: We have recently
             developed a dual tube/detector micro-CT scanner that is well
             suited to capture first pass kinetics of a bolus of contrast
             agent used to compute perfusion information. Our approach is
             based on the paradigm that similar time density curves can
             be reproduced in a number of consecutive, small volume
             injections of iodinated contrast agent at a series of
             different angles. This reproducibility is ensured by the
             high-level integration of the imaging components of our
             system with a microinjector, a mechanical ventilator, and
             monitoring applications. Sampling is controlled through a
             biological pulse sequence implemented in LABVIEW. Image
             reconstruction is based on a simultaneous algebraic
             reconstruction technique implemented on a graphic processor
             unit. The capabilities of 4D micro-CT imaging are
             demonstrated in studies on lung perfusion in rats. RESULTS:
             We report 4D micro-CT imaging in the rat lung with a
             heartbeat temporal resolution (approximately 150 ms) and
             isotropic 3D reconstruction with a voxel size of 88 microm
             based on sampling using 16 injections of 50 microL each. The
             total volume of contrast agent injected during the
             experiments (0.8 mL) was less than 10% of the total blood
             volume in a rat. This volume was not injected in a single
             bolus, but in multiple injections separated by at least 2
             min interval to allow for clearance and adaptation. We
             assessed the reproducibility of the time density curves with
             multiple injections and found that these are very similar.
             The average time density curves for the first eight and last
             eight injections are slightly different, i.e., for the last
             eight injections, both the maximum of the average time
             density curves and its area under the curve are decreased by
             3.8% and 7.2%, respectively, relative to the average time
             density curves based on the first eight injections. The
             radiation dose associated with our 4D micro-CT imaging is
             0.16 Gy and is therefore in the range of a typical micro-CT
             dose. CONCLUSIONS: 4D micro-CT-based perfusion imaging
             demonstrated here has immediate application in a wide range
             of preclinical studies such as tumor perfusion,
             angiogenesis, and renal function. Although our imaging
             system is in many ways unique, we believe that our approach
             based on the multiple injection paradigm can be used with
             the newly developed flat-panel slip-ring-based micro-CT to
             increase their temporal resolution in dynamic perfusion
             studies.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1118/1.3264619},
   Key = {fds268830}
}

@article{fds268735,
   Author = {Johnston, SM and Johnson, GA and Badea, CT},
   Title = {GPU-based iterative reconstruction with total variation
             minimization for micro-CT},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE},
   Volume = {7622},
   Number = {PART 2},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {1605-7422},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.844368},
   Abstract = {Dynamic imaging with micro-CT often produces
             poorly-distributed sets of projections, and reconstructions
             of this data with filtered backprojection algorithms (FBP)
             may be affected by artifacts. Iterative reconstruction
             algorithms and total variation (TV) denoising are promising
             alternatives to FBP, but may require running times that are
             frustratingly long. This obstacle can be overcome by
             implementing reconstruction algorithms on graphics
             processing units (GPU). This paper presents an
             implementation of a family of iterative reconstruction
             algorithms with TV denoising on a GPU, and a series of tests
             to optimize and compare the ability of different algorithms
             to reduce artifacts. The mathematical and computational
             details of the implementation are explored. The performance,
             measured by the accuracy of the reconstruction versus the
             running time, is assessed in simulations with a virtual
             phantom and in an in vivo scan of a mouse. We conclude that
             the simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique with TV
             minimization (SART-TV) is a time-effective reconstruction
             algorithm for producing reconstructions with fewer artifacts
             than FBP. © 2010 SPIE.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.844368},
   Key = {fds268735}
}

@article{fds268755,
   Author = {Johnston, SM and Johnson, GA and Badea, CT},
   Title = {lGPU-based iterative reconstruction with total variation
             minimization for micro-CT},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical
             Engineering},
   Volume = {7622},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000285047200110&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.844368},
   Key = {fds268755}
}

@article{fds268768,
   Author = {Godin, EA and O'Leary-Moore, SK and Khan, AA and Parnell, SE and Ament,
             JJ and Dehart, DB and Johnson, BW and Johnson, GA and Styner, MA and Sulik,
             KK},
   Title = {Magnetic resonance microscopy defines ethanol-induced brain
             abnormalities in prenatal mice: Effects of acute insult on
             gestational day 7},
   Journal = {Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research},
   Volume = {34},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {98-111},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {0145-6008},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2009.01071.x},
   Abstract = {Background: This magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM)-based
             report is the second in a series designed to illustrate the
             spectrum of craniofacial and central nervous system (CNS)
             dysmorphia resulting from single- and multiple-day maternal
             ethanol treatment. The study described in this report
             examined the consequences of ethanol exposure on gestational
             day (GD) 7 in mice, a time in development when gastrulation
             and neural plate development begins; corresponding to the
             mid- to late third week postfertilization in humans. Acute
             GD 7 ethanol exposure in mice has previously been shown to
             result in CNS defects consistent with holoprosencephaly
             (HPE) and craniofacial anomalies typical of those in Fetal
             Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). MRM has facilitated further
             definition of the range of GD 7 ethanol-induced defects.
             Methods: C57Bl/6J female mice were intraperitoneally (i.p.)
             administered vehicle or 2 injections of 2.9 g/kg ethanol on
             day 7 of pregnancy. Stage-matched control and
             ethanol-exposed GD 17 fetuses selected for imaging were
             immersion fixed in a Bouins/Prohance solution. MRM was
             conducted at either 7.0 Tesla (T) or 9.4 T. Resulting 29 μm
             isotropic spatial resolution scans were segmented and
             reconstructed to provide 3D images. Linear and volumetric
             brain measures, as well as morphological features, were
             compared for control and ethanol-exposed fetuses. Following
             MRM, selected specimens were processed for routine histology
             and light microscopic examination. Results: Gestational day
             7 ethanol exposure resulted in a spectrum of median facial
             and forebrain deficiencies, as expected. This range of
             abnormalities falls within the HPE spectrum; a spectrum for
             which facial dysmorphology is consistent with and typically
             is predictive of that of the forebrain. In addition, other
             defects including median facial cleft, cleft palate,
             micrognathia, pituitary agenesis, and third ventricular
             dilatation were identified. MRM analyses also revealed
             cerebral cortical dysplasia/heterotopias resulting from this
             acute, early insult and facilitated a subsequent focused
             histological investigation of these defects. Conclusions:
             Individual MRM scans and 3D reconstructions of fetal mouse
             brains have facilitated demonstration of a broad range of GD
             7 ethanol-induced morphological abnormality. These results,
             including the discovery of cerebral cortical heterotopias,
             elucidate the teratogenic potential of ethanol insult during
             the third week of human prenatal development. © 2009 by the
             Research Society on Alcoholism.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1530-0277.2009.01071.x},
   Key = {fds268768}
}

@article{fds268769,
   Author = {Constantinides, C and Aristokleous, N and Johnson, GA and Perperides,
             D},
   Title = {Static and dynamic cardiac modelling: Initial strides and
             results towards a quantitatively accurate mechanical heart
             model},
   Journal = {2010 7th IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging:
             From Nano to Macro, ISBI 2010 - Proceedings},
   Pages = {496-499},
   Year = {2010},
   ISBN = {9781424441266},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ISBI.2010.5490300},
   Abstract = {Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has exhibited significant
             potential for quantifying cardiac function and dysfunction
             in the mouse. Recent advances in highresolution cardiac MR
             imaging techniques have contributed to the development of
             acquisition approaches that allow fast and accurate
             description of anatomic structures, and accurate surface and
             finite element (FE) mesh model constructions for study of
             global mechanical function in normal and transgenic mice.
             This study presents work in progress for construction of
             quantitatively accurate threedimensional (3D) and 4D dynamic
             surface and FE models of murine left ventricular (LV) muscle
             in C57BL/6J (n=10) mice. Constructed models are subsequently
             imported into commercial software packages for the solution
             of the constitutive equations that characterize mechanical
             function, including computation of the stress and strain
             fields. They are further used with solid-free form
             fabrication processes to construct model-based material
             renditions of the human and mouse hearts. ©2010
             IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/ISBI.2010.5490300},
   Key = {fds268769}
}

@article{fds268816,
   Author = {Zhang, X and Badea, CT and Hood, G and Wetzel, AW and Stiles, JR and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Free-space fluorescence tomography with adaptive sampling
             based on anatomical information from microCT.},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical
             Engineering},
   Volume = {7757},
   Number = {775706},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21743784},
   Abstract = {Image reconstruction is one of the main challenges for
             fluorescence tomography. For in vivo experiments on small
             animals, in particular, the inhomogeneous optical properties
             and irregular surface of the animal make free-space image
             reconstruction challenging because of the difficulties in
             accurately modeling the forward problem and the finite
             dynamic range of the photodetector. These two factors are
             fundamentally limited by the currently available forward
             models and photonic technologies. Nonetheless, both
             limitations can be significantly eased using a signal
             processing approach. We have recently constructed a
             free-space panoramic fluorescence diffuse optical tomography
             system to take advantage of co-registered microCT data
             acquired from the same animal. In this article, we present a
             data processing strategy that adaptively selects the optical
             sampling points in the raw 2-D fluorescent CCD images.
             Specifically, the general sampling area and sampling density
             are initially specified to create a set of potential
             sampling points sufficient to cover the region of interest.
             Based on 3-D anatomical information from the microCT and the
             fluorescent CCD images, data points are excluded from the
             set when they are located in an area where either the
             forward model is known to be problematic (e.g., large
             wrinkles on the skin) or where the signal is unreliable
             (e.g., saturated or low signal-to-noise ratio). Parallel
             Monte Carlo software was implemented to compute the
             sensitivity function for image reconstruction. Animal
             experiments were conducted on a mouse cadaver with an
             artificial fluorescent inclusion. Compared to our previous
             results using a finite element method, the newly developed
             parallel Monte Carlo software and the adaptive sampling
             strategy produced favorable reconstruction
             results.},
   Language = {ENG},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.841891},
   Key = {fds268816}
}

@article{fds268838,
   Author = {Petiet, A and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Active staining of mouse embryos for magnetic resonance
             microscopy.},
   Journal = {Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)},
   Volume = {611},
   Pages = {141-149},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {1940-6029},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19960328},
   Keywords = {Animals • Brain • Embryo, Mammalian •
             Formaldehyde • Magnetic Resonance Imaging • Mice
             • Microscopy • Staining and Labeling • Tissue
             Fixation • chemistry • metabolism •
             metabolism* • methods • methods*},
   Abstract = {Magnetic resonance histology (MRH) has found considerable
             application in structural phenotyping in the mouse embryo.
             MRH employs the same fundamental principles as clinical MRI,
             albeit with spatial resolution up to six orders of magnitude
             higher than that in clinical studies. Critical to obtaining
             this enormous gain in resolution is the need to enhance the
             weak signal from these microscopic voxels. This has been
             accomplished through the use of active staining, a method to
             simultaneously fix the embryonic/fetal tissues, while
             reducing the spin lattice relaxation time (T1). We describe
             here the methods that allow one to balance the fixation,
             which reduces the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal,
             with the enhancement of signal derived from the reduction in
             T1. Methods are included to cover the ranges of embryonic
             specimens from E10.5 through E19.5.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1007/978-1-60327-345-9_11},
   Key = {fds268838}
}

@article{fds268832,
   Author = {Howles, GP and Ghaghada, KB and Qi, Y and Mukundan, S and Johnson,
             GA},
   Title = {High-resolution magnetic resonance angiography in the mouse
             using a nanoparticle blood-pool contrast
             agent.},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance in Medicine},
   Volume = {62},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1447-1456},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {1522-2594},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19902507},
   Keywords = {Animals • Cerebral Arteries • Contrast Media
             • Gadolinium • Image Enhancement • Liposomes
             • Magnetic Resonance Angiography • Male •
             Mice • Mice, Inbred C57BL • Nanoparticles •
             anatomy & histology* • chemistry • chemistry*
             • diagnostic use* • methods*},
   Abstract = {High-resolution magnetic resonance angiography is already a
             useful tool for studying mouse models of human disease.
             Magnetic resonance angiography in the mouse is typically
             performed using time-of-flight contrast. In this work, a new
             long-circulating blood-pool contrast agent-a liposomal
             nanoparticle with surface-conjugated gadolinium (SC-Gd
             liposomes)-was evaluated for use in mouse neurovascular
             magnetic resonance angiography. A total of 12 mice were
             imaged. Scan parameters were optimized for both
             time-of-flight and SC-Gd contrast. Compared to
             time-of-flight contrast, SC-Gd liposomes (0.08 mmol/kg)
             enabled improved small-vessel contrast-to-noise ratio,
             larger field of view, shorter scan time, and imaging of
             venous structures. For a limited field of view,
             time-of-flight and SC-Gd were not significantly different;
             however, SC-Gd provided better contrast-to-noise ratio when
             the field of view encompassed the whole brain (P < 0.001) or
             the whole neurovascular axis (P < 0.001). SC-Gd allowed
             acquisition of high-resolution magnetic resonance
             angiography (52 x 52 x 100 micrometer(3) or 0.27 nL), with
             123% higher (P < 0.001) contrast-to-noise ratio in
             comparable scan time ( approximately 45 min). Alternatively,
             SC-Gd liposomes could be used to acquire high-resolution
             magnetic resonance angiography (0.27 nL) with 32% higher
             contrast-to-noise ratio (P < 0.001) in 75% shorter scan time
             (12 min).},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1002/mrm.22154},
   Key = {fds268832}
}

@article{fds174070,
   Author = {DW Erikson and RC Burghardt and KJ Bayless and GA
             Johnson},
   Title = {Secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1, osteopontin) binds to
             integrin alpha v beta 6 on porcine trophectoderm cells and
             integrin alpha v beta 3 on uterine luminal epithelial cells,
             and promotes trophectoderm cell adhesion and
             migration.},
   Journal = {Biology of reproduction},
   Volume = {81},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {814-25},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {1529-7268},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.109.078600},
   Keywords = {Animals • Antigens, Neoplasm • Cattle • Cell
             Adhesion • Cell Line • Cell Movement • Cell
             Proliferation • Chromatography, Affinity •
             Dose-Response Relationship, Drug • Embryo Implantation
             • Epithelial Cells • Extracellular Matrix •
             Female • Fluorescent Antibody Technique • Integrin
             alphaVbeta3 • Integrins • Osteopontin •
             Pregnancy • Rats • Swine • Uterus • drug
             effects • metabolism • metabolism* •
             pharmacology • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Conceptus implantation involves pregnancy-specific
             alterations in extracellular matrix at the
             conceptus-maternal interface. Secreted phosphoprotein 1
             (SPP1, osteopontin) is induced just before implantation and
             is present at the conceptus-maternal interface in mammals.
             In the present study, we investigated mechanisms by which
             SPP1 facilitates porcine conceptus and uterine luminal
             epithelial cell attachment. Native bovine milk and wild-type
             rat recombinant SPP1 stimulated trophectoderm cell
             migration. Bovine milk SPP1, ovine uterine SPP1, and
             recombinant wild-type, but not mutated, rat SPP1 promoted
             dose- and cation-dependent attachment of porcine
             trophectoderm and uterine luminal epithelial cells, which
             was markedly reduced in the presence of a linear Arg-Gly-Asp
             integrin-blocking peptide. Affinity chromatography and
             immunoprecipitation experiments revealed direct binding of
             alpha v beta 6 trophectoderm and alpha v beta 3 uterine
             epithelial cell integrins to SPP1. Immunofluorescence
             microscopy using SPP1-coated microspheres revealed
             colocalization of the alpha v integrin subunit and talin at
             focal adhesions as well as at the apical domain of
             trophectoderm cells. Similarly, immunofluorescence staining
             of implantation sites in frozen gravid uterine cross
             sections localized SPP1 and alpha v integrin to the apical
             surfaces of trophectoderm and luminal epithelium and beta 3
             integrin to the apical surface of luminal epithelium. To our
             knowledge, the present study is the first to demonstrate
             functionally that SPP1 directly binds specific integrins to
             promote trophectoderm cell migration and attachment to
             luminal epithelium that may be critical to conceptus
             elongation and implantation.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1095/biolreprod.109.078600},
   Key = {fds174070}
}

@article{fds174295,
   Author = {AY Grahn and KS Bankiewicz and M Dugich-Djordjevic, JR Bringas and P
             Hadaczek, GA Johnson and S Eastman and M Luz},
   Title = {Non-PEGylated liposomes for convection-enhanced delivery of
             topotecan and gadodiamide in malignant glioma: initial
             experience.},
   Journal = {Journal of neuro-oncology},
   Volume = {95},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {185-97},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {1573-7373},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11060-009-9917-1},
   Keywords = {Animals • Antineoplastic Agents • Brain Neoplasms
             • Cell Survival • Contrast Media • Convection
             • Drug Delivery Systems* • Gadolinium DTPA •
             Glioblastoma • Humans • Liposomes • Male
             • Polyethylene Glycols • Rats • Rats,
             Sprague-Dawley • Survival Rate • Tissue
             Distribution • Topotecan • Tumor Cells, Cultured
             • Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays •
             administration & dosage • administration & dosage*
             • chemistry* • drug effects • drug therapy*
             • pathology • pharmacokinetics},
   Abstract = {Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) of highly stable
             PEGylated liposomes encapsulating chemotherapeutic drugs has
             previously been effective against malignant glioma
             xenografts. We have developed a novel, convectable
             non-PEGylated liposomal formulation that can be used to
             encapsulate both the topoisomerase I inhibitor topotecan
             (topoCED) and paramagnetic gadodiamide (gadoCED), providing
             an ideal basis for real-time monitoring of drug
             distribution. Tissue retention of topoCED following single
             CED administration was significantly improved relative to
             free topotecan. At a dose of 10 microg (0.5 mg/ml), topoCED
             had a half-life in brain of approximately 1 day and
             increased the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)
             by 28-fold over free topotecan (153.8 vs. 5.5 microg day/g).
             The combination of topoCED and gadoCED was found to
             co-convect well in both naïve rat brain and malignant
             glioma xenografts (correlation coefficients 0.97-0.99). In a
             U87MG cell assay, the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50))
             of topoCED was approximately 0.8 microM at 48 and 72 h; its
             concentration-time curves were similar to free topotecan and
             unaffected by gadoCED. In a U87MG intracranial rat xenograft
             model, a two-dose CED regimen of topoCED co-infused with
             gadoCED greatly increased median overall survival at dose
             levels of 0.5 mg/ml (29.5 days) and 1.0 mg/ml (33.0 days)
             vs. control (20.0 days; P < 0.0001 for both comparisons).
             TopoCED at higher concentrations (1.6 mg/ml) co-infused with
             gadoCED showed no evidence of histopathological changes
             attributable to either agent. The positive results of tissue
             pharmacokinetics, co-convection, cytotoxicity, efficacy, and
             lack of toxicity of topoCED in a clinically meaningful dose
             range, combined with an ideal matched-liposome paramagnetic
             agent, gadoCED, implicates further clinical applications of
             this therapy in the treatment of malignant
             glioma.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1007/s11060-009-9917-1},
   Key = {fds174295}
}

@article{fds268828,
   Author = {Lin, M and Marshall, CT and Qi, Y and Johnston, SM and Badea, CT and Piantadosi, CA and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Quantitative blood flow measurements in the small animal
             cardiopulmonary system using digital subtraction
             angiography.},
   Journal = {Medical physics},
   Volume = {36},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {5347-5358},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0094-2405},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19994543},
   Keywords = {Angiography, Digital Subtraction • Animals •
             Calibration • Heart • Lung • Male •
             Phantoms, Imaging • Rats • Rats, Inbred F344
             • Regional Blood Flow* • Thermodilution •
             anatomy & histology • methods* •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {PURPOSE: The use of preclinical rodent models of disease
             continues to grow because these models help elucidate
             pathogenic mechanisms and provide robust test beds for drug
             development. Among the major anatomic and physiologic
             indicators of disease progression and genetic or drug
             modification of responses are measurements of blood vessel
             caliber and flow. Moreover, cardiopulmonary blood flow is a
             critical indicator of gas exchange. Current methods of
             measuring cardiopulmonary blood flow suffer from some or all
             of the following limitations--they produce relative values,
             are limited to global measurements, do not provide
             vasculature visualization, are not able to measure acute
             changes, are invasive, or require euthanasia. METHODS: In
             this study, high-spatial and high-temporal resolution x-ray
             digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was used to obtain
             vasculature visualization, quantitative blood flow in
             absolute metrics (ml/min instead of arbitrary units or
             velocity), and relative blood volume dynamics from discrete
             regions of interest on a pixel-by-pixel basis (100 x 100
             microm2). RESULTS: A series of calibrations linked the DSA
             flow measurements to standard physiological measurement
             using thermodilution and Fick's method for cardiac output
             (CO), which in eight anesthetized Fischer-344 rats was found
             to be 37.0 +/- 5.1 ml/min. Phantom experiments were
             conducted to calibrate the radiographic density to vessel
             thickness, allowing a link of DSA cardiac output
             measurements to cardiopulmonary blood flow measurements in
             discrete regions of interest. The scaling factor linking
             relative DSA cardiac output measurements to the Fick's
             absolute measurements was found to be 18.90 x CODSA =
             COFick. CONCLUSIONS: This calibrated DSA approach allows
             repeated simultaneous visualization of vasculature and
             measurement of blood flow dynamics on a regional level in
             the living rat.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1118/1.3231823},
   Key = {fds268828}
}

@article{fds268835,
   Author = {Zhang, X and Badea, CT and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Three-dimensional reconstruction in free-space whole-body
             fluorescence tomography of mice using optically
             reconstructed surface and atlas anatomy.},
   Journal = {Journal of Biomedical Optics},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {064010},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {1560-2281},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20059248},
   Keywords = {Algorithms* • Animals • Image Processing,
             Computer-Assisted • Imaging, Three-Dimensional •
             Mice • Mice, Nude • Phantoms, Imaging •
             Spectrometry, Fluorescence • Thermography •
             Tomography • Whole Body Imaging • X-Ray
             Microtomography • methods • methods*},
   Abstract = {We present a 3-D image reconstruction method for free-space
             fluorescence tomography of mice using hybrid anatomical
             prior information. Specifically, we use an optically
             reconstructed surface of the experimental animal and a
             digital mouse atlas to approximate the anatomy of the animal
             as structural priors to assist image reconstruction.
             Experiments are carried out on a cadaver of a nude mouse
             with a fluorescent inclusion (2.4-mm-diam cylinder)
             implanted in the chest cavity. Tomographic fluorescence
             images are reconstructed using an iterative algorithm based
             on a finite element method. Coregistration of the
             fluorescence reconstruction and micro-CT (computed
             tomography) data acquired afterward show good localization
             accuracy (localization error 1.2+/-0.6 mm). Using the
             optically reconstructed surface, but without the atlas
             anatomy, image reconstruction fails to show the fluorescent
             inclusion correctly. The method demonstrates the utility of
             anatomical priors in support of free-space fluorescence
             tomography.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1117/1.3258836},
   Key = {fds268835}
}

@article{fds174127,
   Author = {RM Simmons and DW Erikson and J Kim and RC Burghardt and FW Bazer and GA
             Johnson, TE Spencer},
   Title = {Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 in the ruminant
             uterus: potential endometrial marker and regulator of
             conceptus elongation.},
   Journal = {Endocrinology},
   Volume = {150},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {4295-305},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {1945-7170},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2009-0060},
   Keywords = {Animals • Cattle • Cell Movement • Cell
             Proliferation • Endometrium • Female •
             Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 1 •
             Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3 •
             Interferon Type I • Pregnancy • Pregnancy Proteins
             • Progesterone • Sheep • Uterus • drug
             effects • metabolism • metabolism* •
             pharmacology • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Establishment of pregnancy in ruminants requires conceptus
             elongation and production of interferon-tau (IFNT), the
             pregnancy recognition signal that maintains ovarian
             progesterone (P4) production. These studies determined
             temporal and spatial alterations in IGF binding protein
             (IGFBP)-1 and IGFBP3 in the ovine and bovine uterus; effects
             of P4 and IFNT on their expression in the ovine uterus; and
             effects of IGFBP1 on ovine trophectoderm cell proliferation,
             migration, and attachment. IGFBP1 and IGFBP3 were studied
             because they are the only IGFBPs specifically expressed by
             the endometrial luminal epithelia in sheep. In sheep, IGFBP1
             and IGFBP3 expression was coordinate with the period of
             conceptus elongation, whereas only IGFBP1 expression was
             coordinate with conceptus elongation in cattle. IGFBP1 mRNA
             in the ovine endometria was between 5- and 29-fold more
             abundant between d 12 and 16 of pregnancy compared with the
             estrous cycle and greater on d 16 of pregnancy than
             nonpregnancy in the bovine uterus. In sheep, P4 induced and
             IFNT stimulated expression of IGFBP1 but not IGFBP3;
             however, the effect of IFNT did not mimic the abundant
             increase observed in pregnant ewes. Therefore, IGFBP1
             expression in the endometrium is regulated by another factor
             from the conceptus. IGFBP1 did not affect the proliferation
             of ovine trophectoderm cells in vitro but did stimulate
             their migration and mediate their attachment. These studies
             reveal that IGFBP1 is a common endometrial marker of
             conceptus elongation in sheep and cattle and most likely
             regulates conceptus elongation by stimulating migration and
             attachment of the trophectoderm.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1210/en.2009-0060},
   Key = {fds174127}
}

@article{fds174261,
   Author = {FW Bazer and TE Spencer and GA Johnson and RC Burghardt and G
             Wu},
   Title = {Comparative aspects of implantation.},
   Journal = {Reproduction (Cambridge, England)},
   Volume = {138},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {195-209},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {1741-7899},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/REP-09-0158},
   Keywords = {Animals • Blastocyst • Embryo Implantation •
             Endometrium • Female • Gene Expression Regulation,
             Developmental* • Interferons • Pregnancy •
             Pregnancy, Animal • Primates • Progesterone •
             Rats • Species Specificity • Swine •
             metabolism • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Uterine receptivity to implantation of blastocysts in
             mammals includes hatching from zona pellucida, precontact
             with uterine luminal (LE) and superficial glandular (sGE)
             epithelia and orientation of blastocyst, apposition between
             trophectoderm and uterine LE and sGE, adhesion of
             trophectoderm to uterine LE/sGE, and, in some species,
             limited or extensive invasion into the endometrial stroma
             and induction of decidualization of stromal cells. These
             peri-implantation events are prerequisites for pregnancy
             recognition signaling, implantation, and placentation
             required for fetal-placental growth and development through
             the remainder of pregnancy. Although there is a range of
             strategies for implantation in mammals, a common feature is
             the requirement for progesterone (P(4)) to downregulate
             expression of its receptors in uterine epithelia and P(4)
             prior to implantation events. P(4) then mediates its effects
             via growth factors expressed by stromal cells in most
             species; however, uterine luminal epithelium may express a
             growth factor in response to P(4) and/or estrogens in
             species with a true epitheliochorial placenta. There is also
             compelling evidence that uterine receptivity to implantation
             involves temporal and cell-specific expression of interferon
             (IFN)-stimulated genes that may be induced directly by an
             IFN or induced by P(4) and stimulated by an IFN. These genes
             have many roles including nutrient transport, cellular
             remodeling, angiogenesis and relaxation of vascular tissues,
             cell proliferation and migration, establishment of an
             antiviral state, and protection of conceptus tissues from
             challenges by the maternal immune cells.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1530/REP-09-0158},
   Key = {fds174261}
}

@article{fds268843,
   Author = {Badea, A and Johnson, GA and Williams, RW},
   Title = {Genetic dissection of the mouse CNS using magnetic resonance
             microscopy.},
   Journal = {Current Opinion in Neurology},
   Volume = {22},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {379-386},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {1473-6551},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19542887},
   Abstract = {PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Advances in magnetic resonance microscopy
             (MRM) make it practical to map gene variants responsible for
             structural variation in brains of many species, including
             mice and humans. We review results of a systematic genetic
             analysis of MRM data using as a case study a family of well
             characterized lines of mice. RECENT ADVANCES: MRM has
             matured to the point that we can generate high contrast,
             high-resolution images even for species as small as a mouse,
             with a brain merely 1/3000th the size of humans. We
             generated 21.5-micron data sets for a diverse panel of BXD
             mouse strains to gauge the extent of genetic variation, and
             as a prelude to comprehensive genetic and genomic analyses.
             Here we review MRM capabilities and image segmentation
             methods; heritability of brain variation; covariation of the
             sizes of brain regions; and correlations between MRM and
             classical histological data sets. SUMMARY: The combination
             of high throughput MRM and genomics will improve our
             understanding of the genetic basis of structure-function
             correlations. Sophisticated mouse models will be critical in
             converting correlations into mechanisms and in determining
             genetic and epigenetic causes of differences in disease
             susceptibility.},
   Doi = {10.1097/WCO.0b013e32832d9b86},
   Key = {fds268843}
}

@article{fds268845,
   Author = {Howles, GP and Nouls, JC and Qi, Y and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Rapid production of specialized animal handling devices
             using computer-aided design and solid freeform
             fabrication.},
   Journal = {Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging},
   Volume = {30},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {466-471},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {1053-1807},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19629999},
   Abstract = {PURPOSE: To develop a process for rapidly and inexpensively
             producing customized animal handling devices for small
             animal imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To meet the specific
             needs of a particular imaging experiment, measurements are
             taken from imaging data and the animal handling devices are
             designed using 3D computer-aided design (CAD) software.
             Parts are produced in a few days using solid freeform
             fabrication (SFF, a.k.a. rapid prototyping). RESULTS: This
             process is illustrated with the production of an animal
             handling system for stereotaxically prescribed therapeutic
             ultrasound and MRI of the mouse brain. The device provides
             integrated head-fixation, anesthesia delivery, and
             physiological monitoring in a modular system. Design and
             production took approximately 1 week and the cost was a
             small fraction of a traditional machine shop. CONCLUSION:
             Commercial animal handling products typically have limited
             functionality and are not integrated with other laboratory
             infrastructure. However, using CAD and SFF, sophisticated
             animal handling devices can be produced to meet the specific
             experimental needs. This process is typically faster and
             less expensive than using a traditional machine shop, and
             the products are more robust than typical homemade devices.
             Using high-quality purpose-built devices permits experiments
             to be executed with greater consistency and higher
             throughput.},
   Doi = {10.1002/jmri.21821},
   Key = {fds268845}
}

@article{fds174155,
   Author = {H Gao and G Wu and TE Spencer and GA Johnson and FW Bazer},
   Title = {Select nutrients in the ovine uterine lumen. V. Nitric oxide
             synthase, GTP cyclohydrolase, and ornithine decarboxylase in
             ovine uteri and peri-implantation conceptuses.},
   Journal = {Biology of reproduction},
   Volume = {81},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {67-76},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0006-3363},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.108.075473},
   Keywords = {Animals • Embryo Implantation • Embryo, Mammalian
             • Estrous Cycle • Female • Food* • GTP
             Cyclohydrolase • Gene Expression Regulation,
             Developmental • Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic
             • Interferon Type I • Isoenzymes • Models,
             Biological • Nitric Oxide Synthase • Organ
             Specificity • Ornithine Decarboxylase • Pregnancy
             • Pregnancy Proteins • Progesterone • Sheep
             • Time Factors • Uterus • analysis •
             chemistry • drug effects • embryology •
             enzymology • genetics • genetics* •
             metabolism • metabolism* • pharmacology •
             physiology},
   Abstract = {Nitric oxide (NO) and polyamines are critical for
             implantation and development of conceptuses (embryo and
             extraembryonic membranes), but mechanisms regulating their
             biosynthesis in uteri and conceptuses are largely unknown.
             This study determined the effects of the estrous cycle,
             pregnancy, progesterone, and interferon tau (IFNT) on
             expression of NO synthases (NOS1, NOS2, and NOS3), guanosine
             triphosphate (GTP) cyclohydrolase (GCH1, the key enzyme in
             de novo synthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin, a cofactor for NO
             production), and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC1) in uterine
             endometria in cyclic ewes (Days 10-16) and pregnant ewes
             (Days 10-20). The mRNAs and proteins for NOS1 and ODC1 were
             most abundant in uterine luminal (LE) and superficial
             glandular (sGE) epithelia, and abundance was affected by day
             of estrous cycle and early pregnancy. NOS2, GCH1, and NOS3
             mRNAs were detected in very low abundance in uterine
             epithelia and stromal cells in both cyclic and pregnant
             ewes. NOS1 mRNA also was expressed very weakly in
             conceptuses, whereas NOS3 mRNA was abundant in the
             trophectoderm and endoderm of conceptuses, as were total
             NOS1 and NOS3 proteins, inhibitory p-NOS1 protein, and
             stimulatory p-NOS3 protein. GCH1 mRNA was abundant in the
             trophectoderm and endoderm of conceptuses between Days 13
             and 15 of pregnancy and then decreased thereafter, whereas
             ODC1 mRNA abundance increased in conceptuses between Days 13
             and 18 of pregnancy. GCH1 protein was localized primarily in
             the nuclei of trophectoderm and endoderm, and its abundance
             decreased after Day 14 of pregnancy, whereas ODC1 protein
             was more abundant in the trophectoderm than in the endoderm
             between Days 13 and 18 of pregnancy. Progesterone stimulated
             NOS1 and GCH1 expression in LE/sGE and glandular epithelia,
             whereas IFNT inhibited NOS1 expression in these cell types.
             Thus, biosynthesis of NO and polyamines in ovine uterine
             endometria and conceptuses is potentially regulated at
             transcriptional, translational, and posttranslational levels
             to favor conceptus development and implantation.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1095/biolreprod.108.075473},
   Key = {fds174155}
}

@article{fds174196,
   Author = {H Gao and G Wu and TE Spencer and GA Johnson and FW Bazer},
   Title = {Select nutrients in the ovine uterine lumen. VI. Expression
             of FK506-binding protein 12-rapamycin complex-associated
             protein 1 (FRAP1) and regulators and effectors of mTORC1 and
             mTORC2 complexes in ovine uteri and conceptuses.},
   Journal = {Biology of reproduction},
   Volume = {81},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {87-100},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0006-3363},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.109.076257},
   Keywords = {Animals • Carrier Proteins • Embryo Implantation
             • Embryo, Mammalian • Estrous Cycle •
             Eukaryotic Initiation Factors • Female • Food*
             • Gene Expression Regulation • Gestational Age
             • Interferon Type I • Models, Biological •
             Organ Specificity • Pregnancy • Pregnancy Proteins
             • Pregnancy, Animal • Progesterone • Protein
             Kinases • Protein Multimerization • Sheep •
             Transcription Factors • Uterus • drug effects
             • embryology • genetics • genetics* •
             metabolism • metabolism* • pharmacology •
             physiology},
   Abstract = {FRAP1 (FK506-binding protein 12-rapamycin complex-associated
             protein 1), a component of the nutrient-sensing cell
             signaling pathway, is critical for cell growth and
             metabolism. The present study determined expression of FRAP1
             and associated members of the mTORC1 and mTORC2 cell
             signaling pathways in uteri of cyclic and pregnant ewes and
             conceptuses, as well as effects of pregnancy, progesterone
             (P4), and interferon tau (IFNT) on their expression. The
             mRNAs for FRAP1, LST8, MAPKAP1, RAPTOR, RICTOR, TSC1, TSC2,
             RHEB, and EIF4EBP1 were localized to luminal, superficial
             glandular, and glandular epithelia and stromal cells of
             uteri from cyclic and pregnant ewes, as well as
             trophectoderm and endoderm of conceptuses between Days 13
             and 18 of pregnancy. The abundance of FRAP1, RAPTOR, RICTOR,
             TSC1, and TSC2 mRNAs in endometria was unaffected by
             pregnancy status or by day of the estrous cycle or
             pregnancy; however, levels of LST8, MAPKAP1, RHEB, and
             EIF4EBP1 mRNA increased in endometria during early
             pregnancy. In ovariectomized ewes, P4 and IFNT stimulated
             expression of RHEB and EIF4EBP1 in uterine endometria. Total
             endometrial FRAP1 protein and phosphorylated FRAP1 protein
             levels were affected by pregnancy status and by day after
             onset of estrus, and phosphorylated FRAP1 protein was
             detected in nuclei of uterine epithelia and conceptuses. In
             endometria of pregnant ewes, increases in abundance of mRNAs
             for RICTOR, RHEB, and EIF4EBP1, as well as RHEB protein,
             correlated with rapid conceptus growth and development
             during the peri-implantation period. These results suggest
             that the FRAP1 cell signaling pathway mediates interactions
             between the maternal uterus and peri-implantation
             conceptuses and that P4 and IFNT affect this pathway by
             regulating expression of RHEB and EIF4EBP1.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1095/biolreprod.109.076257},
   Key = {fds174196}
}

@article{fds174094,
   Author = {H Gao and G Wu and TE Spencer and GA Johnson and FW Bazer},
   Title = {Select nutrients in the ovine uterine lumen. IV. Expression
             of neutral and acidic amino acid transporters in ovine uteri
             and peri-implantation conceptuses.},
   Journal = {Biology of reproduction},
   Volume = {80},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1196-208},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0006-3363},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.108.075440},
   Keywords = {Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic • Amino Acid
             Transport Systems, Neutral • Animals • Corpus
             Luteum • Embryo, Mammalian • Endometrium •
             Estrous Cycle • Female • Interferon Type I •
             Pregnancy • Pregnancy Proteins • Pregnancy, Animal
             • Progesterone • RNA, Messenger • Sheep
             • metabolism • metabolism*},
   Abstract = {The availability of specific neutral and acidic amino acids
             in the uterine lumen of ewes increased significantly during
             the peri-implantation period, but mechanisms for their
             transport into the uterine lumen and uptake by conceptuses
             are not established in any species. In this study, effects
             of pregnancy, progesterone (P4), and interferon tau (IFNT)
             on expression of neutral and acidic amino acid transporters
             in uteri of cyclic and pregnant ewes and conceptuses were
             studied. SLC1A2, SLC1A3, SLC3A1, SLC6A14, SLC6A19, SLC7A6,
             SLC38A3, and SLC38A6 mRNAs were only weakly expressed in the
             ovine endometrium. However, SLC1A4, SLC1A5, SLC7A8, and
             SLC43A2 mRNAs were detectable in uterine luminal epithelia
             (LE), superficial glandular epithelia (sGE), and/or
             glandular epithelia (GE). SLC1A1 and SLC7A5 mRNAs were most
             abundant in LE/sGE and GE. SLC1A3 and SLC38A4 mRNAs were
             most abundant in uterine stroma. SLC38A6 mRNA was detected
             only in cells with a stromal distribution suggesting immune
             lineage. SLC1A5 mRNA was expressed primarily in LE/sGE and
             stromal cells, and it was more abundant in uteri of pregnant
             ewes (day x status interaction; P < 0.05). Furthermore, P4
             induced and IFNT further stimulated SLC1A5 expression in
             LE/sGE. Endometrial SLC1A1, SLC7A5, and SLC43A2 mRNAs
             demonstrated both temporal and cellSLC-specific changes.
             Several mRNAs were detectable in trophectoderm (SLC6A19,
             SLC7A5, SLC7A6, and SLC43A2), while others were more
             abundant in endoderm (SLC1A4, SLC1A5, SLC6A19, SLC7A5,
             SLC7A6, SLC7A8, and SLC43A2) of conceptuses. These results
             document coordinate changes in expression of transporters
             that are likely responsible for increases in amounts of
             neutral and acidic amino acids in the uterine lumen to
             support conceptus growth, development, and
             survival.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1095/biolreprod.108.075440},
   Key = {fds174094}
}

@article{fds325755,
   Author = {O'Leary-Moore, SK and Godin, EA and Parnell, SE and Dehart, DB and Ament, JJ and Johnson, GA and Styner, M and Sulik,
             KK},
   Title = {EFFECTS OF ACUTE GESTATIONAL DAY 10 ETHANOL EXPOSURE ON THE
             DEVELOPING MOUSE BRAIN: A HIGH-RESOLUTION MAGNETIC RESONANCE
             MICROSCOPY STUDY},
   Journal = {Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research},
   Volume = {33},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {132A-132A},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {June},
   Key = {fds325755}
}

@article{fds174266,
   Author = {K Hayashi and DW Erikson and SA Tilford and BM Bany and JA Maclean 2nd and EB Rucker 3rd and GA Johnson and TE Spencer},
   Title = {Wnt genes in the mouse uterus: potential regulation of
             implantation.},
   Journal = {Biology of reproduction},
   Volume = {80},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {989-1000},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0006-3363},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.108.075416},
   Keywords = {Animals • Base Sequence • Cloning, Molecular
             • DNA Primers • DNA, Complementary • Embryo
             Implantation • Estradiol • Female • Frizzled
             Receptors • Gene Expression • Mice •
             Ovariectomy • Ovary • Pregnancy •
             Progesterone • RNA, Messenger • Signal
             Transduction • Uterus • Wnt Proteins • drug
             effects • genetics • genetics* • metabolism
             • metabolism* • pharmacology},
   Abstract = {Wnt genes are involved in critical developmental and growth
             processes. The present study comprehensively analyzed
             temporal and spatial alterations in Wnt and Fzd gene
             expression in the mouse uterus during peri-implantation of
             pregnancy. Expression of Wnt4, Wnt5a, Wnt7a, Wnt7b, Wnt11,
             Wnt16, Fzd2, Fzd4, and Fzd6 was detected in the uterus
             during implantation. Wnt4 mRNA was most abundant in the
             decidua, whereas Wnt5a mRNA was restricted to the
             mesometrial decidua during decidualization. Wnt7a, Wnt7b,
             and Wnt11 mRNAs were abundantly detected in the endometrial
             epithelia. The expression of Wnt7b was robust in the luminal
             epithelium (LE) at the implantation site on Gestational Day
             5, whereas Wnt11 mRNA disappeared in the LE adjacent to the
             embryo in the antimesometrial implantation chamber but
             remained abundant in the LE. Wnt16 mRNA was localized to the
             stroma surrounding the LE on Day 4 and remained in the
             stroma adjacent to the LE but not in areas undergoing the
             decidual reaction. Fzd2 mRNA was detected in the decidua,
             Fzd4 mRNA was in the vessels and stroma surrounding the
             embryo, and Fzd6 mRNA was observed in the endometrial
             epithelia, stroma, and some blood vessels during
             implantation. Ovarian steroid hormone treatment was found to
             regulate Wnt genes and Fzd receptors in ovariectomized mice.
             Especially, single injections of progesterone stimulated
             Wnt11 mRNA, and estrogen stimulated Wnt4 and Wnt7b. The
             temporal and spatial alterations in Wnt genes likely play a
             critical role during implantation and decidualization in
             mice.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1095/biolreprod.108.075416},
   Key = {fds174266}
}

@article{fds174312,
   Author = {X Li and FW Bazer and H Gao and W Jobgen and GA Johnson and P Li, JR
             McKnight and MC Satterfield and TE Spencer and G Wu},
   Title = {Amino acids and gaseous signaling.},
   Journal = {Amino acids},
   Volume = {37},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {65-78},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {1438-2199},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00726-009-0264-5},
   Keywords = {Amino Acids • Animals • Carbon Monoxide •
             Cardiovascular Diseases • Energy Metabolism •
             Humans • Hydrogen Sulfide • Immune System Diseases
             • Nervous System Diseases • Nitric Oxide •
             Signal Transduction • Sulfur Dioxide •
             biosynthesis* • metabolism • metabolism* •
             physiology},
   Abstract = {Gases, such as nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO),
             hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), and sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) are
             known toxic pollutants in the air. However, they are now
             recognized as important signaling molecules synthesized in
             animals and humans from arginine, glycine (heme), and
             cysteine, respectively. At physiological levels, NO, CO, and
             SO(2) activate guanylyl cyclase to generate cGMP which
             elicits a variety of responses (including relaxation of
             vascular smooth muscle cells, hemodynamics,
             neurotransmission, and cell metabolism) via cGMP-dependent
             protein kinases. H(2)S is also a crucial regulator of both
             neurological function and endothelium-dependent relaxation
             through cGMP-independent mechanisms involving stimulation of
             membrane K(ATP) channels and intracellular cAMP signaling.
             Additionally, NO, CO, and H(2)S confer cytoprotective and
             immunomodulatory effects. Moreover, NH(3) is a major product
             of amino acid catabolism and profoundly affects the function
             of neurons and the vasculature through glutamine-dependent
             inhibition of NO synthesis. Emerging evidence shows that
             amino acids are not only precursors for these endogenous
             gases, but are also regulators of their production in a
             cell-specific manner. Thus, recent advances on gaseous
             signaling have greatly expanded our basic knowledge of amino
             acid biochemistry and nutrition. These exciting discoveries
             will aid in the design of new nutritional and
             pharmacological means to prevent and treat major health
             problems related to developmental biology and nutrient
             metabolism, including intrauterine growth restriction,
             preterm birth, aging, neurological disorders, cancer,
             obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1007/s00726-009-0264-5},
   Key = {fds174312}
}

@article{fds268844,
   Author = {Badea, A and Johnson, GA and Williams, RW},
   Title = {Genetic dissection of the mouse brain using high-field
             magnetic resonance microscopy.},
   Journal = {NeuroImage},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1067-1079},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {1095-9572},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19349225},
   Keywords = {Animals • Brain • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
             • Mice • Mice, Inbred C57BL • Mice, Inbred
             DBA • Mice, Inbred Strains • Microscopy •
             Species Specificity • anatomy & histology •
             cytology* • genetics* • methods* •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has demonstrated that
             variation in brain structure is associated with differences
             in behavior and disease state. However, it has rarely been
             practical to prospectively test causal models that link
             anatomical and functional differences in humans. In the
             present study we have combined classical mouse genetics with
             high-field MR to systematically explore and test such
             structure-functional relations across multiple brain
             regions. We segmented 33 regions in two parental
             strains-C57BL/6J (B) and DBA/2J (D)-and in nine BXD
             recombinant inbred strains. All strains have been studied
             extensively for more than 20 years using a battery of
             genetic, functional, anatomical, and behavioral assays. We
             compared levels of variation within and between strains and
             sexes, by region, and by system. Average within-strain
             variation had a coefficient of variation (CV) of 1.6% for
             the whole brain; while the CV ranged from 2.3 to 3.6% for
             olfactory bulbs, cortex and cerebellum, and up to
             approximately 18% for septum and laterodorsal thalamic
             nucleus. Variation among strain averages ranged from 6.7%
             for cerebellum, 7.6% for whole brain, 9.0% for cortex, up to
             approximately 26% for the ventricles, laterodorsal thalamic
             nucleus, and the interpeduncular nucleus. Heritabilities
             averaged 0.60+/-0.18. Sex differences were not significant
             with the possible (and unexpected) exception of the pons (
             approximately 20% larger in males). A correlation matrix of
             regional volumes revealed high correlations among
             functionally related parts of the CNS (e.g., components of
             the limbic system), and several high correlations between
             regions that are not anatomically connected, but that may
             nonetheless be functionally or genetically
             coupled.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.01.021},
   Key = {fds268844}
}

@article{fds174230,
   Author = {GA Johnson and VR Gutti and SK Loyalka and KA O'Beirne 2nd and SK
             Cochran, HM Dale and GR Kracke},
   Title = {Albuterol metered dose inhaler performance under hyperbaric
             pressures.},
   Journal = {Undersea & hyperbaric medicine : journal of the Undersea and
             Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc},
   Volume = {36},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {55-63},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {1066-2936},
   Keywords = {Aerosols • Albuterol • Analysis of Variance •
             Asthma • Bronchial Spasm • Bronchodilator Agents
             • Diving • Humans • Hyperbaric Oxygenation
             • Metered Dose Inhalers • Nanoparticles •
             Particle Size • Pressure* • Weights and Measures
             • administration & dosage* • adverse effects
             • chemistry • contraindications • etiology
             • physiology • physiopathology • standards*
             • therapy},
   Abstract = {The weight change per actuation and aerosol particle size
             and number delivered by albuterol metered dose inhalers
             (MDIs) were measured in a multiplace hyperbaric chamber at
             pressures ranging from one atmosphere absolute (1 ATA, 0
             feet of seawater, fsw, 101 kPa) to three ATA (66 fsw, 304
             kPa). Weight change per actuation by CFC
             (chlorofluorocarbon) and long canister HFA
             (hydrofluoroalkane) powered MDIs was 13 +/- 1% and 12 +/- 1%
             less, respectively, at 3 ATA compared to 1 ATA. However,
             weight change per actuation by short canister HFA MDIs was
             not significantly changed with pressure. The geometric mean
             diameters of nano particles from the CFC and short canister
             HFA MDIs decreased from 50 nm at 0 fsw to 32 nm at 66 fsw
             whereas the long canister HFA aerosol diameters were not
             affected. The numbers of nanometer size particles delivered
             at 66 fsw were only 4-7% of those delivered at 0 fsw for the
             CFC and long canister HFA MDIs whereas for the short
             canister MDIs it was 26%. We conclude that the weight change
             per actuation of albuterol and the sizes and numbers of
             aerosol particles emitted from albuterol MDIs actuated in a
             hyperbaric environment vary by canister type.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds174230}
}

@article{fds268842,
   Author = {Song, J and Liu, Y and Gewalt, SL and Cofer, G and Johnson, GA and Liu,
             QH},
   Title = {Least-square NUFFT methods applied to 2-D and 3-D radially
             encoded MR image reconstruction.},
   Journal = {IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering},
   Volume = {56},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1134-1142},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {1558-2531},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19174334},
   Keywords = {Animals • Computer Simulation • Image Processing,
             Computer-Assisted • Least-Squares Analysis* •
             Magnetic Resonance Imaging • Mice • Models,
             Statistical • Phantoms, Imaging •
             methods*},
   Abstract = {Radially encoded MRI has gained increasing attention due to
             its motion insensitivity and reduced artifacts. However,
             because its samples are collected nonuniformly in the
             k-space, multidimensional (especially 3-D) radially sampled
             MRI image reconstruction is challenging. The objective of
             this paper is to develop a reconstruction technique in high
             dimensions with on-the-fly kernel calculation. It implements
             general multidimensional nonuniform fast Fourier transform
             (NUFFT) algorithms and incorporates them into a k-space
             image reconstruction framework. The method is then applied
             to reconstruct from the radially encoded k-space data,
             although the method is applicable to any non-Cartesian
             patterns. Performance comparisons are made against the
             conventional Kaiser-Bessel (KB) gridding method for 2-D and
             3-D radially encoded computer-simulated phantoms and
             physically scanned phantoms. The results show that the NUFFT
             reconstruction method has better accuracy-efficiency
             tradeoff than the KB gridding method when the kernel weights
             are calculated on the fly. It is found that for a particular
             conventional kernel function, using its corresponding
             deapodization function as a scaling factor in the NUFFT
             framework has the potential to improve accuracy. In
             particular, when a cosine scaling factor is used, the NUFFT
             method is faster than KB gridding method since a closed-form
             solution is available and is less computationally expensive
             than the KB kernel (KB griding requires computation of
             Bessel functions). The NUFFT method has been successfully
             applied to 2-D and 3-D in vivo studies on small
             animals.},
   Doi = {10.1109/TBME.2009.2012721},
   Key = {fds268842}
}

@article{fds174130,
   Author = {H Gao and G Wu and TE Spencer and GA Johnson and FW Bazer},
   Title = {Select nutrients in the ovine uterine lumen. III. Cationic
             amino acid transporters in the ovine uterus and
             peri-implantation conceptuses.},
   Journal = {Biology of reproduction},
   Volume = {80},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {602-9},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0006-3363},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.108.073890},
   Keywords = {Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic • Animals •
             Arginine • Biological Transport • Blastocyst
             • Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 1 • Cationic
             Amino Acid Transporter 2 • Endometrium • Estrous
             Cycle • Female • Interferon Type I •
             Pregnancy • Pregnancy Proteins • Pregnancy, Animal
             • Progesterone • RNA, Messenger • Receptors,
             Progesterone • Sheep • Uterus • antagonists &
             inhibitors • metabolism • metabolism* •
             pharmacology • physiology},
   Abstract = {Arginine is an essential amino acid for conceptus
             (embryo/fetus and trophoblast/placenta) growth and
             development; however, the mechanisms for arginine transport
             into the uterine lumen and uptake by conceptuses are largely
             unknown. In this study, expression of System y(+) (SLC7A1,
             SLC7A2, and SLC7A3) cationic amino acid transporters in
             uteri of cyclic and pregnant ewes and conceptuses was
             studied, and effects of pregnancy, progesterone (P4), and
             interferon tau (IFNT) on their expression were investigated.
             SLC7A1 mRNA was most abundant in endometrial luminal (LE)
             and superficial glandular (sGE) epithelia on Day 16 of the
             estrous cycle and on Days 16-20 of pregnancy, whereas SLC7A2
             mRNA was most abundant in LE and mid to deep glandular (GE)
             epithelia on Days 14-20 of gestation. Expression of SLC7A1
             and SLC7A2 was enhanced in pregnant ewes in a cell-specific
             manner, but abundance of SLC7A3 was not affected by day of
             the estrous cycle or by pregnancy status. SLC7A1, SLC7A2,
             and SLC7A3 mRNAs were expressed in trophectoderm and
             endoderm of conceptuses. In ovariectomized ewes, short-term
             treatment of ewes with P4 and IFNT did not affect
             endometrial SLC7A1 mRNA, while long-term treatment with P4
             stimulated SLC7A1 in LE and GE, and IFNT tended to increase
             SLC7A1 abundance in LE. SLC7A2 mRNA abundance increased
             4.1-fold in response to short-term P4 treatment and an
             additional 1.7-fold by IFNT primarily in endometrial LE/sGE,
             and these effects were ablated by a P4 receptor antagonist.
             These results indicate that coordinate changes in SLC7A1,
             SLC7A2, and SLC7A3 expression in uterine endometria and
             conceptuses are likely important in transport of arginine
             that is critical to conceptus growth, development, and
             survival.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1095/biolreprod.108.073890},
   Key = {fds174130}
}

@article{fds174233,
   Author = {RC Burghardt, JR Burghardt and JD Taylor 2nd and AT Reeder and BT
             Nguen, TE Spencer and KJ Bayless and GA Johnson},
   Title = {Enhanced focal adhesion assembly reflects increased
             mechanosensation and mechanotransduction at
             maternal-conceptus interface and uterine wall during ovine
             pregnancy.},
   Journal = {Reproduction (Cambridge, England)},
   Volume = {137},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {567-82},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {1741-7899},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/REP-08-0304},
   Keywords = {Animals • Cytoskeletal Proteins • Embryo
             Implantation • Extracellular Matrix Proteins •
             Female • Fluorescent Antibody Technique • Focal
             Adhesions • Integrins • Mechanotransduction,
             Cellular • Models, Animal • Pregnancy • Sheep
             • Trophoblasts • Uterus • analysis •
             metabolism* • physiology • physiology*},
   Abstract = {The integrity of the fetal-maternal interface is critical
             for proper fetal nourishment during pregnancy. Integrins are
             important adhesion molecules present at the interface during
             implantation; however, in vivo evidence for integrin
             activation and focal adhesion formation at the
             maternal-conceptus interface is limited. We hypothesized
             that focal adhesion assembly in uterine luminal epithelium
             (LE) and conceptus trophectoderm (Tr) results from integrin
             binding of extracellular matrix (ECM) at this interface to
             provide increased tensile forces and signaling to coordinate
             utero-placental development. An ovine model of unilateral
             pregnancy was used to evaluate mechanotransduction events
             leading to focal adhesion assembly at the maternal-conceptus
             interface and within the uterine wall. Animals were
             hysterectomized on days 40, 80, or 120 of pregnancy, and
             uteri immunostained for integrins (ITGAV, ITGA4, ITGA5,
             ITGB1, ITGB3, and ITGB5), ECM proteins (SPP1, LGALS15,
             fibronectin (FN), and vitronectin (VTN)), cytoskeletal
             molecules (ACTN and TLN1), and a signal generator (PTK2).
             Focal adhesion assembly in myometrium and stroma was also
             studied to provide a frame of reference for mechanical
             stretch of the uterine wall. Large focal adhesions
             containing aggregates of ITGAV, ITGA4, ITGA5, ITGB1, ITGB5,
             ACTN, and PTK2 were detected in interplacentomal uterine LE
             and Tr of gravid but not non-gravid uterine horns and
             increased during pregnancy. SPP1 and LGALS15, but not FN or
             VTN, were present along LE and Tr interfaces in both uterine
             horns. These data support the idea that focal adhesion
             assembly at the maternal-conceptus interface reflects
             adaptation to increasing forces caused by the growing fetus.
             Cooperative binding of multiple integrins to SPP1 deposited
             at the maternal-conceptus interface forms an adhesive mosaic
             to maintain a tight connection between uterine and placental
             surfaces along regions of epitheliochorial placentation in
             sheep.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1530/REP-08-0304},
   Key = {fds174233}
}

@article{fds268840,
   Author = {Zhang, X and Badea, C and Jacob, M and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Development of a noncontact 3-D fluorescence tomography
             system for small animal in vivo imaging.},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical
             Engineering},
   Volume = {7191},
   Pages = {nihpa106691},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19587837},
   Abstract = {Fluorescence imaging is an important tool for tracking
             molecular-targeting probes in preclinical studies. It offers
             high sensitivity, but nonetheless low spatial resolution
             compared to other leading imaging methods such CT and MRI.
             We demonstrate our methodological development in small
             animal in vivo whole-body imaging using fluorescence
             tomography. We have implemented a noncontact fluid-free
             fluorescence diffuse optical tomography system that uses a
             raster-scanned continuous-wave diode laser as the light
             source and an intensified CCD camera as the photodetector.
             The specimen is positioned on a motorized rotation stage.
             Laser scanning, data acquisition, and stage rotation are
             controlled via LabVIEW applications. The forward problem in
             the heterogeneous medium is based on a normalized Born
             method, and the sensitivity function is determined using a
             Monte Carlo method. The inverse problem (image
             reconstruction) is performed using a regularized iterative
             algorithm, in which the cost function is defined as a
             weighted sum of the L-2 norms of the solution image, the
             residual error, and the image gradient. The relative weights
             are adjusted by two independent regularization parameters.
             Our initial tests of this imaging system were performed with
             an imaging phantom that consists of a translucent plastic
             cylinder filled with tissue-simulating liquid and two
             thin-wall glass tubes containing indocyanine green. The
             reconstruction is compared to the output of a finite element
             method-based software package NIRFAST and has produced
             promising results.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.808199},
   Key = {fds268840}
}

@article{fds174126,
   Author = {G Song and KA Dunlap and J Kim and DW Bailey and TE Spencer and RC
             Burghardt, GF Wagner and GA Johnson and FW Bazer},
   Title = {Stanniocalcin 1 is a luminal epithelial marker for
             implantation in pigs regulated by progesterone and
             estradiol.},
   Journal = {Endocrinology},
   Volume = {150},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {936-45},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {1945-7170},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2008-1026},
   Keywords = {Animals • Biological Markers • Embryo Implantation
             • Endometrium • Epithelial Cells • Estradiol
             • Female • Gene Expression Regulation •
             Glycoproteins • Organ Specificity • Pregnancy
             • Pregnancy, Animal* • Progesterone •
             Pseudopregnancy • RNA, Messenger • Swine •
             Time Factors • Uterus • drug effects • drug
             effects* • genetics • genetics* • metabolism
             • pharmacology* • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Stanniocalcin 1 (STC1) is a glycoprotein that decreases
             calcium and increases phosphate in cells/tissues. This
             investigation examined endocrine regulation of STC1 in
             endometria of pigs during the estrous cycle and pregnancy.
             STC1 mRNA was present exclusively in luminal epithelium (LE)
             between d 12 and 15 of the estrous cycle, increased between
             d 12 and d 20, and was not detectable by d 30 of pregnancy.
             STC1 protein was also detected in uterine flushings. To
             determine effects of estrogen and progesterone, pigs were
             ovariectomized and treated with these hormones alone or
             together. Progesterone, but not estrogen, induced STC1 in
             LE. Cotreatment with progesterone and estrogen further
             stimulated STC1 over progesterone alone. To determine
             effects of pseudopregnancy, nonpregnant gilts were given
             daily injections of estradiol benzoate from d 11 to d 14.
             STC1 was not expressed in LE on d 90 of pseudopregnancy,
             suggesting that the estradiol given to induce
             pseudopregnancy and/or long-term exposure to progesterone
             are required for down-regulation of STC1. To determine
             effects of long-term progesterone, without effects of
             estradiol, pigs were ovariectomized on d 12, given daily
             injections of progesterone through d 39, and hysterectomized
             on d 40 after estrus. STC1 was expressed in LE of
             progesterone-treated pigs, suggesting that estrogen is
             involved in down-regulation of STC1. We conclude that STC1
             is induced in LE by progesterone and further stimulated by
             estrogen, and its down-regulation in LE by d 25 likely
             requires exposure of the progestinized uterus to estrogen.
             The temporal and cell type-specific expression of STC1 makes
             this gene a unique marker for implantation in
             pigs.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1210/en.2008-1026},
   Key = {fds174126}
}

@article{fds174079,
   Author = {H Gao and G Wu and TE Spencer and GA Johnson and FW Bazer},
   Title = {Select nutrients in the ovine uterine lumen. ii. glucose
             transporters in the uterus and peri-implantation
             conceptuses.},
   Journal = {Biology of reproduction},
   Volume = {80},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {94-104},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0006-3363},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.108.071654},
   Keywords = {Animals • Blastocyst • Estrous Cycle • Female
             • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental •
             Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative •
             Immunohistochemistry • In Situ Hybridization •
             Interferon Type I • Pregnancy • Pregnancy Proteins
             • Progesterone • RNA, Messenger • Random
             Allocation • Sheep • Uterus • antagonists &
             inhibitors • biosynthesis • genetics •
             metabolism* • pharmacology* • physiology •
             veterinary},
   Abstract = {Total glucose in ovine uterine lumenal fluid increases
             6-fold between Days 10 and 15 of gestation, but not the
             estrous cycle; however, mechanisms for glucose transport
             into the uterine lumen and uptake by conceptuses
             (embryo/fetus and associated membranes) are not established.
             This study determined the effects of the estrous cycle,
             pregnancy, progesterone (P4), and interferon tau (IFNT) on
             expression of both facilitative (SLC2A1, SLC2A3, and SLC2A4)
             and sodium-dependent (SLC5A1 and SLC5A11) glucose
             transporters in ovine uterine endometria from Days 10 to 16
             of the estrous cycle and Days 10 to 20 of pregnancy, as well
             as in conceptuses from Days 10 to 20 of pregnancy. The
             SLC2A1 and SLC5A1 mRNAs and proteins were most abundant in
             uterine luminal epithelia and superficial glandular
             epithelia (LE/sGE), whereas SLC2A4 was present in stromal
             cells and glandular epithelia (GE). SLC5A11 mRNA was most
             abundant in endometrial GE, whereas SLC2A3 mRNA was not
             detectable in endometria. SLC2A1, SLC2A3, SLC2A4, SLC5A1,
             and SLC5A11 were expressed in the trophectoderm and endoderm
             of conceptuses. Steady-state levels of SLC2A1, SLC5A1, and
             SLC5A11 mRNAs, but not SLC2A4 mRNA, were greater in
             endometria from pregnant than from cyclic ewes. Progesterone
             increased SLC2A1, SLC5A11, and SLC2A4 mRNAs in the LE/sGE
             and SLC5A1 in the GE of ovariectomized ewes. Expression of
             SLC5A1 was inhibited by ZK136,317 (progesterone receptor
             antagonist), and the combination of ZK136,317 and IFNT
             further decreased expression in GE. In constrast, P4 induced
             and IFNT stimulated expression of SLC2A1 and SLC5A11, and
             these effects were blocked by ZK136,317. Results of this
             study indicate differential expression of facilitative and
             sodium-dependent glucose transporters in ovine uteri and
             conceptuses for transport and uptake of glucose, and that P4
             or P4 and IFNT regulate their expression during the
             peri-implantation period of pregnancy.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1095/biolreprod.108.071654},
   Key = {fds174079}
}

@article{fds174215,
   Author = {H Gao and G Wu and TE Spencer and GA Johnson and X Li and FW
             Bazer},
   Title = {Select nutrients in the ovine uterine lumen. I. Amino acids,
             glucose, and ions in uterine lumenal flushings of cyclic and
             pregnant ewes.},
   Journal = {Biology of reproduction},
   Volume = {80},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {86-93},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0006-3363},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.108.071597},
   Keywords = {Amino Acids • Animals • Calcium • Estrous
             Cycle • Female • Glucose • Glutathione •
             Potassium • Pregnancy • Pregnancy, Animal •
             Sheep • Sodium • Uterus • metabolism •
             metabolism*},
   Abstract = {Nutrients in uterine secretions are essential for
             development and survival of conceptuses (embryo and
             associated extraembryonic membranes) during pregnancy;
             however, little is known about changes in the amounts of
             specific nutrients in the uterine fluids of cyclic and
             pregnant ruminants. This study determined quantities of
             glucose, amino acids, glutathione, calcium, sodium, and
             potassium in uterine lumenal fluid from cyclic (Days 3-16)
             and pregnant (Days 10-16) ewes. Total recoverable glucose,
             Arg, Gln, Leu, Asp, Glu, Asn, His, beta-Ala, Tyr, Trp, Met,
             Val, Phe, Ile, Lys, Cys, Pro, glutathione, calcium, and
             sodium were greater in the uterine fluid of pregnant
             compared with cyclic ewes between Days 10 and 16. In cyclic
             ewes, only modest changes in the total amounts of glucose,
             Asn, Cit, Tyr, Trp, Met, Val, Cys, glutathione, calcium, and
             potassium were detected between Days 3 and 16. However, in
             pregnant ewes, amounts of glucose, Arg, Gln, Glu, Gly, Cys,
             Leu, Pro, glutathione, calcium, and potassium in uterine
             fluids increased 3- to 23-fold between Days 10 and 14 and
             remained high to Day 16. Of particular interest were
             increases in glucose, Arg, Leu, and Gln in uterine flushings
             of pregnant ewes between Days 10 and 16 of pregnancy. Total
             amounts of His, ornithine, Lys, Ser, Thr, Ile, Phe, Trp,
             Met, and Cit in uterine fluids also increased, but to a
             lesser extent during early pregnancy. These novel results
             indicate activation of pregnancy-associated mechanisms for
             transport of nutrients into the uterine lumen, and they
             provide a framework for future studies of nutrients,
             including glucose, amino acids, and glutathione, required to
             activate nutrient-sensing cell signaling pathways for
             growth, development, and survival of conceptuses, as well as
             for optimization of culture media for in vitro studies of
             conceptus development.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1095/biolreprod.108.071597},
   Key = {fds174215}
}

@article{fds174306,
   Author = {FW Bazer and TE Spencer and GA Johnson},
   Title = {Interferons and uterine receptivity.},
   Journal = {Seminars in reproductive medicine},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {90-102},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1526-4564},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0028-1108013},
   Keywords = {Animals • Embryo Implantation • Estrogens •
             Female • Interferons • Models, Biological •
             Pregnancy • Primates • Rodentia • Ruminants
             • Swine • Uterus • physiology •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {This article focuses on the potential roles of interferons
             (IFNs) in establishing uterine receptivity to implantation.
             A common feature of the peri-implantation period of
             pregnancy in most mammals is production of type I and/or
             type II IFNs by trophoblasts that induce and/or stimulate
             expression of an array of IFN-stimulate genes (ISGs). These
             effects range from pregnancy recognition signaling in
             ruminants through IFN tau to effects on cellular functions
             of the uterus and uterine vasculature. For actions of IFNs,
             progesterone (P4) is permissive to the expression of many
             effects and to the expression of ISGs that are induced
             directly by an IFN or induced by P4 and stimulated by an IFN
             in a temporal and/or cell-specific manner. Uterine
             receptivity to implantation is P4 dependent; however,
             implantation events are preceded by loss of expression of
             progesterone (PGR) and estrogen (ESR1) receptors by uterine
             epithelia. Therefore, P4 likely acts via PGR-positive
             stromal cells to induce expression of fibroblast growth
             factors-7 and -10 and/or hepatocyte growth factor
             (progestamedins) that then act via their respective
             receptors on uterine epithelia and trophectoderm to affect
             expression of ISGs. The permissive effects of P4 on the
             expression of ISGs and the effects of P4 to induce and IFNs
             to stimulate gene expression raise the question of whether
             uterine receptivity to implantation requires P4 and IFN to
             activate unique, but complementary, cell signaling pathways.
             Uterine receptivity to implantation, depending on species,
             involves changes in the expression of genes for the
             attachment of trophectoderm to the uterine lumenal
             epithelium (LE) and superficial glandular epithelium (sGE),
             modification of the phenotype of uterine stromal cells, the
             silencing of PGR and ESR1 genes, the suppression of genes
             for immune recognition, alterations in membrane permeability
             to enhance conceptus-maternal exchange of factors, increased
             vascularity of the endometrium, activation of genes for
             transport of nutrients into the uterine lumen, and enhanced
             signaling for pregnancy recognition. Differential expression
             of genes by uterine LE/sGE, mid- to deep-glandular epithelia
             (GE), and stromal cells in response to P4 and IFNs is likely
             to influence uterine receptivity to implantation in most
             mammals. Understanding the roles of IFNs in uterine
             receptivity for implantation is necessary to develop
             approaches to enhance reproductive health and fertility in
             humans and domestic animals.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1055/s-0028-1108013},
   Key = {fds174306}
}

@article{fds161597,
   Author = {G.A. Johnson},
   Title = {A Petiet, GA Johnson, Active Staining of Mouse Embryos for
             Magnetic Resonance Microscopy. In: Hewitson Tim D & Darby
              Ian A (editors), Histology Protocols (Methods in Molecular
             Biology), Springer- Humana Press. Totowa, NJ. USA, in press,
             2009},
   Year = {2009},
   Key = {fds161597}
}

@article{fds268753,
   Author = {Perez, BA and Ghafoori, AP and Johnston, SM and Jeffords, LB and Kim, Y and Badea, CT and Johnson, GA and Kirsch, DG},
   Title = {Dissecting the Mechanism of Tumor Response to Radiation
             Therapy with Primary Lung Cancers in Mice},
   Journal = {International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology,
             Physics},
   Volume = {75},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {S537-S537},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {0360-3016},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000270573602102&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds268753}
}

@article{fds268767,
   Author = {Parnell, SE and O'Leary-Moore, SK and Godin, EA and Dehart, DB and Johnson, BW and Johnson, GA and Styner, MA and Sulik,
             KK},
   Title = {Magnetic resonance microscopy defines ethanol-induced brain
             abnormalities in prenatal mice: Effects of acute insult on
             gestational day 8},
   Journal = {Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research},
   Volume = {33},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1001-1011},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {0145-6008},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2009.00921.x},
   Abstract = {Background: Magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM), magnetic
             resonance imaging (MRI) at microscopic levels, provides
             unprecedented opportunities to aid in defining the full
             spectrum of ethanol's insult to the developing brain. This
             is the first in a series of reports that, collectively, will
             provide an MRM-based atlas of developmental stage-dependent
             structural brain abnormalities in a Fetal Alcohol Spectrum
             Disorders (FASD) mouse model. The ethanol exposure time and
             developmental stage examined for this report is gestational
             day (GD) 8 in mice, when the embryos are at early
             neurulation stages; stages present in humans early in the
             fourth week postfertilization. Methods: For this study,
             pregnant C57Bl/6J mice were administered an ethanol dosage
             of 2.8 g/kg intraperitoneally at 8 days, 0 hour and again at
             8 days, 4 hours postfertilization. On GD 17, fetuses that
             were selected for MRM analyses were immersion fixed in a
             Bouin's/Prohance ® solution. Control fetuses from
             vehicle-treated dams were stage-matched to those that were
             ethanol-exposed. The fetal mice were scanned ex vivo at 7.0
             T and 512 × 512 × 1024 image arrays were acquired using
             3-D spin warp encoding. The resulting 29 μm (isotropic)
             resolution images were processed using ITK-SNAP, a 3-D
             segmentation/ visualization tool. Linear and volume
             measurements were determined for selected brain, head, and
             body regions of each specimen. Comparisons were made between
             control and treated fetuses, with an emphasis on determining
             (dis)proportionate changes in specific brain regions.
             Results: As compared with controls, the crown-rump lengths
             of stage-matched ethanol-exposed GD 17 fetuses were
             significantly reduced, as were brain and whole body volumes.
             Volume reductions were notable in every brain region
             examined, with the exception of the pituitary and septal
             region, and were accompanied by increased ventricular
             volumes. Disproportionate regional brain volume reductions
             were most marked on the right side and were significant for
             the olfactory bulb, hippocampus, and cerebellum; the latter
             being the most severely affected. Additionally, the septal
             region and the pituitary were disproportionately large.
             Linear measures were consistent with those of volume. Other
             dysmorphologic features noted in the MR scans were choanal
             stenosis and optic nerve coloboma. Conclusions: This study
             demonstrates that exposure to ethanol occurring in mice at
             stages corresponding to the human fourth week
             postfertilization results in structural brain abnormalities
             that are readily identifiable at fetal stages of
             development. In addition to illustrating the utility of MR
             microscopy for analysis of an FASD mouse model, this work
             provides new information that confirms and extends human
             clinical observations. It also provides a framework for
             comparison of structural brain abnormalities resulting from
             ethanol exposure at other developmental stages and dosages.
             © 2009 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1530-0277.2009.00921.x},
   Key = {fds268767}
}

@article{fds268783,
   Author = {Badea, CT and Johnston, SM and Lin, M and Hedlund, LW and Johnson,
             GA},
   Title = {4D micro-CT-based perfusion imaging in small
             animals},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE},
   Volume = {7258},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {1605-7422},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.811213},
   Abstract = {Quantitative in-vivo imaging of lung perfusion in rodents
             can provide critical information for preclinical studies.
             However, the combined challenges of high temporal and
             spatial resolution have made routine quantitative perfusion
             imaging difficult in rodents. We have recently developed a
             dual tube/detector micro-CT scanner that is well suited to
             capture first-pass kinetics of a bolus of contrast agent
             used to compute perfusion information. Our approach is based
             on the paradigm that the same time density curves can be
             reproduced in a number of consecutive, small (i.e. 50μL )
             injections of iodinated contrast agent at a series of
             different angles. This reproducibility is ensured by the
             high-level integration of the imaging components of our
             system, with a micro-injector, a mechanical ventilator, and
             monitoring applications. Sampling is controlled through a
             biological pulse sequence implemented in LabVIEW. Image
             reconstruction is based on a simultaneous algebraic
             reconstruction technique implemented on a GPU. The
             capabilities of 4D micro-CT imaging are demonstrated in
             studies on lung perfusion in rats. We report 4D micro-CT
             imaging in the rat lung with a heartbeat temporal resolution
             of 140 ms and reconstructed voxels of 88 μm. The approach
             can be readily extended to a wide range of important
             preclinical models, such as tumor perfusion and
             angiogenesis, and renal function. © 2009
             SPIE.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.811213},
   Key = {fds268783}
}

@article{fds268784,
   Author = {Johnston, SM and Johnson, GA and Badea, CT},
   Title = {A material decomposition method for dual energy
             micro-CT},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE},
   Volume = {7258},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {1605-7422},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.811673},
   Abstract = {The attenuation of x-rays in matter is dependent on the
             energy of the x-rays and the atomic composition of the
             matter. Attenuation measurements at multiple x-ray energies
             can be used to improve the identification of materials. We
             present a method to estimate the fractional composition of
             three materials in an object from x-ray CT measurements at
             two different energies. The energies can be collected from
             measurements from a single source-detector system at two
             points in time, or from a dual source-detector system at one
             point in time. This method sets up a linear system of
             equations from the measurements and finds the solution
             through a geometric construction of the inverse matrix
             equation. This method enables the estimation of the blood
             fraction within a region of living tissue in which blood
             containing an iodinated contrast agent is mixed with two
             other materials. We verified this method using x-ray CT
             simulations implemented in MATLAB, investigated the
             parameters needed to optimize the estimation, and then
             applied the method to a mouse model of lung cancer. A direct
             application of this method is the estimation of blood
             fraction in lung tumors in preclinical studies. This work
             was performed at the Duke Center for In Vivo Microscopy, an
             NCRR/NCI National Resource (P41 RR005959/U24 CA092656), and
             also supported by NCI R21 CA124584. ©2009
             SPIE.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.811673},
   Key = {fds268784}
}

@article{fds268841,
   Author = {MacKenzie-Graham, A and Tiwari-Woodruff, SK and Sharma, G and Aguilar, C and Vo, KT and Strickland, LV and Morales, L and Fubara, B and Martin, M and Jacobs, RE and Johnson, GA and Toga, AW and Voskuhl,
             RR},
   Title = {Purkinje cell loss in experimental autoimmune
             encephalomyelitis},
   Journal = {NeuroImage},
   Volume = {48},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {637-651},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {1053-8119},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.06.073},
   Abstract = {Gray matter atrophy observed by brain MRI is an important
             correlate to clinical disability and disease duration in
             multiple sclerosis. The objective of this study was to link
             brain atrophy visualized by neuroimaging to its underlying
             neuropathology using the MS model, experimental autoimmune
             encephalomyelitis (EAE). Volumetric changes in brains of EAE
             mice, as well as matched healthy normal controls, were
             quantified by collecting post-mortem high-resolution
             T2-weighted magnetic resonance microscopy and actively
             stained magnetic resonance histology images. Anatomical
             delineations demonstrated a significant decrease in the
             volume of the whole cerebellum, cerebellar cortex, and
             molecular layer of the cerebellar cortex in EAE as compared
             to normal controls. The pro-apoptotic marker caspase-3 was
             detected in Purkinje cells and a significant decrease in
             Purkinje cell number was found in EAE. Cross modality and
             temporal correlations revealed a significant association
             between Purkinje cell loss on neuropathology and atrophy of
             the molecular layer of the cerebellar cortex by
             neuroimaging. These results demonstrate the power of using
             combined population atlasing and neuropathology approaches
             to discern novel insights underlying gray matter atrophy in
             animal models of neurodegenerative disease.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.06.073},
   Key = {fds268841}
}

@article{fds174111,
   Author = {GA Johnson and FW Bazer and RC Burghardt and TE Spencer and G Wu and KJ
             Bayless},
   Title = {Conceptus-uterus interactions in pigs: endometrial gene
             expression in response to estrogens and interferons from
             conceptuses.},
   Journal = {Society of Reproduction and Fertility supplement},
   Volume = {66},
   Pages = {321-32},
   Year = {2009},
   Keywords = {Animals • Embryo Implantation • Embryo, Mammalian
             • Endometrium • Estrogens • Female •
             Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental • Interferons
             • Pregnancy • Swine • physiology •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {This review highlights information on conceptus-uterus
             interactions in the pig with respect to uterine gene
             expression in response to estrogens and interferons (IFNs)
             secreted from elongating conceptuses. Pig conceptuses
             release estrogens for pregnancy recognition, but also
             secrete IFNs that do not appear to be antiluteolytic.
             Estrogens and IFNs induce expression of largely
             non-overlapping sets of genes, and evidence suggests that
             pig conceptuses orchestrate essential events of early
             pregnancy including pregnancy recognition signaling,
             implantation and secretion of histotroph by precisely
             controlling temporal and spatial (cell-specific) changes in
             uterine gene expression through initial secretion of
             estrogens, followed by cytokines including IFNG and IFND. By
             Day 12 of pregnancy, estrogens increase the expression of
             multiple genes in the uterine luminal epithelium including
             SPP1, STC1, IRF2 and STAT1 that likely have roles for
             implantation. By Day 15 of pregnancy, IFNs upregulate a
             large array of IFN responsive genes in the underlying stroma
             and glandular epithelium including ISG15, IRF1, STAT1, SLAs
             and B2M that likely have roles in uterine remodeling to
             support placentation.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds174111}
}

@article{fds174160,
   Author = {A Banerjee and R Rose and GA Johnson and RC Burghardt and SK
             Ramaiah},
   Title = {The influence of estrogen on hepatobiliary osteopontin
             (SPP1) expression in a female rodent model of alcoholic
             steatohepatitis.},
   Journal = {Toxicologic pathology},
   Volume = {37},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {492-501},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {1533-1601},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192623309335633},
   Keywords = {Alanine Transaminase • Analysis of Variance •
             Animals • Disease Models, Animal • Dose-Response
             Relationship, Drug • Estradiol • Estrous Cycle
             • Ethanol • Fatty Liver, Alcoholic • Female
             • Gene Expression • In Situ Hybridization •
             Liver • Neutrophil Infiltration • Osteopontin
             • Ovariectomy • Rats • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
             • administration & dosage • drug effects •
             genetics • immunology • metabolism •
             metabolism* • pathology • pharmacology •
             pharmacology*},
   Abstract = {Our recent studies suggest that higher neutrophil
             infiltration in females correlates with increased
             hepatobiliary expression of osteopontin (OPN) in alcoholic
             steatohepatitis (ASH). The objective of this study was to
             understand the role of alcohol in altering estrogen levels
             in females by examining the effect of ethanol (EtOH) on the
             estrous cycle and then investigate the potential
             relationship between estradiol (E2) and hepatobiliary OPN
             expression in a female rat ASH model. Ovariectomized (OVX)
             and E2-implanted OVX rats in the ASH group were evaluated
             for OPN mRNA and protein expression. Low doses of E2
             resulted in significant down-regulation of OPN protein and
             mRNA as compared to the OVX group. However, with increasing
             doses of E2, there was up-regulation of both OPN mRNA and
             protein. Osteopontin was localized primarily to the biliary
             epithelium. Liver injury assessed by serum ALT and
             histopathology revealed a pattern similar to OPN expression.
             In all groups, hepatic neutrophilic infiltration correlated
             positively with OPN expression. Based on these data, we
             conclude that in our ASH model, low doses of E2 appear to be
             hepatoprotective, whereas the protective effect appears to
             diminish with increasing doses of E2, although additional
             cause and effect studies are needed for confirmation.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1177/0192623309335633},
   Key = {fds174160}
}

@article{fds174298,
   Author = {FW Bazer and H Gao and GA Johnson and G Wu and DW Bailey and RC
             Burghardt},
   Title = {Select nutrients and glucose transporters in pig uteri and
             conceptuses.},
   Journal = {Society of Reproduction and Fertility supplement},
   Volume = {66},
   Pages = {335-6},
   Year = {2009},
   Keywords = {Amino Acids • Animals • Arginine • Embryo,
             Mammalian • Estradiol • Female • Glucose
             • Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative •
             Glutamine • Leucine • Pregnancy • Pregnancy,
             Animal • Pseudopregnancy • Swine • Uterus
             • analogs & derivatives • chemically induced
             • metabolism • metabolism*},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds174298}
}

@article{fds174106,
   Author = {KA Dunlap and DW Erikson and RC Burghardt and FJ White and KM Reed and JL
             Farmer, TE Spencer and RR Magness and FW Bazer and KJ Bayless and GA
             Johnson},
   Title = {Progesterone and placentation increase secreted
             phosphoprotein one (SPP1 or osteopontin) in uterine glands
             and stroma for histotrophic and hematotrophic support of
             ovine pregnancy.},
   Journal = {Biology of reproduction},
   Volume = {79},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {983-90},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0006-3363},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.108.071068},
   Keywords = {Animals • Embryonic Development* • Female •
             Osteopontin • Pregnancy • Pregnancy, Animal •
             Progesterone • Sheep • Uterus • metabolism*
             • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Secreted phosphoprotein one (SPP1, osteopontin) may regulate
             conceptus implantation and placentation. We investigated
             effects of progesterone (P(4)) and the conceptus on
             expression and localization of SPP1 in the ovine uterus.
             Steady-state levels of SPP1 mRNA in the endometrium of
             unilaterally pregnant ewes did not differ significantly
             between nongravid and gravid horns within their respective
             days of pregnancy; however, levels did increase as pregnancy
             progressed. SPP1 mRNA was detectable in the glandular
             epithelium (GE) of both nongravid and gravid horns via in
             situ hybridization. SPP1 protein was localized to the apical
             surface of the luminal epithelium of both nongravid and
             gravid uterine horns. Gravid horns exhibited extensive
             stromal SPP1 on Days 40 through 120, whereas SPP1 was
             markedly lower in the stroma of nongravid uterine horns
             through Day 80 of pregnancy. By Day 120, stromal expression
             of SPP1 between nongravid and gravid horns was similar.
             Long-term P(4) treatment of ovariectomized ewes induced SPP1
             in the uterine stroma and GE. A bioactive 45-kDa SPP1
             fragment was purified from uterine secretions and promoted
             ovine trophectoderm cell attachment in vitro. Interestingly,
             increased stromal cell expression of SPP1 was positively
             associated with vascularization as assessed by von
             Willebrand factor staining. Finally, ovine uterine artery
             endothelial cells produced SPP1 during outgrowth into
             three-dimensional collagen matrices in an in vitro model
             system that recapitulates angiogenesis. Collectively, P(4)
             induces and the conceptus further stimulates SPP1 in uterine
             GE and stroma, where SPP1 likely influences histotrophic and
             hematotrophic support of conceptus development.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1095/biolreprod.108.071068},
   Key = {fds174106}
}

@article{fds174185,
   Author = {FW Bazer and RC Burghardt and GA Johnson and TE Spencer and G
             Wu},
   Title = {Interferons and progesterone for establishment and
             maintenance of pregnancy: interactions among novel cell
             signaling pathways.},
   Journal = {Reproductive biology},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {179-211},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {1642-431X},
   Keywords = {Animals • Embryo Implantation • Estrogens •
             Female • Humans • Interferon Type I •
             Interferons • Pregnancy • Pregnancy Maintenance
             • Pregnancy Proteins • Progesterone • Signal
             Transduction • Swine • Uterus • drug effects
             • physiology • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Type I and/or type II interferons (IFNs) are important in
             establishing uterine receptivity to implantation in mammals.
             Gene expression effected by IFNs may be induced, stimulated
             or inhibited, but most are IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs).
             Effects of IFNs range from pregnancy recognition signaling
             in ruminants by IFN tau (IFNT) to effects on cellular
             functions of the uterus and uterine vasculature. For most,
             if not all, actions of IFNs on the uterus, progesterone
             (P(4)) is permissive to ISG expression, with genes being
             induced by IFN or induced by P(4) and stimulated by IFN.
             Uterine receptivity to implantation is P(4)-dependent;
             however, implantation events are preceded by loss of
             expression of progesterone (PGR) and estrogen (ESR1)
             receptors by uterine epithelia. Thus, P4 likely stimulates
             PGR-positive stromal cells to express one or more
             progestamedins, e.g., fibroblast growth factors-7 and -10,
             and/or hepatocyte growth factor, that act via their
             respective receptors on uterine epithelia and trophectoderm
             to regulate expression of ISGs. FGF10 appears to be the most
             important progestamedin in sheep uteri during pregnancy.
             Sequential effects of P(4) to induce and IFNs to stimulate
             gene expression suggest that P(4) and IFNs activate
             complimentary cell signaling pathways to modulate expression
             of genes for attachment of trophectoderm to uterine lumenal
             and superficial glandular epithelia (LE/sGE), modify
             phenotype of uterine stromal cells, silence PGR and ESR1
             genes, signal pregnancy recognition, suppress genes for
             immune recognition, alter membrane permeability to enhance
             conceptus-maternal exchange of factors, increase endometrial
             vascularity and activate genes for transport of nutrients
             into the uterine lumen. In ewes, IFNT abrogrates the uterine
             luteolytic mechanism and stimulates expression of classical
             ISGs by GE and stromal cells, whereas LE/sGE express
             P(4)-induced and IFNT-stimulated genes important for uterine
             receptivity to implantation and conceptus development. These
             include wingless-type MMTV (mouse mammary tumor virus)
             integration site family member 7A (WNT7A) induced by IFNT,
             as well as galectin, proteases, protease inhibitors,
             transporters for glucose and amino acids, gastrin releasing
             polypeptide, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1
             and a hypoxia inducible factor. The specific functions of
             IFNs and ISGs induced in primates, pigs and other mammals
             during pregnancy are not known, but likely are important in
             establishment of pregnancy. Understanding the roles of IFNs
             and ISGs in uterine receptivity for implantation is
             necessary to develop strategies to enhance reproductive
             health and fertility in humans and domestic animals. The
             magnitude of the LH surge was reduced in cows receiving
             endotoxin.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds174185}
}

@article{fds174207,
   Author = {G Wu and FW Bazer and S Datta and GA Johnson and P Li and MC Satterfield and TE Spencer},
   Title = {Proline metabolism in the conceptus: implications for fetal
             growth and development.},
   Journal = {Amino acids},
   Volume = {35},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {691-702},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {1438-2199},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00726-008-0052-7},
   Keywords = {Amino Acids • Animals • Embryo, Mammalian •
             Female • Fetal Development* • Humans •
             Models, Biological • Placenta • Polyamines •
             Pregnancy • Pregnancy, Animal • Proline •
             Sheep • Swine • metabolism •
             metabolism*},
   Abstract = {Although there are published studies of proline biochemistry
             and nutrition in cultured cells and postnatal animals,
             little is known about proline metabolism and function in the
             conceptus (embryo/fetus, associated placental membranes, and
             fetal fluids). Because of the invasive nature of biochemical
             research on placental and fetal growth, animal models are
             often used to test hypotheses of biological importance.
             Recent evidence from studies with pigs and sheep shows that
             proline is a major substrate for polyamine synthesis via
             proline oxidase, ornithine aminotransferase, and ornithine
             decarboxylase in placentae. Both porcine and ovine placentae
             have a high capacity for proline catabolism and polyamine
             production. In addition, allantoic and amniotic fluids
             contain enzymes to convert proline into ornithine, which is
             delivered through the circulation to placental tissues.
             There is exquisite metabolic coordination among integrated
             pathways that support highest rates of polyamine synthesis
             and concentrations in placentae during early gestation when
             placental growth is most rapid. Interestingly, reduced
             placental and fetal growth are associated with reductions in
             placental proline transport, proline oxidase activity, and
             concentrations of polyamines in gestating dams with either
             naturally occurring or malnutrition-induced growth
             retardation. Conversely, increasing proline availability in
             maternal plasma through nutritional or pharmacological
             modulation in pigs and sheep enhances concentrations of
             proline and polyamines in placentae and fetal fluids, as
             well as fetal growth. These novel findings suggest an
             important role for proline in conceptus metabolism, growth
             and development, as well as a potential treatment for
             intrauterine growth restriction, which is a significant
             problem in both human medicine and animal
             agriculture.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1007/s00726-008-0052-7},
   Key = {fds174207}
}

@article{fds268853,
   Author = {Badea, CT and Drangova, M and Holdsworth, DW and Johnson,
             GA},
   Title = {In vivo small-animal imaging using micro-CT and digital
             subtraction angiography.},
   Journal = {Physics in Medicine and Biology},
   Volume = {53},
   Number = {19},
   Pages = {R319-R350},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0031-9155},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18758005},
   Keywords = {Angiography, Digital Subtraction • Animals •
             Humans • X-Ray Microtomography • instrumentation
             • methods*},
   Abstract = {Small-animal imaging has a critical role in phenotyping,
             drug discovery and in providing a basic understanding of
             mechanisms of disease. Translating imaging methods from
             humans to small animals is not an easy task. The purpose of
             this work is to review in vivo x-ray based small-animal
             imaging, with a focus on in vivo micro-computed tomography
             (micro-CT) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). We
             present the principles, technologies, image quality
             parameters and types of applications. We show that both
             methods can be used not only to provide morphological, but
             also functional information, such as cardiac function
             estimation or perfusion. Compared to other modalities, x-ray
             based imaging is usually regarded as being able to provide
             higher throughput at lower cost and adequate resolution. The
             limitations are usually associated with the relatively poor
             contrast mechanisms and potential radiation damage due to
             ionizing radiation, although the use of contrast agents and
             careful design of studies can address these limitations. We
             hope that the information will effectively address how x-ray
             based imaging can be exploited for successful in vivo
             preclinical imaging.},
   Doi = {10.1088/0031-9155/53/19/R01},
   Key = {fds268853}
}

@article{fds174072,
   Author = {JD Tobias and GA Johnson and S Rehman and R Fisher and N
             Caron},
   Title = {Cerebral oxygenation monitoring using near infrared
             spectroscopy during one-lung ventilation in
             adults.},
   Journal = {Journal of minimal access surgery},
   Volume = {4},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {104-107},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {1998-3921},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Changes in oxygenation occur during one-lung
             ventilation (OLV) due to intrapulmonary shunt. Although
             arterial oxygenation is generally adequate, there are no
             studies evaluating the effect of these changes on cerebral
             oxygenation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cerebral oxygenation
             (rSO(2)), heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), oxygen
             saturation (SaO(2)), and end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO(2))
             were prospectively monitored during OLV in adults. Cerebral
             oxygenation was monitored using near infrared spectroscopy.
             No clinical decisions were made based on the rSO2 value. BP
             and HR were the inspired oxygen concentration was adjusted
             as needed to maintain the SaO(2) >/= 95%. RESULTS: The study
             cohort included 40 adult patients. 18,562 rSO(2) values were
             collected during OLV. The rSO(2) was >/= baseline at 3,593
             of the 18,562 data points (19%). The rSO2 was 0-9 </=
             baseline in 7,053 (38%) of the readings, 10-19 </= baseline
             in 4,084 (22%) of the readings, and 20-29 </= baseline in
             3,898 (21%) of the readings. 2,599 (14%) of the rSO(2)
             values were less than 75% of the baseline value. Thirteen
             patients (32.5%) had at least one rSO2 value that was less
             than 75% of the baseline. Eight patients (20%) had rSO(2)
             values less than 75% of baseline for >/= 25% of the duration
             of OLV. These patients were older (63.7 +/- 10.2 vs 54.6 +/-
             9.8 years, P<0.025), weighed more (95.8 +/- 17.4 vs 82.6 +/-
             14.6 kgs, P=0.038), and were more likely to be ASA III vs II
             (7 of 8 versus 25 of 32, relative risk 1.75) than the
             remainder of the cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Significant changes in
             rSO2 occur during OLV for thoracic surgical procedures.
             Future studies are needed to determine the impact of such
             changes on the postoperative course of these
             patients.},
   Language = {ENG},
   Key = {fds174072}
}

@article{fds268873,
   Author = {Petiet, AE and Kaufman, MH and Goddeeris, MM and Brandenburg, J and Elmore, SA and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {High-resolution magnetic resonance histology of the
             embryonic and neonatal mouse: a 4D atlas and morphologic
             database.},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of
             USA},
   Volume = {105},
   Number = {34},
   Pages = {12331-12336},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {1091-6490},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18713865},
   Keywords = {Anatomy, Cross-Sectional • Animals • Animals,
             Newborn • Databases, Factual • Embryo, Mammalian
             • Embryonic Development* • Heart Septal Defects
             • Imaging, Three-Dimensional • Magnetic Resonance
             Imaging • Mice • Mice, Mutant Strains • Mice,
             Transgenic • Microscopy • Time Factors •
             anatomy & histology* • instrumentation •
             methods*},
   Abstract = {Engineered mice play an ever-increasing role in defining
             connections between genotype and phenotypic expression. The
             potential of magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) for
             morphologic phenotyping in the mouse has previously been
             demonstrated; however, applications have been limited by
             long scan times, availability of the technology, and a
             foundation of normative data. This article describes an
             integrated environment for high-resolution study of normal,
             transgenic, and mutant mouse models at embryonic and
             neonatal stages. Three-dimensional images are shown at an
             isotropic resolution of 19.5 microm (voxel volumes of 8 pL),
             acquired in 3 h at embryonic days 10.5-19.5 (10 stages) and
             postnatal days 0-32 (6 stages). A web-accessible atlas
             encompassing this data was developed, and for critical
             stages of embryonic development (prenatal days 14.5-18.5),
             >200 anatomical structures have been identified and labeled.
             Also, matching optical histology and analysis tools are
             provided to compare multiple specimens at multiple
             developmental stages. The utility of the approach is
             demonstrated in characterizing cardiac septal defects in
             conditional mutant embryos lacking the Smoothened receptor
             gene. Finally, a collaborative paradigm is presented that
             allows sharing of data across the scientific community. This
             work makes magnetic resonance microscopy of the mouse embryo
             and neonate broadly available with carefully annotated
             normative data and an extensive environment for
             collaborations.},
   Doi = {10.1073/pnas.0805747105},
   Key = {fds268873}
}

@article{fds174090,
   Author = {MM Joyce, JR Burghardt and RC Burghardt and RN Hooper and FW Bazer and GA Johnson},
   Title = {Uterine MHC class I molecules and beta 2-microglobulin are
             regulated by progesterone and conceptus interferons during
             pig pregnancy.},
   Journal = {Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)},
   Volume = {181},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {2494-505},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {1550-6606},
   Keywords = {Animals • Embryo Implantation • Endometrium •
             Female • Histocompatibility Antigens Class I •
             Interferon Type I • Interferon-gamma • Interferons
             • Maternal-Fetal Exchange • Pregnancy •
             Pregnancy Proteins • Progesterone • RNA, Messenger
             • Random Allocation • Swine • Uterus •
             beta 2-Microglobulin • biosynthesis •
             biosynthesis* • embryology • genetics •
             immunology • immunology* • metabolism •
             metabolism* • physiology • physiology* •
             secretion • secretion*},
   Abstract = {MHC class I molecules and beta(2)-microglobulin (beta(2)m)
             are membrane glycoproteins that present peptide Ags to TCRs,
             and bind to inhibitory and activating receptors on NK cells
             and other leukocytes. They are involved in the
             discrimination of self from non-self. Modification of these
             molecules in the placenta benefits pregnancy, but little is
             known about their genes in the uterus. We examined the
             classical class I swine leukocyte Ags (SLA) genes SLA-1,
             SLA-2, and SLA-3, the nonclassical SLA-6, SLA-7, and SLA-8
             genes, and the beta(2)m gene in pig uterus during pregnancy.
             Uterine SLA and beta(2)m increased in luminal epithelium
             between days 5 and 9, then decreased between days 15 and 20.
             By day 15 of pregnancy, SLA and beta(2)m increased in stroma
             and remained detectable through day 40. To determine effects
             of estrogens, which are secreted by conceptuses to prevent
             corpus luteum regression, nonpregnant pigs were treated with
             estradiol benzoate, which did not affect the SLA or beta(2)m
             genes. In contrast, progesterone, which is secreted by
             corpora lutea, increased SLA and beta(2)m in luminal
             epithelium, whereas a progesterone receptor antagonist
             (ZK137,316) ablated this up-regulation. To determine effects
             of conceptus secretory proteins (CSP) containing IFN-delta
             and IFN-gamma, nonpregnant pigs were implanted with
             mini-osmotic pumps that delivered CSP to uterine horns. CSP
             increased SLA and beta(2)m in stroma. Cell-type specific
             regulation of SLA and beta(2)m genes by progesterone and
             IFNs suggests that placental secretions control expression
             of immune regulatory molecules on uterine cells to provide
             an immunologically favorable environment for survival of the
             fetal-placental semiallograft.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds174090}
}

@article{fds174274,
   Author = {PS Bridger and S Haupt and R Leiser and GA Johnson and RC Burghardt and HR
             Tinneberg, C Pfarrer},
   Title = {Integrin activation in bovine placentomes and in caruncular
             epithelial cells isolated from pregnant cows.},
   Journal = {Biology of reproduction},
   Volume = {79},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {274-82},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0006-3363},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.108.067637},
   Keywords = {Animals • Cattle • Cell Proliferation • Cell
             Separation • Cells, Cultured • Epithelial Cells
             • Extracellular Matrix • Female •
             Fibronectins • Focal Adhesions • Integrins •
             Models, Biological • Placenta • Pregnancy •
             Pregnancy, Animal* • Trophoblasts • cytology
             • metabolism • metabolism* •
             physiology},
   Abstract = {In the bovine synepitheliochorial placenta, restricted
             trophoblast invasion requires complex interactions of
             integrin receptors with proteins of the extracellular matrix
             (ECM) and integrin receptors of neighboring cells. Activated
             integrins assemble to focal adhesions and are linked to the
             actin cytoskeleton via signaling molecules including
             alpha-actinin (ACTN), focal adhesion kinase (PTK2 or FAK),
             phosphotyrosine, and talin (TLN1). Aims of this study were
             to assess integrin activation and focal adhesion assembly
             within epithelial cells of bovine placentomes and
             low-passage (not transformed) placentomal caruncular
             epithelial cells cultured on dishes coated with ECM
             proteins. Immunofluorescence analysis was performed to
             colocalize the signaling molecules ACTN, PTK2,
             phosphotyrosine, and TLN1 with each other and with
             beta(1)-integrin (ITGB1) in placentomal cryosections
             throughout pregnancy and in caruncular epithelial cells in
             vitro. Antibody specificity was confirmed by Western blot.
             Cells were cultured on uncoated dishes, and the dishes were
             coated with fibronectin (FN), laminin (LAMA), and collagen
             type IV (COL4), thereby statistically assessing cell number
             and qualitatively assessing the expression pattern of ITGB1,
             phosphotyrosine, and TLN1. Results demonstrated integrin
             activation and focal adhesion assembly in the placentome and
             that low-passage caruncular epithelial cells maintain
             integrin-associated properties observed in vivo. Expression
             and/or colocalization of signaling molecules with ITGB1
             confirmed, for the first time, integrin activation and
             participation in "outside-in" and "inside-out" signaling
             pathways. The prominent role of ECM, and FN in particular,
             in integrin signaling is supported by the in vitro
             enhancement of proliferation and focal adhesion expression.
             Thus, this in vitro model provides excellent potential for
             further mechanistic studies designed to elucidate
             feto-maternal interactions in the bovine
             placentome.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1095/biolreprod.108.067637},
   Key = {fds174274}
}

@article{fds268854,
   Author = {Shofer, S and Badea, C and Qi, Y and Potts, E and Foster, WM and Johnson,
             GA},
   Title = {A micro-CT analysis of murine lung recruitment in
             bleomycin-induced lung injury.},
   Journal = {Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. :
             1985)},
   Volume = {105},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {669-677},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {8750-7587},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18566189},
   Keywords = {Animals • Antibiotics, Antineoplastic* •
             Bleomycin* • Collagen • Female • Image
             Processing, Computer-Assisted • Lung Compliance •
             Lung Diseases • Mice • Pulmonary Alveoli •
             Respiratory Function Tests • Respiratory Mechanics
             • Tidal Volume • Tomography, X-Ray Computed •
             chemically induced* • metabolism • pathology
             • pathology* • physiology •
             physiopathology},
   Abstract = {The effects of lung injury on pulmonary recruitment are
             incompletely understood. X-ray computed tomography (CT) has
             been a valuable tool in assessing changes in recruitment
             during lung injury. With the development of preclinical CT
             scanners designed for thoracic imaging in rodents, it is
             possible to acquire high-resolution images during the
             evolution of a pulmonary injury in living mice. We
             quantitatively assessed changes in recruitment caused by
             intratracheal bleomycin at 1 and 3 wk after administration
             using micro-CT in 129S6/SvEvTac mice. Twenty female mice
             were administered 2.5 U of bleomycin or saline and imaged
             with micro-CT at end inspiration and end expiration. Mice
             were extubated and allowed to recover from anesthesia and
             then reevaluated in vivo for quasi-static compliance
             measurements, followed by harvesting of the lungs for
             collagen analysis and histology. CT images were converted to
             histograms and analyzed for mean lung attenuation (MLA). MLA
             was significantly greater for bleomycin-exposed mice at week
             1 for both inspiration (P<0.0047) and exhalation (P<0.0377)
             but was not significantly different for week 3
             bleomycin-exposed mice. However, week 3 bleomycin-exposed
             mice did display significant increases in MLA shift from
             expiration to inspiration compared with either group of
             control mice (P<0.005), suggesting increased lung
             recruitment at this time point. Week 1 bleomycin-exposed
             mice displayed normal shifts in MLA with inspiration,
             suggesting normal lung recruitment despite significant
             radiographic and histological changes. Lung alveolar
             recruitment is preserved in a mouse model of
             bleomycin-induced parenchymal injury despite significant
             changes in radiographic and physiological
             parameters.},
   Doi = {10.1152/japplphysiol.00980.2007},
   Key = {fds268854}
}

@article{fds268871,
   Author = {De Lin and M and Toncheva, G and Nguyen, G and Kim, S and Anderson-Evans,
             C and Johnson, GA and Yoshizumi, TT},
   Title = {Application of MOSFET detectors for dosimetry in small
             animal radiography using short exposure times.},
   Journal = {Radiation Research},
   Volume = {170},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {260-263},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0033-7587},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18666818},
   Keywords = {Equipment Design • Equipment Failure Analysis •
             Radiation Dosage • Radiographic Image Enhancement
             • Radiometry • Sensitivity and Specificity •
             Transducers* • Transistors* • instrumentation*
             • methods},
   Abstract = {Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) X-ray imaging for
             small animals can be used for functional phenotyping given
             its ability to capture rapid physiological changes at high
             spatial and temporal resolution. The higher temporal and
             spatial requirements for small-animal imaging drive the need
             for short, high-flux X-ray pulses. However, high doses of
             ionizing radiation can affect the physiology. The purpose of
             this study was to verify and apply metal oxide semiconductor
             field effect transistor (MOSFET) technology to dosimetry for
             small-animal diagnostic imaging. A tungsten anode X-ray
             source was used to expose a tissue-equivalent mouse phantom.
             Dose measurements were made on the phantom surface and
             interior. The MOSFETs were verified with thermoluminescence
             dosimeters (TLDs). Bland-Altman analysis showed that the
             MOSFET results agreed with the TLD results (bias, 0.0625).
             Using typical small animal DSA scan parameters, the dose
             ranged from 0.7 to 2.2 cGy. Application of the MOSFETs in
             the small animal environment provided two main benefits: (1)
             the availability of results in near real-time instead of the
             hours needed for TLD processes and (2) the ability to
             support multiple exposures with different X-ray techniques
             (various of kVp, mA and ms) using the same MOSFET. This
             MOSFET technology has proven to be a fast, reliable small
             animal dosimetry method for DSA imaging and is a good system
             for dose monitoring for serial and gene expression
             studies.},
   Doi = {10.1667/RR1328.1},
   Key = {fds268871}
}

@article{fds268866,
   Author = {Bucholz, E and Ghaghada, K and Qi, Y and Mukundan, S and Johnson,
             GA},
   Title = {Four-dimensional MR microscopy of the mouse heart using
             radial acquisition and liposomal gadolinium contrast
             agent.},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance in Medicine},
   Volume = {60},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {111-118},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0740-3194},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18581419},
   Keywords = {Animals • Contrast Media • Gadolinium • Heart
             • Liposomes • Magnetic Resonance Imaging •
             Mice • Microscopy • anatomy & histology •
             diagnostic use • methods • methods* •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {Magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) has become an important
             tool for small animal cardiac imaging. In relation to
             competing technologies (microCT and ultrasound), MR is
             limited by spatial resolution, temporal resolution, and
             acquisition time. All three of these limitations have been
             addressed by developing a four-dimensional (4D) (3D plus
             time) radial acquisition (RA) sequence. The signal-to-noise
             ratio (SNR) has been optimized by minimizing the echo time
             (TE) (300 us). The temporal resolution and throughput have
             been improved by center-out trajectories resulting in
             repetition time (TR) <2.5 ms. The contrast has been enhanced
             through the use of a liposomal blood pool agent that reduces
             the T(1) of the blood to <400 ms. We have developed
             protocols for three specific applications: 1)
             high-throughput with spatial resolution of 87 x 87 x 352
             um(3) (voxel volume = 2.7 nL) and acquisition time of 16
             min; 2) high-temporal resolution with spatial resolution of
             87 x 87 x 352 um(3) (voxel volume = 2.7 nL) and temporal
             resolution at 4.8 ms and acquisition time of 32 minutes; and
             3) high-resolution isotropic imaging at 87 x 87 x 87 um(3)
             (voxel volume = 0.68 nL) and acquisition time of 31 min. The
             4D image arrays allow direct measure of cardiac functional
             parameters dependent on chamber volumes, e.g., ejection
             fraction (EF), end diastolic volume (EDV), and end systolic
             volume (ESV).},
   Doi = {10.1002/mrm.21618},
   Key = {fds268866}
}

@article{fds174184,
   Author = {J Kim and G Song and H Gao and JL Farmer and MC Satterfield and RC
             Burghardt, G Wu and GA Johnson and TE Spencer and FW
             Bazer},
   Title = {Insulin-like growth factor II activates phosphatidylinositol
             3-kinase-protooncogenic protein kinase 1 and
             mitogen-activated protein kinase cell Signaling pathways,
             and stimulates migration of ovine trophectoderm
             cells.},
   Journal = {Endocrinology},
   Volume = {149},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {3085-94},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0013-7227},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2007-1367},
   Keywords = {Animals • Cell Differentiation • Cell Division
             • Cloning, Molecular • Female • Insulin-Like
             Growth Factor II • MAP Kinase Signaling System •
             Male • Pregnancy • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
             • RNA, Messenger • Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases,
             90-kDa • Sheep • Uterus • Vasectomy •
             genetics • metabolism • p38 Mitogen-Activated
             Protein Kinases • physiology •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {IGF-II, a potent stimulator of cellular proliferation,
             differentiation, and development, regulates uterine function
             and conceptus growth in several species. In situ
             hybridization analyses found that IGF-II mRNA was most
             abundant in the caruncular endometrial stroma of both
             cyclical and pregnant ewes. In the intercaruncular
             endometrium, IGF-II mRNA transitioned from stroma to luminal
             epithelium between d 14 and 20 of pregnancy. IGF-II mRNA was
             present in all cells of the conceptus but was particularly
             abundant in the yolk sac. Immunohistochemical analyses
             revealed that phosphorylated (p)-protooncogenic protein
             kinase 1, p-ribosomal protein S6 kinase, p-ERK1/2, and p-P38
             MAPK proteins were present at low levels in a majority of
             endometrial cells but were most abundant in the nuclei of
             endometrial luminal epithelium and conceptus trophectoderm
             of pregnant ewes. In mononuclear trophectoderm cells
             isolated from d-15 conceptuses, IGF-II increased the
             abundance of p-pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1,
             p-protooncogenic protein kinase 1, p-glycogen synthase
             kinase 3B, p-FK506 binding protein 12-rapamycin associated
             protein 1, and p-ribosomal protein S6 kinase protein within
             15 min, and the increase was maintained for 90 min. IGF-II
             also elicited a rapid increase in p-ERK1/2 and p-P38 MAPK
             proteins that was maximal at 15 or 30 min posttreatment.
             Moreover, IGF-II increased migration of trophectoderm cells.
             Collectively, these results support the hypothesis that
             IGF-II coordinately activates multiple cell signaling
             pathways critical to survival, growth, and differentiation
             of the ovine conceptus during early pregnancy.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1210/en.2007-1367},
   Key = {fds174184}
}

@article{fds268849,
   Author = {Goddeeris, MM and Rho, S and Petiet, A and Davenport, CL and Johnson,
             GA and Meyers, EN and Klingensmith, J},
   Title = {Intracardiac septation requires hedgehog-dependent cellular
             contributions from outside the heart.},
   Journal = {Development (Cambridge)},
   Volume = {135},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {1887-1895},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0950-1991},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18441277},
   Keywords = {Animals • Fetal Heart • Heart Atria • Heart
             Septal Defects, Ventricular • Hedgehog Proteins •
             Mesoderm • Mice • Mice, Mutant Strains •
             Mutation • Signal Transduction • cytology •
             cytology* • embryology • genetics •
             metabolism*},
   Abstract = {Septation of the mammalian heart into four chambers requires
             the orchestration of multiple tissue progenitors.
             Abnormalities in this process can result in potentially
             fatal atrioventricular septation defects (AVSD). The
             contribution of extracardiac cells to atrial septation has
             recently been recognized. Here, we use a genetic marker and
             novel magnetic resonance microscopy techniques to
             demonstrate the origins of the dorsal mesenchymal protrusion
             in the dorsal mesocardium, and its substantial contribution
             to atrioventricular septation. We explore the functional
             significance of this tissue to atrioventricular septation
             through study of the previously uncharacterized AVSD
             phenotype of Shh(-/-) mutant mouse embryos. We demonstrate
             that Shh signaling is required within the dorsal mesocardium
             for its contribution to the atria. Failure of this addition
             results in severe AVSD. These studies demonstrate that AVSD
             can result from a primary defect in dorsal mesocardium,
             providing a new paradigm for the understanding of human
             AVSD.},
   Doi = {10.1242/dev.016147},
   Key = {fds268849}
}

@article{fds268857,
   Author = {Johnston, SM and Johnson, GA and Badea, CT},
   Title = {Geometric calibration for a dual tube/detector micro-CT
             system.},
   Journal = {Medical physics},
   Volume = {35},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1820-1829},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0094-2405},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18561657},
   Keywords = {Algorithms • Animals • Artifacts •
             Calibration • Equipment Design • Humans •
             Metals • Mice • Models, Statistical • Models,
             Theoretical • Phantoms, Imaging • Radiographic
             Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted •
             Reproducibility of Results • Tomography Scanners, X-Ray
             Computed • Tomography, X-Ray Computed • X-Rays
             • instrumentation* • methods •
             methods*},
   Abstract = {The authors describe a dual tube/detector micro-computed
             tomography (micro-CT) system that has the potential to
             improve temporal resolution and material contrast in small
             animal imaging studies. To realize this potential, it is
             necessary to precisely calibrate the geometry of a dual
             micro-CT system to allow the combination of projection data
             acquired with each individual tube/detector in a single
             reconstructed image. The authors present a geometric
             calibration technique that uses multiple projection images
             acquired with the two imaging chains while rotating a
             phantom containing a vertical array of regularly spaced
             metallic beads. The individual geometries of the imaging
             chains are estimated from the phantom projection images
             using analytical methods followed by a refinement procedure
             based on nonlinear optimization. The geometric parameters
             are used to create the cone beam projection matrices
             required by the reconstruction process for each imaging
             chain. Next, a transformation between the two projection
             matrices is found that allows the combination of projection
             data in a single reconstructed image. The authors describe
             this technique, test it with a series of computer
             simulations, and then apply it to data collected from their
             dual tube/detector micro-CT system. The results demonstrate
             that the proposed technique is accurate, robust, and
             produces images free of misalignment artifacts.},
   Doi = {10.1118/1.2900000},
   Key = {fds268857}
}

@article{fds268814,
   Author = {Badea, CT and Johnston, S and Johnson, B and Lin, M and Hedlund, LW and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {A dual micro-CT system for small animal imaging.},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical
             Engineering},
   Volume = {6913},
   Pages = {691342},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22049304},
   Abstract = {Micro-CT is a non-invasive imaging modality usually used to
             assess morphology in small animals. In our previous work, we
             have demonstrated that functional micro-CT imaging is also
             possible. This paper describes a dual micro-CT system with
             two fixed x-ray/detectors developed to address such
             challenging tasks as cardiac or perfusion studies in small
             animals. A two-tube/detector system ensures simultaneous
             acquisition of two projections, thus reducing scanning time
             and the number of contrast injections in perfusion studies
             by a factor of two. The system is integrated with software
             developed in-house for cardio-respiratory monitoring and
             gating. The sampling geometry was optimized for 88 microns
             in such a way that the geometric blur of the focal spot
             matches the Nyquist sample at the detector. A geometric
             calibration procedure allows one to combine projection data
             from the two chains into a single reconstructed volume.
             Image quality was measured in terms of spatial resolution,
             uniformity, noise, and linearity. The modulation transfer
             function (MTF) at 10% is 3.4 lp/mm for single detector
             reconstructions and 2.3 lp/mm for dual tube/detector
             reconstructions. We attribute this loss in spatial
             resolution to the compounding of slight errors in the
             separate single chain calibrations. The dual micro-CT system
             is currently used in studies for morphological and
             functional imaging of both rats and mice.},
   Language = {ENG},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.772303},
   Key = {fds268814}
}

@article{fds268848,
   Author = {Nouls, JC and Izenson, MG and Greeley, HP and Johnson,
             GA},
   Title = {Design of a superconducting volume coil for magnetic
             resonance microscopy of the mouse brain.},
   Journal = {Journal of Magnetic Resonance},
   Volume = {191},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {231-238},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {1090-7807},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18221901},
   Keywords = {Animals • Brain • Electric Conductivity •
             Equipment Design • Equipment Failure Analysis •
             Magnetic Resonance Imaging • Magnetics • Mice
             • Microscopy • Transducers • cytology* •
             instrumentation* • methods* • veterinary •
             veterinary*},
   Abstract = {We present the design process of a superconducting volume
             coil for magnetic resonance microscopy of the mouse brain at
             9.4T. The yttrium barium copper oxide coil has been designed
             through an iterative process of three-dimensional
             finite-element simulations and validation against room
             temperature copper coils. Compared to previous designs, the
             Helmholtz pair provides substantially higher B(1)
             homogeneity over an extended volume of interest sufficiently
             large to image biologically relevant specimens. A
             custom-built cryogenic cooling system maintains the
             superconducting probe at 60+/-0.1K. Specimen loading and
             probe retuning can be carried out interactively with the
             coil at operating temperature, enabling much higher
             through-put. The operation of the probe is a routine,
             consistent procedure. Signal-to-noise ratio in a mouse brain
             increased by a factor ranging from 1.1 to 2.9 as compared to
             a room-temperature solenoid coil optimized for mouse brain
             microscopy. We demonstrate images encoded at 10x10x20mum for
             an entire mouse brain specimen with signal-to-noise ratio of
             18 and a total acquisition time of 16.5h, revealing
             neuroanatomy unseen at lower resolution. Phantom
             measurements show an effective spatial resolution better
             than 20mum.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jmr.2007.12.018},
   Key = {fds268848}
}

@article{fds268861,
   Author = {Badea, CT and Wetzel, AW and Mistry, N and Pomerantz, S and Nave, D and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Left ventricle volume measurements in cardiac micro-CT: the
             impact of radiation dose and contrast agent.},
   Journal = {Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics},
   Volume = {32},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {239-250},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0895-6111},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18243656},
   Keywords = {Animals • Contrast Media • Heart Ventricles •
             Imaging, Three-Dimensional • Mice • Mice, Inbred
             C57BL • Radiation Dosage • Radiographic Image
             Interpretation, Computer-Assisted • Tomography, X-Ray
             Computed • administration & dosage • methods*
             • radiography*},
   Abstract = {Micro-CT-based cardiac function estimation in small animals
             requires measurement of left ventricle (LV) volume at
             multiple time points during the cardiac cycle. Measurement
             accuracy depends on the image resolution, its signal and
             noise properties, and the analysis procedure. This work
             compares the accuracy of the Otsu thresholding and a region
             sampled binary mixture approach, for live mouse LV volume
             measurement using 100 microm resolution datasets. We
             evaluate both analysis methods after varying the volume of
             injected contrast agent and the number of projections used
             for CT reconstruction with a goal of permitting reduced
             levels of both X-ray and contrast agent doses.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.compmedimag.2007.12.004},
   Key = {fds268861}
}

@article{fds268775,
   Author = {Oldham, M and Sakhalkar, H and Oliver, T and Allan Johnson and G and Dewhirst, M},
   Title = {Optical clearing of unsectioned specimens for
             three-dimensional imaging via optical transmission and
             emission tomography.},
   Journal = {Journal of Biomedical Optics},
   Volume = {13},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {021113},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {1083-3668},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18465962},
   Abstract = {Optical computed tomography (optical-CT) and optical
             emission computed tomography (optical-ECT) are new
             techniques that enable unprecedented high-resolution 3-D
             multimodal imaging of tissue structure and function.
             Applications include imaging macroscopic gene expression and
             microvasculature structure in unsectioned biological
             specimens up to 8 cm(3). A key requisite for these imaging
             techniques is effective sample preparation including optical
             clearing, which enables light transport through the sample
             while preserving the signal (either light absorbing stain or
             fluorescent proteins) in representative form. We review
             recent developments in optical-CT and optical-ECT, and
             compatible "fluorescence-friendly" optical clearing
             protocols.},
   Doi = {10.1117/1.2907968},
   Key = {fds268775}
}

@article{fds268872,
   Author = {de Lin, M and Ning, L and Badea, CT and Mistry, NN and Qi, Y and Johnson,
             GA},
   Title = {A high-precision contrast injector for small animal x-ray
             digital subtraction angiography.},
   Journal = {IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering},
   Volume = {55},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {1082-1091},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0018-9294},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18334400},
   Keywords = {Angiography, Digital Subtraction • Animals •
             Contrast Media • Equipment Design • Equipment
             Failure Analysis • Iopamidol • Mice •
             Microinjections • Radiographic Image Enhancement •
             Reproducibility of Results • Sensitivity and
             Specificity • administration & dosage •
             administration & dosage* • instrumentation* •
             methods • veterinary*},
   Abstract = {The availability of genetically altered animal models of
             human disease for basic research has generated great
             interest in new imaging methodologies. Digital subtraction
             angiography (DSA) offers an appealing approach to functional
             imaging in small animals because of the high spatial and
             temporal resolution, and the ability to visualize and
             measure blood flow. The micro-injector described here meets
             crucial performance parameters to ensure optimal vessel
             enhancement without significantly increasing the total blood
             volume or producing overlap of enhanced structures. The
             micro-injector can inject small, reproducible volumes of
             contrast agent at high flow rates with computer-controlled
             timing synchronized to cardiopulmonary activity. Iterative
             bench-top and live animal experiments with both rat and
             mouse have been conducted to evaluate the performance of
             this computer-controlled micro-injector, a first
             demonstration of a new device designed explicitly for the
             unique requirements of DSA in small animals. Injection
             protocols were optimized and screened for potential
             physiological impact. For the optimized protocols, we found
             that changes in the time-density curves for representative
             regions of interest in the thorax were due primarily to
             physiological changes, independent of micro-injector
             parameters.},
   Doi = {10.1109/TBME.2007.909541},
   Key = {fds268872}
}

@article{fds268874,
   Author = {Bucholz, EK and Song, J and Johnson, GA and Hancu,
             I},
   Title = {Multispectral imaging with three-dimensional rosette
             trajectories.},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance in Medicine},
   Volume = {59},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {581-589},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0740-3194},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18306410},
   Keywords = {Adipose Tissue • Algorithms • Artifacts •
             Body Water • Brain Mapping • Computer Simulation
             • Humans • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted*
             • Imaging, Three-Dimensional* • Magnetic Resonance
             Imaging • anatomy & histology •
             methods*},
   Abstract = {Two-dimensional intersecting k-space trajectories have
             previously been demonstrated to allow fast multispectral
             imaging. Repeated sampling of k-space points leads to
             destructive interference of the signal coming from the
             off-resonance spectral peaks; on-resonance data
             reconstruction yields images of the on-resonance peak, with
             some of the off-resonance energy being spread as noise in
             the image. A shift of the k-space data by a given
             off-resonance frequency brings a second frequency of
             interest on resonance, allowing the reconstruction of a
             second spectral peak from the same k-space data. Given the
             higher signal-to-noise per unit time characteristic of a 3D
             acquisition, we extended the concept of intersecting
             trajectories to three dimensions. A 3D, rosette-like pulse
             sequence was designed and implemented on a clinical 1.5T
             scanner. An iterative density compensation function was
             developed to weight the 3D intersecting trajectories before
             Fourier transformation. Three volunteers were scanned using
             this sequence and separate fat and water images were
             reconstructed from the same imaging dataset.},
   Doi = {10.1002/mrm.21551},
   Key = {fds268874}
}

@article{fds268858,
   Author = {Mistry, NN and Pollaro, J and Song, J and De Lin and M and Johnson,
             GA},
   Title = {Pulmonary perfusion imaging in the rodent lung using dynamic
             contrast-enhanced MRI.},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance in Medicine},
   Volume = {59},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {289-297},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0740-3194},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18228577},
   Keywords = {Animals • Contrast Media • Female •
             Gadolinium DTPA • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
             • Lung • Magnetic Resonance Imaging •
             Phantoms, Imaging • Rats • Rats, Inbred F344
             • blood supply* • methods* •
             pharmacokinetics*},
   Abstract = {With the development of various models of pulmonary disease,
             there is tremendous interest in quantitative regional
             assessment of pulmonary function. While ventilation imaging
             has been addressed to a certain extent, perfusion imaging
             for small animals has not kept pace. In humans and large
             animals perfusion can be assessed using dynamic
             contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI with a single bolus injection of
             a gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agent. But the method
             developed for the clinic cannot be translated directly to
             image the rodent due to the combined requirements of higher
             spatial and temporal resolution. This work describes a novel
             image acquisition technique staggered over multiple,
             repeatable bolus injections of contrast agent using an
             automated microinjector, synchronized with image acquisition
             to achieve dynamic first-pass contrast enhancement in the
             rat lung. This allows dynamic first-pass imaging that can be
             used to quantify pulmonary perfusion. Further improvements
             are made in the spatial and temporal resolution by combining
             the multiple injection acquisition method with Interleaved
             Radial Imaging and "Sliding window-keyhole" reconstruction
             (IRIS). The results demonstrate a simultaneous increase in
             spatial resolution (<200 mum) and temporal resolution (<200
             ms) over previous methods, with a limited loss in
             signal-to-noise-ratio.},
   Doi = {10.1002/mrm.21353},
   Key = {fds268858}
}

@article{fds268864,
   Author = {Sharief, AA and Badea, A and Dale, AM and Johnson,
             GA},
   Title = {Automated segmentation of the actively stained mouse brain
             using multi-spectral MR microscopy.},
   Journal = {NeuroImage},
   Volume = {39},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {136-145},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1053-8119},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17933556},
   Keywords = {Algorithms • Animals • Artificial Intelligence*
             • Brain • Image Enhancement • Image
             Interpretation, Computer-Assisted • Magnetic Resonance
             Imaging • Male • Mice • Mice, Inbred C57BL
             • Microscopy • Pattern Recognition, Automated
             • Reproducibility of Results • Sensitivity and
             Specificity • Staining and Labeling • Subtraction
             Technique • cytology* • methods •
             methods*},
   Abstract = {Magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) has created new
             approaches for high-throughput morphological phenotyping of
             mouse models of diseases. Transgenic and knockout mice serve
             as a test bed for validating hypotheses that link genotype
             to the phenotype of diseases, as well as developing and
             tracking treatments. We describe here a Markov random fields
             based segmentation of the actively stained mouse brain, as a
             prerequisite for morphological phenotyping. Active staining
             achieves higher signal to noise ratio (SNR) thereby enabling
             higher resolution imaging per unit time than obtained in
             previous formalin-fixed mouse brain studies. The
             segmentation algorithm was trained on isotropic 43-mum T1-
             and T2-weighted MRM images. The mouse brain was segmented
             into 33 structures, including the hippocampus, amygdala,
             hypothalamus, thalamus, as well as fiber tracts and
             ventricles. Probabilistic information used in the
             segmentation consisted of (a) intensity distributions in the
             T1- and T2-weighted data, (b) location, and (c) contextual
             priors for incorporating spatial information. Validation
             using standard morphometric indices showed excellent
             consistency between automatically and manually segmented
             data. The algorithm has been tested on the widely used
             C57BL/6J strain, as well as on a selection of six
             recombinant inbred BXD strains, chosen especially for their
             largely variant hippocampus.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2007.08.028},
   Key = {fds268864}
}

@article{fds268754,
   Author = {Badea, CT and Johnston, S and Johnson, B and Lin, M and Hedlund, LW and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {A dual micro-CT system for small animal imaging - art. no.
             691342},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical
             Engineering},
   Volume = {6913},
   Pages = {91342-91342},
   Year = {2008},
   ISBN = {978-0-8194-7097-3},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000256660300136&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.772303},
   Key = {fds268754}
}

@article{fds268782,
   Author = {Johnson, K and Badea, C and Hedlund, L and Johnson,
             GA},
   Title = {Imaging techniques for small animal imaging models of
             pulmonary disease: Micro-CT (Toxicologic Pathology (2007)
             35, 5 (9-64))},
   Journal = {Toxicologic Pathology (Sage)},
   Volume = {36},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {895-},
   Year = {2008},
   ISSN = {0192-6233},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192623308323921},
   Doi = {10.1177/0192623308323921},
   Key = {fds268782}
}

@article{fds174137,
   Author = {SK Lewis and JL Farmer and RC Burghardt and GR Newton and GA Johnson and DL
             Adelson, FW Bazer and TE Spencer},
   Title = {Galectin 15 (LGALS15): a gene uniquely expressed in the
             uteri of sheep and goats that functions in trophoblast
             attachment.},
   Journal = {Biology of reproduction},
   Volume = {77},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1027-36},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0006-3363},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.107.063594},
   Keywords = {Amino Acid Sequence • Animals • Cattle •
             Cells, Cultured • Embryo Implantation •
             Endometrium • Female • Galectins • Gene
             Expression • Goats • Molecular Sequence Data
             • Pregnancy • RNA, Messenger • Rabbits •
             Ruminants • Sheep • Swine • Trophoblasts
             • genetics • genetics* • metabolism •
             metabolism* • physiology • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Galectins are a family of secreted animal lectins with
             biological roles in cell adhesion and migration. In sheep,
             galectin 15 (LGALS15) is expressed specifically in the
             endometrial luminal (LE) and superficial glandular (sGE)
             epithelia of the uterus in concert with blastocyst
             elongation during the peri-implantation period. The present
             study examined LGALS15 expression in the uterus of cattle,
             goats, and pigs. Although the bovine genome contains an
             LGALS15-like gene, expressed sequence tags encoding LGALS15
             mRNA were found only for sheep, and full-length LGALS15
             cDNAs were cloned only from endometrial total RNA isolated
             from pregnant sheep and goats, but not pregnant cattle or
             pigs. Ovine and caprine LGALS15 were highly homologous at
             the mRNA (95%) and protein (91%) levels, and all contained a
             conserved carbohydrate recognition domain and RGD
             recognition sequence for integrin binding. Endometrial
             LGALS15 mRNA levels increased after Day 11 of both the
             estrous cycle and pregnancy, and were considerably increased
             after Day 15 of pregnancy in goats. In situ hybridization
             detected abundant LGALS15 mRNA in endometrial LE and sGE of
             early pregnant goats, but not in cattle or pigs.
             Immunoreactive LGALS15 protein was present in endometrial
             epithelia and conceptus trophectoderm of goat uteri and
             detected within intracellular crystal structures in
             trophectoderm and LE. Recombinant ovine and caprine LGALS15
             proteins elicited a dose-dependent increase in ovine
             trophectoderm cell attachment in vitro that was comparable
             to bovine fibronectin. These results support the hypothesis
             that LGALS15 is uniquely expressed in Caprinae endometria
             and functions as an attachment factor important for
             peri-implantation blastocyst elongation.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1095/biolreprod.107.063594},
   Key = {fds174137}
}

@article{fds268850,
   Author = {Driehuys, B and Walker, J and Pollaro, J and Cofer, GP and Mistry, N and Schwartz, D and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {3He MRI in mouse models of asthma.},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance in Medicine},
   Volume = {58},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {893-900},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0740-3194},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17969115},
   Keywords = {Animals • Asthma • Disease Models, Animal* •
             Helium • Magnetic Resonance Imaging • Mice •
             Mice, Inbred BALB C • Mice, Inbred C57BL •
             methods* • pathology*},
   Abstract = {In the study of asthma, a vital role is played by mouse
             models, because knockout or transgenic methods can be used
             to alter disease pathways and identify therapeutic targets
             that affect lung function. Assessment of lung function in
             rodents by available methods is insensitive because these
             techniques lack regional specificity. A more sensitive
             method for evaluating lung function in human asthma patients
             uses hyperpolarized (HP) (3)He MRI before and after
             bronchoconstriction induced by methacholine (MCh). We now
             report the ability to perform such (3)He imaging of MCh
             response in mice, where voxels must be approximately 3000
             times smaller than in humans and (3)He diffusion becomes an
             impediment to resolving the airways. We show
             three-dimensional (3D) images that reveal airway structure
             down to the fifth branching and visualize ventilation at a
             resolution of 125 x 125 x 1000 microm(3). Images of
             ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mice acquired after MCh show both
             airway closure and ventilation loss. To also observe the MCh
             response in naive mice, we developed a non-slice-selective
             2D protocol with 187 x 187 microm(2) resolution that was
             fast enough to record the MCh response and recovery with
             12-s temporal resolution. The extension of (3)He MRI to
             mouse models should make it a valuable translational tool in
             asthma research.},
   Doi = {10.1002/mrm.21306},
   Key = {fds268850}
}

@article{fds268865,
   Author = {Song, J and Liu, QH and Johnson, GA and Badea, CT},
   Title = {Sparseness prior based iterative image reconstruction for
             retrospectively gated cardiac micro-CT.},
   Journal = {Medical physics},
   Volume = {34},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {4476-4483},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0094-2405},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18072512},
   Keywords = {Algorithms • Animals • Heart • Humans •
             Image Processing, Computer-Assisted • Imaging,
             Three-Dimensional • Least-Squares Analysis • Mice
             • Mice, Inbred C57BL • Models, Statistical •
             Myocardium • Phantoms, Imaging • Scattering,
             Radiation • Time Factors • Tomography, X-Ray
             Computed • X-Rays • metabolism • methods*
             • physiology},
   Abstract = {Recent advances in murine cardiac studies with
             three-dimensional (3D) cone beam micro-CT used a
             retrospective gating technique. However, this sampling
             technique results in a limited number of projections with an
             irregular angular distribution due to the temporal
             resolution requirements and radiation dose restrictions.
             Both angular irregularity and undersampling complicate the
             reconstruction process, since they cause significant
             streaking artifacts. This work provides an iterative
             reconstruction solution to address this particular
             challenge. A sparseness prior regularized weighted l2 norm
             optimization is proposed to mitigate streaking artifacts
             based on the fact that most medical images are compressible.
             Total variation is implemented in this work as the
             regularizer for its simplicity. Comparison studies are
             conducted on a 3D cardiac mouse phantom generated with
             experimental data. After optimization, the method is applied
             to in vivo cardiac micro-CT data.},
   Doi = {10.1118/1.2795830},
   Key = {fds268865}
}

@article{fds174176,
   Author = {JW Ross, MD Ashworth and FJ White and GA Johnson and PJ Ayoubi and U
             DeSilva, KM Whitworth and RS Prather and RD Geisert},
   Title = {Premature estrogen exposure alters endometrial gene
             expression to disrupt pregnancy in the pig.},
   Journal = {Endocrinology},
   Volume = {148},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {4761-73},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0013-7227},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2007-0599},
   Keywords = {Abortion, Spontaneous • Aldehyde Reductase •
             Animals • Antigens, CD24 • Drug Administration
             Schedule • Embryo Loss • Endometrium •
             Epithelium • Estradiol • Female • Gene
             Expression • Gene Expression Profiling •
             Gestational Age • Neurokinin B • Oligonucleotide
             Array Sequence Analysis • Osteopontin • Pregnancy
             • Pregnancy, Animal • RNA, Messenger • Swine
             • Time Factors • Uterus • administration &
             dosage • analogs & derivatives • analogs &
             derivatives* • drug effects* • etiology* •
             genetics • metabolism • metabolism* •
             pharmacology},
   Abstract = {Establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in the pig
             involve intricate communication between the developing
             conceptuses and maternal endometrium. Conceptus synthesis
             and release of estrogen during trophoblastic elongation are
             essential factors involved with establishing
             conceptus-uterine communication. The present study
             identified endometrial changes in gene expression associated
             with implantation failure and complete pregnancy loss after
             premature exposure of pregnant gilts to exogenous estrogen.
             Gilts were treated with either 5 mg estradiol cypionate (EC)
             or corn oil on d-9 and -10 gestation, which was associated
             with complete conceptus degeneration by d-17 gestation.
             Microarray analysis of gene expression revealed that a total
             of eight, 32, and five genes were up-regulated in the EC
             endometrium, whereas one, 39, and 16 genes were
             down-regulated, on d 10, 13, and 15, respectively. Four
             endometrial genes altered by EC, aldose reductase (AKR1B1),
             secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1), CD24 antigen (CD24), and
             neuromedin B (NMB), were evaluated using quantitative RT-PCR
             and in situ hybridization. In situ hybridization localized
             gene expression for NMB, CD24, AKR1B1, and SPP1 in the
             luminal epithelium, and confirmed the expression patterns
             from RT-PCR analysis. The aberrant expression patterns of
             endometrial AKR1B1, SPP1, CD24, and NMB 3-4 d after
             premature estrogen exposure to pregnant gilts may be
             involved with conceptus attachment failure to the uterine
             surface epithelium and induction of endometrial responses
             that disrupt the establishment of a viable
             pregnancy.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1210/en.2007-0599},
   Key = {fds174176}
}

@article{fds174271,
   Author = {MM Joyce and RC Burghardt and RD Geisert, JR Burghardt and RN Hooper and JW Ross, MD Ashworth and GA Johnson},
   Title = {Pig conceptuses secrete estrogen and interferons to
             differentially regulate uterine STAT1 in a temporal and cell
             type-specific manner.},
   Journal = {Endocrinology},
   Volume = {148},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {4420-31},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0013-7227},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2007-0505},
   Keywords = {Animals • Blastocyst • Embryo Implantation •
             Embryonic Development • Estradiol • Female •
             Gene Expression Regulation* • Pregnancy • STAT1
             Transcription Factor • Swine • Uterus •
             analogs & derivatives • cytology • cytology*
             • drug effects • genetics* • pharmacology
             • physiology • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Conceptus trophectoderm and uterine luminal epithelial cells
             interact via endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine modulators
             to mediate pregnancy recognition and implantation. Pig
             conceptuses not only release estrogens for pregnancy
             recognition but also secrete interferons during
             implantation. Because interferon-stimulated genes are
             increased by interferons secreted for pregnancy recognition
             in ruminants, we asked whether the interferon-stimulated
             gene, STAT1, is up-regulated in pig endometrium by conceptus
             estrogens and/or interferons. STAT1 expression in response
             to day of pregnancy, estrogen injection, and intrauterine
             infusion of conceptus secretory proteins in pigs indicated
             1) estrogen increases STAT1 in luminal epithelial cells, 2)
             conceptus secretory proteins that contain interferons
             increase STAT1 in stroma, 3) STAT1 increases in close
             proximity to the conceptus, and 4) early estrogen results in
             conceptus death and no STAT1 in stroma. The interactions of
             estrogen and interferons to regulate cell-type-specific
             expression of STAT1 highlight the complex interplay between
             endometrium and conceptus for pregnancy recognition and
             implantation.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1210/en.2007-0505},
   Key = {fds174271}
}

@article{fds268869,
   Author = {Badea, A and Ali-Sharief, AA and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Morphometric analysis of the C57BL/6J mouse
             brain.},
   Journal = {NeuroImage},
   Volume = {37},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {683-693},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {1053-8119},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17627846},
   Keywords = {Animals • Anthropometry • Brain • Image
             Interpretation, Computer-Assisted • Imaging,
             Three-Dimensional • Magnetic Resonance Imaging •
             Mice • Mice, Inbred C57BL • Models, Anatomic*
             • Models, Neurological* • anatomy & histology*
             • methods*},
   Abstract = {Magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM), when used in
             conjunction with active staining, can produce
             high-resolution, high-contrast images of the mouse brain.
             Using MRM, we imaged in situ the fixed, actively stained
             brains of C57BL/6J mice in order to characterize the
             neuroanatomical phenotype and produce a digital atlas. The
             brains were scanned within the cranium vault to preserve the
             brain morphology, avoid distortions, and to allow an
             unbiased shape analysis. The high-resolution imaging used a
             T1-weighted scan at 21.5 microm isotropic resolution, and an
             eight-echo multi-echo scan, post-processed to obtain an
             enhanced T2 image at 43 microm resolution. The two image
             sets were used to segment the brain into 33 anatomical
             structures. Volume, area, and shape characteristics were
             extracted for all segmented brain structures. We also
             analyzed the variability of volumes, areas, and shape
             characteristics. The coefficient of variation of volume had
             an average value of 7.0%. Average anatomical images of the
             brain for both the T1-weighted and T2 images were generated,
             together with an average shape atlas, and a probabilistic
             atlas for 33 major structures. These atlases, with their
             associated meta-data, will serve as baseline for identifying
             neuroanatomical phenotypes of additional strains, and mouse
             models now under study. Our efforts were directed toward
             creating a baseline for comparison with other mouse strains
             and models of neurodegenerative diseases.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2007.05.046},
   Key = {fds268869}
}

@article{fds174245,
   Author = {MM Joyce, JR Burghardt and RC Burghardt and RN Hooper and LA Jaeger and TE Spencer and FW Bazer and GA Johnson},
   Title = {Pig conceptuses increase uterine interferon-regulatory
             factor 1 (IRF1), but restrict expression to stroma through
             estrogen-induced IRF2 in luminal epithelium.},
   Journal = {Biology of reproduction},
   Volume = {77},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {292-302},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0006-3363},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.107.060939},
   Keywords = {Animals • Endometrium • Epithelium •
             Estradiol • Female • Fetus • Gene Expression
             • In Situ Hybridization • Interferon Regulatory
             Factor-1 • Interferon Regulatory Factor-2 •
             Interferons • Pregnancy • RNA, Messenger •
             Swine • Uterus • administration & dosage* •
             analysis • chemistry • chemistry* • drug
             effects • embryology* • genetics* •
             pharmacology • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Pig conceptuses secrete estrogen for pregnancy recognition,
             and they secrete interferons (IFNs) gamma and delta during
             the peri-implantation period. The uterine effects of pig
             IFNs are not known, although ruminant conceptuses secrete
             IFN tau for pregnancy recognition, and this increases the
             expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) in the
             endometrium. In sheep, the transcriptional repressor
             interferon-regulatory factor 2 (IRF2) is expressed in the
             endometrial luminal epithelium (LE) and appears to restrict
             IFN tau induction of most ISGs, including IRF1, to the
             stroma and glands. Interestingly, MX1, which is an ISG in
             sheep, is also expressed in the endometrial stroma of
             pregnant pigs. The objective of the present study was to
             determine if estrogen and/or conceptus secretory proteins
             (CSPs) that contain IFNs regulate IRF1 and IRF2 in pig
             endometria. The endometrial levels of IRF1 and IRF2 were low
             throughout the estrus cycle. After Day 12 of pregnancy, the
             levels of the classical ISGs, which include IRF1, STAT2,
             MIC, and B2M, increased in the overall endometrium, with
             expression of IRF1 and STAT2 being specifically localized to
             the stroma. IRF2 increased in the LE after Day 12. To
             determine the effects of estrogen, pigs were treated with 17
             beta-estradiol benzoate (E2). To determine the CSP effects,
             pigs were treated with E2 and implanted with mini-osmotic
             pumps that delivered control serum proteins (CX) to one
             ligated uterine horn and CSP to the other horn. Estrogen
             increased the level of IRF2 in the endometrial LE. The
             administration of E2 and infusion of CSP increased the level
             of IRF1 in the stroma. These results suggest that conceptus
             estrogen induces IRF2 in the LE and limits the induction of
             IRF1 by conceptus IFNs to the stroma. The cell-specific
             expression of IRF1 and IRF2 in the pig endometrium
             highlights the complex and overlapping events that are
             associated with gene expression during the peri-implantation
             period, when pregnancy recognition signaling and uterine
             remodeling for implantation and placentation are necessary
             for successful pregnancy.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1095/biolreprod.107.060939},
   Key = {fds174245}
}

@article{fds268859,
   Author = {Johnson, GA and Ali-Sharief, A and Badea, A and Brandenburg, J and Cofer, G and Fubara, B and Gewalt, S and Hedlund, LW and Upchurch,
             L},
   Title = {High-throughput morphologic phenotyping of the mouse brain
             with magnetic resonance histology.},
   Journal = {NeuroImage},
   Volume = {37},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {82-89},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {1053-8119},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17574443},
   Keywords = {Animals • Brain • Databases as Topic •
             Dominance, Cerebral • Image Enhancement • Image
             Processing, Computer-Assisted • Imaging,
             Three-Dimensional • Magnetic Resonance Imaging •
             Mice • Mice, Inbred C57BL • Phenotype* •
             Sensitivity and Specificity • Software* • anatomy
             & histology* • methods* • physiology},
   Abstract = {The Mouse Biomedical Informatics Research Network (MBIRN)
             has been established to integrate imaging studies of the
             mouse brain ranging from three-dimensional (3D) studies of
             the whole brain to focused regions at a sub-cellular scale.
             Magnetic resonance (MR) histology provides the entry point
             for many morphologic comparisons of the whole brain. We
             describe a standardized protocol that allows acquisition of
             3D MR histology (43-microm resolution) images of the fixed,
             stained mouse brain with acquisition times <30 min. A higher
             resolution protocol with isotropic spatial resolution of
             21.5 microm can be executed in 2 h. A third acquisition
             protocol provides an alternative image contrast (at
             43-microm isotropic resolution), which is exploited in a
             statistically driven algorithm that segments 33 of the most
             critical structures in the brain. The entire process, from
             specimen perfusion, fixation and staining, image acquisition
             and reconstruction, post-processing, segmentation,
             archiving, and analysis, is integrated through a structured
             workflow. This yields a searchable database for archive and
             query of the very large (1.2 GB) images acquired with this
             standardized protocol. These methods have been applied to a
             collection of both male and female adult murine brains
             ranging over 4 strains and 6 neurologic knockout models.
             These collection and acquisition methods are now available
             to the neuroscience community as a standard web-deliverable
             service.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2007.05.013},
   Key = {fds268859}
}

@article{fds174201,
   Author = {H Ka and S Al-Ramadan and DW Erikson and GA Johnson and RC Burghardt and TE
             Spencer, LA Jaeger and FW Bazer},
   Title = {Regulation of expression of fibroblast growth factor 7 in
             the pig uterus by progesterone and estradiol.},
   Journal = {Biology of reproduction},
   Volume = {77},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {172-80},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0006-3363},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.106.056309},
   Keywords = {Animals • Estradiol • Female • Fibroblast
             Growth Factor 7 • Gene Expression Regulation •
             Progesterone • RNA, Messenger • Receptors,
             Estrogen • Receptors, Progesterone • Uterus •
             anatomy & histology • antagonists & inhibitors •
             drug effects* • metabolism • metabolism* •
             pharmacology*},
   Abstract = {Fibroblast growth factor 7 (FGF7) stimulates cell
             proliferation, differentiation, migration and angiogenesis.
             The consensus is that FGF7, expressed by mesenchymal cells,
             binds FGF receptor 2IIIb (FGFR2) on epithelia, thereby
             mediating epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. The pig
             uterus is unique in that FGF7 is expressed by the luminal
             epithelium (LE) and FGFR2 is expressed by the LE, glandular
             epithelium (GE), and trophectoderm to effect proliferation
             and differentiated cell functions during conceptus
             development and implantation. FGF7 expression by the uterine
             LE of pigs increases between Days 9 and 12 of the estrus
             cycle and pregnancy, as circulating concentrations of
             progesterone increase, progesterone receptors (PGR) in the
             uterine epithelia decrease, and the conceptuses secrete
             estradiol-17beta (E(2)), for pregnancy recognition.
             Furthermore, E(2) increases the expression of FGF7 in pig
             uterine explants. The present study investigates the
             relationships between progesterone, E(2), and their
             receptors and the expression of FGF7 in the pig uterus in
             vivo. Pigs were ovariectomized on Day 4 of the estrus cycle
             and injected i.m. daily from Day 4 to Day 12 with either
             corn oil (CO), progesterone (P4), P4 and ZK317,316 (PZK),
             E(2), P4 and E(2) (PE), or P4 and ZK and E(2) (PZKE). All
             gilts (n = 5/treatment) were hysterectomized on Day 12. The
             results suggest that: 1) P4 is permissive to FGF7 expression
             by down-regulating PGR in LE; 2) P4 stimulates PGR-positive
             uterine stromal cells to release an unidentified
             progestamedin that induces FGF7 expression by LE; 3) E(2)
             and P4 can induce FGF7 when PGR are rendered nonfunctional
             by ZK; and 4) E(2) from conceptuses interacts via estrogen
             receptor alpha, but not estrogen receptor beta in LE to
             induce maximal expression of FGF7 in LE on Day 12 of
             pregnancy in pigs.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1095/biolreprod.106.056309},
   Key = {fds174201}
}

@article{fds268856,
   Author = {Badea, CT and Hedlund, LW and Mackel, JFB and Mao, L and Rockman, HA and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Cardiac micro-computed tomography for morphological and
             functional phenotyping of muscle LIM protein null
             mice.},
   Journal = {Molecular imaging : official journal of the Society for
             Molecular Imaging},
   Volume = {6},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {261-268},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {1535-3508},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17711781},
   Keywords = {Animals • Calibration • Diastole •
             Echocardiography • Heart Ventricles • Mice •
             Mice, Inbred C57BL • Mice, Knockout • Muscle
             Proteins • Myocardium • Phenotype •
             Tomography, X-Ray Computed • deficiency* •
             metabolism* • methods*},
   Abstract = {The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of
             micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) for morphological and
             functional phenotyping of muscle LIM protein (MLP) null mice
             and to compare micro-CT with M-mode echocardiography. MLP
             null mice and controls were imaged using both micro-CT and
             M-mode echocardiography. For micro-CT, we used a
             custom-built scanner. Following a single intravenous
             injection of a blood pool contrast agent (Fenestra VC, ART
             Advanced Research Technologies, Saint-Laurent, QC) and using
             a cardiorespiratory gating, we acquired eight phases of the
             cardiac cycle (every 15 ms) and reconstructed
             three-dimensional data sets with 94-micron isotropic
             resolution. Wall thickness and volumetric measurements of
             the left ventricle were performed, and cardiac function was
             estimated. Micro-CT and M-mode echocardiography showed both
             morphological and functional aspects that separate MLP null
             mice from controls. End-diastolic and -systolic volumes were
             increased significantly three- and fivefold, respectively,
             in the MLP null mice versus controls. Ejection fraction was
             reduced by an average of 32% in MLP null mice. The data
             analysis shows that two imaging modalities provided
             different results partly owing to the difference in
             anesthesia regimens. Other sources of errors for micro-CT
             are also analyzed. Micro-CT can provide the four-dimensional
             data (three-dimensional isotropic volumes over time)
             required for morphological and functional phenotyping in
             mice.},
   Key = {fds268856}
}

@article{fds268852,
   Author = {Petiet, A and Hedlund, L and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Staining methods for magnetic resonance microscopy of the
             rat fetus.},
   Journal = {Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1192-1198},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {1053-1807},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17520739},
   Keywords = {Animals • Contrast Media • Fetus • Magnetic
             Resonance Imaging • Rats • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
             • Staining and Labeling • administration & dosage*
             • embryology* • methods*},
   Abstract = {PURPOSE: To develop a magnetic resonance histology (MRH)
             staining and fixation method by immersion to enhance the
             signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) with a paramagnetic contrast
             agent permitting microscopic acquisition within a 3-hour
             scan time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Methods were optimized for
             embryonic day 18.5 (E18.5) rat fetuses and imaging at 9.4T
             with an RF refocused spin-echo pulse sequence (TR/TE = 75
             msec/5.2 msec). Fixation/staining was performed by immersion
             in Bouin's fixative containing varied concentrations of
             ProHance (from 10:1 to 500:1 Bouin's:ProHance) and for
             varied immersion durations (up to 24 hours). RESULTS: The
             results showed a significant change in T1 and T2 relaxation
             times as a function of concentration of contrast agent and
             immersion duration. As the contrast agent penetrated the
             tissues, T1 was reduced as desired (typically by 10x), but
             at the same time T2 was profoundly reduced (typically by 3x)
             due to both protein cross-linking from the fixative and the
             high concentration of contrast agent. A systematic
             assessment of this staining protocol showed an increased SNR
             (by 5x) over that in unstained specimens. CONCLUSION: This
             staining protocol reduced scan time for very-high-resolution
             images (19.5 microm) to only 3 hours, making MRH a routine
             tool for evaluating fetal development.},
   Doi = {10.1002/jmri.20932},
   Key = {fds268852}
}

@article{fds268875,
   Author = {Nahrendorf, M and Badea, C and Hedlund, LW and Figueiredo, J-L and Sosnovik, DE and Johnson, GA and Weissleder, R},
   Title = {High-resolution imaging of murine myocardial infarction with
             delayed-enhancement cine micro-CT.},
   Journal = {American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory
             physiology},
   Volume = {292},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {H3172-H3178},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0363-6135},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17322414},
   Keywords = {Animals • Cineradiography • Contrast Media •
             Coronary Vessels • Disease Models, Animal •
             Feasibility Studies • Female • Iopamidol •
             Ligation • Mice • Mice, Inbred C57BL •
             Myocardial Infarction • Radiographic Image
             Interpretation, Computer-Assisted* • Reproducibility of
             Results • Time Factors • Tomography, X-Ray
             Computed* • Ventricular Function, Left •
             Ventricular Remodeling • diagnostic use • methods*
             • physiopathology • radiography* •
             surgery},
   Abstract = {The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility
             of delayed-enhancement micro-computed tomography (microCT)
             imaging to quantify myocardial infarct size in experimental
             mouse models. A total of 20 mice were imaged 5 or 35 days
             after surgical ligation of the left coronary artery or sham
             surgery (n=6 or 7 per group). We utilized a prototype
             microCT that covers a three-dimensional (3D) volume with an
             isotropic spatial resolution of 100 microm. A series of
             image acquisitions were started after a 200 microl bolus of
             a high-molecular-weight blood pool CT agent to outline the
             ventricles. CT imaging was continuously performed over 60
             min, while an intravenous constant infusion with iopamidol
             370 was started at a dosage of 1 ml/h. Thirty minutes after
             the initiation of this infusion, signal intensity in
             Hounsfield units was significantly higher in the infarct
             than in the remote, uninjured myocardium. Cardiac morphology
             and motion were visualized with excellent contrast and in
             fine detail. In vivo CT determination of infarct size at the
             midventricular level was in good agreement with ex vivo
             staining with triphenyltetrazolium chloride [5 days
             post-myocardial infarction (MI): r(2)=0.86, P<0.01; 35 days
             post-MI: r(2)=0.92, P<0.01]. In addition, we detected
             significant left ventricular remodeling consisting of left
             ventricular dilation and decreased ejection fraction. 3D
             cine microCT reliably and rapidly quantifies infarct size
             and assesses murine anatomy and physiology after coronary
             ligation, despite the small size and fast movement of the
             mouse heart. This efficient imaging tool is a valuable
             addition to the current phenotyping armamentarium and will
             allow rapid testing of novel drugs and cell-based
             interventions in murine models.},
   Doi = {10.1152/ajpheart.01307.2006},
   Key = {fds268875}
}

@article{fds268863,
   Author = {Badea, CT and Hedlund, LW and De Lin and M and Mackel, JSB and Samei, E and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Tomographic digital subtraction angiography for lung
             perfusion estimation in rodents.},
   Journal = {Medical physics},
   Volume = {34},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1546-1555},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0094-2405},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17555236},
   Keywords = {Angiography, Digital Subtraction • Animals •
             Female • Lung • Magnetic Resonance Angiography
             • Perfusion • Radiographic Image Enhancement
             • Rats • Rats, Inbred F344 • Tomography,
             X-Ray Computed • blood supply • methods •
             methods* • radiography*},
   Abstract = {In vivo measurements of perfusion present a challenge to
             existing small animal imaging techniques such as magnetic
             resonance microscopy, micro computed tomography, micro
             positron emission tomography, and microSPECT, due to
             combined requirements for high spatial and temporal
             resolution. We demonstrate the use of tomographic digital
             subtraction angiography (TDSA) for estimation of perfusion
             in small animals. TDSA augments conventional digital
             subtraction angiography (DSA) by providing three-dimensional
             spatial information using tomosynthesis algorithms. TDSA is
             based on the novel paradigm that the same time density
             curves can be reproduced in a number of consecutive
             injections of microL volumes of contrast at a series of
             different angles of rotation. The capabilities of TDSA are
             established in studies on lung perfusion in rats. Using an
             imaging system developed in-house, we acquired data for
             four-dimensional (4D) imaging with temporal resolution of
             140 ms, in-plane spatial resolution of 100 microm, and slice
             thickness on the order of millimeters. Based on a structured
             experimental approach, we optimized TDSA imaging providing a
             good trade-off between slice thickness, the number of
             injections, contrast to noise, and immunity to artifacts.
             Both DSA and TDSA images were used to create parametric maps
             of perfusion. TDSA imaging has potential application in a
             number of areas where functional perfusion measurements in
             4D can provide valuable insight into animal models of
             disease and response to therapeutics.},
   Doi = {10.1118/1.2717384},
   Key = {fds268863}
}

@article{fds268846,
   Author = {Rice, HE and Hsu, EW and Sheng, H and Evenson, DA and Freemerman, AJ and Safford, KM and Provenzale, JM and Warner, DS and Johnson,
             GA},
   Title = {Superparamagnetic iron oxide labeling and transplantation of
             adipose-derived stem cells in middle cerebral artery
             occlusion-injured mice.},
   Journal = {AJR. American journal of roentgenology},
   Volume = {188},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1101-1108},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {1546-3141},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17377054},
   Keywords = {Adipose Tissue • Animals • Brain Ischemia •
             Contrast Media* • Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery
             • Iron • Magnetic Resonance Imaging* • Mice
             • Mice, Inbred C57BL • Oxides • Stem Cell
             Transplantation • complications* • cytology*
             • diagnosis* • diagnostic use* • etiology
             • methods* • surgery*},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: Adipose-derived stem cells are an alternative
             stem cell source for CNS therapies. The goals of the current
             study were to label adipose-derived stem cells with
             superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particles, to use MRI to
             guide the transplantation of adipose-derived stem cells in
             middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-injured mice, and to
             localize donor adipose-derived stem cells in the injured
             brain using MRI. We hypothesized that we would successfully
             label adipose-derived stem cells and image them with MRI.
             MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adipose-derived stem cells harvested
             from mice inbred for green fluorescent protein were labeled
             with SPIO ferumoxide particles through the use of
             poly-L-lysine. Adipose-derived stem cell viability, iron
             staining, and proliferation were measured after SPIO
             labeling, and the sensitivity of MRI in the detection of
             SPIO-labeled adipose-derived stem cells was assessed ex
             vivo. Adult mice (n = 12) were subjected to unilateral MCAO.
             Two weeks later, in vivo 7-T MRI was performed to guide
             stereotactic transplantation of SPIO-labeled adipose-derived
             stem cells into brain tissue adjacent to the infarct. After
             24 hours, the mice were sacrificed for high-resolution ex
             vivo 7-T or 9.4-T MRI and histologic study. RESULTS:
             Adipose-derived stem cells were efficiently labeled with
             SPIO particles without loss of cell viability or
             proliferation. Using MRI, we guided precise transplantation
             of adipose-derived stem cells. MR images of mice given
             injections of SPIO-labeled adipose-derived stem cells had
             hypointense regions that correlated with the histologic
             findings in donor cells. CONCLUSION: MRI proved useful in
             transplantation of adipose-derived stem cells in vivo. This
             imaging technique may be useful for studies of CNS stem cell
             therapies.},
   Doi = {10.2214/AJR.06.0663},
   Key = {fds268846}
}

@article{fds268847,
   Author = {Shofer, S and Badea, C and Auerbach, S and Schwartz, DA and Johnson,
             GA},
   Title = {A micro-computed tomography-based method for the measurement
             of pulmonary compliance in healthy and bleomycin-exposed
             mice.},
   Journal = {Experimental Lung Research (Informa)},
   Volume = {33},
   Number = {3-4},
   Pages = {169-183},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0190-2148},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17558678},
   Keywords = {Animals • Bleomycin • Disease Models, Animal
             • Female • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
             • Lung • Lung Compliance* • Male • Mice
             • Mice, Inbred C57BL • Pulmonary Fibrosis •
             Reproducibility of Results • Time Factors •
             Tomography, X-Ray Computed • chemically induced •
             methods* • pathology • physiopathology •
             radiography*},
   Abstract = {Micro-computed tomography (microCT) is being increasingly
             used to examine small animal models of pulmonary injury. The
             authors have developed a microCT technique suitable for the
             determination of pulmonary compliance in injured mice. Lung
             volumes in normal mice were radiographically determined at
             end-inspiration and end-expiration and pulmonary compliance
             was calculated at 2 time points 2 weeks apart, whereas a
             second group of mice were given bleomycin and imaged 3 weeks
             following drug administration. Compliance measurements were
             validated using a commercially available ventilator system.
             MicroCT pulmonary compliance measurements are suitable for
             longitudinal measurements, and correlate with physiologic
             measurements of pulmonary compliance.},
   Doi = {10.1080/01902140701364458},
   Key = {fds268847}
}

@article{fds268868,
   Author = {Badea, A and Nicholls, PJ and Johnson, GA and Wetsel,
             WC},
   Title = {Neuroanatomical phenotypes in the reeler
             mouse.},
   Journal = {NeuroImage},
   Volume = {34},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1363-1374},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {1053-8119},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17185001},
   Keywords = {Animals • Brain • Female • Heterozygote
             • Magnetic Resonance Imaging • Male • Mice
             • Mice, Neurologic Mutants • Mutation •
             Phenotype • anatomy & histology* •
             genetics},
   Abstract = {The reeler mouse (Reln) has been proposed as a
             neurodevelopmental model for certain neurological and
             psychiatric conditions and has been studied by qualitative
             histochemistry and electron microscopy. Using magnetic
             resonance microscopy (MRM), we have quantitated for the
             first time the neuromorphology of Reln mice at a resolution
             of 21.5 microm. The neuroanatomical phenotypes of
             heterozygous and homozygous mutant Reln mice were compared
             to those of wild type (WT) littermates using morphometry and
             texture analysis. The cortical, hippocampal, and cerebellar
             phenotypes of the heterozygous and homozygous mutant Reln
             mice were confirmed, and new features were revealed. The
             Reln(rl/rl) mice possessed a smaller brain, and both
             Reln(rl/+) and Reln(rl/rl) mice had increased ventricles
             compared to WT controls. Shape differences were found
             between WT and Reln(rl/rl) brains, specifically in
             cerebellum, olfactory bulbs, dorsomedial frontal and
             parietal cortex, certain regions of temporal and occipital
             lobes, as well as in the lateral ventricles and ventral
             hippocampus. These findings suggest that certain brain
             regions may be more severely impacted by the Reln mutation
             than others. Gadolinium-based active staining demonstrated
             that layers of the hippocampus were disorganized in
             Reln(rl/rl) mice and differences in thickness of these
             layers were identified between WT and Reln(rl/rl) mice. The
             intensity distributions characteristic to the dorsal,
             middle, and ventral hippocampus were altered in the
             Reln(rl/rl), especially in the ventral hippocampus. These
             differences were quantified using skewness and modeling the
             intensity distributions with a Gaussian mixture. Our results
             suggest that structural features of Reln(rl/rl) brain most
             closely phenocopy those of patients with Norman-Roberts
             lissencephaly.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2006.09.053},
   Key = {fds268868}
}

@article{fds268766,
   Author = {Bug, W and Wong, WW and Gustafson, C and Johnson, GA and Martone, ME and Price, DL and Rosen, GD and Williams, RW and Zaslavsky, I and Nissanov,
             J},
   Title = {Brain atlasing tool interoperation: NeuroTerrain-Smart Atlas
             synergistic visualization and analysis environment},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the 3rd International IEEE EMBS Conference on
             Neural Engineering},
   Pages = {280-283},
   Year = {2007},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/CNE.2007.369665},
   Abstract = {Many research efforts using anatomical image analysis have
             as their goal to identify biologically relevant objects
             present within the image data, to provide a means to
             quantitatively analyze these objects, to compare the
             distribution of those objects to other features, and finally
             to properly annotate the objects so as to be able share this
             analysis in an integrated informatics framework. The
             neuroinformatics tools designed to achieve these ends have
             been developed in a fragmented manner with each resource
             developing access to unique data sets and analytical
             capabilities, Their integration would enrich the
             neuroinformatic network enabling queries and analysis across
             a number of resources. A central objective of the Biomedical
             Informatics Research Network (BIRN) is to achieve this
             integration and we present here a demonstration of how two
             such tools - the NeuroTerrain Atlas/NetOStat client and the
             SMART Atlas - can expose their functionality via a re-usable
             interface, so as to promote interoperation of tools and
             data. © 2007 IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/CNE.2007.369665},
   Key = {fds268766}
}

@article{fds268781,
   Author = {Wetzel, AW and Badea, CT and Pomerantz, SM and Mistry, N and Nave, D and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Measurement and modeling of 4D live mouse heart volumes from
             CT time series},
   Journal = {Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical
             Engineering},
   Volume = {6491},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   Abstract = {In vivo quantitative studies of cardiac function in mouse
             models provide information about cardiac pathophysiology in
             more detail than can be obtained in humans. Quantitative
             measurements of left ventricular (LV) volume at multiple
             contractile phases are particularly important. However, the
             mouse heart's small size and rapid motion present challenges
             for precise measurement in live animals. Researchers at Duke
             University's Center for In Vivo Microscopy (CIVM) have
             developed noninvasive time-gated microcomputed tomography
             (micro-CT) techniques providing the temporal and spatial
             resolutions required for in vivo characterization of cardiac
             structure and function. This paper describes analysis of the
             resulting reconstructions to produce volume measurements and
             corresponding models of heart motion. We believe these are
             the most precise noninvasive estimates of in vivo LV volume
             currently available. Our technique uses binary mixture
             models to directly recover volume estimates from
             reconstructed datasets. Unlike methods using segmentation
             followed by voxel counting, this approach provides
             statistical error estimates and maintains good precision at
             high noise levels. This is essential for long term multiple
             session experiments that must simultaneously minimize
             contrast agent and x-ray doses. The analysis tools are built
             into the Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center's Volume Browser
             (PSC-VB) that provides networked multi-site data sharing and
             collaboration including analysis and visualization
             functions. © 2007 SPIE-IS&amp;T.},
   Key = {fds268781}
}

@article{fds174123,
   Author = {TE Spencer and GA Johnson and FW Bazer and RC Burghardt and M
             Palmarini},
   Title = {Pregnancy recognition and conceptus implantation in domestic
             ruminants: roles of progesterone, interferons and endogenous
             retroviruses.},
   Journal = {Reproduction, fertility, and development},
   Volume = {19},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {65-78},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {1031-3613},
   Keywords = {Animals • Cattle • Embryo Implantation* •
             Endogenous Retroviruses • Endometrium • Female
             • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental •
             Interferons • Pregnancy • Pregnancy, Animal •
             Progesterone • Receptors, Progesterone • Ruminants
             • Sheep • Uterus • embryology •
             embryology* • metabolism • physiology •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {The present review highlights new information on pregnancy
             recognition and conceptus development and implantation in
             sheep with respect to regulation by progesterone,
             interferons and endogenous retroviruses. After formation of
             the corpus luteum, progesterone acts on the endometrium and
             stimulates blastocyst growth and elongation to a filamentous
             conceptus (embryo/fetus and associated extra-embryonic
             membranes). The envelope of endogenous retroviruses related
             to Jaagsiekte sheep retroviruses appears to intrinsically
             regulate mononuclear trophectoderm cell proliferation and
             differentiation into trophoblast giant binucleate cells. The
             mononuclear trophectoderm cells of elongating sheep
             conceptuses secrete interferon-tau, which acts on the
             endometrium to prevent development of the luteolytic
             mechanism by inhibiting transcription of the gene for the
             oestrogen receptor alpha in the luminal and superficial
             ductal glandular epithelia. These actions prevent
             oestrogen-induced transcription of the oxytocin receptor
             gene and, therefore, oxytocin-induced luteolytic pulses of
             prostaglandin F2alpha. Progesterone down regulation of its
             receptors in luminal and glandular epithelia correlates
             temporally with a reduction in anti-adhesive mucin land
             induction of secreted galectin 15 (LGALSI5) and secreted
             phosphoprotein 1, which are proposed to regulate
             trophectoderm proliferation and adhesion. Interferon-c acts
             on the endometrial lumenal epithelium to induce WNT7A and to
             stimulate LGALS 15, cathepsin L and cystatin C, which are
             candidate regulators of conceptus development and
             implantation. The number of potential contributors to
             maternal recognition and establishment of pregnancy
             continues to grow and this highlights our limited
             appreciation of the complexity of the key molecules and
             signal transduction pathways that intersect during these key
             developmental processes. The goal of improving reproductive
             efficiency by preventing embryonic losses that occur during
             the peri-implantation period of pregnancy in domestic
             ruminants provides the challenge to increase our knowledge
             of endometrial function and conceptus development.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds174123}
}

@article{fds174202,
   Author = {TE Spencer and GA Johnson and FW Bazer and RC Burghardt},
   Title = {Fetal-maternal interactions during the establishment of
             pregnancy in ruminants.},
   Journal = {Society of Reproduction and Fertility supplement},
   Volume = {64},
   Pages = {379-96},
   Year = {2007},
   Keywords = {Animals • Blastocyst • Embryo Implantation •
             Embryonic Development • Endometrium • Female
             • Hormones • Luteolysis • Pregnancy •
             Sheep • metabolism* • physiology •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {This review integrates established information with new
             insights into molecular and physiological mechanisms
             responsible for events leading to pregnancy recognition,
             endometrial receptivity, and implantation with emphasis on
             sheep. After formation of the corpus luteum, progesterone
             acts on the endometrium and stimulates blastocyst growth and
             elongation to form a filamentous conceptus (embryo/fetus and
             associated extraembryonic membranes). Recurrent early
             pregnancy loss in the uterine gland knockout ewe model
             indicates that endometrial epithelial secretions are
             essential for peri-implantation blastocyst survival and
             growth. The elongating sheep conceptus secretes interferon
             tau (IFNT) that acts on the endometrium to inhibit
             development of the luteolytic mechanism by inhibiting
             transcription of the estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) gene in
             the luminal (LE) and superficial ductal glandular (sGE)
             epithelia, which prevents estrogen-induction of oxytocin
             receptors (OXTR) and production of luteolytic prostaglandin
             F2-alpha pulses. Progesterone downregulates its receptors
             (PGR) in LE and then GE, correlating with a reduction of
             anti-adhesive MUC1 (mucin glycoprotein one) and induction of
             secreted LGALS15 (galectin 15) and SPP1 (secreted
             phosphoprotein one), that are proposed to regulate
             trophectoderm growth and adhesion. IFNT acts on the LE to
             induce WNT7A (wingless-type MMTV integration site family
             member 7A) and to stimulate LGALS15, CTSL (cathepsin L), and
             CST3 (cystatin C), which may regulate conceptus development
             and implantation. During the peri-implantation period,
             trophoblast giant binucleate cells (BNC) begin to
             differentiate from mononuclear trophectoderm cells, migrate
             and then fuse with the uterine LE as well as each other to
             form multinucleated syncytial plaques. Trophoblast giant BNC
             secrete chorionic somatomammotropin (CSH1 or placental
             lactogen) that acts on the endometrial glands to stimulate
             their morphogenesis and differentiated function. The
             interactive, coordinated and stage-specific effects of
             ovarian and placental hormones regulate endometrial events
             necessary for fetal-maternal interactions and successful
             establishment of pregnancy.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds174202}
}

@article{fds174226,
   Author = {M Zeiler and R Leiser and GA Johnson and HR Tinneberg and C
             Pfarrer},
   Title = {Development of an in vitro model for bovine placentation: a
             comparison of the in vivo and in vitro expression of
             integrins and components of extracellular matrix in bovine
             placental cells.},
   Journal = {Cells, tissues, organs},
   Volume = {186},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {229-42},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {1422-6421},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000107947},
   Keywords = {Animals • Cattle • Cells, Cultured •
             Cytoskeleton • Embryo, Mammalian • Extracellular
             Matrix* • Female • Humans • Integrins •
             Placenta* • Pregnancy • Protein Subunits •
             Trophoblasts • Uterus • chemistry • cytology
             • genetics • metabolism • metabolism* •
             physiology},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND/AIMS: Interaction of trophoblastic integrins with
             the extracellular matrix plays a role in embryo implantation
             and trophoblast invasion. The phenomenon of restricted
             trophoblast invasion, observed in the bovine
             epitheliochorial placenta offers intriguing conditions to
             study invasive processes. The migration of bovine
             trophoblast giant cells is accompanied by the expression of
             specific integrins and corresponding extracellular matrix
             ligands. METHODS: Primary cultures of different cell
             populations from cow placentomes were established and
             characterized, and in vitro phenotypes were compared with in
             vivo conditions by immunofluorescence. RESULTS: Propagated
             epithelial cells were positive for cytokeratin and vimentin,
             while fibroblasts contained alpha-smooth muscle actin,
             desmin and vimentin. Epithelial cells coexpressed integrin
             subunits alpha(6) and beta(1) with laminin, and fibroblast
             cells were positive for alpha(v), beta(3), fibronectin and
             laminin. In contrast to cells in vivo, cultured epithelial
             cells secreted fibronectin, while collagen IV was not
             detected. The occurrence of integrin subunits was confirmed
             at mRNA level by RT-PCR. CONCLUSION: We have established
             cell cultures isolated from maternal and fetal components of
             bovine placentomes expressing typical cytoskeletal filaments
             and integrin receptors also present in their in vivo
             counterparts. These bovine placentomal cells provide a
             suitable in vitro model for the study of cell-cell
             interactions.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1159/000107947},
   Key = {fds174226}
}

@article{fds174177,
   Author = {FJ White and RC Burghardt and J Hu and MM Joyce and TE Spencer and GA
             Johnson},
   Title = {Secreted phosphoprotein 1 (osteopontin) is expressed by
             stromal macrophages in cyclic and pregnant endometrium of
             mice, but is induced by estrogen in luminal epithelium
             during conceptus attachment for implantation.},
   Journal = {Reproduction (Cambridge, England)},
   Volume = {132},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {919-29},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {1470-1626},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/REP-06-0068},
   Keywords = {Animals • Embryo Implantation • Endometrium •
             Epithelium • Estrogens • Estrous Cycle •
             Female • Fluorescent Antibody Technique • In Situ
             Hybridization • Leukocytes • Macrophages •
             Mice • Osteopontin • Ovariectomy • Placenta
             • Pregnancy • Pregnancy, Animal •
             Progesterone • RNA, Messenger • analysis •
             chemistry • genetics • immunology •
             metabolism • metabolism* • pharmacology •
             physiology* • secretion*},
   Abstract = {Secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1, osteopontin) is the most
             highly upregulated extracellular matrix/adhesion
             molecule/cytokine in the receptive phase human uterus, and
             Spp1 null mice manifest decreased pregnancy rates during
             mid-gestation as compared with wild-type counterparts. We
             hypothesize that Spp1 is required for proliferation,
             migration, survival, adhesion, and remodeling of cells at
             the conceptus-maternal interface. Our objective was to
             define the temporal/spatial distribution and steroid
             regulation of Spp1 in mouse uterus during estrous cycle and
             early gestation. In situ hybridization localized Spp1 to
             luminal epithelium (LE) and immune cells. LE expression was
             prominent at proestrus, decreased by estrus, and was nearly
             undetectable at diestrus. During pregnancy, Spp1 mRNA was
             not detected in LE until day 4.5 (day 1 = vaginal plug).
             Spp1-expressing immune cells were scattered within the
             endometrial stroma throughout the estrous cycle and early
             pregnancy. Immunoreactive Spp1 was prominent at the apical
             LE surface by day 4.5 of pregnancy and Spp1 protein was also
             co-localized with subsets of CD45-positive (leukocytes) and
             F4/80-positive (macrophages) cells. In ovariectomized mice,
             estrogen, but not progesterone, induced Spp1 mRNA, whereas
             estrogen plus progesterone did not induce Spp1 in LE. These
             results establish that estrogen regulates Spp1 in mouse LE
             and are the first to identify macrophages that produce Spp1
             within the peri-implantation endometrium of any species. We
             suggest that Spp1 at the apical surface of LE provides a
             mechanism to bridge conceptus to LE during implantation, and
             that Spp1-positive macrophages within the stroma may be
             involved in uterine remodeling for conceptus
             invasion.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1530/REP-06-0068},
   Key = {fds174177}
}

@article{fds268862,
   Author = {Driehuys, B and Cofer, GP and Pollaro, J and Mackel, JB and Hedlund, LW and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Imaging alveolar-capillary gas transfer using hyperpolarized
             129Xe MRI.},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of
             USA},
   Volume = {103},
   Number = {48},
   Pages = {18278-18283},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0027-8424},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17101964},
   Keywords = {Animals • Erythrocytes • Magnetic Resonance
             Imaging • Microcirculation • Oxygen • Rats
             • Rats, Inbred F344 • Respiration* • Xenon
             Isotopes • metabolism • metabolism* •
             methods*},
   Abstract = {Effective pulmonary gas exchange relies on the free
             diffusion of gases across the thin tissue barrier separating
             airspace from the capillary red blood cells (RBCs).
             Pulmonary pathologies, such as inflammation, fibrosis, and
             edema, which cause an increased blood-gas barrier thickness,
             impair the efficiency of this exchange. However, definitive
             assessment of such gas-exchange abnormalities is
             challenging, because no methods currently exist to directly
             image the gas transfer process. Here we exploit the
             solubility and chemical shift of (129)Xe, the magnetic
             resonance signal of which has been enhanced by 10(5) with
             hyperpolarization, to differentially image its transfer from
             the airspaces into the tissue barrier spaces and RBCs in the
             gas exchange regions of the lung. Based on a simple
             diffusion model, we estimate that this MR imaging method for
             measuring (129)Xe alveolar-capillary transfer is sensitive
             to changes in blood-gas barrier thickness of approximately 5
             microm. We validate the successful separation of tissue
             barrier and RBC images and show the utility of this method
             in a rat model of pulmonary fibrosis where (129)Xe
             replenishment of the RBCs is severely impaired in regions of
             lung injury.},
   Doi = {10.1073/pnas.0608458103},
   Key = {fds268862}
}

@article{fds157107,
   Author = {MD Lin and E Samei and CT Badea and TT Yoshizumi and GA
             Johnson},
   Title = {Optimized radiographic spectra for small animal digital
             subtraction angiography.},
   Journal = {Medical physics, United States},
   Volume = {33},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {4249-57},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0094-2405},
   Keywords = {Algorithms* • Angiography, Digital Subtraction •
             Animals • Image Enhancement • Image
             Interpretation, Computer-Assisted • Rats •
             Reproducibility of Results • Sensitivity and
             Specificity • Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission •
             instrumentation • methods* • veterinary*},
   Abstract = {The increasing use of small animals in basic research has
             spurred interest in new imaging methodologies. Digital
             subtraction angiography (DSA) offers a particularly
             appealing approach to functional imaging in the small
             animal. This study examines the optimal x-ray, molybdenum
             (Mo) or tungsten (W) target sources, and technique to
             produce the highest quality small animal functional
             subtraction angiograms in terms of contrast and
             signal-difference-to-noise ratio squared (SdNR2). Two
             limiting conditions were considered-normalization with
             respect to dose and normalization against tube loading.
             Image contrast and SdNR2 were simulated using an established
             x-ray model. DSA images of live rats were taken at two
             representative tube potentials for the W and Mo sources.
             Results show that for small animal DSA, the Mo source
             provides better contrast. However, with digital detectors,
             SdNR2 is the more relevant figure of merit. The W source
             operated at kVps >60 achieved a higher SdNR2. The highest
             SdNR2 was obtained at voltages above 90 kVp. However,
             operation at the higher potential results in significantly
             greater dose and tube load and reduced contrast
             quantization. A reasonable tradeoff can be achieved at tube
             potentials at the beginning of the performance plateau,
             around 70 kVp, where the relative gain in SdNR2 is the
             greatest.},
   Key = {fds157107}
}

@article{9172774,
   Author = {Lin, MD and Samei, E and Badea, CT and Yoshizumi, TT and Johnson,
             GA},
   Title = {Optimized radiographic spectra for small animal digital
             subtraction angiography.},
   Journal = {Medical physics},
   Volume = {33},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {4249-4257},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0094-2405},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17153403},
   Keywords = {blood vessels;diagnostic radiography;dosimetry;image
             denoising;molybdenum;tungsten;X-ray tubes;},
   Abstract = {The increasing use of small animals in basic research has
             spurred interest in new imaging methodologies. Digital
             subtraction angiography (DSA) offers a particularly
             appealing approach to functional imaging in the small
             animal. This study examines the optimal x-ray, molybdenum
             (Mo) or tungsten (W) target sources, and technique to
             produce the highest quality small animal functional
             subtraction angiograms in terms of contrast and
             signal-difference-to-noise ratio squared (SdNR2). Two
             limiting conditions were considered-normalization with
             respect to dose and normalization against tube loading.
             Image contrast and SdNR2 were simulated using an established
             x-ray model. DSA images of live rats were taken at two
             representative tube potentials for the W and Mo sources.
             Results show that for small animal DSA, the Mo source
             provides better contrast. However, with digital detectors,
             SdNR2 is the more relevant figure of merit. The W source
             operated at kVps >60 achieved a higher SdNR2. The highest
             SdNR2 was obtained at voltages above 90 kVp. However,
             operation at the higher potential results in significantly
             greater dose and tube load and reduced contrast
             quantization. A reasonable tradeoff can be achieved at tube
             potentials at the beginning of the performance plateau,
             around 70 kVp, where the relative gain in SdNR2 is the
             greatest.},
   Doi = {10.1118/1.2356646},
   Key = {9172774}
}

@article{fds157113,
   Author = {AA Sharief and GA Johnson},
   Title = {Enhanced T2 contrast for MR histology of the mouse
             brain.},
   Journal = {Magnetic resonance in medicine : official journal of the
             Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine / Society of
             Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, United States},
   Volume = {56},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {717-25},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0740-3194},
   Keywords = {Animals • Brain Mapping • Contrast Media •
             Heterocyclic Compounds • Imaging, Three-Dimensional
             • Least-Squares Analysis • Magnetic Resonance
             Imaging • Male • Mice • Mice, Inbred C57BL
             • Organometallic Compounds • Staining and Labeling
             • methods*},
   Abstract = {A 3D Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequence was
             implemented to obtain enhanced T(2) contrast in actively
             stained (perfusion with fixative and contrast agent) mouse
             brains at 9.4 T. Short interecho spacing was used to
             minimize diffusion and susceptibility losses. The sequence
             produced 16 3D volumes with an interecho spacing of 7 ms for
             isotropic 43-mu-resolution images of the mouse brains in a
             scan time of 4 hr. To enhance the signal-to-noise ratio
             (SNR) and contrast, the multiecho frequency domain image
             contrast (MEFIC) method was applied, resulting in a
             composite image with T(2)-weighted contrast. The high SNR
             and contrast thus achieved revealed aspects of mouse brain
             morphology, such as multiple cortical layers, groups of
             thalamic nuclei, layers of the inferior and superior
             colliculus, and molecular and granular layers of the
             cerebellum, with a high degree of definition and contrast
             that was not previously achieved in T(2)-weighted
             acquisitions at high fields.},
   Key = {fds157113}
}

@article{9150726,
   Author = {Sharief, AA and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Enhanced T2 contrast for MR histology of the mouse
             brain.},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance in Medicine},
   Volume = {56},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {717-725},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0740-3194},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16964618},
   Keywords = {biomedical MRI;brain;data acquisition;image
             sequences;neurophysiology;},
   Abstract = {A 3D Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequence was
             implemented to obtain enhanced T(2) contrast in actively
             stained (perfusion with fixative and contrast agent) mouse
             brains at 9.4 T. Short interecho spacing was used to
             minimize diffusion and susceptibility losses. The sequence
             produced 16 3D volumes with an interecho spacing of 7 ms for
             isotropic 43-mu-resolution images of the mouse brains in a
             scan time of 4 hr. To enhance the signal-to-noise ratio
             (SNR) and contrast, the multiecho frequency domain image
             contrast (MEFIC) method was applied, resulting in a
             composite image with T(2)-weighted contrast. The high SNR
             and contrast thus achieved revealed aspects of mouse brain
             morphology, such as multiple cortical layers, groups of
             thalamic nuclei, layers of the inferior and superior
             colliculus, and molecular and granular layers of the
             cerebellum, with a high degree of definition and contrast
             that was not previously achieved in T(2)-weighted
             acquisitions at high fields.},
   Doi = {10.1002/mrm.21026},
   Key = {9150726}
}

@article{fds174095,
   Author = {TD Chinevere and CK Murray and E Grant Jr and GA Johnson and F Duelm and DR
             Hospenthal},
   Title = {Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency
             in U.S. Army personnel.},
   Journal = {Military medicine},
   Volume = {171},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {905-7},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0026-4075},
   Keywords = {Adult • Endemic Diseases • Female •
             Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase • Glucosephosphate
             Dehydrogenase Deficiency • Humans • Malaria •
             Male • Mass Screening • Military Medicine* •
             Military Personnel • Occupational Health* •
             Prevalence • Primaquine • Retrospective Studies
             • Risk Assessment • Risk Factors • United
             States • adverse effects • analysis • blood*
             • diagnosis • drug therapy • epidemiology
             • epidemiology* • statistics & numerical data*
             • therapeutic use},
   Abstract = {The U.S. Army recently mandated that soldiers undergo
             glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) testing before
             deployment to malarious regions. We retrospectively
             characterize the presence and degree of G6PD deficiency in
             U.S. military personnel by sex, self-reported ethnicity, and
             World Health Organization deficiency classification through
             test results obtained October 1, 2004 through January 17,
             2005. Data were available for 63,302 (54,874 males and 8,428
             females) subjects; 2.5% of males and 1.6% of females were
             deficient, with most having only moderate enzyme deficiency.
             African American males (12.2%) and females (4.1%), along
             with Asian males (4.3%), had the highest rates of G6PD
             deficiency. Most males were found to have class III variants
             while most females were class IV variants. The most severely
             deficient were Asian males (class II). These results suggest
             that universal screening for G6PD deficiency is clinically
             warranted, and particularly essential for those male service
             members who self-report ethnicity as African American,
             Asian, or Hispanic.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds174095}
}

@article{fds174178,
   Author = {SA Warnke and SY Chen and DL Wyse and GA Johnson and PM
             Porter},
   Title = {Effect of Rotation Crops on Heterodera glycines Population
             Density in a Greenhouse Screening Study.},
   Journal = {Journal of nematology},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {391-8},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0022-300X},
   Abstract = {Crop rotation is a common means of reducing pathogen
             populations in soil. Several rotation crops have been shown
             to reduce soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines)
             populations, but a comprehensive study of the optimal crops
             is needed. A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the
             effect of growth and decomposition of 46 crops on population
             density of H. glycines. Crops were sown in soil infested
             with H. glycines. Plants were maintained until 75 days after
             planting, when the soil was mixed, a sample of the soil
             removed to determine egg density, and shoots and roots
             chopped and mixed into the soil. After 56 days, soil samples
             were again taken for egg counts, and a susceptible soybean
             ('Sturdy') was planted in the soil as a bioassay to
             determine egg viability. Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea),
             forage pea (Pisum sativum), lab-lab bean (Lablab purpureus),
             Illinois bundleflower (Desman-thus illinoensis), and alfalfa
             (Medicago sativa) generally resulted in smaller egg
             population density in soil or number of cysts formed on
             soybean in the bioassay than the fallow control. Sunn hemp
             most consistently showed the lowest numbers of eggs and
             cysts. As a group, legumes resulted in lower egg population
             densities than monocots, Brassica species, and other
             dicots.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds174178}
}

@article{fds174234,
   Author = {S Banerjee and GA Johnson},
   Title = {Coregionalized single- and multiresolution spatially varying
             growth curve modeling with application to weed
             growth.},
   Journal = {Biometrics},
   Volume = {62},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {864-76},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0006-341X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0420.2006.00535.x},
   Keywords = {Bayes Theorem • Biometry • Markov Chains •
             Models, Biological* • Models, Statistical* • Monte
             Carlo Method • Normal Distribution • Setaria Plant
             • growth & development*},
   Abstract = {Modeling of longitudinal data from agricultural experiments
             using growth curves helps understand conditions conducive or
             unconducive to crop growth. Recent advances in Geographical
             Information Systems (GIS) now allow geocoding of
             agricultural data that help understand spatial patterns. A
             particularly common problem is capturing spatial variation
             in growth patterns over the entire experimental domain.
             Statistical modeling in these settings can be challenging
             because agricultural designs are often spatially replicated,
             with arrays of subplots, and interest lies in capturing
             spatial variation at possibly different resolutions. In this
             article, we develop a framework for modeling spatially
             varying growth curves as Gaussian processes that capture
             associations at single and multiple resolutions. We provide
             Bayesian hierarchical models for this setting, where
             flexible parameterization enables spatial estimation and
             prediction of growth curves. We illustrate using data from
             weed growth experiments conducted in Waseca, Minnesota, that
             recorded growth of the weed Setaria spp. in a spatially
             replicated design.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1541-0420.2006.00535.x},
   Key = {fds174234}
}

@article{fds268877,
   Author = {Oldham, M and Sakhalkar, H and Oliver, T and Wang, YM and Kirpatrick, J and Cao, Y and Badea, C and Johnson, GA and Dewhirst,
             M},
   Title = {Three-dimensional imaging of xenograft tumors using optical
             computed and emission tomography.},
   Journal = {Medical physics},
   Volume = {33},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {3193-3202},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0094-2405},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17022212},
   Keywords = {Animals • Cell Line, Tumor • Colonic Neoplasms
             • Humans • Image Enhancement • Image
             Interpretation, Computer-Assisted • Imaging,
             Three-Dimensional • Mice • Microscopy •
             Reproducibility of Results • Sensitivity and
             Specificity • Subtraction Technique* • Tomography,
             Emission-Computed, Single-Photon • Tomography, Optical
             • Tomography, X-Ray Computed • instrumentation
             • methods* • pathology*},
   Abstract = {The physical basis and preliminary applications of optical
             computed tomography (optical-CT) and optical emission
             computed tomography (optical-ECT) are introduced, as new
             techniques with potential to provide unique 3D information
             on a variety of aspects of tumor structure and function. A
             particular focus here is imaging tumor micro-vasculature,
             and the spatial distribution of viable tumor cells, although
             the techniques have the potential for much wider
             application. The principle attractiveness of optical-CT and
             optical-ECT are that high resolution (<20 microm) and high
             contrast co-registered 3D images of structure and function
             can be acquired for relatively large intact samples. The
             unique combination of high contrast and resolution offers
             advantages over micro-CT and micro-MRI, and the lack of
             requirement for sectioning offers advantages over confocal
             microscopy, conventional microscopy, and histological
             sectioning techniques. Optical-CT/ECT are implemented using
             in-house custom apparatus and a commercial dissecting
             microscope capable of both transmission and fluorescence
             imaging. Basic studies to characterize imaging performance
             are presented. Negligible geometrical distortion and
             accurate reconstruction of relative attenuation coefficients
             was observed. Optical-CT and optical-ECT are investigated
             here by application to high resolution imaging of HCT116
             xenograft tumors, about 1 cc in dimension, which were
             transfected with constitutive red fluorescent protein (RFP).
             Tumor microvasculature was stained in vivo by tail vein
             injection of either passive absorbing dyes or active
             fluorescent markers (FITC conjugated lectin). Prior to
             imaging, the tumors were removed (ex vivo) and optically
             cleared in a key process to make the samples amenable to
             light transmission. The cleared tumors were imaged in three
             modes (i) optical-CT to image the 3D distribution of
             microvasculature as indicated by absorbing dye, (ii)
             optical-ECT using the FITC excitation and emission filter
             set, to determine microvasculature as indicated by
             lectin-endothelial binding, and (iii) optical-ECT using the
             DSRed2 filter set to determine the 3D distribution of viable
             tumor as indicated by RFP emission. A clear correlation was
             observed between the independent vasculature imaging modes
             (i) and (ii) and postimaging histological sections,
             providing substantial validation of the optical-CT and
             optical-ECT techniques. Strong correlation was also observed
             between the RFP imaging of mode iii, and modes i and ii,
             supporting the intuitive conclusion that well-perfused
             regions contain significant viable tumor. In summary,
             optical-CT and optical-ECT, when combined with new optical
             clearing techniques, represent powerful new imaging
             modalities with potential for providing unique information
             on the structure and function of tumors.},
   Doi = {10.1118/1.2217109},
   Key = {fds268877}
}

@article{fds174265,
   Author = {WL Dees and JK Hiney and NH McArthur and GA Johnson and GA Dissen, SR
             Ojeda},
   Title = {Origin and ontogeny of mammalian ovarian
             neurons.},
   Journal = {Endocrinology},
   Volume = {147},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {3789-96},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0013-7227},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2006-0394},
   Keywords = {Age Factors • Aging • Animals • Cell Count
             • Female • Ganglia, Sympathetic • Macaca
             mulatta • Mammals • Neural Crest • Neurons
             • Ovary • Receptor, Nerve Growth Factor •
             Sexual Maturation • Swine • Tyrosine
             3-Monooxygenase • cytology • cytology* •
             embryology • growth & development* • innervation*
             • metabolism • physiology},
   Abstract = {Mammalian ovaries contain sympathetic neurons expressing the
             low affinity neurotropin receptor (p75NTR). To date neither
             the role these neurons might play in ovarian physiology nor
             their embryological origin is known. Immunohistochemistry
             was used to detect postnatal changes in distribution and
             number of both p75NTR-positive and tyrosine
             hydroxylase-positive neurons in rhesus monkey ovaries. Pig
             fetuses were used to map the pathway of ovarian neuronal
             migration during embryonic development. Antiserum to p75NTR
             revealed the presence of isolated neurons and neurons
             clustered into ganglia in 2-month-old monkey ovaries. After
             8 months, the neurons exhibited well-developed processes,
             and other than being more extensively interlaced, the
             localization and morphology did not change after 2 yr of
             age. Total number of p75NTR-positive neurons present
             decreased gradually between 2 months and 12 yr of age and
             declined markedly with reproductive aging. Conversely, the
             subpopulation of neurons immunoreactive to anti-tyrosine
             hydroxylase increased significantly at puberty and then
             declined with the loss of reproductive capacity. By d 21 of
             fetal life in the pig, p75NTR neurons had migrated medially
             from the neural crest to form the paraaortic autonomic
             ganglia. Some neurons migrated ventrally from the ganglia
             and then continued ventrolaterally to enter the genital
             ridge. By d 27, neurons had entered the developing ovary,
             and by d 35, the migration was complete with neurons
             demonstrating immunoreactivity to NeuN, a neuron-specific
             marker. Results demonstrate that p75NTR-expressing ovarian
             neurons originate from the neural crest and that a
             catecholaminergic subset is associated with pubertal
             maturation of the ovary and subsequent reproductive
             function.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1210/en.2006-0394},
   Key = {fds174265}
}

@article{fds268860,
   Author = {Badea, CT and Hedlund, LW and De Lin and M and Boslego Mackel and JF and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Tumor imaging in small animals with a combined
             micro-CT/micro-DSA system using iodinated conventional and
             blood pool contrast agents.},
   Journal = {Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging},
   Volume = {1},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {153-164},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {1555-4317},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17193692},
   Keywords = {Angiography, Digital Subtraction • Animals •
             Contrast Media • Fibrosarcoma • Iodine • Rats
             • Rats, Inbred F344 • Tomography, X-Ray Computed
             • analysis • blood supply* • chemistry*
             • instrumentation* • methods* •
             radiography*},
   Abstract = {X-ray based micro-computed tomography (CT) and micro-digital
             subtraction angiography (DSA) are important non-invasive
             imaging modalities for following tumorogenesis in small
             animals. To exploit these imaging capabilities further, the
             two modalities were combined into a single system to provide
             both morphological and functional data from the same tumor
             in a single imaging session. The system is described and
             examples are given of imaging implanted fibrosarcoma tumors
             in rats using two types of contrast media: (a) a new
             generation of blood pool contrast agent containing iodine
             with a concentration of 130 mg/mL (Fenestratrade mark VC,
             Alerion Biomedical, San Diego, CA, USA) for micro-CT and (b)
             a conventional iodinated contrast agent (Isovue(R)-370 mg/mL
             iodine, trademark of Bracco Diagnostics, Princeton, NJ, USA)
             for micro-DSA. With the blood pool contrast agent, the 3D
             vascular architecture is revealed in exquisite detail at 100
             microm resolution. Micro-DSA images, in perfect registration
             with the 3D micro-CT datasets, provide complementary
             functional information such as mean transit times and
             relative blood flow through the tumor. This imaging approach
             could be used to understand tumor angiogenesis better and be
             the basis for evaluating anti-angiogenic
             therapies.},
   Doi = {10.1002/cmmi.103},
   Key = {fds268860}
}

@article{fds174089,
   Author = {MD Ashworth and JW Ross and J Hu and FJ White and DR Stein and U Desilva and GA Johnson and TE Spencer and RD Geisert},
   Title = {Expression of porcine endometrial prostaglandin synthase
             during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy, and following
             endocrine disruption of pregnancy.},
   Journal = {Biology of reproduction},
   Volume = {74},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1007-15},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0006-3363},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.105.046557},
   Keywords = {Animals • Embryo Loss • Endometrium •
             Estrogens • Estrous Cycle • Female •
             Fertilization • Gene Expression Profiling • Gene
             Expression Regulation, Developmental • Gene Expression
             Regulation, Enzymologic • Interleukin-1 •
             Placentation • Pregnancy • Pregnancy, Animal
             • Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases • RNA,
             Messenger • Swine • Transcription, Genetic •
             analysis • drug effects • drug effects* •
             enzymology* • genetics • genetics* •
             metabolism* • pharmacology* • physiology •
             physiopathology • secretion},
   Abstract = {Porcine trophoblast attachment to the uterine surface is
             associated with increased conceptus and endometrial
             production of prostaglandins. Conceptus secretion of
             estrogen on Day 12 of gestation is important for
             establishment of pregnancy; however, early (Days 9 and 10)
             exposure to exogenous estrogens results in embryonic
             mortality. Present studies established the temporal and
             spatial pattern of endometrial PTGS1 (prostaglandin-endoperoxide
             synthase 1) and PTGS2 expression during the estrous cycle
             and early pregnancy and determined the effect of early
             estrogen treatment on endometrial PTGS expression in
             pregnant gilts. Endometrial PTGS1 mRNA expression increased
             2- to 3-fold after Day 10 of the estrous cycle and
             pregnancy, whereas PTGS2 mRNA expression increased 76-fold
             between Days 5 and 15 of the estrous cycle and pregnancy.
             Increased expression of the PTGS2 transcript was detected in
             the lumenal epithelium after Day 10 in both cyclic and
             pregnant gilts. There was a 10- and 20-fold increase in
             endometrial PTGS2 protein expression between Days 5 and 18
             of the estrous cycle and pregnancy respectively.
             Administration of estrogen on Days 9 and 10 of gestation
             increased endometrial PTGS2 mRNA and protein on Day 10, but
             decreased PTGS2 mRNA and protein in lumenal epithelium (LE)
             on Day 12 of gestation compared to vehicle-treated gilts.
             The present study demonstrates that an increase in uterine
             epithelial PTGS2 expression occurs after Day 10 of the
             estrous cycle and early pregnancy in the pig. The
             conceptus-independent increase in the uterine LE indicates
             that a novel pathway exists for endometrial induction PTGS2
             expression before conceptus elongation and attachment to the
             uterine surface. Epithelial expression of PTGS2 may serve as
             one of the signals for placental attachment and embryo
             survival in the pig. Early administration of estrogen on
             Days 9 and 10 of pregnancy alters endometrial PTGS2 mRNA and
             protein expression, which may, at least in part, represent a
             mechanism by which endocrine disruption of pregnancy causes
             total embryonic loss during implantation in the
             pig.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1095/biolreprod.105.046557},
   Key = {fds174089}
}

@article{fds204272,
   Author = {CL Gipson and GA Johnson and R Fisher and A Stewart and G Giles and JO
             Johnson, JD Tobias},
   Title = {Changes in cerebral oximetry during peritoneal insufflation
             for laparoscopic procedures.},
   Journal = {Journal of minimal access surgery},
   Volume = {2},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {67-72},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0972-9941},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Changes in cardiac output may occur during
             insufflation for laparoscopic procedures. However, there are
             limited data regarding its potential effects on cerebral
             oxygenation. METHODS: Cerebral oxygenation (ScO(2)), end
             tidal CO(2), heart rate, blood pressure and oxygen
             saturation by pulse oximetry were recorded every 5 minutes
             prior to insufflation, during insufflation and after
             desufflation. Minute ventilation was increased to maintain
             normocapnia and the depth of anesthesia was adjusted or
             fluids/phenylephrine administered to maintain the blood
             pressure within 20% of the baseline. RESULTS: The cohort for
             the study included 70 adults for laparoscopic herniorrhaphy,
             gastric bypass or cholecystectomy. A total of 1004 ScO(2)
             values were obtained during laparoscopy. The ScO(2)
             decreased from the baseline in 758 of the 1004 data points.
             The ScO(2) was 0-9 less than the baseline in 47.8% of the
             values, 10-19 less than the baseline in 24.9% of the values
             and 20-29 less than the baseline in 26 values (2.6%).
             Eighty-two (8.2%) of the values were less than 80% of the
             baseline value, while 25 values (2.5%) were less than 75% of
             the baseline value. Twelve patients had at least one ScO(2)
             value that was less than 80% of the baseline and 6 had at
             least one ScO(2) value that was less than 75% of the
             baseline. Four patients of the cohort had ScO(2) values less
             than 80% of the baseline for more than 50% of the
             laparoscopic procedure. CONCLUSIONS: Although relatively
             uncommon, significant changes in cerebral oxygenation do
             occur in some patients during insufflation for laparoscopic
             surgery.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds204272}
}

@article{fds174092,
   Author = {JJ Muniz and MM Joyce and JD Taylor 2nd, JR Burghardt and RC
             Burghardt, GA Johnson},
   Title = {Glycosylation dependent cell adhesion molecule 1-like
             protein and L-selectin expression in sheep interplacentomal
             and placentomal endometrium.},
   Journal = {Reproduction (Cambridge, England)},
   Volume = {131},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {751-61},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {1470-1626},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/rep.1.00855},
   Keywords = {Actins • Animals • Blotting, Western •
             Endometrium • Female • Fluorescent Antibody
             Technique • Keratins • L-Selectin • Mucins
             • Placenta • Pregnancy • Pregnancy, Animal
             • Sheep • analysis • analysis* •
             chemistry* • metabolism* • methods},
   Abstract = {Glycosylation dependent cell adhesion molecule 1 (GlyCAM-1),
             a mucin component of sheep histotroph produced by glandular
             epithelium (GE) during early pregnancy, is hypothesized to
             function in implantation. However, GlyCAM-1 is present in
             uterine tissues subsequent to implantation suggesting
             additional functions of this l-selectin-binding ligand. This
             study focused on uterine GlyCAM-1 expression during
             placentome development in sheep. Western blot analysis of
             day 50 pregnant sheep identified 45, 40, and 25 kDa bands in
             interplacentomal endometrium, 40 and 25 kDa bands in
             placentomes, and 80 and 40 kDa bands in chorioallantois. The
             GlyCAM-1 proteins in interplacentomal regions were
             comparable to those detected in day 15-19 pregnant sheep,
             however, the 80 kDa form was unique to chorioallantois, and
             the absence of the 45 kDa GlyCAM-1 in placentomes indicated
             differences between interplacentomal and placentomal
             endometrium. Immunofluorescence identified GlyCAM-1 in
             lumenal epithelium (LE), stromal fibroblasts, and vascular
             smooth muscle cells. To better define its cellular
             distribution, GlyCAM-1 was co-localized with either
             epithelium-specific cytokeratin, smooth muscle-specific
             alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha SMA), or stromal-specific
             vimentin. In interplacentomal endometrium, GlyCAM-1
             co-localized with cytokeratin in LE but not in GE. GlyCAM-1
             did not co-localize with alpha SMA, and was localized in the
             extracellular matrix of vimentin-positive stroma. In
             placentomes, GlyCAM-1 did not co-localize with cytokeratin,
             but did co-localize with alpha SMA and vimentin. Thus, in
             contrast to interplacentomal regions, GlyCAM-1 in
             placentomes was predominantly localized in vasculature
             rather than epithelial cells. Further, leukocytes expressing
             L-selectin were localized to the endothelial surface of
             GlyCAM-1-expressing vessels within placentomes. These data
             suggest that GlyCAM-1 assumes distinct functions in
             compartment-specific regions of the sheep
             uterus.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1530/rep.1.00855},
   Key = {fds174092}
}

@article{fds174208,
   Author = {TD Tillmanns and CA Falkner and DB Engle and JY Wan and RS Mannel and JL
             Walker, GA Johnson and DS McMeekin and R Zuna and MA
             Gold},
   Title = {Preoperative predictors of positive margins after loop
             electrosurgical excisional procedure-Cone.},
   Journal = {Gynecologic oncology},
   Volume = {100},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {379-84},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0090-8258},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2005.09.015},
   Keywords = {Adult • Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia •
             Conization • Electrosurgery • Female • Humans
             • Predictive Value of Tests • Preoperative Care
             • Retrospective Studies • Uterine Cervical
             Dysplasia • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms • methods*
             • pathology* • surgery*},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: A LEEP-Cone may not be necessary for all patients
             with traditional cone indications. This study defines
             populations where a single pass technique with the LEEP is
             appropriate. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed patients
             undergoing LEEP-Cone procedures performed at the University
             of Oklahoma Health Science Center from February of 1994 to
             July of 2002. Patients include those for LEEP-Cone with
             traditional excisional indications and those who underwent
             LEEP-Cone at the operating physician's discretion.
             Statistical analysis was used to compare preoperative
             factors with the resultant pathologic results. RESULTS: A
             total of 248 women underwent LEEP-Cone. 50.0% (33/66) of the
             patients with positive margins on the first pass had
             dysplasia or worse (CIN I-III or CA) in the second pass (top
             hat), compared to 6.6% (12/182) of the patients with a
             negative first pass (P < 0.0001). Univariate analysis found
             CIN III on histology and parity to be predictive of
             dysplasia in the top hat and two-step discrepancy to predict
             absence of dysplasia. On multivariate analysis, two-step
             discrepancy and parity remained predictive. Age >35 was the
             greatest percentile predictor of dysplasia in the top hat,
             and 91.5% of women <21 had normal top hat pathology.
             CONCLUSION: The retrospective data reported regarding
             LEEP-Cones reveal increased parity to predict dysplasia in
             the top hat and two-step discrepancy as a poor predictor of
             dysplasia in the top hat. Women under 21 years of age should
             have a single pass LEEP technique. The "top hat" is more
             appropriate as parity and age increase.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.ygyno.2005.09.015},
   Key = {fds174208}
}

@article{fds268870,
   Author = {Mukundan, S and Ghaghada, KB and Badea, CT and Kao, C-Y and Hedlund, LW and Provenzale, JM and Johnson, GA and Chen, E and Bellamkonda, RV and Annapragada, A},
   Title = {A liposomal nanoscale contrast agent for preclinical CT in
             mice.},
   Journal = {AJR. American journal of roentgenology},
   Volume = {186},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {300-307},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0361-803X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16423931},
   Keywords = {Animals • Contrast Media • Image Processing,
             Computer-Assisted • Liposomes • Mice •
             Radiography, Thoracic • Tomography, X-Ray Computed*
             • Triiodobenzoic Acids • chemistry •
             pharmacokinetics*},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to determine if an
             iodinated, liposomal contrast agent could be used for
             high-resolution, micro-CT of low-contrast, small-size
             vessels in a murine model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A
             second-generation, liposomal blood pool contrast agent
             encapsulating a high concentration of iodine (83-105 mg
             I/mL) was evaluated. A total of five mice weighing between
             20 and 28 g were infused with equivalent volume doses (500
             microL of contrast agent/25 g of mouse weight) and imaged
             with our micro-CT system for intervals of up to 240 min
             postinfusion. The animals were anesthetized, mechanically
             ventilated, and vital signs monitored allowing for
             simultaneous cardiac and respiratory gating of image
             acquisition. RESULTS: Initial enhancement of about 900 H in
             the aorta was obtained, which decreased to a plateau level
             of approximately 800 H after 2 hr. Excellent contrast
             discrimination was shown between the myocardium and cardiac
             blood pool (650-700 H). No significant nephrogram was
             identified, indicating the absence of renal clearance of the
             agent. CONCLUSION: The liposomal-based iodinated contrast
             agent shows long residence time in the blood pool, very high
             attenuation within submillimeter vessels, and no significant
             renal clearance rendering it an effective contrast agent for
             murine vascular imaging using a micro-CT
             scanner.},
   Doi = {10.2214/AJR.05.0523},
   Key = {fds268870}
}

@article{fds174300,
   Author = {TL Rutledge and MA Gold and DS McMeekin and WK Huh and MA Powell and SN
             Lewin, DG Mutch and GA Johnson and JL Walker and RS
             Mannel},
   Title = {Carcinosarcoma of the ovary-a case series.},
   Journal = {Gynecologic oncology},
   Volume = {100},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {128-32},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0090-8258},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2005.07.119},
   Keywords = {Adult • Aged • Aged, 80 and over •
             Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols •
             Carboplatin • Carcinosarcoma • Chemotherapy,
             Adjuvant • Cisplatin • Doxorubicin • Female
             • Follow-Up Studies • Humans • Ifosfamide
             • Middle Aged • Ovarian Neoplasms •
             Paclitaxel • Proportional Hazards Models •
             Retrospective Studies • Treatment Outcome •
             administration & dosage • drug therapy* •
             pathology • surgery* • therapeutic
             use*},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To evaluate our experience with ovarian
             carcinosarcoma and identify prognostic factors. METHODS:
             Thirty-one cases of ovarian carcinosarcoma were identified
             over a 6-year time period through tumor registry and
             pathology records. Fisher exact test and log rank using
             Kaplan-Meier method (P < 0.05) were used to compare
             variables with outcome. RESULTS: All 31 patients underwent
             initial surgical treatment with an appropriate staging
             procedure. Stage distribution: 1 stage I, 6 stage II, 23
             stage III, and 1 stage IV. The median follow-up was 28
             months. The median survival for the entire group was 21
             months. Early vs. advanced stage significantly influenced
             progression-free interval, P = 0.05. Nineteen patients were
             found to have stage IIIC disease and required debulking
             procedures. In patients with stage IIIC disease, presence of
             residual disease was associated with decreased overall
             survival, P = 0.03. 29 patients received adjuvant
             chemotherapy with 11 patients receiving ifosfamide/cisplatin
             and 16 patients receiving carboplatin/taxol.
             Progression-free interval was improved with the use of
             ifosfamide/cisplatin vs. carboplatin/taxol. The median PFI
             was 12 months in the carbo/taxol group and has not been
             reached in the ifos/cisplatin group (P = 0.005). The overall
             survival was also significantly improved with the use of
             ifosfamide/cisplatin, P = 0.03. In advanced stage patients,
             overall survival was not significantly influenced by type of
             adjuvant chemotherapy administered, P = 0.13. CONCLUSIONS:
             Ovarian carcinosarcoma has a poor overall prognosis with
             median survival rates reported in the literature ranging
             from 7-10 months. Our series, although limited by a small
             number of patients, exhibits a more encouraging median
             survival of 21 months for the overall group. Aggressive
             debulking to eliminate residual disease and the use of
             ifosfamide/cisplatin chemotherapy seem to be factors in this
             improved outcome.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.ygyno.2005.07.119},
   Key = {fds174300}
}

@article{fds268867,
   Author = {Jaffe, TA and Nelson, RC and Johnson, GA and Lee, ER and Yoshizumi, TT and Lowry, CR and Bullard, AB and DeLong, DM and Paulson,
             EK},
   Title = {Optimization of multiplanar reformations from isotropic data
             sets acquired with 16-detector row helical CT
             scanner.},
   Journal = {Radiology},
   Volume = {238},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {292-299},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0033-8419},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16373774},
   Keywords = {Adult • Aged • Equipment Design • Female
             • Humans • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted*
             • Male • Middle Aged • Phantoms, Imaging
             • Radiation Dosage • Radiography, Abdominal •
             Retrospective Studies • Tomography Scanners, X-Ray
             Computed* • Tomography, Spiral Computed* •
             instrumentation*},
   Abstract = {Institutional review board approval and waiver of consent
             were obtained for the patient component of this
             retrospective HIPAA-compliant study. By using an
             anthropomorphic phantom and metal oxide semiconductor field
             effect transistor detectors, radiation dose was determined
             for one eight-detector row and two 16-detector row computed
             tomographic (CT) protocols. A custom phantom was scanned by
             using the three protocols to identify isotropy.
             Contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) were determined for the same
             protocols by using a third phantom. Seven patients had
             undergone isotropic 16-detector row CT of the abdomen and
             pelvis. Anonymized coronal reformations at various
             thicknesses were ranked qualitatively by three radiologists.
             Effective dose equivalents were similar for the eight- and
             16-detector row protocols. When transverse and coronal
             reformations of data acquired in the custom phantom were
             compared, coronal reformations obtained with the 16-detector
             row and 0.625-mm section thickness protocol were found to be
             nearly identical to the transverse image for all sets of
             line pairs. CNRs were consistently highest on 5-mm-thick
             coronal reformations (CNR range, 1.2-3.3). For qualitative
             assessment, 2- and 3-mm-thick coronal reformations were
             consistently preferred.},
   Doi = {10.1148/radiol.2381050404},
   Key = {fds268867}
}

@article{9054396,
   Author = {Mistry, N. and Ming De Lin and Hedlund, L. and Johnson,
             G.A.},
   Title = {Multimodality imaging of pulmonary function in the
             rodent},
   Journal = {2006 3rd IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging:
             Macro to Nano (IEEE Cat. No.06EX1231C)},
   Pages = {920 - 3},
   Address = {Arlington, VA, USA},
   Year = {2006},
   Keywords = {biomedical MRI;diagnostic radiography;haemorheology;image
             resolution;lung;medical image processing;pneumodynamics;},
   Abstract = {The high spatial and temporal resolution demands for imaging
             physiological function in the rodent call for the use of
             novel ways to combine information from different imaging
             modalities. This work describes ventilation imaging using
             hyperpolarized (HP) <sup>3</sup>He magnetic resonance
             imaging (MRI) and perfusion imaging using X-ray digital
             subtraction angiography (DSA). We illustrate the key steps
             needed to combine the complementary data from the two
             modalities to provide qualitative and quantitative
             information on gas exchange in the lungs. The results
             indicate that multimodality imaging of pulmonary function in
             small animals can provide functional information at higher
             spatial and temporal resolution compared to many traditional
             imaging techniques},
   Key = {9054396}
}

@article{8979178,
   Author = {Kelly, W.M. and Low, N.M. and Zillmer, A. and Johnson, G.A. and Normand, E.},
   Title = {Radiation environments and exposure considerations for the
             Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric
             Generator},
   Journal = {AIP Conf. Proc. (USA)},
   Number = {813},
   Pages = {906 - 19},
   Year = {2006},
   Keywords = {electromagnetic shielding;magnetic fields;radiation;radioisotope
             thermoelectric generators;},
   Abstract = {The Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator
             (MMRTG) is the next generation (RTG) being developed by DOE
             to provide reliable, long-life electric power for NASA's
             planetary exploration programs. The MMRTG is being developed
             by Pratt &amp; Whitney Rocketdyne and Teledyne Energy
             Systems Incorporated (TESI) for use on currently planned and
             projected flyby, orbital and planet landing missions. This
             is a significant departure from the design philosophy of the
             past which was to match specific mission requirements to RTG
             design capabilities. Undefined mission requirements provide
             a challenge to system designers by forcing them to put a
             design envelope around "all possible missions". These
             multi-mission requirements include internal and external
             radiation sources. Internal sources include the particles
             ejected by decaying Pu-238 and its daughters plus particles
             resulting from the interaction of these particles with other
             MMRTG materials. External sources include the full spectrum
             of charged particle radiation surrounding planets with
             magnetic fields and the surfaces of extraterrestrial objects
             not shielded by magnetic fields. The paper presents the
             results of investigations into the environments outlined
             above and the impact of radiation exposure on potential
             materials to be used on MMRTG and ground support personnel.
             Mission requirements were also reviewed to evaluate total
             integrated dose and to project potential shielding
             requirements for materials. Much of the information on
             mission shielding requirements was provided by NASA's Jet
             Propulsion Laboratory. The primary result is an ionizing
             radiation design curve which indicates the limits to which a
             particular mission can take the MMRTG in terms of ionizing
             radiation exposure. Estimates of personnel radiation
             exposure during ground handling are also
             provided},
   Key = {8979178}
}

@article{8979156,
   Author = {Johnson, G.A.},
   Title = {Shield design for lunar surface applications},
   Journal = {AIP Conf. Proc. (USA)},
   Number = {813},
   Pages = {701 - 6},
   Year = {2006},
   Keywords = {electric generators;fission reactors;lunar surface;nuclear
             power;power conversion;radiation protection;},
   Abstract = {A shielding concept for lunar surface applications of
             nuclear power is presented herein. The reactor, primary
             shield, reactor equipment and power generation module are
             placed in a cavity in the lunar surface. Support structure
             and heat rejection radiator panels are on the surface,
             outside the cavity. The reactor power of 1,320
             kW<sub>t</sub> was sized to deliver 50 kW<sub>c</sub> from a
             thermoelectric power conversion subsystem. The dose rate on
             the surface is less than 0.6 mRem/hr at 100 meters from the
             reactor. Unoptimized shield mass is 1,020 kg which is much
             lighter than a comparable &pi; shield weighing in at 17,000
             kg},
   Key = {8979156}
}

@article{064710257107,
   Author = {Johnson, G.A. and Davis, J.G. and Qian, Y.L. and Doesken,
             K.C.},
   Title = {Topdressing turf with composted manure improves soil quality
             and protects water quality},
   Journal = {Soil Science Society of America Journal},
   Volume = {70},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {2114 - 2121},
   Year = {2006},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2005.0287},
   Keywords = {Manures;Hydraulic conductivity;Sediments;},
   Abstract = {Compost can improve soil properties when incorporated into
             soil; however, little information is available regarding
             impacts of compost topdressing. Objectives of this study
             were to evaluate the effects that topdressing composted
             dairy manure onto Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) has
             on: (i) soil physical properties, (ii) soil chemical
             properties, (iii) soil nitrate (NOs-N) and P concentrations
             below the rootzone, (iv) total runoff and sediment losses,
             and (v) N and P concentrations in runoff. Plots were
             topdressed with compost at 0, 33, 66, and 99 m<sup>3</sup>
             ha<sup>-1</sup>. Saturated hydraulic conductivity, bulk
             density, water retention, and soil nutrient levels were
             measured. A rainfall simulation was conducted, and runoff
             was collected and analyzed for total nitrogen (TN), nitrate
             nitrogen (NO<sub>3</sub>-N), ammonium nitrogen
             (NH<sub>4</sub>-N), total phosphorus (TP), total dissolved P
             (TDP), and orthophosphate (OP). Compost application of 99
             m<sup>3</sup> ha<sup>-1</sup> reduced bulk density, and
             increased water retention and P, K, Fe, and Mn
             concentrations in the surface soil. Compost applications of
             66 m<sup>3</sup> ha<sup>-1</sup> or greater raised soil
             electrical conductivity (EC); however, this increase i n
             soil EC did not negatively impact turf quality. Rates of
             runoff and erosion and concentrations of TN,
             NO<sub>3</sub>-N, TP, TDP, and OP in runoff were not
             different among treatments. However, all compost treatments
             did increase NH<sub>4</sub>-N concentrations in runoff.
             There were no differences in soil NO<sub>3</sub>-N or
             available P levels below the root zone. Topdressing
             composted manure onto established turf improved soil
             physical properties and nutrient concentrations without
             increasing nutrient runoff, with the exception of increased
             NH<sub>4</sub>-N levels in runoff. &copy; Soil Science
             Society of America.},
   Key = {064710257107}
}

@article{06229906637,
   Author = {Miller, D.R. and Chen, S.Y. and Porter, P.M. and Johnson,
             G.A. and Wyse, D.L. and Stetina, S.R. and Klossner, L.D. and Nelson, G.A.},
   Title = {Rotation crop evaluation for management of the soybean cyst
             Nematode in Minnesota},
   Journal = {Agronomy Journal},
   Volume = {98},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {569 - 578},
   Year = {2006},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/agronj2005.0185},
   Keywords = {Cultivation;},
   Abstract = {Crop rotation is an effective tactic for soybean cyst
             nematode (SCN) management. In the North Central region of
             the USA, corn is almost exclusively used as a nonhost
             rotation crop with soybean. This study was conducted to
             determine the effectiveness of crops common to or having
             potential use in the North Central region as rotation crops
             for managing SCN. Sixteen potential rotation crops and
             SCN-resistant and susceptible soybeans were grown along with
             six fallow controls in three commercial field sites near
             Waseca, Lamberton, and Morris, MN, in 2001, and
             SCN-susceptible soybean was grown on all plots in 2002.
             Nematode populations at planting, midseason, and harvest
             were measured both years; soybean yield was measured in
             2002. There was large variability in SCN populations and
             soybean yields at the three sites. Nevertheless, significant
             treatment effects were detected at all sites. While all of
             the rotation crops lowered SCN populations compared with
             SCN-susceptible soybean, there were only subtle differences
             among the individual rotation crops and among different
             groups of the crops. Leguminous nonhosts or poor hosts were
             best in reducing SCN population density. Corn, the most
             common rotation crop in Minnesota, was among the least
             effective in reducing nematode populations. There was an
             undetectable yield benefit from SCN management, although
             differences in yield were observed among the rotation crop
             treatments-probably due to agronomic factors. The data
             suggest that a single year of rotation of soybean with any
             of these crops before planting a susceptible soybean may not
             be sufficient in managing SCN. &copy; American Society of
             Agronomy.},
   Key = {06229906637}
}

@article{9073128,
   Author = {Ming De Lin and Hedlund, L. and Johnson,
             G.A.},
   Title = {Micro radiography imaging of the rodent with phenylephrine
             induced vascular hypertension},
   Journal = {2006 3rd IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging:
             Macro to Nano (IEEE Cat. No.06EX1231C)},
   Pages = {610 - 13},
   Address = {Arlington, VA, USA},
   Year = {2006},
   Keywords = {blood vessels;diagnostic radiography;drugs;haemorheology;},
   Abstract = {Vascular tonicity plays a major role in regulating the blood
             pressure and the perfusion of organs, and hypertension is a
             major cause of morbidity and mortality in humans. We use
             phenylephrine, a vasoconstrictor, to create a model of
             hypertension in the rat. This work demonstrates the use of a
             micro-X-ray digital subtraction angiography (DSA) system to
             image pharmacologically mediated changes in the vascular
             system of the rat. Imaging physiological function in the
             rodent calls for high spatial and temporal resolutions and
             the use of a reproducible image acquisition chain. Dynamic
             vascular images and quantitative perfusion metrics were
             acquired before and after a vasoconstrictor, phenylephrine
             drug injection. Dramatic effects of the vasoconstrictor on
             vascular dynamics are seen in the prolonged blood flow mean
             transit time, amount of ventricular filling, the size
             increase of the pulmonary arteries and aorta, and a
             substantial increase in mean arterial pressure},
   Key = {9073128}
}

@article{9054429,
   Author = {Badea, C.T. and Hedlund, L.W. and Ming De Lin and Boslego,
             J.F. and Johnson, G.A.},
   Title = {Functional imaging in small animals using tomographic
             digital subtraction angiography},
   Journal = {2006 3rd IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging:
             Macro to Nano (IEEE Cat. No.06EX1231C)},
   Pages = {1208 - 11},
   Address = {Arlington, VA, USA},
   Year = {2006},
   Keywords = {computerised tomography;diagnostic radiography;image
             reconstruction;image resolution;medical image
             processing;},
   Abstract = {We propose the use of tomographic digital subtraction
             angiography (TDSA) for functional imaging in small animals.
             TDSA combines the advantages of high temporal resolution of
             digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and high spatial
             resolution of micro-computed tomography (CT). TDSA augments
             projection imaging methods such as DSA by providing
             three-dimensional information using tomosynthesis or CT
             reconstruction algorithms. Thus, four-dimensional (4D)
             datasets with a temporal resolution on the order of 100 ms
             and spatial resolution ranging from 100 microns to 1 mm,
             depending on the scanning angle, can be obtained. The
             approach is based on the novel paradigm that the same time
             density curves can be reproduced in a number of consecutive
             injections of microL volumes of contrast at a series of
             different angles of rotation},
   Key = {9054429}
}

@article{064610243504,
   Author = {Badea, CT and Hedlund, LW and Lin, MD and Boslego, JF and Johnson,
             GA},
   Title = {Functional imaging in small animals using tomographic
             digital subtraction angiography},
   Journal = {2006 3rd IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging:
             From Nano to Macro - Proceedings},
   Volume = {2006},
   Pages = {1208-1211},
   Address = {Arlington, VA, United States},
   Year = {2006},
   ISBN = {0780395778},
   Keywords = {Imaging systems;Angiography;Computerized tomography;Optical
             resolving power;Algorithms;Data structures;},
   Abstract = {We propose the use of Tomographic Digital Subtraction
             Angiography (TDSA) for functional imaging in small animals.
             TDSA combines the advantages of high temporal resolution of
             digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and high spatial
             resolution of micro-computed tomography (CT). TDSA augments
             projection imaging methods such as DSA by providing
             three-dimensional information using tomosynthesis or CT
             reconstruction algorithms. Thus, four-dimensional (4D)
             datasets with a temporal resolution on the order of 100 ms
             and spatial resolution ranging from 100 microns to 1 mm,
             depending on the scanning angle, can be obtained. The
             approach is based on the novel paradigm that the same time
             density curves can be reproduced in a number of consecutive
             injections of microL volumes of contrast at a series of
             different angles of rotation. © 2006 IEEE.},
   Key = {064610243504}
}

@article{064610243432,
   Author = {Mistry, N and Lin, MD and Hedlund, L and Johnson,
             GA},
   Title = {Multimodality imaging of pulmonary function in the
             rodent},
   Journal = {2006 3rd IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging:
             From Nano to Macro - Proceedings},
   Volume = {2006},
   Pages = {920-923},
   Address = {Arlington, VA, United States},
   Year = {2006},
   ISBN = {0780395778},
   Keywords = {Medical imaging;Optical resolving power;Physiological
             models;Magnetic resonance imaging;Angiography;Imaging
             systems;},
   Abstract = {The high spatial and temporal resolution demands for imaging
             physiological function in the rodent call for the use of
             novel ways to combine information from different imaging
             modalities. This work describes ventilation imaging using
             hyperpolarized (HP) 3He magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and
             perfusion imaging using X-ray digital subtraction
             angiography (DSA). We illustrate the key steps needed to
             combine the complementary data from the two modalities to
             provide qualitative and quantitative information on gas
             exchange in the lungs. The results indicate that
             multimodality imaging of pulmonary function in small animals
             can provide functional information at higher spatial and
             temporal resolution compared to many traditional imaging
             techniques. © 2006 IEEE.},
   Key = {064610243432}
}

@article{064610243353,
   Author = {Lin, MD and Hedlund, L and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Micro radiography imaging of the rodent with phenylephrine
             induced vascular hypertension},
   Journal = {2006 3rd IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging:
             From Nano to Macro - Proceedings},
   Volume = {2006},
   Pages = {610-613},
   Address = {Arlington, VA, United States},
   Year = {2006},
   ISBN = {0780395778},
   Keywords = {Medical imaging;Blood;Biological organs;Angiography;Data
             acquisition;Image analysis;},
   Abstract = {Vascular tonicity plays a major role in regulating the blood
             pressure and the perfusion of organs, and hypertension is a
             major cause of morbidity and mortality in humans. We use
             phenylephrine, a vasoconstrictor, to create a model of
             hypertension in the rat. This work demonstrates the use of a
             micro-X-ray digital subtraction angiography (DSA) system to
             image pharmacologically mediated changes in the vascular
             system of the rat. Imaging physiological function in the
             rodent calls for high spatial and temporal resolutions and
             the use of a reproducible image acquisition chain. Dynamic
             vascular images and quantitative perfusion metrics were
             acquired before and after a vasoconstrictor, phenylephrine
             drug injection. Dramatic effects of the vasoconstrictor on
             vascular dynamics are seen in the prolonged blood flow mean
             transit time, amount of ventricular filling, the size
             increase of the pulmonary arteries and aorta, and a
             substantial increase in mean arterial pressure. © 2006
             IEEE.},
   Key = {064610243353}
}

@article{fds268855,
   Author = {Badea, CT and Bucholz, E and Hedlund, LW and Rockman, HA and Johnson,
             GA},
   Title = {Imaging methods for morphological and functional phenotyping
             of the rodent heart.},
   Journal = {Toxicologic Pathology (Sage)},
   Volume = {34},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {111-117},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {0192-6233},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16507552},
   Keywords = {Animals • Biological Markers • Heart •
             Magnetic Resonance Imaging • Mice •
             Microradiography • Myocardium • Rats •
             Tomography, X-Ray Computed • methods* • pathology*
             • radiography*},
   Abstract = {Small animal imaging has a critical role in phenotyping,
             drug discovery, and in providing a basic understanding of
             mechanisms of disease. Translating imaging methods from
             humans to small animals is not an easy task. The purpose of
             this work is to compare two cardiac imaging modalities,
             i.e., magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) and microcomputed
             tomography (CT) for preclinical studies on rodents. We
             present the two technologies, the parameters that they can
             measure, the types of alterations that they can detect, and
             show how these imaging methods compare to techniques
             available in clinical medicine. While this paper does not
             refer per se to the cardiac risk assessment for drug or
             chemical development, we hope that the information will
             effectively address how MRM and micro-CT might be exploited
             to measure biomarkers critical for safety
             assessment.},
   Doi = {10.1080/01926230500404126},
   Key = {fds268855}
}

@article{fds174251,
   Author = {A Banerjee and RC Burghardt and GA Johnson and FJ White and SK
             Ramaiah},
   Title = {The temporal expression of osteopontin (SPP-1) in the rodent
             model of alcoholic steatohepatitis: a potential
             biomarker.},
   Journal = {Toxicologic pathology},
   Volume = {34},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {373-84},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {0192-6233},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01926230600806543},
   Keywords = {Alanine Transaminase • Animals • Aspartate
             Aminotransferases • Biological Markers • Disease
             Models, Animal • Fatty Liver, Alcoholic • Gene
             Expression • Immunohistochemistry • In Situ
             Hybridization • Inflammation • Lipopolysaccharides
             • Liver Function Tests • Male • Neutrophil
             Infiltration • Osteopontin • RNA, Messenger •
             Rats • Rats, Sprague-Dawley • Sialoglycoproteins
             • Time Factors • blood • chemically induced
             • drug effects • etiology • genetics •
             metabolism • metabolism* • pathology •
             pathology* • pharmacology},
   Abstract = {Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that
             osteopontin (OPN) mediates neutrophil infiltration into the
             liver in a rodent model of alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH).
             The objective of this study was to investigate the temporal
             and spatial pattern of hepatic OPN mRNA and protein
             expression during the progression of alcoholic liver
             disease. OPN mRNA and protein expression were evaluated
             using real time PCR, in situ hybridization, Western blot and
             immunohistochemistry respectively. ASH was induced in male
             Sprague-Dawley rats by feeding EtOH-containing
             Lieber-DeCarli diet for 6 weeks, followed by a single
             injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 10 mg/kg, ip). Rats
             were sacrificed 2-, 12-and 24-hour post LPS injection. A
             progressive induction of OPN mRNA was observed that preceded
             hepatic neutrophil infiltration and the increase in OPN mRNA
             correlated with increases in OPN protein expression. OPN
             mRNA was localized primarily to the biliary epithelium. The
             data indicates that OPN is transcribed and translated within
             the biliary epithelium. These findings suggest a potential
             role of OPN as an early biomarker in predicting inflammatory
             liver diseases such as ASH.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1080/01926230600806543},
   Key = {fds174251}
}

@article{fds174254,
   Author = {RD Geisert and JW Ross, MD Ashworth and FJ White and GA Johnson and U
             DeSilva},
   Title = {Maternal recognition of pregnancy signal or endocrine
             disruptor: the two faces of oestrogen during establishment
             of pregnancy in the pig.},
   Journal = {Society of Reproduction and Fertility supplement},
   Volume = {62},
   Pages = {131-45},
   Year = {2006},
   Keywords = {Animals • Endocrine Disruptors • Endometrium
             • Estrogens • Female • Pregnancy •
             Pregnancy Maintenance • Pregnancy, Animal •
             Receptors, Progesterone • Swine • metabolism
             • metabolism* • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Timing of conceptus growth and attachment to the uterine
             luminal epithelium is regulated by progesterone secretion
             from the corpus luteum and by expression of progesterone
             receptor in the uterine epithelia and stroma. Conceptus
             growth and uterine attachment are temporally associated with
             the disappearance of progesterone receptors from uterine
             epithelia. While the loss of progesterone receptor from the
             endometrial epithelia on day 10 of the oestrous cycle and
             pregnancy has been well documented, the factors involved
             with cell specific down-regulation of progesterone receptor
             are yet to be established. We propose that several
             progesterone stimulated factors activate nuclear factor
             kappa B (NF-kB) within the uterine epithelia, which leads to
             inhibition of progesterone receptor and concomitant
             stimulation of endometrial genes expressed during early
             conceptus development. Although oestrogens secreted by pig
             conceptuses function to establish pregnancy, timing of
             endometrial exposure to oestrogen is critical. Early
             oestrogen administration alters the pattern of gene
             expression through the NF-kB system desynchronising the
             uterine environment for conceptus implantation resulting in
             later embryonic loss.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds174254}
}

@article{fds174082,
   Author = {FJ White and JW Ross and MM Joyce and RD Geisert and RC Burghardt and GA
             Johnson},
   Title = {Steroid regulation of cell specific secreted phosphoprotein
             1 (osteopontin) expression in the pregnant porcine
             uterus.},
   Journal = {Biology of reproduction},
   Volume = {73},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1294-301},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0006-3363},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.105.045153},
   Keywords = {Animals • Corpus Luteum • Endometrium •
             Epithelial Cells • Female • Fertilization •
             Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental • Osteopontin
             • Pregnancy • Pregnancy, Animal •
             Progesterone • Pseudopregnancy • RNA, Messenger
             • Sialoglycoproteins • Steroids • Sus scrofa
             • Uterus • cytology • genetics* •
             metabolism • metabolism* • physiology •
             physiology* • secretion*},
   Abstract = {Secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1, commonly referred to as
             osteopontin and formerly known as bone sialoprotein 1, early
             T-lymphocyte activation 1) is an extracellular
             matrix/adhesion molecule that is upregulated in the pregnant
             uterus of all mammals examined to date. This study focused
             on the pig, which has true epitheliochorial placentation and
             exhibits induction of SPP1 mRNA in luminal epithelium (LE)
             just before conceptus attachment and in glandular epithelium
             (GE) after Day 30 of pregnancy. The objective of this study
             was to determine steroid regulation of SPP1 mRNA and protein
             in porcine uterine epithelium. To examine the effect of
             estrogen, cyclic gilts were treated daily (Days 11-14) with
             5 mg estradiol benzoate (i.m.) and hysterectomized on Day
             15. To evaluate the long-term effect of pseudopregnancy,
             cyclic gilts were given daily injections (Days 11-15) with
             steroid as above and hysterectomized on Day 90. In situ
             hybridization showed high expression of SPP1 mRNA only in LE
             contiguous with apposing conceptus tissue on Day 15 of
             pregnancy. In contrast, estrogen injection resulted in
             moderate but uniform SPP1 mRNA in all LE of Day 15
             nonpregnant gilts, with expression maintained through Day 90
             of pseudopregnancy. SPP1 mRNA also localized to the GE of
             Day 90 pseudopregnant gilts, similar to expression in late
             gestation. Consistent with in situ hybridization results,
             SPP1 protein localized to the apical surface of LE in all
             estrogen-treated gilts and in the GE on Day 90 of
             pseudopregnancy. We conclude that, in pregnant pigs, SPP1 is
             induced by conceptus estrogen in uterine LE and is regulated
             in GE in a manner coincident with CL/placental progesterone
             production.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1095/biolreprod.105.045153},
   Key = {fds174082}
}

@article{fds174096,
   Author = {LA Jaeger and AK Spiegel and NH Ing and GA Johnson and FW Bazer and RC
             Burghardt},
   Title = {Functional effects of transforming growth factor beta on
             adhesive properties of porcine trophectoderm.},
   Journal = {Endocrinology},
   Volume = {146},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {3933-42},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0013-7227},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2005-0090},
   Keywords = {Animals • Blastocyst • Cell Adhesion • Cell
             Line, Transformed • Embryo Implantation •
             Endometrium • Female • Fibronectins •
             Integrins • Oligopeptides • RNA, Messenger •
             Signal Transduction • Swine • Talin •
             Transforming Growth Factor beta • Transforming Growth
             Factor beta1 • analysis • cytology* •
             genetics • metabolism • metabolism* •
             pharmacology • physiology • physiology*},
   Abstract = {In pigs, expression and amounts of biologically active
             TGFbetas at the conceptus-maternal interface increase
             significantly as conceptuses elongate and begin the
             implantation process. Before their activation, secreted
             TGFbetas are noncovalently associated with their respective,
             isoform-specific latency-associated peptides (LAPs), which
             contain the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) amino acid sequence that
             serves as a ligand for numerous integrins. Objectives of
             this study were to determine whether TGFbeta1 increases
             production of fibronectin by porcine trophectoderm, whether
             porcine trophectoderm adheres specifically to fibronectin
             and LAP, and whether functional interactions between porcine
             trophectoderm and the two TGFbeta-associated proteins,
             fibronectin and LAP, are integrin mediated. Porcine
             trophectoderm cells (pTr2) were cultured in presence of
             TGFbeta1, LAP, or pan-neutralizing anti-TGFbeta antibody;
             TGFbeta specifically increased (P < 0.05) fibronectin mRNA
             levels, as determined by Northern and slot blot analyses.
             Immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated a TGFbeta-induced
             increase in fibronectin in pTr2 cells. In dispersed cell
             adhesion assays, adhesion of pTr2 cells to fibronectin was
             inhibited by an RGD-containing peptide (P < 0.05) and pTr2
             cells attached to recombinant LAP but not to an LAP mutant,
             which contained an RGE sequence rather than the RGD site (P
             < 0.05). Fibronectin- and LAP-coated microbeads induced
             integrin activation at apical surfaces of both trophectoderm
             and uterine luminal epithelial cells, as indicated by
             aggregation and transmembrane accumulation of talin detected
             with immunofluorescence microscopy. Cell surface
             biotinylation and immunoprecipitation revealed integrin
             subunits alphav and beta1 on apical membranes of pTr2 cells.
             These results suggest multiple effects of TGFbeta at the
             porcine conceptus-maternal interface, including
             integrin-mediated conceptus-maternal communication through
             LAP.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1210/en.2005-0090},
   Key = {fds174096}
}

@article{fds268883,
   Author = {Ali, AA and Dale, AM and Badea, A and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Automated segmentation of neuroanatomical structures in
             multispectral MR microscopy of the mouse
             brain.},
   Journal = {NeuroImage},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {425-435},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {1053-8119},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15908233},
   Keywords = {Algorithms • Animals • Anisotropy • Bayes
             Theorem • Brain • Image Processing,
             Computer-Assisted • Magnetic Resonance Imaging •
             Male • Markov Chains • Mice • Mice, Inbred
             C57BL • Models, Statistical • Reproducibility of
             Results • anatomy & histology* • methods* •
             physiology* • statistics & numerical
             data*},
   Abstract = {We present the automated segmentation of magnetic resonance
             microscopy (MRM) images of the C57BL/6J mouse brain into 21
             neuroanatomical structures, including the ventricular
             system, corpus callosum, hippocampus, caudate putamen,
             inferior colliculus, internal capsule, globus pallidus, and
             substantia nigra. The segmentation algorithm operates on
             multispectral, three-dimensional (3D) MR data acquired at
             90-microm isotropic resolution. Probabilistic information
             used in the segmentation is extracted from training datasets
             of T2-weighted, proton density-weighted, and
             diffusion-weighted acquisitions. Spatial information is
             employed in the form of prior probabilities of occurrence of
             a structure at a location (location priors) and the pairwise
             probabilities between structures (contextual priors).
             Validation using standard morphometry indices shows good
             consistency between automatically segmented and manually
             traced data. Results achieved in the mouse brain are
             comparable with those achieved in human brain studies using
             similar techniques. The segmentation algorithm shows
             excellent potential for routine morphological phenotyping of
             mouse models.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2005.04.017},
   Key = {fds268883}
}

@article{fds157079,
   Author = {MW Tengowski and P Sutovsky and LW Hedlund and DJ Guyot and JE
             Burkhardt, WE Thompson and M Sutovsky and GA Johnson},
   Title = {Reproductive cytotoxicity is predicted by magnetic resonance
             microscopy and confirmed by ubiquitin-proteasome
             immunohistochemistry in a theophylline-induced model of rat
             testicular and epididymal toxicity.},
   Journal = {Microscopy and microanalysis : the official journal of
             Microscopy Society of America, Microbeam Analysis Society,
             Microscopical Society of Canada, United States},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {300-12},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {1431-9276},
   Keywords = {Animals • Apoptosis • Body Weight •
             Epididymis • Immunohistochemistry • In Situ
             Nick-End Labeling • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
             • Male • Microscopy • Organ Size •
             Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex • Rats • Rats,
             Sprague-Dawley • Testis • Theophylline •
             Ubiquitin • chemistry • drug effects • drug
             effects* • metabolism* • physiology* •
             toxicity*},
   Abstract = {This study investigated the testicular changes in the rat
             induced by the nonspecific phosphodiesterase inhibitor,
             theophylline using magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) and
             ubiquitin immunostaining techniques. In vivo T1- and
             T2-weighted images were acquired at 2 T under anesthesia.
             Increased signal observed in the theophylline-treated rats
             suggests that leakage of MRM contrast was occurring. In vivo
             MRM results indicate that day 16 testis displayed an
             increased T1-weighted water signal in the area of the
             seminiferous tubule that decreased by day 32. These findings
             were validated by histopathology, suggesting that in vivo
             MRM has the sensitivity to predict changes in testis and
             epididymal tissues. The participation of the ubiquitin
             system was investigated, using probes for various markers of
             the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. MRM can be used to detect
             subtle changes in the vascular perfusion of organ systems,
             and the up-regulation/mobilization of ubiquitin-proteasome
             pathway may be one of the mechanisms used in
             theophylline-treated epididymis to remove damaged cells
             before storage in the cauda epididymis. The combined use of
             in vivo MRM and subsequent tissue or seminal analysis for
             the presence of ubiquitin in longitudinal studies may become
             an important biomarker for assessing testis toxicities drug
             studies.},
   Key = {fds157079}
}

@article{fds174141,
   Author = {LS Hartt and SJ Carling and MM Joyce and GA Johnson and DK Vanderwall and TL Ott},
   Title = {Temporal and spatial associations of oestrogen receptor
             alpha and progesterone receptor in the endometrium of cyclic
             and early pregnant mares.},
   Journal = {Reproduction (Cambridge, England)},
   Volume = {130},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {241-50},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {1470-1626},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/rep.1.00596},
   Keywords = {Animals • Blotting, Northern • Endometrium •
             Estrogen Receptor alpha • Estrous Cycle • Female
             • Horses • Immunohistochemistry • In Situ
             Hybridization • Pregnancy • Pregnancy, Animal
             • RNA, Messenger • Receptors, Progesterone •
             analysis • analysis* • chemistry* • genetics
             • metabolism* • methods},
   Abstract = {Uterine function is primarily controlled by the combined
             actions of oestrogen and progesterone working through their
             cognate nuclear receptors. The mechanism of establishment of
             pregnancy in the mare is of interest because it involves
             prolonged pre-attachment and conceptus migration phases, and
             both invasive and non-invasive placental cell types, and as
             such has been an important comparative model. This study
             characterised regulation of oestrogen (ER) and progesterone
             (PR) receptors in the endometrium of the mare during the
             oestrous cycle and early pregnancy. Endometrial tissues
             collected during the oestrous cycle and early pregnancy were
             analysed for steady-state levels of ER and PR mRNA and
             protein. Steady-state levels of ER and PR mRNA were highest
             on days 0, 17 and 20 in cyclic mares and lowest on days 11
             and 14. A day-by-status interaction was detected, indicating
             that day 17 and day 20 pregnant mares exhibited low levels
             of ER and PR compared with the corresponding days of the
             oestrous cycle. In situ hybridisation analyses showed
             receptor mRNA localisation primarily in the luminal
             epithelium (LE), glandular epithelium (GE) and stroma around
             oestrus. During dioestrus and early pregnancy, receptors
             were not detected in the LE, and were lower in the stroma
             and deeper GE. Changes in hybridisation intensity in these
             cell types were consistent with changes in mRNA levels
             detected by slot-blot hybridisation. ER and PR proteins were
             detected in the nuclei of LE, GE and stromal cells.
             Consistent with results from in situ hybridisation, levels
             of ER and PR immunoreactivity were higher around oestrus,
             declined to low levels during dioestrus and remained low
             during early pregnancy. Results described here for temporal
             and spatial changes in steroid receptor gene expression in
             mares show the greatest similarities with those described
             for cattle and sheep.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1530/rep.1.00596},
   Key = {fds174141}
}

@article{8754834,
   Author = {Tengowski, MW and Sutovsky, P and Hedlund, LW and Guyot, DJ and Burkhardt, JE and Thompson, WE and Sutovsky, M and Johnson,
             GA},
   Title = {Reproductive cytotoxicity is predicted by magnetic resonance
             microscopy and confirmed by ubiquitin-proteasome
             immunohistochemistry in a theophylline-induced model of rat
             testicular and epididymal toxicity.},
   Journal = {Microscopy and microanalysis : the official journal of
             Microscopy Society of America, Microbeam Analysis Society,
             Microscopical Society of Canada},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {300-312},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {1431-9276},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16079014},
   Keywords = {biochemistry;biological tissues;biomedical MRI;cellular
             biophysics;drugs;haemorheology;molecular
             biophysics;proteins;},
   Abstract = {This study investigated the testicular changes in the rat
             induced by the nonspecific phosphodiesterase inhibitor,
             theophylline using magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) and
             ubiquitin immunostaining techniques. In vivo T1- and
             T2-weighted images were acquired at 2 T under anesthesia.
             Increased signal observed in the theophylline-treated rats
             suggests that leakage of MRM contrast was occurring. In vivo
             MRM results indicate that day 16 testis displayed an
             increased T1-weighted water signal in the area of the
             seminiferous tubule that decreased by day 32. These findings
             were validated by histopathology, suggesting that in vivo
             MRM has the sensitivity to predict changes in testis and
             epididymal tissues. The participation of the ubiquitin
             system was investigated, using probes for various markers of
             the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. MRM can be used to detect
             subtle changes in the vascular perfusion of organ systems,
             and the up-regulation/mobilization of ubiquitin-proteasome
             pathway may be one of the mechanisms used in
             theophylline-treated epididymis to remove damaged cells
             before storage in the cauda epididymis. The combined use of
             in vivo MRM and subsequent tissue or seminal analysis for
             the presence of ubiquitin in longitudinal studies may become
             an important biomarker for assessing testis toxicities drug
             studies.},
   Doi = {10.1017/S143192760505021X},
   Key = {8754834}
}

@article{fds174218,
   Author = {MM Joyce and JF González and S Lewis and S Woldesenbet and RC
             Burghardt, GR Newton and GA Johnson},
   Title = {Caprine uterine and placental osteopontin expression is
             distinct among epitheliochorial implanting
             species.},
   Journal = {Placenta},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {2-3},
   Pages = {160-70},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0143-4004},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.placenta.2004.05.009},
   Keywords = {Animals • Epithelial Cells • Female •
             Gestational Age • Goats* • Molecular Probe
             Techniques • Nucleic Acid Hybridization •
             Osteopontin • Placenta • Pregnancy •
             Pregnancy, Animal • RNA, Messenger • Sheep •
             Sialoglycoproteins • Species Specificity • Swine
             • Uterus • genetics • metabolism •
             metabolism* • methods},
   Abstract = {Osteopontin (OPN) is the most highly up-regulated
             extracellular matrix/adhesion molecule in the uterus of
             humans and domestic animals as it becomes receptive to
             implantation. Studies in sheep and pigs have shown that OPN
             is a component of ovine and porcine histotroph characterized
             by a complex temporal and spatial pattern of uterine and
             conceptus expression involving immune, epithelial, and
             stromal cells. It is proposed that these expression events
             are orchestrated to contribute to conceptus attachment and
             placentation. However, differences in OPN expression between
             sheep and pigs have been detected that relate to differences
             in placentation. Therefore, this study examined OPN
             expression in the caprine uterus and conceptus to gain
             insight into mechanisms underlying OPN function(s) during
             pregnancy through comparative analysis of differences in
             placentation between pigs, sheep, and goats. Goats were
             hysterectomized (n = 5/day) on Days 5, 11, 13, 15, 17 or 19
             of the estrous cycle, and Days 5, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19 or 25
             of pregnancy. Slot-blot hybridization showed increases in
             endometrial OPN mRNA beginning on Day 17 of the estrous
             cycle and Day 19 of pregnancy. In situ hybridization
             localized OPN mRNA to endometrial glandular epithelium (GE),
             Day 25 myometrium, and cells scattered within the placenta
             hypothesized to be immune. Immunofluorescence microscopy
             detected OPN protein on the apical surface of endometrial
             lumenal epithelium (LE), in GE, and on conceptus (Tr).
             Western blot analysis detected primarily the native 70-kDa
             OPN protein in endometrial extracts from the estrous cycle
             and pregnancy, as well as in uterine flushings from pregnant
             goats. Co-induction of OPN and alpha-smooth muscle actin,
             but not desmin proteins, was observed in uterine stroma by
             Day 25 of pregnancy. OPN in cyclic GE, Day 25 myometrium,
             and desmin-negative endometrial stroma is unique and
             reflects subtle differences among superficial implanting
             species that correlate with the depth of Tr
             invasion.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.placenta.2004.05.009},
   Key = {fds174218}
}

@article{fds268898,
   Author = {Cyr, M and Caron, MG and Johnson, GA and Laakso, A},
   Title = {Magnetic resonance imaging at microscopic resolution reveals
             subtle morphological changes in a mouse model of
             dopaminergic hyperfunction.},
   Journal = {NeuroImage},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {83-90},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {1053-8119},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15862208},
   Abstract = {Structural abnormalities of the basal ganglia have been
             documented in several neuropsychiatric conditions associated
             with dysregulation of the dopamine system. However, the
             histological nature underlying these changes is largely
             unknown. Using magnetic resonance imaging at microscopic
             resolution (MRI, 9.4 T with 43 microm isotropic spatial
             resolution) and stereological techniques, we have
             investigated the effect of increased dopamine
             neurotransmission on brain morphology in mice with elevated
             extracellular dopamine, the dopamine transporter knockout
             (DAT-KO) mice. We first demonstrate the usefulness of MRI at
             microscopic resolution for the accurate identification and
             measurement of volumes of specific subregions, accounting
             for less than 0.03% (0.16 mm(3)) of the volume of a mouse
             brain. Furthermore, the MRI analysis reveals a significantly
             lower volume (-9%) of the anterior striatum of DAT-KO mice,
             while the volume of other dopamine-related structures such
             as the posterior striatum and the substantia nigra pars
             reticulata is unchanged in comparison to wild type
             littermates. Stereological analysis performed in the same
             brains reveals that one important structural factor
             accounting for this selective change in volume is a
             reduction of 18% in the absolute number of neuronal cell
             bodies. The feasibility of assessing accurately small
             morphological alterations in mouse models, where the
             molecular and histological pathologies can be easily
             compared in a controlled manner, provides a paradigm to
             examine the relevance of selective brain volumetric changes
             associated with a number of neuropathological
             conditions.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2005.01.039},
   Key = {fds268898}
}

@article{fds132905,
   Author = {M Cyr and MG Caron and GA Johnson and A Laakso},
   Title = {Magnetic resonance imaging at microscopic resolution reveals
             subtle morphological changes in a mouse model of
             dopaminergic hyperfunction.},
   Journal = {NeuroImage, United States},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {83-90},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {1053-8119},
   Keywords = {Animals • Basal Ganglia • Brain • Cell Count
             • Dopamine • Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport
             Proteins • Fluorescent Antibody Technique • Image
             Interpretation, Computer-Assisted • Magnetic Resonance
             Imaging • Male • Membrane Glycoproteins •
             Membrane Transport Proteins • Mice • Mice,
             Knockout • Models, Neurological • Neostriatum
             • Nerve Tissue Proteins • Neurons • anatomy &
             histology • anatomy & histology* • cytology •
             genetics • physiology • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Structural abnormalities of the basal ganglia have been
             documented in several neuropsychiatric conditions associated
             with dysregulation of the dopamine system. However, the
             histological nature underlying these changes is largely
             unknown. Using magnetic resonance imaging at microscopic
             resolution (MRI, 9.4 T with 43 microm isotropic spatial
             resolution) and stereological techniques, we have
             investigated the effect of increased dopamine
             neurotransmission on brain morphology in mice with elevated
             extracellular dopamine, the dopamine transporter knockout
             (DAT-KO) mice. We first demonstrate the usefulness of MRI at
             microscopic resolution for the accurate identification and
             measurement of volumes of specific subregions, accounting
             for less than 0.03% (0.16 mm(3)) of the volume of a mouse
             brain. Furthermore, the MRI analysis reveals a significantly
             lower volume (-9%) of the anterior striatum of DAT-KO mice,
             while the volume of other dopamine-related structures such
             as the posterior striatum and the substantia nigra pars
             reticulata is unchanged in comparison to wild type
             littermates. Stereological analysis performed in the same
             brains reveals that one important structural factor
             accounting for this selective change in volume is a
             reduction of 18% in the absolute number of neuronal cell
             bodies. The feasibility of assessing accurately small
             morphological alterations in mouse models, where the
             molecular and histological pathologies can be easily
             compared in a controlled manner, provides a paradigm to
             examine the relevance of selective brain volumetric changes
             associated with a number of neuropathological
             conditions.},
   Key = {fds132905}
}

@article{fds174085,
   Author = {G Wu and FW Bazer and J Hu and GA Johnson and TE Spencer},
   Title = {Polyamine synthesis from proline in the developing porcine
             placenta.},
   Journal = {Biology of reproduction},
   Volume = {72},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {842-50},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0006-3363},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.104.036293},
   Keywords = {1-Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Dehydrogenase • Amniotic
             Fluid • Animals • Arginase • Carbon
             Radioisotopes • Female • Fetal Development •
             Male • Methionine • Ornithine •
             Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-NH Group Donors • Placenta
             • Polyamines • Pregnancy • Proline •
             Putrescine • S-Adenosylmethionine • Spermidine
             • Spermine • Sus scrofa • diagnostic use
             • growth & development* • metabolism •
             metabolism* • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) are
             essential for placental growth and angiogenesis. However,
             little is known about polyamine synthesis in the porcine
             placenta during conceptus development. The present study was
             conducted to test the hypothesis that arginine and proline
             are the major sources of ornithine for placental polyamine
             production in pigs. Placentae, amniotic fluid, and allantoic
             fluid were obtained from gilts on Days 20, 30, 35, 40, 45,
             50, 60, 90, and 110 of the 114-day gestation (n = 6 per
             day). Placentae as well as amniotic and allantoic fluids
             were analyzed for arginase, proline oxidase, ornithine
             aminotransferase (OAT), ornithine decarboxylase (ODC),
             proline transport, concentrations of amino acids and
             polyamines, and polyamine synthesis using established
             radiochemical and chromatographic methods. Neither arginase
             activity nor conversion of arginine into polyamines was
             detected in the porcine placenta. In contrast, both proline
             and ornithine were converted into putrescine, spermidine,
             and spermine in placental tissue throughout pregnancy. The
             activities of proline oxidase, OAT, and ODC as well as
             proline transport, polyamine synthesis from proline, and
             polyamine concentrations increased markedly between Days 20
             and 40 of gestation, declined between Days 40 and 90 of
             gestation, and remained at the reduced level through Day 110
             of gestation. Proline oxidase and OAT, but not arginase,
             were present in allantoic and amniotic fluids for the
             production of ornithine (the immediate substrate for
             polyamine synthesis). The activities of these two enzymes as
             well as the concentrations of ornithine and total polyamines
             in fetal fluids were highest at Day 40 but lowest at Days
             20, 90, and 110 of gestation. These results indicate that
             proline is the major amino acid for polyamine synthesis in
             the porcine placenta and that the activity of this synthetic
             pathway is maximal during early pregnancy, when placental
             growth is most rapid. Our novel findings provide a new base
             of information for future studies to define the role of
             proline in fetoplacental growth and development.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1095/biolreprod.104.036293},
   Key = {fds174085}
}

@article{06059673317,
   Author = {Badea, CT and Fubara, B and Hedlund, LW and Johnson,
             GA},
   Title = {4-D micro-CT of the mouse heart.},
   Journal = {Molecular imaging : official journal of the Society for
             Molecular Imaging},
   Volume = {4},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {110-116},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {1535-3508},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16105509},
   Keywords = {Computerized tomography;Cardiology;Photons;Motion
             control;Biological organs;Optical resolving
             power;Blood;},
   Abstract = {PURPOSE: Demonstrate noninvasive imaging methods for in vivo
             characterization of cardiac structure and function in mice
             using a micro-CT system that provides high photon fluence
             rate and integrated motion control. MATERIALS AND METHODS:
             Simultaneous cardiac- and respiratory-gated micro-CT was
             performed in C57BL/6 mice during constant intravenous
             infusion of a conventional iodinated contrast agent
             (Isovue-370), and after a single intravenous injection of a
             blood pool contrast agent (Fenestra VC). Multiple phases of
             the cardiac cycle were reconstructed with contrast to noise
             and spatial resolution sufficient for quantitative
             assessment of cardiac function. RESULTS: Contrast
             enhancement with Isovue-370 increased over time with a
             maximum of approximately 500 HU (aorta) and 900 HU (kidney
             cortex). Fenestra VC provided more constant enhancement over
             3 hr, with maximum enhancement of approximately 620 HU
             (aorta) and approximately 90 HU (kidney cortex). The maximum
             enhancement difference between blood and myocardium in the
             heart was approximately 250 HU for Isovue-370 and
             approximately 500 HU for Fenestra VC. In mice with Fenestra
             VC, volumetric measurements of the left ventricle were
             performed and cardiac function was estimated by ejection
             fraction, stroke volume, and cardiac output. CONCLUSION:
             Image quality with Fenestra VC was sufficient for
             morphological and functional studies required for a
             standardized method of cardiac phenotyping of the
             mouse.},
   Key = {06059673317}
}

@article{fds268882,
   Author = {Maï, W and Badea, CT and Wheeler, CT and Hedlund, LW and Johnson,
             GA},
   Title = {Effects of breathing and cardiac motion on spatial
             resolution in the microscopic imaging of
             rodents.},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance in Medicine},
   Volume = {53},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {858-865},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0740-3194},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15799053},
   Keywords = {Animals • Cardiovascular Physiology* • Diaphragm
             • Magnetic Resonance Imaging • Male •
             Myocardial Contraction • Rats • Rats, Inbred F344
             • Reproducibility of Results • Tungsten •
             methods* • physiology* • radiography},
   Abstract = {One can acquire high-resolution pulmonary and cardiac images
             in live rodents with MR microscopy by synchronizing the
             image acquisition to the breathing cycle across multiple
             breaths, and gating to the cardiac cycle. The precision with
             which one can synchronize image acquisition to the motion
             defines the ultimate resolution limit that can be attained
             in such studies. The present work was performed to evaluate
             how reliably the pulmonary and cardiac structures return to
             the same position from breath to breath and beat to beat
             across the prolonged period required for MR microscopy.
             Radiopaque beads were surgically glued to the abdominal
             surface of the diaphragm and on the cardiac ventricles of
             anesthetized, mechanically ventilated rats. We evaluated the
             range of motion for the beads (relative to a reference
             vertebral bead) using digital microradiography with two
             specific biological gating methods: 1) ventilation
             synchronous acquisition, and 2) both ventilation synchronous
             and cardiac-gated acquisitions. The standard deviation (SD)
             of the displacement was < or =100 microm, which is
             comparable to the resolution limit for in vivo MRI imposed
             by signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) constraints. With careful
             control of motion, its impact on resolution can be limited.
             This work provides the first quantitative measure of the
             motion-imposed resolution limits for in vivo
             imaging.},
   Doi = {10.1002/mrm.20400},
   Key = {fds268882}
}

@article{fds174113,
   Author = {MM Joyce and FJ White and RC Burghardt and JJ Muñiz and TE Spencer and FW
             Bazer, GA Johnson},
   Title = {Interferon stimulated gene 15 conjugates to endometrial
             cytosolic proteins and is expressed at the uterine-placental
             interface throughout pregnancy in sheep.},
   Journal = {Endocrinology},
   Volume = {146},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {675-84},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0013-7227},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2004-1224},
   Keywords = {Animals • Blotting, Western • Cytokines •
             Cytosol • Endometrium • Female • Gene
             Expression • Immunohistochemistry • In Situ
             Hybridization • Interferon Type I • Male •
             Placenta • Pregnancy • Pregnancy Proteins •
             RNA, Messenger • Sheep • Ubiquitin • analogs
             & derivatives* • analysis • genetics •
             genetics* • metabolism • metabolism* •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {Interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) is a ubiquitin homolog
             expressed in uteri of ruminants in response to interferon
             (IFN)-tau and is also induced during pregnancy in the uteri
             of mice, pigs, humans, and baboons. This study examined
             expression of ISG15 and its conjugation to target proteins
             in the ovine uterus beyond the period of IFNtau secretion by
             the conceptus. Although steady-state levels of ISG15 mRNA
             decreased after d 25 of pregnancy, ISG15 persisted in
             endometrium through d 120. In situ hybridization and
             immunocytochemistry localized ISG15 across the entire
             uterine wall through d 25, after which expression was
             restricted to endometrial stroma along the
             maternal-placental interface. Western blots revealed ISG15
             and ISG15-conjugated proteins in endometrium. Treatment of
             ovariectomized sheep with progesterone and IFNtau increased
             both free and conjugated ISG15. These results are the first
             to show in vivo regulation of ISG15 function (i.e.
             conjugation to target proteins) by a type I IFN in the
             uterus of any species and that ISG15 is expressed at
             contacts between the placenta and uterus when trophectoderm
             no longer produces IFNtau. Interestingly, mRNA for the type
             II IFNgamma was present in the endometrial stromal
             compartment on d 15-50, which may stimulate the synthesis of
             ISG15 through later pregnancy. We hypothesize that ISG15 is
             not merely a consequence of an antiviral state induced by
             trophoblast IFNtau but represents a critical component of
             the microenvironment at the uterine-placental interface
             during the progressive events of conceptus development,
             implantation, and placentation in sheep and perhaps other
             mammalian species.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1210/en.2004-1224},
   Key = {fds174113}
}

@article{fds132903,
   Author = {BT Chen and AT Yordanov and GA Johnson},
   Title = {Ventilation-synchronous magnetic resonance microscopy of
             pulmonary structure and ventilation in mice.},
   Journal = {Magnetic resonance in medicine : official journal of the
             Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine / Society of
             Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, United States},
   Volume = {53},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {69-75},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0740-3194},
   Keywords = {Anesthesia • Animals • Contrast Media •
             Imaging, Three-Dimensional • Lung • Magnetic
             Resonance Imaging • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
             • Male • Mice • Mice, Inbred C57BL •
             Pulmonary Ventilation • Respiration, Artificial •
             Ventilation-Perfusion Ratio • anatomy & histology*
             • diagnostic use* • methods* • physiology
             • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Increasing use of transgenic animal models for pulmonary
             disease has raised the need for methods to assess pulmonary
             structure and function in a physiologically stable mouse. We
             report here an integrated protocol using magnetic resonance
             microscopy with gadolinium (Gd)-labeled starburst dendrimer
             (G6-1B4M-Gd, MW = 192 +/- 1 kDa, R(h) = 5.50 +/- 0.04 nm)
             and hyperpolarized (3)helium ((3)He) gas to acquire images
             that demonstrate pulmonary vasculature and ventilated
             airways in live mice (n = 9). Registered three-dimensional
             images of (1)H and (3)He were acquired during breath-hold at
             2.0 T using radial acquisition (total acquisition time of 38
             and 25 min, respectively). The macromolecular Gd-labeled
             dendrimer (a half-life of approximately 80 min) increased
             the signal-to-noise by 81 +/- 30% in the left ventricle, 43
             +/- 22% in the lung periphery, and -4 +/- 5% in the chest
             wall, thus increasing the contrast of these structures
             relative to the less vascular surrounding tissues. A
             constant-flow ventilator was developed for the mouse to
             deliver varied gas mixtures of O(2) and N(2) (or (3)He)
             during imaging. To avoid hypoxemia, instrumental dead space
             was minimized and corrections were made to tidal volume lost
             due to gas compression. The stability of the physiologic
             support was assessed by the lack of spontaneous breathing
             and maintenance of a constant heart rate. We were able to
             stabilize the mouse for >8 hr using ventilation of 105
             breath/min and approximately 0.2 mL/breath. The feasibility
             of acquiring both pulmonary vasculature and ventilated
             airways was demonstrated in the mouse lung with in-plane
             spatial resolution of 70 x 70 microm(2) and slice thickness
             of 800 microm.},
   Key = {fds132903}
}

@booklet{Chen05,
   Author = {Chen, BT and Yordanov, AT and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Ventilation-synchronous magnetic resonance microscopy of
             pulmonary structure and ventilation in mice.},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance in Medicine},
   Volume = {53},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {69-75},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0740-3194},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15690504},
   Abstract = {Increasing use of transgenic animal models for pulmonary
             disease has raised the need for methods to assess pulmonary
             structure and function in a physiologically stable mouse. We
             report here an integrated protocol using magnetic resonance
             microscopy with gadolinium (Gd)-labeled starburst dendrimer
             (G6-1B4M-Gd, MW = 192 +/- 1 kDa, R(h) = 5.50 +/- 0.04 nm)
             and hyperpolarized (3)helium ((3)He) gas to acquire images
             that demonstrate pulmonary vasculature and ventilated
             airways in live mice (n = 9). Registered three-dimensional
             images of (1)H and (3)He were acquired during breath-hold at
             2.0 T using radial acquisition (total acquisition time of 38
             and 25 min, respectively). The macromolecular Gd-labeled
             dendrimer (a half-life of approximately 80 min) increased
             the signal-to-noise by 81 +/- 30% in the left ventricle, 43
             +/- 22% in the lung periphery, and -4 +/- 5% in the chest
             wall, thus increasing the contrast of these structures
             relative to the less vascular surrounding tissues. A
             constant-flow ventilator was developed for the mouse to
             deliver varied gas mixtures of O(2) and N(2) (or (3)He)
             during imaging. To avoid hypoxemia, instrumental dead space
             was minimized and corrections were made to tidal volume lost
             due to gas compression. The stability of the physiologic
             support was assessed by the lack of spontaneous breathing
             and maintenance of a constant heart rate. We were able to
             stabilize the mouse for >8 hr using ventilation of 105
             breath/min and approximately 0.2 mL/breath. The feasibility
             of acquiring both pulmonary vasculature and ventilated
             airways was demonstrated in the mouse lung with in-plane
             spatial resolution of 70 x 70 microm(2) and slice thickness
             of 800 microm.},
   Doi = {10.1002/mrm.20307},
   Key = {Chen05}
}

@article{05149022881,
   Author = {Sancho, G. and Fisher, C.R. and Mills, S. and Micheli, F. and Johnson, G.A. and Lenihan, H.S. and Peterson, C.H. and Mullineaux, L.S.},
   Title = {Selective predation by the zoarcid fish Thermarces cerberus
             at hydrothermal vents},
   Journal = {Deep-Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research
             Papers},
   Volume = {52},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {837 - 844},
   Year = {2005},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2004.12.002},
   Keywords = {Tissue;Ecosystems;Biodiversity;Oceanography;},
   Abstract = {This study investigates predation by the vent zoarcid fish
             Thermarces cerberus through gastrointestinal analyses of 27
             specimens collected with the submersible ALVIN at vents at
             9&deg;50 prime N on the East Pacific Rise. T. cerberus fed
             most frequently on gastropod mollusks (mainly Lepetodrilus
             elevatus) and amphipod crustaceans (mainly Ventiella
             sulfuris). Species found occasionally in high abundance
             included the swarming amphipod Halice hesmonectes and the
             snail Cyathermia naticoides. Other items also found in
             gastrointestinal tracts, but in very low numbers, included
             polychaete worms, crustaceans and unidentified tissue
             clumps. The comparison between the size distribution of L.
             elevatus limpets ingested by T. cerberus and those found
             attached to vestimentiferan tubes suggest that the fish may
             selectively prey on large limpets. If the selective removal
             of large Lepetodrilus spp. limpets by T. cerberus does
             occur, then it would have potential community-level
             consequences at hydrothermal vents, since these mobile
             gastropods appear to inhibit the settlement of sessile vent
             species, including tube-building worms. Our results suggest
             possible direct and indirect effects of T. cerberus on
             benthic community structure at hydrothermal vents on the
             East Pacific Rise. &copy; 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights
             reserved.},
   Key = {05149022881}
}

@article{8407765,
   Author = {Mai, W. and Badea, C.T. and Wheeler, C.T. and Hedlund, L.W. and Johnson, G.A.},
   Title = {Effects of breathing and cardiac motion on spatial
             resolution in the microscopic imaging of
             rodents},
   Journal = {Magn. Reson. Med. (USA)},
   Volume = {53},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {858 - 65},
   Year = {2005},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrm.20400},
   Keywords = {biomedical MRI;cardiovascular system;diagnostic
             radiography;pneumodynamics;surgery;},
   Abstract = {One can acquire high-resolution pulmonary and cardiac images
             in live rodents with MR microscopy by synchronizing the
             image acquisition to the breathing cycle across multiple
             breaths, and gating to the cardiac cycle. The precision with
             which one can synchronize image acquisition to the motion
             defines the ultimate resolution limit that can be attained
             in such studies. The present work was performed to evaluate
             how reliably the pulmonary and cardiac structures return to
             the same position from breath to breath and beat to beat
             across the prolonged period required for MR microscopy.
             Radiopaque beads were surgically glued to the abdominal
             surface of the diaphragm and on the cardiac ventricles of
             anesthetized, mechanically ventilated rats. We evaluated the
             range of motion for the beads (relative to a reference
             vertebral bead) using digital microradiography with two
             specific biological gating methods: 1) ventilation
             synchronous acquisition, and 2) both ventilation synchronous
             and cardiac-gated acquisitions. The standard deviation (SD)
             of the displacement was &mu;m100 &mu;m, which is comparable
             to the resolution limit for in vivo MRI imposed by
             signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) constraints. With careful
             control of motion, its impact on resolution can be limited.
             This work provides the first quantitative measure of the
             motion-imposed resolution limits for in vivo
             imaging},
   Key = {8407765}
}

@article{fds268851,
   Author = {Hedlund, LW and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Morphology of the small-animal lung using magnetic resonance
             microscopy.},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society},
   Volume = {2},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {481-502},
   Year = {2005},
   ISSN = {1546-3222},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16352752},
   Keywords = {Animals • Artifacts • Image Processing,
             Computer-Assisted • Lung • Magnetic Resonance
             Imaging* • Mice • Microscopy* • Rats •
             pathology*},
   Abstract = {Small-animal imaging with magnetic resonance microscopy
             (MRM) has become an important tool in biomedical research.
             When MRM is used to image perfusion-fixed and "stained"
             whole mouse specimens, cardiopulmonary morphology can be
             visualized, nondestructively, in exquisite detail in all
             three dimensions. This capability can be a valuable tool for
             morphologic phenotyping of different mouse strains commonly
             used in genomics research. When these imaging techniques are
             combined with specialized methods for biological motion
             control and animal support, the lungs of the live, small
             animal can be imaged. Although in vivo imaging may not
             achieve the high resolution possible with a fixed specimen,
             dynamic functional studies and survival studies that follow
             the progression of pulmonary change related to disease or
             environmental exposure are possible. By combining
             conventional proton imaging with gas imaging, using
             hyperpolarized 3He, it is possible to image the tissue and
             gas compartments of the lung. This capability is illustrated
             in studies on an emphysema model in rats and on radiation
             damage of the lung. With further improvements in imaging and
             animal handling technology, we will be able to image faster
             and at higher resolutions, making MRM an even more valuable
             research tool.},
   Doi = {10.1513/pats.200507-074DS},
   Key = {fds268851}
}

@article{fds132896,
   Author = {C Badea and LW Hedlund and GA Johnson},
   Title = {Micro-CT with respiratory and cardiac gating.},
   Journal = {Medical physics, United States},
   Volume = {31},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {3324-9},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0094-2405},
   Keywords = {Animals • Artifacts • Electrocardiography •
             Equipment Design • Equipment Failure Analysis* •
             Heart • Lung • Mice • Mice, Inbred C57BL
             • Movement* • Radiographic Image Enhancement
             • Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted
             • Respiratory Mechanics • Tomography, X-Ray
             Computed • instrumentation* • methods •
             radiography* • veterinary},
   Abstract = {Cardiopulmonary imaging in rodents using micro-computed
             tomography (CT) is a challenging task due to both cardiac
             and pulmonary motion and the limited fluence rate available
             from micro-focus x-ray tubes of most commercial systems.
             Successful imaging in the mouse requires recognition of both
             the spatial and temporal scales and their impact on the
             required fluence rate. Smaller voxels require an increase in
             the total number of photons (integrated fluence) used in the
             reconstructed image for constant signal-to-noise ratio. The
             faster heart rates require shorter exposures to minimize
             cardiac motion blur imposing even higher demands on the
             fluence rate. We describe a system with fixed tube/detector
             and with a rotating specimen. A large focal spot x-ray tube
             capable of producing high fluence rates with short exposure
             times was used. The geometry is optimized to match focal
             spot blur with detector pitch and the resolution limits
             imposed by the reproducibility of gating. Thus, it is
             possible to achieve isotropic spatial resolution of 100
             microm with a fluence rate at the detector 250 times that of
             a conventional cone beam micro-CT system with rotating
             detector and microfocal x-ray tube. Motion is minimized for
             any single projection with 10 ms exposures that are
             synchronized to both cardiac and breathing motion. System
             performance was validated in vivo by studies of the
             cardiopulmonary structures in C57BL/6 mice, demonstrating
             the value of motion integration with a bright x-ray
             source.},
   Key = {fds132896}
}

@article{fds174076,
   Author = {TE Spencer and GA Johnson and FW Bazer and RC Burghardt},
   Title = {Implantation mechanisms: insights from the
             sheep.},
   Journal = {Reproduction (Cambridge, England)},
   Volume = {128},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {657-68},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {1470-1626},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/rep.1.00398},
   Keywords = {Animals • Blastocyst • Cell Adhesion Molecules
             • Embryo Implantation • Embryonic Development
             • Female • Gestational Age • Pregnancy •
             Sheep • Uterus • physiology •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {Implantation in all mammals involves shedding of the zona
             pellucida, followed by orientation, apposition, attachment
             and adhesion of the blastocyst to the endometrium.
             Endometrial invasion does not occur in domestic ruminants;
             thus, definitive implantation is achieved by adhesion of the
             mononuclear trophoblast cells to the endometrial lumenal
             epithelium (LE) and formation of syncytia by the fusion of
             trophoblast binucleate cells with the LE. This review
             highlights new information on mechanisms regulating the
             implantation cascade in sheep. The embryo enters the uterus
             on day 4 at the morula stage of development and then
             develops into a blastocyst by day 6. The blastocyst sheds
             the zona pellucida (day 8), elongates to a filamentous form
             (days 11-16), and adheres to the endometrial LE (day 16).
             Between days 14 and 16, the binucleate cells begin to
             differentiate in the trophoblast and subsequently migrate
             and fuse with the endometrial LE to form syncytia.
             Continuous exposure of the endometrium to progesterone in
             early pregnancy downregulates the progesterone receptors in
             the epithelia, a process which is associated with loss of
             the cell-surface mucin MUC1 and induction of several
             secreted adhesion proteins. Recurrent early pregnancy loss
             in the uterine gland knockout ewe model indicates that
             secretions of the endometrial epithelia have a physiologic
             role in blastocyst elongation and implantation. A number of
             endometrial proteins have been identified as potential
             regulators of blastocyst development and implantation in
             sheep, including glycosylated cell adhesion molecule 1
             (GlyCAM-1), galectin-15, integrins and osteopontin. The
             epithelial derived secreted adhesion proteins (GlyCAM-1,
             galectin-15 and osteopontin) are expressed in a dynamic
             temporal and spatial manner and regulated by progesterone
             and/or interferon tau, which is the pregnancy recognition
             signal produced by the trophoblast during blastocyst
             elongation. The noninvasive and protracted nature of
             implantation in domestic animals provides valuable
             opportunities to investigate fundamental processes of
             implantation that are shared among all mammals.
             Understanding of the cellular and molecular signals that
             regulate uterine receptivity and implantation can be used to
             diagnose and identify causes of recurrent pregnancy loss and
             to improve pregnancy outcome in domestic animals and
             humans.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1530/rep.1.00398},
   Key = {fds174076}
}

@article{fds174148,
   Author = {B Govenar and M Freeman and DC Bergquist and GA Johnson and CR
             Fisher},
   Title = {Composition of a one-year-old Riftia pachyptila community
             following a clearance experiment: insight to succession
             patterns at deep-sea hydrothermal vents.},
   Journal = {The Biological bulletin},
   Volume = {207},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {177-82},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0006-3185},
   Keywords = {Animals • Biomass • Ecosystem* • Environment*
             • Invertebrates • Pacific Ocean • Population
             Dynamics • Species Specificity • growth &
             development*},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds174148}
}

@booklet{Badea04,
   Author = {Badea, C and Hedlund, LW and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Micro-CT with respiratory and cardiac gating.},
   Journal = {Medical physics},
   Volume = {31},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {3324-3329},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0094-2405},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15651615},
   Abstract = {Cardiopulmonary imaging in rodents using micro-computed
             tomography (CT) is a challenging task due to both cardiac
             and pulmonary motion and the limited fluence rate available
             from micro-focus x-ray tubes of most commercial systems.
             Successful imaging in the mouse requires recognition of both
             the spatial and temporal scales and their impact on the
             required fluence rate. Smaller voxels require an increase in
             the total number of photons (integrated fluence) used in the
             reconstructed image for constant signal-to-noise ratio. The
             faster heart rates require shorter exposures to minimize
             cardiac motion blur imposing even higher demands on the
             fluence rate. We describe a system with fixed tube/detector
             and with a rotating specimen. A large focal spot x-ray tube
             capable of producing high fluence rates with short exposure
             times was used. The geometry is optimized to match focal
             spot blur with detector pitch and the resolution limits
             imposed by the reproducibility of gating. Thus, it is
             possible to achieve isotropic spatial resolution of 100
             microm with a fluence rate at the detector 250 times that of
             a conventional cone beam micro-CT system with rotating
             detector and microfocal x-ray tube. Motion is minimized for
             any single projection with 10 ms exposures that are
             synchronized to both cardiac and breathing motion. System
             performance was validated in vivo by studies of the
             cardiopulmonary structures in C57BL/6 mice, demonstrating
             the value of motion integration with a bright x-ray
             source.},
   Doi = {10.1118/1.1812604},
   Key = {Badea04}
}

@article{fds132914,
   Author = {BT Chen and GA Johnson},
   Title = {Dynamic lung morphology of methacholine-induced
             heterogeneous bronchoconstriction.},
   Journal = {Magnetic resonance in medicine : official journal of the
             Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine / Society of
             Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, United States},
   Volume = {52},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1080-6},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0740-3194},
   Keywords = {Animals • Bronchoconstriction* • Female •
             Helium • Injections, Intravenous • Isotopes •
             Magnetic Resonance Imaging • Methacholine Chloride
             • Rats • Rats, Sprague-Dawley • Respiratory
             System • administration & dosage • diagnostic use
             • drug effects* • methods* •
             pharmacology*},
   Abstract = {Hyperpolarized (HP) 3helium (3He) dynamic MRI was used to
             investigate airway response in rats following intravenous
             (i.v.) bolus administration of a contractile agent,
             methacholine (MCh). The method provides direct visualization
             of the ventilated regions within the lung. Heterogeneous
             bronchoconstriction following the i.v. MCh injection was
             evident using this technique. These 3He dynamic lung images
             revealed that the inspired fresh air was shunted to the
             less-constricted regions after the MCh challenge in a
             similar manner as described by Laplace's relationship for
             the stability between adjacent alveoli. The airways in the
             more-constricted regions became nearly closed, resulting in
             air trapping, while the airways in the less-constricted
             regions remained effectively open, leading to overinflation.
             These data suggest a lung model of airway constriction
             partitioned into ventilated and nonventilated regions. These
             nonventilated regions are heterogeneously distributed in the
             lung and this distribution cannot be deduced from
             spirometric measurement of the whole lung. We demonstrate
             that a combination of functional 3He images and anatomical
             1H images provide an effective method to diagnose regional
             lung abnormalities in rats.},
   Key = {fds132914}
}

@booklet{Chen04,
   Author = {Chen, BT and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Dynamic lung morphology of methacholine-induced
             heterogeneous bronchoconstriction.},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance in Medicine},
   Volume = {52},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1080-1086},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0740-3194},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15508158},
   Abstract = {Hyperpolarized (HP) 3helium (3He) dynamic MRI was used to
             investigate airway response in rats following intravenous
             (i.v.) bolus administration of a contractile agent,
             methacholine (MCh). The method provides direct visualization
             of the ventilated regions within the lung. Heterogeneous
             bronchoconstriction following the i.v. MCh injection was
             evident using this technique. These 3He dynamic lung images
             revealed that the inspired fresh air was shunted to the
             less-constricted regions after the MCh challenge in a
             similar manner as described by Laplace's relationship for
             the stability between adjacent alveoli. The airways in the
             more-constricted regions became nearly closed, resulting in
             air trapping, while the airways in the less-constricted
             regions remained effectively open, leading to overinflation.
             These data suggest a lung model of airway constriction
             partitioned into ventilated and nonventilated regions. These
             nonventilated regions are heterogeneously distributed in the
             lung and this distribution cannot be deduced from
             spirometric measurement of the whole lung. We demonstrate
             that a combination of functional 3He images and anatomical
             1H images provide an effective method to diagnose regional
             lung abnormalities in rats.},
   Doi = {10.1002/mrm.20251},
   Key = {Chen04}
}

@booklet{Morgan04,
   Author = {Morgan, DL and Little, PB and Herr, DW and Moser, VC and Collins, B and Herbert, R and Johnson, GA and Maronpot, RR and Harry, GJ and Sills,
             RC},
   Title = {Neurotoxicity of carbonyl sulfide in F344 rats following
             inhalation exposure for up to 12 weeks.},
   Journal = {Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology},
   Volume = {200},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {131-145},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0041-008X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15476866},
   Abstract = {Carbonyl sulfide (COS), a high-priority Clean Air Act
             chemical, was evaluated for neurotoxicity in short-term
             studies. F344 rats were exposed to 75-600 ppm COS 6 h per
             day, 5 days per week for up to 12 weeks. In rats exposed to
             500 or 600 ppm for up to 4 days, malacia and microgliosis
             were detected in numerous neuroanatomical regions of the
             brain by conventional optical microscopy and magnetic
             resonance microscopy (MRM). After a 2-week exposure to 400
             ppm, rats were evaluated using a functional observational
             battery. Slight gait abnormality was detected in 50% of the
             rats and hypotonia was present in all rats exposed to COS.
             Decreases in motor activity, and forelimb and hindlimb grip
             strength were also detected. In rats exposed to 400 ppm for
             12 weeks, predominant lesions were in the parietal cortex
             area 1 (necrosis) and posterior colliculus (neuronal loss,
             microgliosis, hemorrhage), and occasional necrosis was
             present in the putamen, thalamus, and anterior olivary
             nucleus. Carbonyl sulfide specifically targeted the auditory
             system including the olivary nucleus, nucleus of the lateral
             lemniscus, and posterior colliculus. Consistent with these
             findings were alterations in the amplitude of the brainstem
             auditory evoked responses (BAER) for peaks N3, P4, N4, and
             N5 that represented changes in auditory transmission between
             the anterior olivary nucleus to the medial geniculate
             nucleus in animals after exposure for 2 weeks to 400 ppm
             COS. A concentration-related decrease in cytochrome oxidase
             activity was detected in the posterior colliculus and
             parietal cortex of exposed rats as early as 3 weeks.
             Cytochrome oxidase activity was significantly decreased at
             COS concentrations that did not cause detectable lesions,
             suggesting that disruption of the mitochondrial respiratory
             chain may precede these brain lesions. Our studies
             demonstrate that this environmental air contaminant has the
             potential to cause a wide spectrum of brain lesions that are
             dependent on the degree and duration of exposure.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.taap.2004.04.013},
   Key = {Morgan04}
}

@article{fds132915,
   Author = {DL Morgan and PB Little and DW Herr and VC Moser and B Collins and R
             Herbert, GA Johnson and RR Maronpot and GJ Harry and RC
             Sills},
   Title = {Neurotoxicity of carbonyl sulfide in F344 rats following
             inhalation exposure for up to 12 weeks.},
   Journal = {Toxicology and applied pharmacology, United
             States},
   Volume = {200},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {131-45},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0041-008X},
   Keywords = {Air Pollutants • Animals • Behavior, Animal •
             Blood Chemical Analysis • Brain Diseases •
             Electron Transport Complex IV • Evoked Potentials,
             Auditory, Brain Stem • Female • Histocytochemistry
             • Inhalation Exposure • Male • Motor Activity
             • Neurotoxins • Random Allocation • Rats
             • Rats, Inbred F344 • Sulfur Oxides •
             analysis • chemically induced* • drug effects
             • pathology • toxicity*},
   Abstract = {Carbonyl sulfide (COS), a high-priority Clean Air Act
             chemical, was evaluated for neurotoxicity in short-term
             studies. F344 rats were exposed to 75-600 ppm COS 6 h per
             day, 5 days per week for up to 12 weeks. In rats exposed to
             500 or 600 ppm for up to 4 days, malacia and microgliosis
             were detected in numerous neuroanatomical regions of the
             brain by conventional optical microscopy and magnetic
             resonance microscopy (MRM). After a 2-week exposure to 400
             ppm, rats were evaluated using a functional observational
             battery. Slight gait abnormality was detected in 50% of the
             rats and hypotonia was present in all rats exposed to COS.
             Decreases in motor activity, and forelimb and hindlimb grip
             strength were also detected. In rats exposed to 400 ppm for
             12 weeks, predominant lesions were in the parietal cortex
             area 1 (necrosis) and posterior colliculus (neuronal loss,
             microgliosis, hemorrhage), and occasional necrosis was
             present in the putamen, thalamus, and anterior olivary
             nucleus. Carbonyl sulfide specifically targeted the auditory
             system including the olivary nucleus, nucleus of the lateral
             lemniscus, and posterior colliculus. Consistent with these
             findings were alterations in the amplitude of the brainstem
             auditory evoked responses (BAER) for peaks N3, P4, N4, and
             N5 that represented changes in auditory transmission between
             the anterior olivary nucleus to the medial geniculate
             nucleus in animals after exposure for 2 weeks to 400 ppm
             COS. A concentration-related decrease in cytochrome oxidase
             activity was detected in the posterior colliculus and
             parietal cortex of exposed rats as early as 3 weeks.
             Cytochrome oxidase activity was significantly decreased at
             COS concentrations that did not cause detectable lesions,
             suggesting that disruption of the mitochondrial respiratory
             chain may precede these brain lesions. Our studies
             demonstrate that this environmental air contaminant has the
             potential to cause a wide spectrum of brain lesions that are
             dependent on the degree and duration of exposure.},
   Key = {fds132915}
}

@article{fds174294,
   Author = {TL Rutledge and SA Kamelle and TD Tillmanns and NS Gould and JD Wright and DE Cohn and TJ Herzog and JS Rader and MA Gold and GA Johnson and JL
             Walker, RS Mannel and DS McMeekin},
   Title = {A comparison of stages IB1 and IB2 cervical cancers treated
             with radical hysterectomy. Is size the real
             difference?},
   Journal = {Gynecologic oncology},
   Volume = {95},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {70-6},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0090-8258},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2004.07.027},
   Keywords = {Adult • Aged • Disease-Free Survival • Female
             • Follow-Up Studies • Humans • Hysterectomy
             • Lymph Node Excision • Lymph Nodes • Middle
             Aged • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local • Neoplasm
             Staging • Risk Factors • Treatment Outcome •
             Uterine Cervical Neoplasms • adverse effects •
             methods • pathology • pathology* • surgery
             • surgery*},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To compare stages IB1 and IB2 cervical cancers
             treated with radical hysterectomy (RH) and to define
             predictors of nodal status and recurrence. METHODS: Patients
             with stage IB cervical cancers undergoing RH between 1990
             and 2000 were evaluated and clinicopathological variables
             were abstracted. The perioperative complication rate,
             estimated blood loss (EBL), and OR time were also tabulated.
             Variables were analyzed using X(2) and t tests. Disease-free
             survival (DFS) was calculated by Kaplan-Meier method.
             Multivariate analysis was performed via stepwise logistic
             regression. Cox-proportional hazards were used to identify
             independent predictors of recurrence. RESULTS: RH was
             performed on 109 stage IB1 and 86 stage IB2 patients. Mean
             age, EBL, and perioperative complication rates were similar.
             Overall, 38 patients (14 IB1 vs. 24 IB2) had positive nodes
             (P = 0.01) including 9 patients with positive para-aortic
             nodes (2 IB1 and 7 IB2). Parametrial involvement (PI) and
             outer 2/3 depth of invasion (DOI) were significantly more
             common in the IB2 tumors as well. Patients with IB2 disease
             received adjuvant radiation more frequently than IB1
             patients (52% vs. 37%, P = 0.04). Univariate predictors of
             nodal status included lymphovascular space involvement
             (LVSI) (P = 0.001), DOI (P = 0.011), PI (P = 0.001), and
             stage (P = 0.011). Multivariate analysis identified only
             LVSI (OR 6.4, CI 2.4-17, P = 0. 0002) and PI (OR 8, CI
             3.1-20, P = 0. 0001) as independent predictors of positive
             nodes. With a median follow-up of 35 months, estimates of
             DFS revealed tumor size (P = 0.008), nodal status (P =
             0.0004), LVSI (P = 0.002), PI (P = 0.004), and DOI (P =
             0.0004) as significant univariate predictors. Neoadjuvant
             chemotherapy, age, grade, histology, and adjuvant radiation
             were not associated with recurrence. The significant
             independent predictors of DFS were LVSI (ROR 5.7, CI 2-16, P
             = 0.0064) and outer 2/3 DOI (OR 5.8, CI 2-20, P = 0.0029).
             Neither tumor size nor nodal status was a significant
             predictor of DFS. CONCLUSIONS: The prognosis in stage IB
             cervical cancer seems to be most influenced by presence of
             LVSI and DOI and not by tumor size as the staging criteria
             would suggest. These factors are best determined
             pathologically after radical hysterectomy. This report
             contains the largest comparison of IB1 and IB2 patients
             managed by RH. Tumor size failed to predict recurrence or
             nodal status when stratified by LVSI, DOI, and PI. Treatment
             decisions based on tumor size alone should be
             reconsidered.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.ygyno.2004.07.027},
   Key = {fds174294}
}

@article{fds174105,
   Author = {SA Kamelle and TL Rutledge and TD Tillmanns and NS Gould and DE Cohn and J
             Wright, TJ Herzog and JS Rader and MA Gold and GA Johnson and JL Walker and RS Mannel and DS McMeekin},
   Title = {Surgical-pathological predictors of disease-free survival
             and risk groupings for IB2 cervical cancer: do the
             traditional models still apply?},
   Journal = {Gynecologic oncology},
   Volume = {94},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {249-55},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0090-8258},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2004.05.038},
   Keywords = {Adult • Aged • Disease-Free Survival • Female
             • Humans • Hysterectomy • Lymph Node Excision
             • Lymphatic Metastasis • Lymphatic System •
             Middle Aged • Neoplasm Staging • Retrospective
             Studies • Risk Factors • Uterine Cervical
             Neoplasms • methods • pathology • pathology*
             • surgery*},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how the independent predictors of
             recurrence for stage IB2 cervical cancers treated with
             up-front radical hysterectomy apply to established risk
             models. METHODS: Patients with IB2 cervical cancers
             diagnosed from 1990 to 2000 were identified from tumor
             registries of two institutions. Patients were classified
             into risk groups: high-risk (HR) (positive nodes,
             parametria, or margins), intermediate-risk (IR) (positive
             lymph vascular space involvement (LVSI) with any cervical
             stromal invasion (CSI), or (-) LVSI and > middle- CSI), or
             low-risk (LR) (absence of HR or IR characteristics).
             Disease-free survival (DFS) was estimated by Kaplan-Meier
             method and comparisons between subgroups were studied by log
             rank. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine
             independent predictors of recurrence. RESULTS: We identified
             86 patients with stage IB2 tumors treated by RH. We found
             34% of patients to be HR, 60% IR, and 6% LR. Of the 52 IR
             patients, 28 had (+) LVSI with superficial, middle, and
             outer 1/3 CSI, and 24 had (-) LVSI with middle or outer 1/3
             invasion. Overall, postoperative adjuvant radiation (PRT)
             was used in 52% of the 86 patients, including 0/5 LR, 16/52
             IR, and 29/29 HR patients. Univariate predictors of
             recurrence were pelvic nodal disease, (+) LVSI, (+)
             parametria, outer 1/3 CSI, and tumor size > 6 cm. Age,
             grade, histology, and the use of postoperative radiation
             were not associated with recurrence. Multivariate analysis
             identified LVSI as the only independent predictor of
             recurrence (RR 5.2, P = 0.03). Two-year DFS for LR, IR, and
             HR patients was 100%, 83%, and 60%, respectively. Only 4/24
             (17%) IR patients with (-) LVSI got PRT compared with 12/28
             (43%) of IR patients with (+) LVSI. The 2-year DFS for IR
             patients with (-) LVSI was 96%. IR (+) patients recurred
             more frequently with a 2-year DFS of 71%. CONCLUSIONS:
             Overall, 66% of patients with IB2 disease were classified as
             having low or intermediate-risk disease. IR patients with
             (-) LVSI and all LR patients did well with surgery alone.
             This study defines the independent importance of LVSI and
             questions the utility of published IR models when applied to
             stage IB2 cervical cancer.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.ygyno.2004.05.038},
   Key = {fds174105}
}

@article{fds132907,
   Author = {AC Brau and LW Hedlund and GA Johnson},
   Title = {Cine magnetic resonance microscopy of the rat heart using
             cardiorespiratory-synchronous projection
             reconstruction.},
   Journal = {Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI, United
             States},
   Volume = {20},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {31-8},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {1053-1807},
   Keywords = {Animals • Artifacts • Female • Image
             Processing, Computer-Assisted* • Magnetic Resonance
             Imaging, Cine* • Microscopy • Myocardial
             Contraction* • Rats • Rats, Sprague-Dawley •
             Respiration* • methods},
   Abstract = {PURPOSE: To tailor a cardiac magnetic resonance (MR)
             microscopy technique for the rat that combines improvements
             in pulse sequence design and physiologic control to acquire
             high-resolution images of cardiac structure and function.
             MATERIALS AND METHODS: Projection reconstruction (PR) was
             compared to conventional Cartesian techniques in
             point-spread function simulations and experimental studies
             to evaluate its artifact sensitivity. Female Sprague-Dawley
             rats were imaged at 2.0 T using PR with direct encoding of
             the free induction decay. Specialized physiologic support
             and monitoring equipment ensured consistency of biological
             motion and permitted synchronization of imaging with the
             cardiac and respiratory cycles. RESULTS: The reduced
             artifact sensitivity of PR offered improved delineation of
             cardiac and pulmonary structures. Ventilatory
             synchronization further increased the signal-to-noise ratio
             by reducing inter-view variability. High-quality short-axis
             and long-axis cine images of the rat heart were acquired
             with 10-msec temporal resolution and microscopic spatial
             resolution down to 175 microm x 175 microm x 1 mm.
             CONCLUSION: Integrating careful biological control with an
             optimized pulse sequence significantly limits both the
             source and impact of image artifacts. This work represents a
             novel integration of techniques designed to support
             measurement of cardiac morphology and function in rodent
             models of cardiovascular disease.},
   Key = {fds132907}
}

@article{fds157088,
   Author = {TE Spencer and RC Burghardt and GA Johnson and FW
             Bazer},
   Title = {Conceptus signals for establishment and maintenance of
             pregnancy.},
   Journal = {Animal reproduction science},
   Volume = {82-83},
   Pages = {537-50},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0378-4320},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2004.04.014},
   Keywords = {Animals • Animals, Domestic • Corpus Luteum •
             Female • Fetus • Interferons • Pregnancy
             • Pregnancy Maintenance • Progesterone •
             Sheep • Signal Transduction* • Swine •
             Trophoblasts • metabolism • physiology •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {Establishment and maintenance of pregnancy results from
             signaling by the conceptus (embryo/fetus and associated
             extraembryonic membranes) and requires progesterone produced
             by the corpus luteum. In most mammals, hormones produced by
             the trophoblast maintain progesterone production by acting
             directly or indirectly to maintain the corpus luteum. In
             domestic animals (ruminants and pigs), hormones from the
             trophoblast are antiluteolytic in that they act on the
             endometrium to prevent uterine release of luteolytic
             prostaglandin F2alpha. In cyclic and pregnant sheep,
             progesterone negatively autoregulates progesterone receptor
             gene expression in the endometrial luminal and superficial
             glandular epithelium. In cyclic sheep, loss of the
             progesterone receptor is closely followed by increases in
             epithelial estrogen receptors and then oxytocin receptors,
             allowing oxytocin to induce uterine release of luteolytic
             prostaglandin F2alpha pulses. In pregnant sheep, the
             conceptus trophoblast produces interferon tau that acts on
             the endometrium to inhibit transcription of the estrogen
             receptor alpha gene directly and the oxytocin receptor gene
             indirectly to abrogate development of the endometrial
             luteolytic mechanism. Subsequently, sequential, overlapping
             actions of progesterone, interferon tau, placental lactogen,
             and growth hormone comprise a hormonal servomechanism that
             regulates endometrial gland morphogenesis and terminal
             differentiated function to maintain pregnancy in sheep. In
             pigs, the conceptus trophoblast produces estrogen that
             alters the direction of prostaglandin F2alpha secretion from
             an endocrine to exocrine direction, thereby sequestering
             luteolytic prostaglandin F2alpha within the uterine lumen.
             Conceptus estrogen also increases expression of fibroblast
             growth factor 7 in the endometrial lumenal epithelium that,
             in turn, stimulates proliferation and differentiated
             functions of the trophectoderm, which expresses the
             fibroblast growth factor 7 receptor. Strategic manipulation
             of these physiological mechanisms may improve uterine
             capacity, conceptus survival, and reproductive
             health.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.anireprosci.2004.04.014},
   Key = {fds157088}
}

@article{fds174256,
   Author = {TE Spencer and GA Johnson and RC Burghardt and FW
             Bazer},
   Title = {Progesterone and placental hormone actions on the uterus:
             insights from domestic animals.},
   Journal = {Biology of reproduction},
   Volume = {71},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {2-10},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0006-3363},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.103.024133},
   Keywords = {Animals • Animals, Domestic • Female •
             Placental Hormones • Pregnancy • Pregnancy, Animal
             • Progesterone • Sheep • Swine • Uterus
             • physiology • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Progesterone is unequivocally required for maternal support
             of conceptus (embryo/fetus and associated extraembryonic
             membranes) survival and development. In cyclic sheep,
             progesterone is paradoxically involved in suppressing and
             then initiating development of the endometrial luteolytic
             mechanism. In cyclic and pregnant sheep, progesterone
             negatively autoregulates progesterone receptor (PR) gene
             expression in the endometrial luminal (LE) and superficial
             glandular epithelium (GE). In cyclic sheep, PR loss is
             closely followed by increases in epithelial estrogen
             receptor (ERalpha) and then oxytocin receptor (OTR),
             allowing oxytocin to induce uterine release of luteolytic
             prostaglandin F2alpha pulses. In pregnant sheep, the
             conceptus produces interferon tau (IFNtau) that acts on the
             endometrium to inhibit transcription of the ERalpha gene and
             thus development of the endometrial luteolytic mechanism.
             After Day 13 of pregnancy, the endometrial epithelia do not
             express the PR, whereas the stroma and myometrium remain PR
             positive. The absence of PR in the endometrial GE is
             required for onset of differentiated function of the glands
             during pregnancy. The sequential, overlapping actions of
             progesterone, IFNtau, placental lactogen (PL), and growth
             hormone (GH) comprise a hormonal servomechanism that
             regulates endometrial gland morphogenesis and terminal
             differentiated function during gestation. In pigs, estrogen,
             the pregnancy-recognition signal, increases fibroblast
             growth factor 7 (FGF-7) expression in the endometrial LE
             that, in turn, stimulates proliferation and differentiated
             functions of the trophectoderm, which expresses the receptor
             for FGF-7. Strategic manipulation of these physiological
             mechanisms may offer therapeutic schemes to improve uterine
             capacity, conceptus survival, and reproductive health of
             domestic animals and humans.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1095/biolreprod.103.024133},
   Key = {fds174256}
}

@article{fds268881,
   Author = {Maronpot, RR and Sills, RC and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Applications of magnetic resonance microscopy.},
   Journal = {Toxicologic Pathology (Sage)},
   Volume = {32 Suppl 2},
   Pages = {42-48},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0192-6233},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15503663},
   Keywords = {Animals • Brain • Fetus • Humans • Image
             Processing, Computer-Assisted • Imaging,
             Three-Dimensional • Magnetic Resonance Imaging* •
             Microscopy • Sulfur Oxides • Teratology •
             Urate Oxidase • genetics • metabolism •
             methods*},
   Abstract = {Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has enjoyed enormous
             clinical success since the first demonstration of the method
             more than 30 years ago. An increasing number of
             pharmaceutical manufacturers seeking new biomarkers for
             assessing drug efficacy and toxicity are turning to MRI. A
             specific application of MRI promises to revolutionize
             pathology for the basic scientist in the same way MRI has
             forever altered the standard of care in the clinical domain.
             More specifically, this application is the use of magnetic
             resonance microscopy (MRM) in conjunction with new staining
             methodologies that now make MRM routinely available to the
             widest range of investigators.},
   Doi = {10.1080/01926230490451707},
   Key = {fds268881}
}

@booklet{Brau04,
   Author = {Brau, ACS and Hedlund, LW and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Cine magnetic resonance microscopy of the rat heart using
             cardiorespiratory-synchronous projection
             reconstruction.},
   Journal = {Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging},
   Volume = {20},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {31-38},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {1053-1807},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15221806},
   Abstract = {PURPOSE: To tailor a cardiac magnetic resonance (MR)
             microscopy technique for the rat that combines improvements
             in pulse sequence design and physiologic control to acquire
             high-resolution images of cardiac structure and function.
             MATERIALS AND METHODS: Projection reconstruction (PR) was
             compared to conventional Cartesian techniques in
             point-spread function simulations and experimental studies
             to evaluate its artifact sensitivity. Female Sprague-Dawley
             rats were imaged at 2.0 T using PR with direct encoding of
             the free induction decay. Specialized physiologic support
             and monitoring equipment ensured consistency of biological
             motion and permitted synchronization of imaging with the
             cardiac and respiratory cycles. RESULTS: The reduced
             artifact sensitivity of PR offered improved delineation of
             cardiac and pulmonary structures. Ventilatory
             synchronization further increased the signal-to-noise ratio
             by reducing inter-view variability. High-quality short-axis
             and long-axis cine images of the rat heart were acquired
             with 10-msec temporal resolution and microscopic spatial
             resolution down to 175 microm x 175 microm x 1 mm.
             CONCLUSION: Integrating careful biological control with an
             optimized pulse sequence significantly limits both the
             source and impact of image artifacts. This work represents a
             novel integration of techniques designed to support
             measurement of cardiac morphology and function in rodent
             models of cardiovascular disease.},
   Doi = {10.1002/jmri.20089},
   Key = {Brau04}
}

@booklet{Sills04a,
   Author = {Sills, RC and Morgan, DL and Maronpot, RR and Johnson,
             GA},
   Title = {Contribution of magnetic resonance microscopy in the
             biologic and mechanistic assessment of carbonyl sulfide
             neurotoxicity in F344 rats},
   Journal = {Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology},
   Volume = {197},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {151-152},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0041-008X},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000222348900052&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {Sills04a}
}

@booklet{Self04,
   Author = {J. T. Self and T. E. Spencer and G. A. Johnson and J. B. Hu and F. W. Bazer and G. Y. Wu},
   Title = {Glutamine synthesis in the developing porcine
             placental},
   Journal = {Biology Of Reproduction},
   Volume = {70},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1444 -- 1451},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {May},
   Key = {Self04}
}

@article{fds174286,
   Author = {JT Self and TE Spencer and GA Johnson and J Hu and FW Bazer and G
             Wu},
   Title = {Glutamine synthesis in the developing porcine
             placenta.},
   Journal = {Biology of reproduction},
   Volume = {70},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1444-51},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0006-3363},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.103.025486},
   Keywords = {3-Methyl-2-Oxobutanoate Dehydrogenase (Lipoamide) •
             Alanine • Alanine Transaminase • Amino Acids
             • Amino Acids, Branched-Chain • Animals •
             Biological Transport • Female • Glutamate-Ammonia
             Ligase • Glutaminase • Glutamine • Placenta
             • Pregnancy • Swine • Transaminases •
             biosynthesis • biosynthesis* • enzymology •
             growth & development* • metabolism •
             metabolism*},
   Abstract = {Glutamine plays a vital role in fetal carbon and nitrogen
             metabolism and exhibits the highest fetal:maternal plasma
             ratio among all amino acids in pigs. Such disparate
             glutamine levels between mother and fetus suggest that
             glutamine may be actively synthesized and released into the
             fetal circulation by the porcine placenta. We hypothesized
             that branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism in the
             placenta plays an important role in placental glutamine
             synthesis. This hypothesis was tested by studying
             conceptuses from gilts on Days 20, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 60,
             90, or 110 of gestation (n = 6 per day). Placental tissue
             was analyzed for amino acid concentrations, BCAA transport,
             BCAA degradation, and glutamine synthesis as well as the
             activities of related enzymes (including BCAA transaminase,
             branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase, glutamine
             synthetase, glutamate-pyruvate transaminase, and
             glutaminase). On all days of gestation, rates of BCAA
             transamination were much greater than rates of
             branched-chain alpha-ketoacid decarboxylation. The glutamate
             generated from BCAA transamination was primarily directed to
             glutamine synthesis and, to a much lesser extent, alanine
             production. Placental BCAA transport, BCAA transamination,
             glutamine synthesis, and activities of related enzymes
             increased markedly between Days 20 and 40 of gestation, as
             did glutamine in fetal allantoic fluid. Accordingly,
             placental BCAA levels decreased after Day 20 of gestation in
             association with a marked increase in BCAA catabolism and
             concentrations of glutamine. There was no detectable
             catabolism of glutamine in pig placenta throughout
             pregnancy, which would ensure maximum output of glutamine by
             this tissue. These novel results demonstrate glutamine
             synthesis from BCAAs in pig placentae, aid in explaining the
             abundance of glutamine in the fetus, and provide valuable
             insight into the dynamic role of the placenta in fetal
             metabolism and nutrition.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1095/biolreprod.103.025486},
   Key = {fds174286}
}

@booklet{Segars04,
   Author = {Segars, WP and Tsui, BMW and Frey, EC and Johnson, GA and Berr,
             SS},
   Title = {Development of a 4-D digital mouse phantom for molecular
             imaging research.},
   Journal = {Molecular Imaging and Biology},
   Volume = {6},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {149-159},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {1536-1632},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15193249},
   Abstract = {PURPOSE: We develop a realistic and flexible 4-D digital
             mouse phantom and investigate its usefulness in molecular
             imaging research. METHODS: Organ shapes were modeled with
             non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surfaces based on
             high-resolution 3-D magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM)
             data. Cardiac and respiratory motions were modeled based on
             gated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data obtained from
             normal mice. Pilot simulation studies in single-photon
             emission computed tomography (SPECT) and X-ray computed
             tomography (CT) were performed to demonstrate the utility of
             the phantom. RESULTS: NURBS are an efficient and flexible
             way to accurately model the anatomy and cardiac and
             respiratory motions for a realistic 4-D digital mouse
             phantom. The phantom is capable of producing realistic
             molecular imaging data from which imaging devices and
             techniques can be evaluated. CONCLUSION: The phantom
             provides a unique and useful tool in molecular imaging
             research. It can be used in the development of new imaging
             instrumentation, image acquisition strategies, and image
             processing and reconstruction methods.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.mibio.2004.03.002},
   Key = {Segars04}
}

@article{fds132902,
   Author = {X Zhang and M Tengowski and L Fasulo and S Botts and SA Suddarth and GA
             Johnson},
   Title = {Measurement of fat/water ratios in rat liver using 3D
             three-point dixon MRI.},
   Journal = {Magnetic resonance in medicine : official journal of the
             Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine / Society of
             Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, United States},
   Volume = {51},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {697-702},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0740-3194},
   Keywords = {Adipose Tissue • Animals • Biological Markers
             • Body Water • Carrier Proteins •
             Dose-Response Relationship, Drug • Drug Evaluation,
             Preclinical • Fatty Liver • Female • Humans
             • Image Enhancement • Imaging, Three-Dimensional
             • Liver • Magnetic Resonance Imaging •
             Microsomes, Liver • Rats • Rats, Inbred Strains
             • analysis • antagonists & inhibitors •
             chemically induced • chemistry* • diagnosis*
             • drug effects • methods • methods* •
             pathology • pathology*},
   Abstract = {Hepatic steatosis, or fatty liver, is commonly observed
             during the animal phase of drug safety studies. A
             noninvasive three-dimensional (3D) three-point Dixon method
             was used to quantitatively evaluate the fatty livers of rats
             induced by an experimental microsomal transfer protein (MTP)
             inhibitor, in an effort to develop a safety biomarker that
             could be translated to human studies. The method was
             implemented at 2.0 T for in vivo studies, and at 7.1 T for
             higher-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) histologic
             studies. In three separate protocols to study dose response
             and longitudinal evolution, intrahepatic fatty accumulation
             was detected by this method and confirmed by chemical and
             histologic assessments. Consistent with the pathologic
             changes, the fat/water ratios estimated by the MR technique
             increased significantly at doses of 1 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg of
             MTP inhibitor after 14 days of continuous administration.
             Among the more important findings were: 1). with the 3D
             three-point Dixon method, in vivo longitudinal studies of
             liver fat distribution can be conducted at significantly
             higher resolution than has previously been reported; 2). MR
             histology allows delineation of distribution at the
             microscopic scale of 0.0024 mm(3) resolution; and 3). the 3D
             three-point Dixon technique provides relative estimates of
             liver fat content and distribution at a high confidence
             level. This technique will be applicable in future studies
             in which fatty liver is a potential safety
             issue.},
   Key = {fds132902}
}

@booklet{Zhang04,
   Author = {Zhang, X and Tengowski, M and Fasulo, L and Botts, S and Suddarth, SA and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Measurement of fat/water ratios in rat liver using 3D
             three-point dixon MRI.},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance in Medicine},
   Volume = {51},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {697-702},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0740-3194},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15065241},
   Abstract = {Hepatic steatosis, or fatty liver, is commonly observed
             during the animal phase of drug safety studies. A
             noninvasive three-dimensional (3D) three-point Dixon method
             was used to quantitatively evaluate the fatty livers of rats
             induced by an experimental microsomal transfer protein (MTP)
             inhibitor, in an effort to develop a safety biomarker that
             could be translated to human studies. The method was
             implemented at 2.0 T for in vivo studies, and at 7.1 T for
             higher-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) histologic
             studies. In three separate protocols to study dose response
             and longitudinal evolution, intrahepatic fatty accumulation
             was detected by this method and confirmed by chemical and
             histologic assessments. Consistent with the pathologic
             changes, the fat/water ratios estimated by the MR technique
             increased significantly at doses of 1 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg of
             MTP inhibitor after 14 days of continuous administration.
             Among the more important findings were: 1). with the 3D
             three-point Dixon method, in vivo longitudinal studies of
             liver fat distribution can be conducted at significantly
             higher resolution than has previously been reported; 2). MR
             histology allows delineation of distribution at the
             microscopic scale of 0.0024 mm(3) resolution; and 3). the 3D
             three-point Dixon technique provides relative estimates of
             liver fat content and distribution at a high confidence
             level. This technique will be applicable in future studies
             in which fatty liver is a potential safety
             issue.},
   Doi = {10.1002/mrm.20005},
   Key = {Zhang04}
}

@booklet{Chen04a,
   Author = {Chen, BT and Yordanov, AT and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Functional pulmonary MR microscopy in mice},
   Journal = {The FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation
             of American Societies for Experimental Biology},
   Volume = {18},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {A785-A785},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0892-6638},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000220470700119&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {Chen04a}
}

@booklet{Muggia04,
   Author = {F. M. Muggia and J. A. Blessing and M. Method and D. S.
             Miller and G. A. Johnson and R. B. Lee and A.
             Menzin},
   Title = {Evaluation of vinorelbine in persistent or recurrent
             squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix: a Gynecologic
             Oncology Group study},
   Journal = {Gynecologic Oncology},
   Volume = {92},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {639 -- 643},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {February},
   Key = {Muggia04}
}

@article{fds174223,
   Author = {FM Muggia and JA Blessing and M Method and DS Miller and GA Johnson and RB
             Lee, A Menzin and Gynecologic Oncology Group
             study},
   Title = {Evaluation of vinorelbine in persistent or recurrent
             squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix: a Gynecologic
             Oncology Group study.},
   Journal = {Gynecologic oncology},
   Volume = {92},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {639-43},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0090-8258},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2003.10.045},
   Keywords = {Adult • Aged • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic
             • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell • Drug Administration
             Schedule • Female • Humans • Middle Aged
             • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms • Vinblastine •
             analogs & derivatives* • drug therapy* •
             therapeutic use*},
   Abstract = {PURPOSE: Vinorelbine is being explored by the Gynecologic
             Oncology Group (GOG) for its possible use in advanced or
             recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. The
             objective of this Phase II trial was to evaluate a days 1
             and 8 every-21-days schedule and determine its activity in
             patients who had failed standard chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND
             METHODS: Eligible patients with measurable disease and
             satisfactory baseline bone marrow, liver, and kidney
             functions were treated with vinorelbine 30 mg/m(2) given on
             days 1 and 8 every 21 days. A two-stage sampling design was
             used, proceeding to a second stage accrual if sufficient
             activity was documented in the first 25 patients. RESULTS:
             The study did proceed to the second stage and accrued 44
             patients. There were six objective responses (one complete,
             five partial) for a response rate of 13.7% (95% confidence
             interval: 5.2-27.4%). There were three patients with
             response in extra-pelvic sites (including the complete
             response) and three with response in the pelvis. The overall
             frequency of grades 3 and 4 neutropenia was 41%, whereas
             neuropathy was reported in 27% and was severe in three.
             Treatment-related pain, very severe in two instances, was
             also reported in 27%. CONCLUSION: Vinorelbine has moderate
             activity in a pretreated population with squamous cell
             carcinoma of the cervix. Accordingly, vinorelbine in this
             days 1 and 8 schedule is being studied further in
             combination with cisplatin by the GOG.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.ygyno.2003.10.045},
   Key = {fds174223}
}

@booklet{White04,
   Author = {F. J. White and M. M. Joyce and J. B. Hu and T. E. Spencer and R. C. Burghardt and G. A. Johnson},
   Title = {Temporal and spatial expression of uterine osteopontin
             during the murine estrous cycle and pregnancy.},
   Journal = {Biology Of Reproduction},
   Pages = {153 -- 154},
   Year = {2004},
   Key = {White04}
}

@booklet{Wu04,
   Author = {G. Y. Wu and T. E. Spencer and G. A. Johnson and F. W.
             Bazer},
   Title = {Polyamine synthesis from proline in the developing porcine
             placenta.},
   Journal = {Biology Of Reproduction},
   Pages = {158 -- 158},
   Year = {2004},
   Key = {Wu04}
}

@booklet{Joyce04,
   Author = {M. M. Joyce and R. C. Burghardt and T. E. Spencer and G. A.
             Johnson},
   Title = {Conceptus secretory factors, other than estrogen, increase
             expression of interferon-stimulated genes in the porcine
             endometrium during pregnancy.},
   Journal = {Biology Of Reproduction},
   Pages = {211 -- 211},
   Year = {2004},
   Key = {Joyce04}
}

@booklet{Muniz04,
   Author = {J. J. Muniz and M. M. Joyce and R. C. Burghardt and G. A.
             Johnson},
   Title = {Glycosylation-dependent cell adhesion molecule 1 (GlyCAM-1)
             expression in ovine placentomes implies roles in
             hematotrophic support for conceptus development.},
   Journal = {Biology Of Reproduction},
   Pages = {212 -- 212},
   Year = {2004},
   Key = {Muniz04}
}

@article{fds268777,
   Author = {Mai, W and Badea, CT and Wheeler, CT and Hedlund, LW and Johnson,
             GA},
   Title = {Effects of breathing motion on the spatial resolution in
             microscopic imaging techniques of rodents},
   Journal = {2004 2nd IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging:
             Macro to Nano},
   Volume = {1},
   Pages = {472-475},
   Year = {2004},
   ISBN = {0780383885},
   Abstract = {Magnetic resonance microscopy is capable of producing
             high-resolution pulmonary images in live rodents by
             synchronizing the image acquisition across multiple breaths.
             The precision with which one can control motion will
             probably define the resolution limit that can be attained in
             such studies. This work was performed to evaluate how
             reliably the respiratory structures return to the same
             position from breath to breath each time data are acquired.
             Radio-opaque beads were surgically glued on the diaphragm of
             anesthetized, mechanically ventilated rats. Their range of
             motion (relative to a reference vertebral bead) was
             evaluated using digital micro-radiography with two specific
             biological pulse sequences: (1) ventilation synchronous
             acquisition, and (2) both ventilation synchronous and
             cardiac gated acquisition. The standard deviation of the
             displacement was on the order of, or less than 100 microns,
             which is comparable to the resolution limit for in vivo
             magnetic resonance imaging imposed by signal to noise
             constraints. With careful control of motion, its impact on
             resolution can be limited. This work provides the first
             quantitative measure of the motion imposed resolution limits
             for in vivo imaging. ©2004 IEEE.},
   Key = {fds268777}
}

@article{fds268778,
   Author = {Badea, CT and Hedlund, LW and Wheeler, CT and Mai, W and Johnson,
             GA},
   Title = {Volumetric micro-CT system for in vivo microscopy},
   Journal = {2004 2nd IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging:
             Macro to Nano},
   Volume = {2},
   Pages = {1377-1380},
   Year = {2004},
   ISBN = {0780383885},
   Abstract = {Two of the major barriers to improved image quality in
             micro-CT are the reduced signal to noise imposed by the
             smaller voxels and the effects of physiologic motion. The
             most direct approach to increase the signal to noise ratio
             (SNR) is to increase the flux. This is not possible in most
             of laboratory and commercial micro-CT systems that are
             currently in use. We adopted a design that allows the use of
             high instantaneous X-ray flux combined with synchronization
             to physiologic motion. High quality imaging of moving organs
             such as the heart or the lungs is directly dependent on
             appropriate gating techniques. For this purpose, we acquired
             X-ray projections using a flexible controller to enable
             sophisticated biological pulse sequences to minimize the
             effects of motion. This paper reports on the development of
             a volumetric micro-CT scanner dedicated to structural and
             functional phenotyping of the live mouse. © 2004
             IEEE.},
   Key = {fds268778}
}

@article{fds268779,
   Author = {Lin, MD and Badea, CT and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Optimized radiographic spectra for digital subtraction
             angiography in the mouse},
   Journal = {2004 2nd IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging:
             Macro to Nano},
   Volume = {2},
   Pages = {1412-1415},
   Year = {2004},
   Abstract = {The availability of genetically altered mouse models of
             human disease and the increasing use of small animals in
             basic research have spurred extraordinary interest in new
             imaging methodologies - particularly magnetic resonance
             microscopy, microCT, and microPET. To date, very little
             attention has been given to planar radiographic imaging. Yet
             there exists enormous potential for this modality given the
             ease of use and its potential speed. Functional imaging in
             mouse models can be addressed particularly well through the
             use of digital subtraction angiography. We describe here a
             system designed explicitly for digital subtraction
             angiography in the mouse and the optimization of acquisition
             parameters required to perform the highest quality
             functional subtraction angiograms. We focus on optimization
             of contrast using selective K-edge filters and the
             optimization of contrast agent though a carefully controlled
             biological pulse sequence. © 2004 IEEE.},
   Key = {fds268779}
}

@article{fds268791,
   Author = {Bowsher, JE and Yuan, H and Hedlund, LW and Turkington, TG and Akabani,
             G and Badea, A and Kurylo, WC and Wheeler, CT and Cofer, GP and Dewhirst,
             MW and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Utilizing MRI information to estimate F18-FDG distributions
             in rat flank tumors},
   Journal = {IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference
             Record},
   Volume = {4},
   Pages = {2488-2492},
   Year = {2004},
   ISSN = {1095-7863},
   Abstract = {This paper investigates the potential of magnetic resonance
             imaging (MRI) to improve the estimation of within-tumor
             variations in F18-FDG concentration. An image model is
             described for incorporating MRI images into positron
             emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission
             computed tomog-raphy (SPECT) radiotracer image
             reconstruction. The model promotes greater smoothing, of
             estimated radiotracer concentration, among nearby voxels
             that have more nearly similar MRI signals. R3230 mammary
             adenocarcinomas are grown on rat flanks. Autoradiography,
             histology, and T2-weighted MRI are used to demonstrate that
             the above image model accurately reflects true F18-FDG
             distributions in R3230 tumors. In vivo F18-FDG distributions
             are then reconstructed from PET projection data, with and
             without incorporating MRI. The F18-FDG images reconstructed
             with MRI show greater detail, and this additional detail is
             consistent with the results of the autoradiography and
             histology studies. © 2004 IEEE.},
   Key = {fds268791}
}

@booklet{Sills04,
   Author = {Sills, RC and Morgan, DL and Herr, DW and Little, PB and George, NM and Ton, TV and Love, NE and Maronpot, RR and Johnson,
             GA},
   Title = {Contribution of magnetic resonance microscopy in the 12-week
             neurotoxicity evaluation of carbonyl sulfide in Fischer 344
             rats},
   Journal = {Toxicologic Pathology},
   Volume = {32},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {501-510},
   Year = {2004},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01926230490493918},
   Abstract = {In this carbonyl sulfide (COS) study, magnetic resonance
             microscopy (MRM) and detailed light microscopic evaluation
             effectively functioned in parallel to assure that the
             distribution and degree of pathology in the brain was
             accurately represented. MRM is a powerful imaging modality
             that allows for excellent identification of neuroanatomical
             structures coupled with the ability to acquire 200 or more
             cross-sectional images of the brain, and the ability to
             display them in multiple planes. F344 rats were exposed to
             200-600 ppm COS for up to 12 weeks. Prior to MRM, rats were
             anesthetized and cardiac perfused with McDowell Trump's
             fixative containing a gadolinium MR contrast medium. Fixed
             specimens were scanned at the Duke Center for In Vivo
             Microscopy on a 9.4 Tesla magnetic resonance system adapted
             explicitly for microscopic imaging. An advantage of MRM in
             this study was the ability to identify lesions in rats that
             appeared clinically normal prior to sacrifice and the
             opportunity to identify lesions in areas of the brain which
             would not be included in conventional studies. Other
             advantages include the ability to examine the brain in
             multiple planes (transverse, dorsal, sagittal) and obtain
             and save the MRM images in a digital format that allows for
             postexperimental data processing and manipulation. MRM
             images were correlated with neuroanatomical and
             neuropathological findings. All suspected MRM images were
             compared to corresponding H&amp;E slides. An important
             aspect of this study was that MRM was critical in defining
             our strategy for sectioning the brain, and for designing
             mechanistic studies (cytochrome oxidase evaluations) and
             functional assessments (electrophysiology studies) on
             specifically targeted anatomical sites following COS
             exposure.},
   Doi = {10.1080/01926230490493918},
   Key = {Sills04}
}

@booklet{Hoverstad04,
   Author = {T. R. Hoverstad and J. L. Gunsolus and G. A. Johnson and R.
             R. King},
   Title = {Risk-efficiency criteria for evaluating economics of
             herbicide-based weed management systems in
             corn},
   Journal = {Weed Technology},
   Volume = {18},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {687 -- 697},
   Year = {2004},
   Key = {Hoverstad04}
}

@booklet{Fischer04,
   Author = {D. W. Fischer and R. G. Harvey and T. T. Bauman and S.
             Phillips and S. E. Hart and G. A. Johnson and J. J. Kells and P. Westra and J. Lindquist},
   Title = {Common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album) interference with
             corn across the northcentral United States},
   Journal = {Weed Science},
   Volume = {52},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1034 -- 1038},
   Year = {2004},
   Key = {Fischer04}
}

@article{fds268880,
   Author = {Yelbuz, TM and Zhang, X and Choma, MA and Stadt, HA and Zdanowicz, M and Johnson, GA and Kirby, ML},
   Title = {Images in cardiovascular medicine. Approaching cardiac
             development in three dimensions by magnetic resonance
             microscopy.},
   Journal = {Circulation},
   Volume = {108},
   Number = {22},
   Pages = {e154-e155},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {1524-4539},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14656909},
   Keywords = {Animals • Chick Embryo • Heart • Imaging,
             Three-Dimensional* • Internet • Magnetic Resonance
             Imaging • Microscopy • Video Recording •
             anatomy & histology • embryology* •
             instrumentation* • methods*},
   Doi = {10.1161/01.CIR.0000102940.17908.CA},
   Key = {fds268880}
}

@booklet{Yelbuz03,
   Author = {Yelbuz, TM and Zhang, XW and Choma, MA and Stadt, HA and Zdanowicz, M and Johnson, GA and Kirby, ML},
   Title = {Approaching cardiac development in three dimensions by
             magnetic resonance microscopy},
   Journal = {Circulation},
   Volume = {108},
   Number = {22},
   Pages = {E154-E155},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0009-7322},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000186894500017&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1161/01.CIR.0000102940.17908.CA},
   Key = {Yelbuz03}
}

@booklet{Shen-gunther03,
   Author = {J. Shen-gunther and R. S. Mannel and J. L. Walker and M. A.
             Gold and G. A. Johnson},
   Title = {Outpatient implantation of a central venous access system in
             gynecologic oncology patients},
   Journal = {Journal Of Reproductive Medicine},
   Volume = {48},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {875 -- 881},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {November},
   Key = {Shen-gunther03}
}

@booklet{Johnson03,
   Author = {G. A. Johnson and R. C. Burghardt and F. W. Bazer and T. E.
             Spencer},
   Title = {Osteopontin: Roles in implantation and placentation},
   Journal = {Biology Of Reproduction},
   Volume = {69},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1458 -- 1471},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {November},
   Key = {Johnson03}
}

@article{fds174190,
   Author = {GA Johnson and RC Burghardt and FW Bazer and TE Spencer},
   Title = {Osteopontin: roles in implantation and placentation.},
   Journal = {Biology of reproduction},
   Volume = {69},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1458-71},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0006-3363},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.103.020651},
   Keywords = {Animals • Decidua • Embryo Implantation •
             Embryo, Mammalian • Endometrium • Female •
             Humans • Immunity, Cellular • Integrins •
             Osteopontin • Placenta • Placentation •
             Pregnancy • Progesterone • Sialoglycoproteins
             • Structure-Activity Relationship • Uterus •
             biosynthesis • chemistry • immunology •
             metabolism • physiology • physiology* •
             secretion},
   Abstract = {Osteopontin (OPN) is an acidic member of the small
             integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoprotein (SIBLING)
             family of extracellular matrix proteins/cytokines that
             undergoes extensive posttranslational modification,
             including phosphorylation, glycosylation, and cleavage,
             yielding molecular mass variants ranging in size from 25 to
             75 kDa. The result is a versatile protein(s) with multiple
             functions arising from its role as a mediator of cell-cell
             and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) communication that
             encompass both normal and tumorigenic developmental
             processes, immunological responses during inflammation and
             wound healing, and biomineralization. Studies in primates,
             pigs, sheep, and rodents have revealed that OPN is a major
             constituent of the uterine-placental microenvironment with
             influence as 1) a component of histotroph required for
             adhesion and signal transduction at the uterine-placental
             interface throughout pregnancy, 2) a gene product expressed
             by uterine stroma contributing to a decidualization-like
             transformation that correlates with the degree of conceptus
             invasiveness, and 3) a product of resident uterine and
             placental immune cells that may regulate their behavior and
             cytokine production. This minireview summarizes information
             regarding uterine and placental expression of OPN that has
             accumulated over the past 15 yr, and we briefly describe
             structural/functional properties of this protein that are
             likely relevant to its role(s) during pregnancy. Comparative
             studies have offered insights into the potential
             hormonal/cytokine, cellular, and molecular mechanisms
             underlying OPN-mediated adhesion, remodeling, and
             cell-cell/cell-ECM communication within the uterus and
             placenta. OPN has the potential to profoundly impact
             pregnancy, and investigators are now challenged to focus on
             the mechanistic nature of the functions of this multifaceted
             and major component of the uterine-placental
             microenvironment.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1095/biolreprod.103.020651},
   Key = {fds174190}
}

@article{fds174236,
   Author = {J Shen-Gunther and RS Mannel and JL Walker and MA Gold and GA
             Johnson},
   Title = {Outpatient implantation of a central venous access system in
             gynecologic oncology patients.},
   Journal = {The Journal of reproductive medicine},
   Volume = {48},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {875-81},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0024-7758},
   Keywords = {Adult • Aged • Aged, 80 and over • Ambulatory
             Care* • Catheterization, Central Venous •
             Catheters, Indwelling • Equipment Failure • Female
             • Genital Neoplasms, Female • Humans • Middle
             Aged • Oklahoma • Postoperative Complications
             • Prospective Studies • Subclavian Vein •
             drug therapy* • economics* • epidemiology •
             radiography • surgery • utilization*},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility, accuracy,
             complications and cost of implantation of the PORT-A-CATH II
             Fluoro-Free venous access system (SIMS Deltec Inc., St.
             Paul, Minnesota) in the procedure room setting. STUDY
             DESIGN: A prospective study of 49 consecutive gynecologic
             oncology patients who underwent 53 PORT-A-CATH II System
             implantations was conducted. Local anesthesia and conscious
             sedation were used for the procedure. To localize and
             position the catheter tip, the CATH-FINDER (SIMS Deltec)
             electronic catheter sensing device was utilized. Demographic
             characteristics, operative data, complication rates, failure
             rates and itemized costs were collected and analyzed.
             RESULTS: For the 53 ports implanted, the mean operative time
             was 54 minutes (range, 39-74) and mean estimated blood loss
             was 17 mL (range, 7-50). Immediate complications included
             failure to thread the catheter or guidewire past the left
             subclavian vein (4 patients), pneumothorax (1) and
             electronic wire fracture (1). All catheter tips were
             positioned accurately, as confirmed by chest radiography.
             The procedural charge ranged from $1,946 to $2,042. The
             CATH-FINDER obviated the need for, and expenses of,
             fluoroscopy, operating room and anesthesia services,
             resulting in savings of approximately $2,000 per procedure.
             CONCLUSION: Implantation of the PORT-A-CATH II System was
             performed safely, accurately and cost effectively in the
             procedure room setting. The advantages of functional
             longevity, low complication rates and reduced cost of this
             port system offer an excellent option for long-term central
             venous access.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds174236}
}

@article{fds132909,
   Author = {TM Yelbuz and KL Waldo and X Zhang and M Zdanowicz and J Parker and TL
             Creazzo, GA Johnson and ML Kirby},
   Title = {Myocardial volume and organization are changed by failure of
             addition of secondary heart field myocardium to the cardiac
             outflow tract.},
   Journal = {Developmental dynamics : an official publication of the
             American Association of Anatomists, United
             States},
   Volume = {228},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {152-60},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {1058-8388},
   Keywords = {Animals • Cell Count • Cell Division • Cell
             Lineage • Cell Movement • Cell Size • Chick
             Embryo • Heart • Heart Atria • Heart Defects,
             Congenital • Heart Ventricles •
             Immunohistochemistry • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
             • Microscopy, Confocal • Myocardium •
             Myocytes, Cardiac • Neural Crest • Time Factors
             • cytology • cytology* • embryology •
             etiology* • pathology • surgery*},
   Abstract = {Cardiac neural crest ablation results in primary myocardial
             dysfunction and failure of the secondary heart field to add
             the definitive myocardium to the cardiac outflow tract. The
             current study was undertaken to understand the changes in
             myocardial characteristics in the heart tube, including
             volume, proliferation, and cell size when the myocardium
             from the secondary heart field fails to be added to the
             primary heart tube. We used magnetic resonance and confocal
             microscopy to determine that the volume of myocardium in the
             looped heart was dramatically reduced and the compact layer
             of myocardium was thinner after neural crest ablation,
             especially in the outflow tract and ventricular regions.
             Proliferation measured by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine
             incorporation was elevated at only one stage during looping,
             cell death was normal and myocardial cell size was
             increased. Taken together, these results indicate that there
             are fewer myocytes in the heart. By incubation day 8 when
             the heart would have normally completed septation, the
             anterior (ventral) wall of the right ventricle and right
             ventricular outflow tract was significantly thinner in the
             neural crest-ablated embryos than normal, but the thickness
             of the compact myocardium was normal in all other regions of
             the heart. The decreased volume and number of myocardial
             cells in the heart tube after neural crest ablation most
             likely reflects the amount of myocardium added by the
             secondary heart field.},
   Key = {fds132909}
}

@booklet{Yelbuz03a,
   Author = {Yelbuz, TM and Waldo, KL and Zhang, X and Zdanowicz, M and Parker, J and Creazzo, TL and Johnson, GA and Kirby, ML},
   Title = {Myocardial volume and organization are changed by failure of
             addition of secondary heart field myocardium to the cardiac
             outflow tract.},
   Journal = {Developmental Dynamics},
   Volume = {228},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {152-160},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {1058-8388},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14517987},
   Abstract = {Cardiac neural crest ablation results in primary myocardial
             dysfunction and failure of the secondary heart field to add
             the definitive myocardium to the cardiac outflow tract. The
             current study was undertaken to understand the changes in
             myocardial characteristics in the heart tube, including
             volume, proliferation, and cell size when the myocardium
             from the secondary heart field fails to be added to the
             primary heart tube. We used magnetic resonance and confocal
             microscopy to determine that the volume of myocardium in the
             looped heart was dramatically reduced and the compact layer
             of myocardium was thinner after neural crest ablation,
             especially in the outflow tract and ventricular regions.
             Proliferation measured by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine
             incorporation was elevated at only one stage during looping,
             cell death was normal and myocardial cell size was
             increased. Taken together, these results indicate that there
             are fewer myocytes in the heart. By incubation day 8 when
             the heart would have normally completed septation, the
             anterior (ventral) wall of the right ventricle and right
             ventricular outflow tract was significantly thinner in the
             neural crest-ablated embryos than normal, but the thickness
             of the compact myocardium was normal in all other regions of
             the heart. The decreased volume and number of myocardial
             cells in the heart tube after neural crest ablation most
             likely reflects the amount of myocardium added by the
             secondary heart field.},
   Doi = {10.1002/dvdy.10364},
   Key = {Yelbuz03a}
}

@booklet{Johnson03b,
   Author = {G. A. Johnson and R. C. Burghardt and M. M. Joyce and T. E.
             Spencer and F. W. Bazer and C. A. Gray and C.
             Pfarrer},
   Title = {Osteopontin is synthesized by uterine glands and a 45-kDa
             cleavage fragment is localized at the uterine-placental
             interface throughout ovine pregnancy},
   Journal = {Biology Of Reproduction},
   Volume = {69},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {92 -- 98},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {July},
   Key = {Johnson03b}
}

@article{fds174310,
   Author = {GA Johnson and RC Burghardt and MM Joyce and TE Spencer and FW Bazer and CA
             Gray, C Pfarrer},
   Title = {Osteopontin is synthesized by uterine glands and a 45-kDa
             cleavage fragment is localized at the uterine-placental
             interface throughout ovine pregnancy.},
   Journal = {Biology of reproduction},
   Volume = {69},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {92-8},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0006-3363},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.102.013573},
   Keywords = {Animals • Endometrium • Extracellular Matrix
             • Female • In Situ Hybridization • Molecular
             Weight • Osteopontin • Peptide Fragments •
             Placenta • Pregnancy • Pregnancy, Animal •
             RNA, Messenger • Sheep • Sialoglycoproteins •
             Uterus • biosynthesis* • chemistry • genetics
             • metabolism • metabolism*},
   Abstract = {Osteopontin (OPN) is a phosphorylated and glycosylated,
             secreted protein that is present in various epithelial cells
             and biological fluids. On freezing and thawing or treatment
             with proteases, the native 70-kDa protein gives rise to 45-
             and 24-kDa fragments. Secreted OPN functions as an
             extracellular matrix (ECM) protein that binds cell surface
             receptors to mediate cell-cell adhesion, cell-ECM
             communication, and cell migration. In sheep and humans, OPN
             is proposed to be a secretory product of uterine glandular
             epithelium (GE) that binds to uterine luminal epithelium
             (LE) and conceptus trophectoderm to mediate conceptus
             attachment, which is essential to maintain pregnancy through
             the peri-implantation period. Cell-cell adhesion,
             communication, and migration likely are important at the
             interface between uterus and placenta throughout pregnancy,
             but to our knowledge, endometrial and/or placental
             expression of OPN beyond the peri-implantation period has
             not been documented in sheep. Therefore, the present study
             determined temporal and spatial alterations in OPN mRNA and
             protein expression in the ovine uterus between Days 25 and
             120 of pregnancy. The OPN mRNA in total ovine endometrium
             increased 30-fold between Days 40 and 80 of gestation. In
             situ hybridization and immunofluorescence analyses revealed
             that the predominant source of OPN mRNA and protein
             throughout pregnancy was the uterine GE. Interestingly, the
             45-kDa form of OPN was detected exclusively, continuously,
             and abundantly along the apical surface of LE, on conceptus
             trophectoderm, and along the uterine-placental interface of
             both interplacentomal and placentomal regions through Day
             120 of pregnancy. The 45-kDa OPN is a proteolytic cleavage
             fragment of the native 70-kDa OPN, and it is the most
             abundant form in uterine flushes during early pregnancy. The
             45-kDa OPN is more stimulatory to cell attachment and cell
             migration than the native 70-kDa protein. Collectively, the
             present results support the hypothesis that ovine OPN is a
             component of histotroph secreted by the uterine GE that
             accumulates at the uterine-placental interface to influence
             maternal-fetal interactions throughout gestation in
             sheep.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1095/biolreprod.102.013573},
   Key = {fds174310}
}

@booklet{Johnson03c,
   Author = {G. A. Johnson and R. C. Burghardt and M. M. Joyce and T. E.
             Spencer and F. W. Bazer and C. Pfarrer and C. A.
             Gray},
   Title = {Osteopontin expression in uterine stroma indicates a
             decidualization-like differentiation during ovine
             pregnancy},
   Journal = {Biology Of Reproduction},
   Volume = {68},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1951 -- 1958},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {June},
   Key = {Johnson03c}
}

@booklet{Zhang03,
   Author = {X. W. Zhang and T. M. Yelbuz and G. P. Cofer and M. A. Choma and M. L. Kirby and G. A. Johnson},
   Title = {Improved preparation of chick embryonic samples for magnetic
             resonance microscopy},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance In Medicine},
   Volume = {49},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1192 -- 1195},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {June},
   Key = {Zhang03}
}

@booklet{Solomon03,
   Author = {D. Solomon and M. Schiffman and R. Tarone and E. E.
             Partridge and L. Kilgore and S. Hester and J. L. Walker and G. A. Johnson and A. Yadack and R. S. Guido and K.
             Mcintyre-seltman and R. P. Edwards and J. Gruss and N. B.
             Kiviat and L. Koutsky and C. Mao a},
   Title = {A randomized trial on the management of low-grade squamous
             intraepithelial lesion cytology interpretations},
   Journal = {American Journal Of Obstetrics And Gynecology},
   Volume = {188},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1393 -- 1400},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {June},
   Key = {Solomon03}
}

@booklet{Hicks03,
   Author = {B. A. Hicks and S. J. Etter and K. G. Carnahan and M. M.
             Joyce and A. A. Assiri and S. J. Carling and K. Kodali and G. A. Johnson and T. R. Hansen and M. A. Mirando and G. L.
             Woods and D. K. Vanderwall and T. L. Ott},
   Title = {Expression of the uterine Mx protein in cyclic and pregnant
             cows, gilts, and mares},
   Journal = {Journal Of Animal Science},
   Volume = {81},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1552 -- 1561},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {June},
   Key = {Hicks03}
}

@article{fds132823,
   Author = {AK Gupta and RC Nelson and GA Johnson and EK Paulson and DM Delong and TT
             Yoshizumi},
   Title = {Optimization of eight-element multi-detector row helical CT
             technology for evaluation of the abdomen.},
   Journal = {Radiology, United States},
   Volume = {227},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {739-45},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0033-8419},
   Keywords = {Artifacts • Humans • Phantoms, Imaging •
             Radiation Dosage • Radiography, Abdominal •
             Tomography Scanners, X-Ray Computed • Tomography,
             Spiral Computed* • methods • methods*},
   Abstract = {PURPOSE: To evaluate protocols for abdominal imaging with an
             eight-element multi-detector row computed tomographic (CT)
             scanner. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An eight-element helical CT
             scanner was used to acquire data in two phantoms with
             four-element (pitch, 0.75 and 1.5; section thickness, 1.25,
             2.5, and 5.0 mm) and eight-element (pitch, 0.625, 0.875,
             1.35 and 1.675; section thickness, 1.25 and 2.5 mm)
             protocols. One phantom was used for low-contrast
             detectability and streak artifact; the other, for
             high-contrast performance. Protocols included near constant
             radiation dose (140 kV and varied tube current, confirmed by
             using the above protocols to scan a dedicated radiation dose
             phantom). Data were analyzed by three blinded readers for
             streak artifacts, contrast-to-noise ratio, and z-axis
             resolution (contrast-transfer function). Statistical
             analysis included studentized range tests. RESULTS:
             Contrast-to-noise ratios for four and eight elements were
             not consistently different. Qualitative evaluation for
             streak artifacts revealed fewer artifacts for all
             eight-element 1.25-mm-thick section protocols, as compared
             with eight-element 2.5-mm protocols. All eight-element
             2.5-mm protocols except that with 27.0 mm per rotation had
             fewer streak artifacts than did four-element protocols (P
             =.02-.04). Contrast-transfer functions along the z axis for
             eight-element protocols were better than those for
             four-element protocols, demonstrating improved z-axis
             resolution (P <.05). CONCLUSION: Images acquired at eight
             sections per rotation demonstrated no sacrifice of
             contrast-to-noise ratio, improved z-axis resolution, and
             fewer streak artifacts, even when radiation dose was similar
             to that for four-element CT.},
   Key = {fds132823}
}

@article{fds174174,
   Author = {BA Hicks and SJ Etter and KG Carnahan and MM Joyce and AA Assiri and SJ
             Carling, K Kodali and GA Johnson and TR Hansen and MA Mirando and GL
             Woods, DK Vanderwall and TL Ott},
   Title = {Expression of the uterine Mx protein in cyclic and pregnant
             cows, gilts, and mares.},
   Journal = {Journal of animal science},
   Volume = {81},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1552-61},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0021-8812},
   Keywords = {Animals • Blotting, Northern • Blotting, Western
             • Cattle • Estrus • Female • GTP-Binding
             Proteins • Gene Expression Regulation • Horses
             • In Situ Hybridization • Pregnancy •
             Pregnancy, Animal • Swine • Uterus •
             biosynthesis* • metabolism • metabolism* •
             physiology* • veterinary},
   Abstract = {Pregnancy and interferon-tau (IFN tau) upregulate uterine Mx
             gene expression in ewes; however, the only known role for Mx
             is in the immune response to viral infection. We hypothesize
             that Mx functions as a conceptus-induced component of the
             anti-luteolytic mechanism and/or regulator of endometrial
             secretion or uterine remodeling during early pregnancy. This
             study was conducted to determine the effects of early
             pregnancy on uterine Mx expression in domestic farm species
             with varied mechanisms of pregnancy recognition. Endometrium
             from cows, gilts, and mares was collected during the first
             20 d of the estrous cycle or pregnancy, and total messenger
             RNA (mRNA) and protein were analyzed for steady-state levels
             of Mx mRNA and protein. Northern blot analysis of Mx mRNA
             detected an approximately 2.5 Kb of mRNA in endometrium from
             each species. In pregnant cows, steady-state levels of Mx
             mRNA increased 10-fold (P < 0.05) above levels observed in
             cyclic cows by d 15 to 18. In cyclic gilts, slot blot
             analysis indicated that endometrial Mx mRNA levels did not
             change between d 5 and 18 of the cycle. However, in pregnant
             gilts, Mx levels tended (P = 0.06) to be elevated two-fold
             on d 16 only, and in situ hybridization indicated that this
             increase occurred in the stroma. In mares, Mx mRNA was low,
             but detectable, and did not change between ovulation (d 0)
             and d 20, regardless of reproductive status. Western blot
             analysis revealed multiple immunoreactive Mx protein bands
             in each species. One band was specific to pregnancy in cows.
             As in ewes, in situ hybridization analysis indicated that Mx
             mRNA was strongly expressed in the luminal epithelium,
             stroma, and myometrium by d 18 in cows. However, on d 14 in
             gilts, Mx was expressed primarily in the stroma, and on d 14
             in mares, low levels of Mx expression were confined largely
             to the luminal epithelium. The uteruses of cows, gilts, and
             mares express Mx, and expression is upregulated during
             pregnancy in cows and gilts--animals whose conceptuses
             secrete interferons during early pregnancy, but that possess
             different mechanisms for pregnancy recognition.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds174174}
}

@article{fds174239,
   Author = {GA Johnson and RC Burghardt and MM Joyce and TE Spencer and FW Bazer and C
             Pfarrer, CA Gray},
   Title = {Osteopontin expression in uterine stroma indicates a
             decidualization-like differentiation during ovine
             pregnancy.},
   Journal = {Biology of reproduction},
   Volume = {68},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1951-8},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0006-3363},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.102.012948},
   Keywords = {Actins • Animals • Cell Differentiation •
             Decidua • Desmin • Embryo Implantation •
             Endometrium • Female • Fluorescent Antibody
             Technique • Genetic Markers • In Situ
             Hybridization • Keratins • Muscle, Smooth •
             Osteopontin • Pregnancy • RNA, Messenger •
             Sheep • Sialoglycoproteins • Stromal Cells •
             Swine • Uterus • Vimentin • biosynthesis
             • biosynthesis* • cytology • metabolism
             • metabolism* • physiology •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {Osteopontin (OPN) is a component of the extracellular matrix
             that interacts with cell surface receptors, including
             integrins, to mediate cell adhesion, migration,
             differentiation, survival, and immune function. In pregnant
             mice and primates, OPN has been detected in decidualized
             stroma and is considered to be a gene marker for
             decidualization. Decidualization involves transformation of
             spindle-like fibroblasts into polygonal epithelial-like
             cells that are hypothesized to limit conceptus trophoblast
             invasion through the uterine wall during invasive
             implantation. Decidualization is not considered
             characteristic of species with noninvasive implantation,
             such as domestic animals. However, the extent of trophoblast
             invasion between sheep and pigs differs, with sheep
             exhibiting erosion of the uterine luminal epithelium (LE)
             and fusion of trophectoderm with LE to form syncytia, and
             pigs maintaining an intact LE throughout pregnancy.
             Therefore, the present study measured changes in the
             decidualization marker genes OPN, desmin, and alpha smooth
             muscle actin (alphaSMA) in ovine and porcine uterine stroma
             throughout pregnancy. The morphology of endometrial stromal
             cells in pregnant ewes changes following conceptus
             attachment, with cells increasing in size and becoming
             polyhedral in shape by Day 35 of pregnancy. Expression of
             OPN mRNA and protein, as well as desmin and alphaSMA
             proteins, was observed in this same uterine stromal
             compartment. In contrast, no morphological changes in
             uterine stroma nor induction of OPN mRNA and protein, or
             desmin protein, were detected during porcine pregnancy.
             Interestingly, alphaSMA protein was absent on Day 20, but
             prominent in uterine stroma of pregnant pigs on Day 45.
             Collectively, these results indicate that the uterine stroma
             of sheep undergoes a program of differentiation similar to
             decidualization in invasive implanting species, whereas
             porcine stroma exhibits differentiation that is more limited
             than that in sheep, rodents, or primates. Results suggest
             that uterine stromal decidualization is common to species
             with different types of placentation, but the extent is
             variable and correlates with the depth of trophoblast
             invasion during implantation.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1095/biolreprod.102.012948},
   Key = {fds174239}
}

@article{fds269008,
   Author = {Zhang, X and Yelbuz, TM and Cofer, GP and Choma, MA and Kirby, ML and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Improved preparation of chick embryonic samples for magnetic
             resonance microscopy.},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance in Medicine},
   Volume = {49},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1192-1195},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0740-3194},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12768599},
   Keywords = {Animals • Chick Embryo • Contrast Media •
             Heart • Image Enhancement* • Magnetic Resonance
             Imaging* • Microscopy • anatomy & histology •
             embryology* • instrumentation*},
   Abstract = {Previous work demonstrated the power of three-dimensional
             (3D) magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) to follow
             complicated morphologic development in the embryonic
             cardiovascular system. In this study we describe a new
             dual-contrast method for specimen preparation that combines
             perfusion fixation and immersion in fixative with macro- and
             small molecular gadolinium agents to provide enhanced
             definition of both the heart wall and chamber. MRM was
             performed at 9.4 T with image resolutions of 25, 31, and 50
             microm isotropic voxels for three stages of chick embryos
             (day 4, day 5.5, and day 9), and compared to histological
             sections of the same embryos. The results show considerable
             improvement of image quality over previous efforts, with
             better signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast between the
             cardiac chamber and myocardial wall. Excellent correlation
             was shown between the MRM images and histological sections.
             Thus, 3D high-resolution MRM in combination with the
             dual-contrast technique is useful for acquiring quantitative
             3D morphologic data regarding heart development.},
   Doi = {10.1002/mrm.10460},
   Key = {fds269008}
}

@booklet{Gupta03,
   Author = {Gupta, AK and Nelson, RC and Johnson, GA and Paulson, EK and Delong, DM and Yoshizumi, TT},
   Title = {Optimization of eight-element multi-detector row helical CT
             technology for evaluation of the abdomen.},
   Journal = {Radiology},
   Volume = {227},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {739-745},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0033-8419},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12702826},
   Abstract = {PURPOSE: To evaluate protocols for abdominal imaging with an
             eight-element multi-detector row computed tomographic (CT)
             scanner. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An eight-element helical CT
             scanner was used to acquire data in two phantoms with
             four-element (pitch, 0.75 and 1.5; section thickness, 1.25,
             2.5, and 5.0 mm) and eight-element (pitch, 0.625, 0.875,
             1.35 and 1.675; section thickness, 1.25 and 2.5 mm)
             protocols. One phantom was used for low-contrast
             detectability and streak artifact; the other, for
             high-contrast performance. Protocols included near constant
             radiation dose (140 kV and varied tube current, confirmed by
             using the above protocols to scan a dedicated radiation dose
             phantom). Data were analyzed by three blinded readers for
             streak artifacts, contrast-to-noise ratio, and z-axis
             resolution (contrast-transfer function). Statistical
             analysis included studentized range tests. RESULTS:
             Contrast-to-noise ratios for four and eight elements were
             not consistently different. Qualitative evaluation for
             streak artifacts revealed fewer artifacts for all
             eight-element 1.25-mm-thick section protocols, as compared
             with eight-element 2.5-mm protocols. All eight-element
             2.5-mm protocols except that with 27.0 mm per rotation had
             fewer streak artifacts than did four-element protocols (P
             =.02-.04). Contrast-transfer functions along the z axis for
             eight-element protocols were better than those for
             four-element protocols, demonstrating improved z-axis
             resolution (P <.05). CONCLUSION: Images acquired at eight
             sections per rotation demonstrated no sacrifice of
             contrast-to-noise ratio, improved z-axis resolution, and
             fewer streak artifacts, even when radiation dose was similar
             to that for four-element CT.},
   Doi = {10.1148/radiol.2273020591},
   Key = {Gupta03}
}

@booklet{Choi03,
   Author = {Y. Choi and G. A. Johnson and T. E. Spencer and F. W.
             Bazer},
   Title = {Pregnancy and interferon tau regulate major
             histocompatibility complex class I and beta(2)-microglobulin
             expression in the ovine uterus},
   Journal = {Biology Of Reproduction},
   Volume = {68},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1703 -- 1710},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {May},
   Key = {Choi03}
}

@article{fds174102,
   Author = {Y Choi and GA Johnson and TE Spencer and FW Bazer},
   Title = {Pregnancy and interferon tau regulate major
             histocompatibility complex class I and beta2-microglobulin
             expression in the ovine uterus.},
   Journal = {Biology of reproduction},
   Volume = {68},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1703-10},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0006-3363},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.102.012708},
   Keywords = {Animals • Endometrium • Estrous Cycle •
             Female • Fluorescent Antibody Technique • Gene
             Expression Regulation, Developmental • Genes, MHC Class
             I • In Situ Hybridization • Interferon Type I
             • Pregnancy • Pregnancy Proteins • Pregnancy,
             Animal • RNA, Messenger • Sheep • Uterus
             • beta 2-Microglobulin • biosynthesis •
             biosynthesis* • genetics • genetics* •
             metabolism • metabolism* • physiology •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules,
             consisting of an alpha chain and beta2-microglobulin
             (beta2MG), play an important role in immune rejection
             responses by discriminating self and nonself and are
             increased by type I interferons during antiviral responses.
             Interferon tau (IFNtau), the pregnancy-recognition signal in
             ruminants, is a type I interferon produced by the ovine
             conceptus between Days 11 and 21 of gestation. In study 1,
             expression of MHC class I alpha chain and beta2MG mRNA and
             protein was detected primarily in endometrial luminal
             epithelium (LE) and glandular epithelium (GE) on Days 10 and
             12 of the estrous cycle and pregnancy. On Days 14-20 of
             pregnancy, MHC class I and beta2MG expression increased only
             in endometrial stroma and GE and, concurrently, was absent
             in LE and superficial ductal GE (sGE). Although neither MHC
             class I nor beta2MG proteins were detected in Day 20
             trophectoderm, beta2MG mRNA was detected in conceptus
             trophectoderm. In study 2, cyclic ewes were ovariectomized
             on Day 5, treated daily with progesterone to Day 16,
             received intrauterine infusions between Days 11 and 16 of
             either control serum proteins or recombinant ovine IFNtau,
             and were hysterectomized on Day 17. The IFNtau increased MHC
             class I and beta2MG expression only in endometrial stroma
             and GE. During pregnancy, MHC class I and beta2MG gene
             expression is inhibited in endometrial LE and sGE but,
             paradoxically, is stimulated by IFNtau in the stroma and GE.
             The silencing of MHC class I alpha chain and beta2MG genes
             in the endometrial LE and sGE during pregnancy recognition
             and establishment may be a critical mechanism preventing
             immune rejection of the conceptus allograft.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1095/biolreprod.102.012708},
   Key = {fds174102}
}

@booklet{Noel03,
   Author = {S. Noel and A. Herman and G. A. Johnson and C. A. Gray and M. D. Stewart and F. W. Bazer and A. Gertler and T. E.
             Spencer},
   Title = {Ovine placental lactogen specifically rinds to endometrial
             glands of the ovine uterus},
   Journal = {Biology Of Reproduction},
   Volume = {68},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {772 -- 780},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {Noel03}
}

@booklet{Kim03,
   Author = {J. G. Kim and J. H. Song and J. L. Vallet and G. A. Rohrer and G. A. Johnson and M. M. Joyce and R. K.
             Christenson},
   Title = {Molecular characterization and expression of porcine bone
             morphogenetic protein receptor-IB in the uterus of cyclic
             and pregnant gilts},
   Journal = {Biology Of Reproduction},
   Volume = {68},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {735 -- 743},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {Kim03}
}

@article{fds174173,
   Author = {JG Kim and JH Song and JL Vallet and GA Rohrer and GA Johnson and MM Joyce and RK Christenson},
   Title = {Molecular characterization and expression of porcine bone
             morphogenetic protein receptor-IB in the uterus of cyclic
             and pregnant gilts.},
   Journal = {Biology of reproduction},
   Volume = {68},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {735-43},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0006-3363},
   Keywords = {Amino Acid Sequence • Animals • Base Sequence
             • Blotting, Northern • Bone Morphogenetic Protein
             Receptors, Type I • Chromosome Mapping • Cloning,
             Molecular • Crosses, Genetic • DNA, Complementary
             • Endometrium • Expressed Sequence Tags •
             Female • Gene Expression Regulation • In Situ
             Hybridization • Male • Molecular Sequence Data
             • Point Mutation • Pregnancy • Pregnancy,
             Animal • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases • RNA,
             Messenger • Receptors, Growth Factor • Sequence
             Alignment • Sequence Analysis, DNA • Swine •
             biosynthesis • chemistry • genetics •
             genetics* • isolation & purification • metabolism
             • metabolism* • physiology •
             veterinary},
   Abstract = {Previous gene mapping analyses revealed a quantitative trait
             locus for uterine capacity on chromosome 8. Comparison of
             porcine and human genetic maps suggests that the bone
             morphogenetic protein receptor IB (BMPR-IB) gene may be
             located near this region. The objectives of this study were
             to 1) clone the full coding region for BMPR-IB, 2) examine
             BMPR-IB gene expression by the endometrium and its cellular
             localization in cyclic and pregnant gilts, and 3) map the
             BMPR-IB gene. By iterative screening of an expressed
             sequence tag library, we obtained a 3559-base pair cDNA
             clone including the full coding region of BMPR-IB.
             Endometrial BMPR-IB mRNA expression of White composite gilts
             was determined by Northern blotting in Days 10, 13, and 15
             cyclic and Days 10, 13, 15, 20, 30, and 40 pregnant gilts.
             In cyclic gilts, endometrial BMPR-IB mRNA expression was
             elevated on Days 13 and 15 (P < 0.01) compared with Day 10.
             Expression of BMPR-IB mRNA was localized in both luminal and
             glandular epithelium on Day 15. However, in pregnant gilts,
             BMPR-IB mRNA expression was not significantly different in
             the endometrium from Day 10 to Day 20, and it was
             significantly decreased on Days 30 and 40 (P = 0.011). The
             BMPR-IB gene was mapped to 108 cM on chromosome 8. These
             findings show that BMPR-IB mRNA expression is regulated
             differently in cyclic and pregnant gilts; this pattern of
             gene expression may be important for endometrial function
             during the luteal phase of the estrous cycle as compared
             with early pregnancy.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds174173}
}

@article{fds174188,
   Author = {S Noel and A Herman and GA Johnson and CA Gray, MD Stewart and FW Bazer and A Gertler and TE Spencer},
   Title = {Ovine placental lactogen specifically binds to endometrial
             glands of the ovine uterus.},
   Journal = {Biology of reproduction},
   Volume = {68},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {772-80},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0006-3363},
   Keywords = {Animals • Binding Sites • Binding, Competitive
             • Blotting, Western • Endometrium • Female
             • Growth Hormone • Interferon Type I • Male
             • Placental Hormones • Placental Lactogen •
             Pregnancy Proteins • Prolactin • RNA • Random
             Allocation • Receptors, Prolactin • Receptors,
             Somatotropin • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain
             Reaction • Sheep • chemistry • genetics
             • metabolism • metabolism* • pharmacology
             • physiology • ultrastructure •
             veterinary},
   Abstract = {A hormonal servomechanism has been proposed to regulate
             differentiation and function of the endometrial glandular
             epithelium (GE) in the ovine uterus during pregnancy. This
             mechanism involves sequential actions of estrogen,
             progesterone, ovine interferon tau (IFNtau), placental
             lactogen (oPL), and placental growth hormone (oGH). The
             biological actions of oPL in vitro are mediated by
             homodimerization of the prolactin receptor (oPRLR) and
             heterodimerization of the oPRLR and oGH receptor. The
             objectives of the study were to determine the effects of
             intrauterine oPL, oGH, and their combination on endometrial
             histoarchitecture and gene expression and to localize and
             characterize binding sites for oPL in the ovine uterus in
             vivo using an in situ ligand binding assay. Intrauterine
             infusion of oPL and/or oGH following IFNtau into
             ovariectomized ewes treated with progesterone daily
             differentially affected endometrial gland number and
             expression of uterine milk proteins and osteopontin.
             However, neither hormone affected PRLR, insulin-like growth
             factor (IGF)-I, or IGF-II mRNA levels in the endometrium. A
             chimeric protein of placental secretory alkaline phosphatase
             (SEAP) and oPL was used to identify and characterize binding
             sites for oPL in frozen sections of interplacentomal
             endometrium from pregnant ewes. Specific binding of SEAP-oPL
             was detected in the endometrial GE on Days 30, 60, 90, and
             120 of pregnancy. In Day 90 endometrium, SEAP-oPL binding to
             the endometrial GE was displaced completely by oPL and
             prolactin (oPRL) but only partially by oGH. Binding
             experiments using the extracellular domain of the oPRLR also
             showed that iodinated oPL binding sites could be competed
             for by oPRL and oPL but not by oGH. Collectively, results
             indicate that oPL binds to receptors in the endometrial
             glands and that oPRL is more effective than oGH in competing
             for these binding sites. Thus, effects of oPL on the
             endometrial glands may be mediated by receptors for oPRL and
             oGH.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds174188}
}

@booklet{Gray03,
   Author = {C. A. Gray and M. D. Stewart and G. A. Johnson and T. E.
             Spencer},
   Title = {Postpartum uterine involution in sheep: histoarchitecture
             and changes in endometrial gene expression},
   Journal = {Reproduction},
   Volume = {125},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {185 -- 198},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {February},
   Key = {Gray03}
}

@article{fds174285,
   Author = {CA Gray, MD Stewart and GA Johnson and TE Spencer},
   Title = {Postpartum uterine involution in sheep: histoarchitecture
             and changes in endometrial gene expression.},
   Journal = {Reproduction (Cambridge, England)},
   Volume = {125},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {185-98},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {1470-1626},
   Keywords = {Animals • Apoptosis • B-Lymphocytes •
             Epithelium • Estradiol • Estrogen Receptor alpha
             • Female • Glycoproteins • Hysterectomy
             • Immunohistochemistry • In Situ Hybridization
             • Organ Size • Ovariectomy • Placenta •
             Postpartum Period • Pregnancy • Progesterone
             • RNA, Messenger • Receptors, Estrogen •
             Receptors, Oxytocin • Receptors, Progesterone •
             Receptors, Prolactin • Serpins* • Sheep •
             T-Lymphocytes • Uterus • analysis • anatomy &
             histology • anatomy & histology* • blood •
             cytology • genetics • immunology • metabolism
             • physiology*},
   Abstract = {After parturition, the uterus undergoes marked remodelling
             during involution; however, little is known of the hormonal,
             cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate this
             process. The working hypothesis used in this study is that
             return of the ovine uterus to a non-pregnant state involves
             termination of a hormonal servomechanism that regulates
             endometrial gland morphogenesis and function during
             pregnancy. Suffolk ewes were ovariohysterectomized on
             postpartum days 1, 7, 14 or 28. Serum concentrations of
             oestradiol were high at parturition, declined to postpartum
             day 4, peaked on postpartum day 6, and then declined and
             remained low thereafter. Progesterone was undetectable in
             plasma from ewes post partum. Uterine wet mass and horn
             length decreased after postpartum day 1, but ovarian mass
             did not change. Residual placental cotyledons were present
             in the maternal caruncles on postpartum days 1 and 7 and
             were extruded by postpartum day 14 as plaques that were
             resorbed by postpartum day 28. The width of the total
             endometrium, stratum compactum, stratum spongiosum and
             myometrium, as well as endometrial gland density, decreased
             after parturition. Most apoptotic cells in the involuting
             uterus were large, vacuolated and located between the
             endometrial glandular epithelial cells on postpartum days 1
             and 7. Immunofluorescence analyses identified both T and B
             cells within the glandular epithelium on postpartum day 1.
             Cell proliferation was detected in the luminal epithelium
             and glandular epithelium on postpartum days 1 and 7. On
             postpartum day 1, expression of oestrogen receptor alpha
             (ERalpha) was not detected in luminal epithelium and was low
             in glandular epithelium, but ERalpha was present in
             epithelia thereafter. Progesterone receptor (PR) protein was
             not detected in endometrial epithelia on postpartum day 1,
             but was detected in the glandular epithelium thereafter.
             Between postpartum days 1 and 7, ERalpha and PR protein
             increased substantially in the endometrial glandular
             epithelium. On postpartum days 1-28, abundant expression of
             oxytocin receptor mRNA was detected in endometrial luminal
             epithelium and superficial to the middle glandular
             epithelium. Prolactin receptor (PRLR) mRNA was detected in
             glandular epithelium on all postpartum days, whereas mRNA
             for uterine milk protein (UTMP), an index of secretory
             capacity of glandular epithelium, was present only on
             postpartum day 1. Collectively, these results indicate that
             uterine involution in ewes involves remodelling of both
             caruncular and intercaruncular areas of the uterine wall and
             termination of differentiated uterine gland functions
             characteristic of pregnancy.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds174285}
}

@article{fds174068,
   Author = {CR Fichter and GA Johnson, SR Braddock and JD Tobias},
   Title = {Perioperative care of the child with the Johanson-Blizzard
             syndrome.},
   Journal = {Paediatric anaesthesia},
   Volume = {13},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {72-5},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1155-5645},
   Keywords = {Abnormalities, Multiple • Anesthesia, Inhalation*
             • Anesthetics, Inhalation • Child, Preschool
             • Dwarfism • Female • Genes, Recessive •
             Humans • Methyl Ethers • Nose • Syndrome
             • abnormalities • complications •
             surgery*},
   Abstract = {The Johanson-Blizzard Syndrome (JBS) is an autosomal
             recessive disorder with a characteristic phenotype,
             including dwarfism, a beaked nose with aplastic alae nasi, a
             high forehead, mid-line ectodermal scalp defects with sparse
             hair and absent eyelashes/eyebrows, prominent scalp veins,
             low set ears, a large anterior fontanelle, micrognathia,
             thin lips, absent permanent dentition and microcephaly. In
             addition to the characteristic facial features, associated
             conditions include congenital heart disease,
             exocrine/endocrine pancreatic dysfunction, hypothyroidism,
             hypopituitarism, mental retardation, sensorineural hearing
             loss and vesico-ureteral reflux. A case is presented and the
             potential anaesthetic implications of this syndrome are
             discussed.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds174068}
}

@booklet{Fichter03,
   Author = {C. R. Fichter and G. A. Johnson and S. R. Braddock and J. D.
             Tobias},
   Title = {Perioperative care of the child with the Johanson-Blizzard
             syndrome},
   Journal = {Paediatric Anaesthesia},
   Volume = {13},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {72 -- 75},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {Fichter03}
}

@article{fds132882,
   Author = {BT Chen and AC Brau and GA Johnson},
   Title = {Measurement of regional lung function in rats using
             hyperpolarized 3helium dynamic MRI.},
   Journal = {Magnetic resonance in medicine : official journal of the
             Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine / Society of
             Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, United States},
   Volume = {49},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {78-88},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0740-3194},
   Keywords = {Animals • Female • Helium • Image Processing,
             Computer-Assisted • Isotopes • Lung •
             Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine* • Phantoms, Imaging
             • Rats • Rats, Sprague-Dawley • Respiratory
             Mechanics* • Tidal Volume • anatomy & histology
             • diagnostic use • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Dynamic regional lung function was investigated in rats
             using a radial acquisition cine (RA-CINE) pulse sequence
             together with hyperpolarized (HP) (3)He gas delivered by a
             constant flow ventilator. Based on regional differences in
             the behavior of inspired air, the lung was conceptually
             divided into two regions (the major airways and the
             peripheral airspace) for purposes of functional analysis. To
             measure regional function in the major airways, a large RF
             flip angle (24 degrees) was applied to reduce (3)He
             magnetization in the peripheral airspace, and signal
             intensity (SI) was normalized with the projected airway
             diameter to estimate local airflow. Higher normalized signal
             intensity was observed in the left branch airway as compared
             to the right branch airway. To determine regional function
             in the peripheral airspace, a small RF flip angle (6
             degrees) was used. Incremental increases of peripheral SI in
             successive lung images were consistent with the increase in
             lung volume. A new "skipping" scanning strategy using dummy
             frames allows a trade-off between the number of frames
             acquired for dynamic information, the RF flip angle, and the
             penetration depth of (3)He magnetization into the lung. This
             work provides a novel approach to simultaneously assess
             dynamic regional function and morphology.},
   Key = {fds132882}
}

@booklet{Chen03,
   Author = {Chen, BT and Brau, ACS and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Measurement of regional lung function in rats using
             hyperpolarized 3helium dynamic MRI.},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance in Medicine},
   Volume = {49},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {78-88},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0740-3194},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12509822},
   Abstract = {Dynamic regional lung function was investigated in rats
             using a radial acquisition cine (RA-CINE) pulse sequence
             together with hyperpolarized (HP) (3)He gas delivered by a
             constant flow ventilator. Based on regional differences in
             the behavior of inspired air, the lung was conceptually
             divided into two regions (the major airways and the
             peripheral airspace) for purposes of functional analysis. To
             measure regional function in the major airways, a large RF
             flip angle (24 degrees) was applied to reduce (3)He
             magnetization in the peripheral airspace, and signal
             intensity (SI) was normalized with the projected airway
             diameter to estimate local airflow. Higher normalized signal
             intensity was observed in the left branch airway as compared
             to the right branch airway. To determine regional function
             in the peripheral airspace, a small RF flip angle (6
             degrees) was used. Incremental increases of peripheral SI in
             successive lung images were consistent with the increase in
             lung volume. A new "skipping" scanning strategy using dummy
             frames allows a trade-off between the number of frames
             acquired for dynamic information, the RF flip angle, and the
             penetration depth of (3)He magnetization into the lung. This
             work provides a novel approach to simultaneously assess
             dynamic regional function and morphology.},
   Doi = {10.1002/mrm.10336},
   Key = {Chen03}
}

@booklet{Wu03,
   Author = {G. Y. Wu and J. T. Self and G. A. Johnson and F. W. Bazer and T. E. Spencer},
   Title = {Developmental changes in placental nitric oxide synthesis in
             pigs},
   Journal = {Biology Of Reproduction},
   Volume = {68},
   Pages = {153 -- 153},
   Year = {2003},
   Key = {Wu03}
}

@booklet{Johnson03a,
   Author = {G. A. Johnson and M. M. Joyce and S. Lewis and J. F.
             Gonzalez and R. C. Burghardt and S. Woldesenbet and G. R.
             Newton},
   Title = {Caprine uterine and placental osteopontin (OPN) expression
             is distinct among epitheliochorial implanting
             species.},
   Journal = {Biology Of Reproduction},
   Volume = {68},
   Pages = {205 -- 206},
   Year = {2003},
   Key = {Johnson03a}
}

@booklet{Kodali03,
   Author = {K. Kodali and C. M. Davitt and G. A. Johnson and T. L.
             Ott},
   Title = {Dynamin family member and antiviral protein, Mx,
             co-localizes with autocrine motility factor receptor in an
             ovine uterine lumenal epithelial cell line.},
   Journal = {Biology Of Reproduction},
   Volume = {68},
   Pages = {181 -- 181},
   Year = {2003},
   Key = {Kodali03}
}

@booklet{Spencer03,
   Author = {T. E. Spencer and R. C. Burghardt and G. A. Johnson and F.
             W. Bazer},
   Title = {Biology of progesterone and placental hormone actions on the
             uterus.},
   Journal = {Biology Of Reproduction},
   Volume = {68},
   Pages = {96 -- 97},
   Year = {2003},
   Key = {Spencer03}
}

@booklet{Spencer03a,
   Author = {T. E. Spencer and G. A. Johnson and F. W. Bazer and G. Y.
             Wu},
   Title = {Regulation of placental nitric oxide synthesis by estrogen
             and progesterone in pigs.},
   Journal = {Biology Of Reproduction},
   Volume = {68},
   Pages = {363 -- 364},
   Year = {2003},
   Key = {Spencer03a}
}

@booklet{Joyce03,
   Author = {M. M. Joyce and R. C. Burghardt and F. W. Bazer and G. M.
             Zaunbrecher and G. A. Johnson},
   Title = {Interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) are induced in the
             endometrium of pregnant but not pseudopregnant
             pigs.},
   Journal = {Biology Of Reproduction},
   Volume = {68},
   Pages = {206 -- 206},
   Year = {2003},
   Key = {Joyce03}
}

@booklet{Zaunbrecher03,
   Author = {G. M. Zaunbrecher and T. E. Spencer and R. C. Burghardt and M. M. Joyce and F. W. Bazer and G. A. Johnson},
   Title = {Regulaton of glycosylation dependent cell adhesion molecule
             1 (GlyCAM-1) and l-selectin expression in the pregnant ovine
             uterus and placenta.},
   Journal = {Biology Of Reproduction},
   Volume = {68},
   Pages = {243 -- 243},
   Year = {2003},
   Key = {Zaunbrecher03}
}

@booklet{Johnson02,
   Author = {G. A. Johnson and T. A. Day},
   Title = {Enhancement of photosynthesis in Sorghum bicolor by
             ultraviolet radiation},
   Journal = {Physiologia Plantarum},
   Volume = {116},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {554 -- 562},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {December},
   Key = {Johnson02}
}

@booklet{Orlander02,
   Author = {J. D. Orlander and B. G. Fincke and D. Hermanns and G. A.
             Johnson},
   Title = {Medical residents' first clearly remembered experiences of
             giving bad news},
   Journal = {Journal Of General Internal Medicine},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {825 -- 840},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {November},
   Key = {Orlander02}
}

@article{fds174101,
   Author = {JD Orlander and BG Fincke and D Hermanns and GA Johnson},
   Title = {Medical residents' first clearly remembered experiences of
             giving bad news.},
   Journal = {Journal of general internal medicine},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {825-31},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0884-8734},
   Keywords = {Adult • Communication • Female • Health
             Surveys • Humans • Internal Medicine* •
             Internship and Residency* • Male •
             Physician-Patient Relations*},
   Abstract = {CONTEXT: Communication of bad news to patients or families
             is a difficult task that requires skill and sensitivity.
             Little is known about doctors' formative experiences in
             giving bad news, what guidance they receive, or what lessons
             they learn in the process. OBJECTIVE: To learn the
             circumstances in which medical residents first delivered bad
             news to patients or families, the nature of their
             experience, and their opinions about how best to develop the
             needed skills. DESIGN: Confidential mailed survey. SETTING
             AND SUBJECTS: All medicine house officers at 2 urban,
             university-based residency programs in Boston. MAIN OUTCOME
             MEASURES: Details of medical residents' first clearly
             remembered experiences of giving bad news to a patient or
             family member; year in training; familiarity with the
             patient; information about any planning prior to,
             observation of, or discussion after their first experience;
             and the usefulness of such discussions. We also asked
             general questions about delivering bad news, such as how
             often this was done, as well as asking for opinions about
             actual and desired training. RESULTS: One hundred
             twenty-nine of two hundred thirteen surveys (61%) were
             returned. Most (73%) trainees first delivered bad news while
             a medical student or intern. For this first experience, most
             (61%) knew the patient for just hours or days. Only 59%
             engaged in any planning for the encounter. An attending
             physician was present in 6 (5%) instances, and a more-senior
             trainee in 14 (11%) others. Sixty-five percent of subjects
             debriefed with at least 1 other person after the encounter,
             frequently with a lesser-trained physician or a member of
             their own family. Debriefing focused on the reaction of
             those who were given the bad news and the reaction of the
             trainee. When there were discussions with more-senior
             physicians, before or after the encounter, these were judged
             to be helpful approximately 80% of the time. Most subjects
             had given bad news between 5 and 20 times, yet 10% had never
             been observed doing so. Only 81 of 128 (63%) had ever
             observed an attending delivering bad news, but those who did
             found it helpful 96% of the time. On 7-point scales,
             subjects rated the importance of skills in delivering bad
             news highly, (mean 6.8), believed such skill can be improved
             (mean 6.6), and thought that more guidance should be offered
             to them during such activity (mean 5.8). CONCLUSION: Medical
             students and residents frequently deliver bad news to
             patients and families. This responsibility begins early in
             training. In spite of their inexperience, many do not appear
             to receive adequate guidance or support during their
             earliest formative experiences.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds174101}
}

@article{fds132780,
   Author = {GA Johnson and GP Cofer and B Fubara and SL Gewalt and LW Hedlund and RR
             Maronpot},
   Title = {Magnetic resonance histology for morphologic
             phenotyping.},
   Journal = {Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI, United
             States},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {423-9},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {1053-1807},
   Keywords = {Animals • Magnetic Resonance Imaging* • Mice
             • Mice, Inbred C57BL • Phenotype •
             methods},
   Abstract = {Magnetic resonance histology (MRH) images of the whole mouse
             have been acquired at 100-micron isotropic resolution at 2.0
             T with image arrays of 256 x 256 x 1024. Higher resolution
             (50 x 50 x 50 microns) of limited volumes has been acquired
             at 7.1T with image arrays of 512 x 512 x 512. Even higher
             resolution images (20 x 20 x 20 microns) of isolated organs
             have been acquired at 9.4 T. The volume resolution
             represents an increase of 625000 x over conventional
             clinical MRI. The technological basis is summarized that
             will allow basic scientists to begin using MRH as a routine
             method for morphologcic phenotyping of the mouse. MRH
             promises four unique attributes over conventional histology:
             1). MRH is non-destructive; 2). MRH exploits the unique
             contrast mechanisms that have made MRI so successful
             clinically; 3). MRH is 3-dimensional; and 4). the data are
             inherently digital. We demonstrate the utility in
             morphologic phenotyping a whole C57BL/6J
             mouse.},
   Key = {fds132780}
}

@booklet{Johnson02a,
   Author = {Johnson, GA and Cofer, GP and Fubara, B and Gewalt, SL and Hedlund, LW and Maronpot, RR},
   Title = {Magnetic resonance histology for morphologic
             phenotyping.},
   Journal = {Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {423-429},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {1053-1807},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12353257},
   Abstract = {Magnetic resonance histology (MRH) images of the whole mouse
             have been acquired at 100-micron isotropic resolution at 2.0
             T with image arrays of 256 x 256 x 1024. Higher resolution
             (50 x 50 x 50 microns) of limited volumes has been acquired
             at 7.1T with image arrays of 512 x 512 x 512. Even higher
             resolution images (20 x 20 x 20 microns) of isolated organs
             have been acquired at 9.4 T. The volume resolution
             represents an increase of 625000 x over conventional
             clinical MRI. The technological basis is summarized that
             will allow basic scientists to begin using MRH as a routine
             method for morphologcic phenotyping of the mouse. MRH
             promises four unique attributes over conventional histology:
             1). MRH is non-destructive; 2). MRH exploits the unique
             contrast mechanisms that have made MRI so successful
             clinically; 3). MRH is 3-dimensional; and 4). the data are
             inherently digital. We demonstrate the utility in
             morphologic phenotyping a whole C57BL/6J
             mouse.},
   Doi = {10.1002/jmri.10175},
   Key = {Johnson02a}
}

@booklet{Burg02,
   Author = {Burg, KJL and Delnomdedieu, M and Beiler, RJ and Culberson, CR and Greene, KG and Halberstadt, CR and Holder, WD and Loebsack, AB and Roland, WD and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Application of magnetic resonance microscopy to tissue
             engineering: a polylactide model.},
   Journal = {Journal of Biomedical Materials Research},
   Volume = {61},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {380-390},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0021-9304},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12115463},
   Abstract = {Absorbable polymers are unique materials that find
             application as temporary scaffolds in tissue engineering.
             They are often extremely sensitive to histological
             processing and, for this reason, studying fragile,
             tissue-engineered constructs before implantation can be
             quite difficult. This research investigates the use of
             noninvasive imaging using magnetic resonance microscopy
             (MRM) as a tool to enhance the assessment of these cellular
             constructs. A series of cellular, polylactide constructs was
             developed and analyzed using a battery of tests, including
             MRM. Distribution of rat aortic smooth muscle cells within
             the scaffolds was compared as one example of a tissue
             engineering MRM application. Cells were loaded in varying
             amounts using static and dynamic methods. It was found that
             the cellular component was readily identified and the
             polymer microstructure readily assessed. Specifically, the
             MRM results showed a heterogeneous distribution of cells due
             to static loading and a homogenous distribution associated
             with dynamic loading, results that were not visible through
             biochemical tests, scanning electron microscopy, or
             histological evaluation independently. MRM also allowed
             differentiation between different levels of cellular
             loading. The current state of MRM is such that it is
             extremely useful in the refinement of polymer processing and
             cell seeding methods. This method has the potential, with
             technological advances, to be of future use in the
             characterization of cell-polymer interactions.},
   Doi = {10.1002/jbm.10146},
   Key = {Burg02}
}

@article{fds132755,
   Author = {KJ Burg and M Delnomdedieu and RJ Beiler and CR Culberson and KG Greene and CR Halberstadt and WD Holder and AB Loebsack and WD Roland and GA
             Johnson},
   Title = {Application of magnetic resonance microscopy to tissue
             engineering: a polylactide model.},
   Journal = {Journal of biomedical materials research, United
             States},
   Volume = {61},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {380-90},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0021-9304},
   Keywords = {Absorbable Implants • Animals • Aorta •
             Biocompatible Materials • Cell Survival • Magnetic
             Resonance Imaging* • Materials Testing •
             Microscopy • Muscle, Smooth, Vascular • Polyesters
             • Porosity • Rats • Tissue Engineering •
             cytology • instrumentation • instrumentation*
             • methods • methods*},
   Abstract = {Absorbable polymers are unique materials that find
             application as temporary scaffolds in tissue engineering.
             They are often extremely sensitive to histological
             processing and, for this reason, studying fragile,
             tissue-engineered constructs before implantation can be
             quite difficult. This research investigates the use of
             noninvasive imaging using magnetic resonance microscopy
             (MRM) as a tool to enhance the assessment of these cellular
             constructs. A series of cellular, polylactide constructs was
             developed and analyzed using a battery of tests, including
             MRM. Distribution of rat aortic smooth muscle cells within
             the scaffolds was compared as one example of a tissue
             engineering MRM application. Cells were loaded in varying
             amounts using static and dynamic methods. It was found that
             the cellular component was readily identified and the
             polymer microstructure readily assessed. Specifically, the
             MRM results showed a heterogeneous distribution of cells due
             to static loading and a homogenous distribution associated
             with dynamic loading, results that were not visible through
             biochemical tests, scanning electron microscopy, or
             histological evaluation independently. MRM also allowed
             differentiation between different levels of cellular
             loading. The current state of MRM is such that it is
             extremely useful in the refinement of polymer processing and
             cell seeding methods. This method has the potential, with
             technological advances, to be of future use in the
             characterization of cell-polymer interactions.},
   Key = {fds132755}
}

@booklet{Micheli02,
   Author = {F. Micheli and C. H. Peterson and L. S. Mullineaux and C. R.
             Fisher and S. W. Mills and G. Sancho and G. A. Johnson and H. S. Lenihan},
   Title = {Predation structures communities at deep-sea hydrothermal
             vents},
   Journal = {Ecological Monographs},
   Volume = {72},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {365 -- 382},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {August},
   Key = {Micheli02}
}

@booklet{Gray02,
   Author = {C. A. Gray and R. C. Burghardt and G. A. Johnson and F. W.
             Bazer and T. E. Spencer},
   Title = {Evidence that absence of endometrial gland secretions in
             uterine gland knockout ewes compromises conceptus survival
             and elongation},
   Journal = {Reproduction},
   Volume = {124},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {289 -- 300},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {August},
   Key = {Gray02}
}

@booklet{Johnson02c,
   Author = {G. A. Johnson and M. M. Joyce and S. J. Yankey and T. R.
             Hansen and T. L. Ott},
   Title = {The interferon stimulated genes (ISG) 17 and Mx have
             different temporal and spatial expression in the ovine
             uterus suggesting more complex regulation of the Mx
             gene},
   Journal = {Journal Of Endocrinology},
   Volume = {174},
   Number = {2},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {August},
   Key = {Johnson02c}
}

@article{fds174138,
   Author = {CA Gray and RC Burghardt and GA Johnson and FW Bazer and TE
             Spencer},
   Title = {Evidence that absence of endometrial gland secretions in
             uterine gland knockout ewes compromises conceptus survival
             and elongation.},
   Journal = {Reproduction (Cambridge, England)},
   Volume = {124},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {289-300},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {1470-1626},
   Keywords = {Animals • Blastocyst • Blotting, Western •
             Embryonic and Fetal Development • Endometrium •
             Female • Integrins • Interferon Type I •
             Mucin-1 • Mucins • Osteopontin • Pregnancy
             • Pregnancy Proteins • Pregnancy, Animal •
             Progesterone • Sheep • Sialoglycoproteins •
             Uterus • analysis • anatomy & histology •
             blood • chemistry • metabolism* • physiology*
             • secretion*},
   Abstract = {Endometrial glands are necessary for conceptus implantation
             and growth. In the ovine uterine gland knockout (UGKO)
             model, blastocysts hatch normally but fail to survive or
             elongate. This peri-implantation defect in UGKO ewes may be
             due to the absence of endometrial glands or, alternatively,
             to the lack of certain epithelial adhesion molecules or the
             inability of the endometrium to respond to signals from the
             conceptus. Two studies were performed to examine these
             hypotheses. In study one, normal (n = 8) and UGKO (n = 12)
             ewes were mated at oestrus (day 0) with intact rams and
             their uteri were flushed 14 days after oestrus. Normal ewes
             (n = 4) were also flushed on 14 days after oestrus. Uterine
             flushes from bred normal ewes contained filamentous
             conceptuses (n = 7 of 8), whereas those from UGKO ewes
             contained no conceptus (n = 5 of 12), a growth-retarded,
             tubular conceptus (n = 6 of 12), or a fragmented,
             filamentous conceptus (n = 1 of 12). In all groups,
             expression of mucin 1 and integrin alpha(v), alpha(5),
             beta(3) and beta(5) was localized at the apical surface of
             the endometrial luminal epithelium with no detectable
             differences between normal and UGKO ewes. Uterine flushes
             from pregnant ewes, but not cyclic or UGKO ewes, contained
             abundant immunoreactive interferon tau and the cell adhesion
             proteins, osteopontin and glycosylation-dependent cell
             adhesion molecule one. In study two, UGKO ewes were fitted
             with uterine catheters 5 days after oestrus, infused with
             recombinant ovine interferon tau or control proteins from 11
             to 15 days after oestrus, and underwent hysterectomy 16 days
             after oestrus. Expression of several interferon
             tau-stimulated genes (ISG17, STAT1, STAT2 and IRF-1) was
             increased in the endometrium from interferon tau-infused
             UGKO ewes. These results support the hypothesis that the
             defects in conceptus elongation and survival in UGKO ewes
             are due to the absence of endometrial glands and their
             secretions rather than to alterations in expression of
             anti-adhesive or adhesive molecules on the endometrial
             luminal epithelium or to the responsiveness of the
             endometrium to the conceptus pregnancy recognition
             signal.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds174138}
}

@article{fds174163,
   Author = {GA Johnson and MM Joyce and SJ Yankey and TR Hansen and TL
             Ott},
   Title = {The Interferon Stimulated Genes (ISG) 17 and Mx have
             different temporal and spatial expression in the ovine
             uterus suggesting more complex regulation of the Mx
             gene.},
   Journal = {The Journal of endocrinology},
   Volume = {174},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {R7-R11},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0022-0795},
   Keywords = {Animals • Estrous Cycle • Female •
             GTP-Binding Proteins* • Gene Expression Regulation
             • Gestational Age • Immunohistochemistry • In
             Situ Hybridization • Pregnancy • Pregnancy
             Proteins • Pregnancy, Animal • Proteins •
             RNA, Messenger • Random Allocation • Sheep •
             Uterus • analysis* • chemistry* • genetics*
             • metabolism* • methods},
   Abstract = {Interferon stimulated gene 17 (ISG17) and Mx are
             up-regulated in the ruminant uterus in response to
             interferon-tau (IFNtau) during early pregnancy. Recent
             evidence strongly indicates that expression of ISGs occur
             only in stroma (ST) and glandular epithelium (GE) during
             this time as a result of transcriptional repression by
             interferon regulatory factor two (IRF-2) expression in the
             LE. The present report tested this hypothesis by examining
             mRNA and protein expression of ISG17 and Mx in serial
             uterine cross-sections obtained from cyclic and early
             pregnant ewes. In situ and immunocytochemical analysis
             revealed that ISG17 mRNA and protein were low to
             undetectable, whereas Mx mRNA was expressed in the lumenal
             (LE) and superficial GE at all days of the estrous cycle
             examined. Both ISG17 and Mx mRNA increased in the stratum
             compactum ST between Days 11 and 13, and expression extended
             into the deep GE and stratum spongiosum ST on Days 15
             through 17 in pregnant ewes. Interestingly the Mx gene
             continued to be strongly expressed in LE and superficial GE
             through Day 17 of pregnancy, whereas ISG17 remained low to
             undetectable in these cells. Collectively, this study
             highlights the complexity of the uterine environment by
             unequivocally illustrating differential temporal and spatial
             expression of the IFN-responsive genes ISG17 and
             Mx.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds174163}
}

@article{fds132842,
   Author = {PJ Gareau and AC Wymore and GP Cofer and GA Johnson},
   Title = {Imaging inflammation: direct visualization of perivascular
             cuffing in EAE by magnetic resonance microscopy.},
   Journal = {Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI, United
             States},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {28-36},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {1053-1807},
   Keywords = {Animals • Brain • Disease Models, Animal •
             Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental • Female
             • Guinea Pigs • Inflammation • Magnetic
             Resonance Imaging • Microscopy • Multiple
             Sclerosis • methods* • pathology •
             pathology*},
   Abstract = {PURPOSE: To determine if the architectural features revealed
             by magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) allow one to detect
             microscopic abnormalities associated with neuroinflammation
             in fixed brain sections from animals with experimental
             allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for
             multiple sclerosis (MS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Imaging was
             performed at the Center for In Vivo Microscopy (CIVM) using
             a 9.4-Tesla, 89-mm bore, superconducting magnet with
             actively shielded gradients capable of 850 mT/m. A number of
             MR contrasts and spatial resolutions were explored. RESULTS:
             The assessment of EAE brain showed that it is possible to
             visualize perivascular cuffing in vitro by MRM on
             three-dimensional T1 proton stains. CONCLUSION: Inflammatory
             cell infiltration is a prerequisite for the development of
             lesions in EAE and MS. Thus, the ability to directly detect
             individual perivascular cuffs of inflammation may provide a
             useful means of monitoring the time course of inflammatory
             events, as conventional histopathological scoring of
             perivascular cuffs is utilized, but in the absence of
             sectioning and staining.},
   Key = {fds132842}
}

@booklet{Gareau02,
   Author = {Gareau, PJ and Wymore, AC and Cofer, GP and Johnson,
             GA},
   Title = {Imaging inflammation: direct visualization of perivascular
             cuffing in EAE by magnetic resonance microscopy.},
   Journal = {Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {28-36},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {1053-1807},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12112500},
   Abstract = {PURPOSE: To determine if the architectural features revealed
             by magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) allow one to detect
             microscopic abnormalities associated with neuroinflammation
             in fixed brain sections from animals with experimental
             allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for
             multiple sclerosis (MS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Imaging was
             performed at the Center for In Vivo Microscopy (CIVM) using
             a 9.4-Tesla, 89-mm bore, superconducting magnet with
             actively shielded gradients capable of 850 mT/m. A number of
             MR contrasts and spatial resolutions were explored. RESULTS:
             The assessment of EAE brain showed that it is possible to
             visualize perivascular cuffing in vitro by MRM on
             three-dimensional T1 proton stains. CONCLUSION: Inflammatory
             cell infiltration is a prerequisite for the development of
             lesions in EAE and MS. Thus, the ability to directly detect
             individual perivascular cuffs of inflammation may provide a
             useful means of monitoring the time course of inflammatory
             events, as conventional histopathological scoring of
             perivascular cuffs is utilized, but in the absence of
             sectioning and staining.},
   Doi = {10.1002/jmri.10136},
   Key = {Gareau02}
}

@article{fds132808,
   Author = {HE Möller and XJ Chen and B Saam and KD Hagspiel and GA Johnson and TA
             Altes, EE de Lange and HU Kauczor},
   Title = {MRI of the lungs using hyperpolarized noble
             gases.},
   Journal = {Magnetic resonance in medicine : official journal of the
             Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine / Society of
             Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, United States},
   Volume = {47},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1029-51},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0740-3194},
   Keywords = {Animals • Forecasting • Helium • Humans
             • Lung • Lung Diseases • Magnetic Resonance
             Imaging • Noble Gases • Pulmonary Gas Exchange
             • Xenon Radioisotopes • anatomy & histology*
             • diagnosis* • diagnostic use • diagnostic
             use* • methods* • physiology*},
   Abstract = {The nuclear spin polarization of the noble gas isotopes
             (3)He and (129)Xe can be increased using optical pumping
             methods by four to five orders of magnitude. This
             extraordinary gain in polarization translates directly into
             a gain in signal strength for MRI. The new technology of
             hyperpolarized (HP) gas MRI holds enormous potential for
             enhancing sensitivity and contrast in pulmonary imaging.
             This review outlines the physics underlying the optical
             pumping process, imaging strategies coping with the
             nonequilibrium polarization, and effects of the alveolar
             microstructure on relaxation and diffusion of the noble
             gases. It presents recent progress in HP gas MRI and
             applications ranging from MR microscopy of airspaces to
             imaging pulmonary function in patients and suggests
             potential directions for future developments.},
   Key = {fds132808}
}

@booklet{Moller02,
   Author = {Möller, HE and Chen, XJ and Saam, B and Hagspiel, KD and Johnson, GA and Altes, TA and de Lange, EE and Kauczor, H-U},
   Title = {MRI of the lungs using hyperpolarized noble
             gases.},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance in Medicine},
   Volume = {47},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1029-1051},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0740-3194},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12111949},
   Abstract = {The nuclear spin polarization of the noble gas isotopes
             (3)He and (129)Xe can be increased using optical pumping
             methods by four to five orders of magnitude. This
             extraordinary gain in polarization translates directly into
             a gain in signal strength for MRI. The new technology of
             hyperpolarized (HP) gas MRI holds enormous potential for
             enhancing sensitivity and contrast in pulmonary imaging.
             This review outlines the physics underlying the optical
             pumping process, imaging strategies coping with the
             nonequilibrium polarization, and effects of the alveolar
             microstructure on relaxation and diffusion of the noble
             gases. It presents recent progress in HP gas MRI and
             applications ranging from MR microscopy of airspaces to
             imaging pulmonary function in patients and suggests
             potential directions for future developments.},
   Doi = {10.1002/mrm.10173},
   Key = {Moller02}
}

@booklet{Johnson02f,
   Author = {G. A. Johnson and L. Pipas and N. B. Newman-palmer and L. H.
             Brown},
   Title = {The emergency medicine rotation: A unique experience for
             medical students},
   Journal = {Journal Of Emergency Medicine},
   Volume = {22},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {307 -- 311},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {Johnson02f}
}

@article{fds174191,
   Author = {GA Johnson and L Pipas and NB Newman-Palmer and LH
             Brown},
   Title = {The emergency medicine rotation: a unique experience for
             medical students.},
   Journal = {The Journal of emergency medicine},
   Volume = {22},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {307-11},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0736-4679},
   Keywords = {Clinical Clerkship • Curriculum •
             Diagnosis-Related Groups • Emergency Medicine •
             Emergency Service, Hospital • Hospitals, Teaching
             • Humans • Internal Medicine • New York
             • Program Evaluation • Prospective Studies •
             education • education* • methods* •
             statistics & numerical data},
   Abstract = {The objective of this study was to determine if an Emergency
             Medicine (EM) rotation for medical students offers a unique
             educational opportunity, and to document those experiences.
             Thirty-three medical students at one teaching hospital
             recorded in a computer database information about their
             patient encounters during EM and Internal Medicine (IM)
             rotations. Data collected included the types of patients
             seen, the level of participation in patient care and
             decision making, and procedures performed. A total of 2740
             patient encounters were recorded, 1564 EM and 1176 IM.
             Students on EM rotations were more likely than students on
             IM rotations to be involved in the initial evaluation (93.1%
             vs. 47.0%, respectively), diagnosis (93.5% vs. 44.7%,
             respectively), and decision making (93.3% vs. 43.5%,
             respectively); they were also more likely to perform
             procedures (31.7% vs. 8.5%, respectively). There were
             significant differences in the patient populations and
             disease processes encountered on the two rotations as
             well.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds174191}
}

@booklet{Johnson02e,
   Author = {Johnson, GA and Hedlund, LW},
   Title = {Image based phenotyping: The visible mouse},
   Journal = {The FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation
             of American Societies for Experimental Biology},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {A1091-A1091},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0892-6638},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000174593902021&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {Johnson02e}
}

@booklet{Scribner02,
   Author = {D. R. Scribner and J. L. Walker and G. A. Johnson and D. S.
             Mcmeekin and M. A. Gold and R. S. Mannel},
   Title = {Laparoscopic pelvic and paraaortic lymph node dissection in
             the obese},
   Journal = {Gynecologic Oncology},
   Volume = {84},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {426 -- 430},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {Scribner02}
}

@booklet{Garlow02,
   Author = {J. E. Garlow and H. Ka and G. A. Johnson and R. C. Burghardt and L. A. Jaeger and F. W. Bazer},
   Title = {Analysis of osteopontin at the maternal-placental interface
             in pigs},
   Journal = {Biology Of Reproduction},
   Volume = {66},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {718 -- 725},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {Garlow02}
}

@booklet{Johnson02g,
   Author = {G. A. Johnson and G. P. Cofer and S. L. Gewalt and L. W.
             Hedlund},
   Title = {Morphologic phenotyping with MR microscopy: The visible
             mouse},
   Journal = {Radiology},
   Volume = {222},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {789 -- 793},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {Johnson02g}
}

@article{fds174252,
   Author = {JE Garlow and H Ka and GA Johnson and RC Burghardt and LA Jaeger and FW
             Bazer},
   Title = {Analysis of osteopontin at the maternal-placental interface
             in pigs.},
   Journal = {Biology of reproduction},
   Volume = {66},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {718-25},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0006-3363},
   Keywords = {Animals • Cell Membrane • Endometrium •
             Epithelial Cells • Female • Frozen Sections •
             In Situ Hybridization • Integrins • Oligopeptides
             • Osteopontin • Placenta • Pregnancy •
             RNA, Messenger • Sialoglycoproteins • Signal
             Transduction • Swine* • Trophoblasts • Uterus
             • analysis • analysis* • chemistry •
             chemistry* • genetics • metabolism •
             pharmacology • physiology},
   Abstract = {Noninvasive, epitheliochorial placentation in the pig
             follows a prolonged preimplantation period characterized by
             migration, spacing and elongation of conceptuses, and
             secretion of estrogen for maternal recognition of pregnancy.
             Osteopontin (OPN) is an extracellular matrix protein that
             binds integrins to promote cell-cell attachment and
             communication. OPN appears to play a key role in conceptus
             implantation and maintenance of pregnancy in sheep; however,
             a role for OPN in the porcine uterus has not been
             established. Therefore, this study examined OPN expression
             and function in the porcine uterus and conceptus
             (embryo/fetus and associated extraembryonic membranes).
             Northern and slot blot hybridization detected an increase in
             endometrial OPN expression between Days 25 and 30, and
             levels remained elevated through Day 85 of pregnancy. In
             situ hybridization localized OPN mRNA to discrete regions of
             the uterine luminal epithelium (LE) on Day 15 of pregnancy
             and to the entire LE thereafter. Glandular epithelial (GE)
             expression of OPN mRNA was first detected on Day 35 of
             pregnancy and increased through Day 85. Both 70- and 45-kDa
             forms of OPN protein were detected in cyclic and pregnant
             endometrium by Western blotting. OPN protein was localized
             to the LE and GE by immunofluorescence; however, only the
             70-kDa OPN was detected in uterine flushings. OPN protein
             was present along the entire uterine-placental interface
             after Day 30 of pregnancy. In addition, OPN mRNA and protein
             were localized to immune-like cells within the stratum
             compactum of the endometrium in both Day 9 cyclic and
             pregnant gilts. Incubation of OPN-coated microbeads with
             porcine trophectoderm and uterine luminal epithelial cells
             induced Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-dependent integrin activation and
             transmembrane accumulation of cytoskeletal molecules at the
             apical cell surface as assessed by immunofluorescence
             detection of talin or alpha-actinin as markers for focal
             adhesions. These results suggest that OPN, expressed by
             uterine epithelium and immune cells, may interact with
             receptors (i.e., integrins) on conceptus and uterus to
             promote conceptus development and signaling between these
             tissues as key contributors to attachment and placentation
             in the pig.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds174252}
}

@article{fds174296,
   Author = {DR Scribner Jr and JL Walker and GA Johnson and DS McMeekin and MA Gold and RS Mannel},
   Title = {Laparoscopic pelvic and paraaortic lymph node dissection in
             the obese.},
   Journal = {Gynecologic oncology},
   Volume = {84},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {426-30},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0090-8258},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/gyno.2001.6548},
   Keywords = {Adult • Aged • Aged, 80 and over • Aorta,
             Abdominal • Endometrial Neoplasms • Female •
             Humans • Laparoscopy • Lymph Node Excision •
             Lymphatic Metastasis • Middle Aged • Obesity
             • Pelvis • Retrospective Studies •
             complications • complications* • methods •
             methods* • pathology • surgery*},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the
             utility of laparoscopic pelvic and paraaortic lymph node
             dissection in obese women. METHODS: We performed a
             retrospective analysis from 1/8/96 to 1/14/01 at the
             University of Oklahoma Health Science Center, evaluating
             patients who had a Quetelet index (QI) > or =28 and had
             planned laparoscopic bilateral pelvic and paraaortic lymph
             node dissections (lnd) for their gynecologic cancer. This
             group was compared to a matched group of patients that had
             lnd done by laparotomy. Patients were identified by our
             institution's database and data were collected by review of
             their medical records. Data were collected regarding
             demographics, stage, histology, length of stay, and
             procedural information including completion rates, estimated
             blood loss (EBL), operating room (OR) time, lymph node
             count, assistant, and complications. Associations between
             variables were analyzed using Student t tests and chi(2)
             testing, Excel v9.0. RESULTS: Fifty-five patients had
             planned laparoscopic lnd (Group 1) and 45 patients had lnd
             via laparotomy (Group 2). All patients had the diagnosis of
             endometrial cancer. The percentage of stage I patients did
             not differ between groups (42/55, 71.2% versus 37/45, 82.2%,
             P = n.s.). Age and QI were also similar between groups,
             (64.6 versus 58.4, 40.0 versus 39.3, P = n.s.). Laparoscopy
             was completed in 35/55 (63.6%) cases. Reasons for conversion
             included obesity (23.6%), adhesions (1.8%), intraperitoneal
             cancer (5.5%), and bleeding (5.5%). QI > or =35 was
             associated with a decreased success rate compared to QI <35
             (44.4% versus 82.1%, P = 0.004). There was no difference in
             successful laparoscopy when the first assistant was a fellow
             or a community obstetrician/gynecologist (61.0% versus
             50.0%, P = n.s.). The patients in Group 1 who had
             laparoscopy completed had a longer OR time compared to those
             in Group 2 (265.3 versus 140.7 min, P < 0.0001), EBL and
             transfusion rates were equivalent (361.8 versus 344.2 ml,
             5.6% versus 6.7%, P = n.s.), and length of stay was shorter
             (2.8 versus 4.5 days, P = 0.0004). Group 1 had significantly
             fewer postoperative fevers (5.5% versus 31.1%, P = 0.0007),
             fewer postoperative ileus (0% versus 13.3%, P = 0.005), and
             a trend for fewer wound infections (9.0% versus 22.2%, P =
             0.07). CONCLUSIONS: Obesity is not a contraindication to
             laparoscopic pelvic and paraaortic lymph node dissection.
             The overall success rate was significantly higher in those
             patients with a QI <35. Advantages include shorter hospital
             stay, fewer postoperative fevers, fewer postoperative ileus,
             and possibly fewer wound infections.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1006/gyno.2001.6548},
   Key = {fds174296}
}

@article{fds268929,
   Author = {Johnson, GA and Cofer, GP and Gewalt, SL and Hedlund,
             LW},
   Title = {Morphologic phenotyping with MR microscopy: the visible
             mouse.},
   Journal = {Radiology},
   Volume = {222},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {789-793},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0033-8419},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11867802},
   Keywords = {Animals • Contrast Media • Gadolinium DTPA •
             Imaging, Three-Dimensional* • Magnetic Resonance
             Imaging • Male • Mice • Mice, Inbred C57BL
             • Mice, Knockout • Microscopy • Phenotype
             • Urate Oxidase • administration & dosage •
             anatomy & histology* • diagnostic use • genetics
             • methods*},
   Abstract = {A method for rapid morphologic phenotyping is demonstrated
             by using magnetic resonance microscopy. Whole fixed C57BL/6J
             mice were imaged at 110-microm isotropic resolution; limited
             volumes of the intact specimen, at 50-microm isotropic
             resolution; and isolated organs, at 25-microm isotropic
             resolution. The three-dimensional imaging technique was
             applied to uricase knockout mice to demonstrate the method
             for the evaluation of morphologic phenotype.},
   Doi = {10.1148/radiol.2223010531},
   Key = {fds268929}
}

@booklet{Brau02,
   Author = {A. C. S. Brau and C. T. Wheeler and L. W. Hedlund and G. A.
             Johnson},
   Title = {Fiber-optic stethoscope: A cardiac monitoring and gating
             system for magnetic resonance microscopy},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance In Medicine},
   Volume = {47},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {314 -- 321},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {February},
   Key = {Brau02}
}

@booklet{Stewart02,
   Author = {M. D. Stewart and Y. S. Choi and G. A. Johnson and L. Y.
             Yu-lee and F. W. Bazer and T. E. Spencer},
   Title = {Roles of Stat1, Stat2, and interferon regulatory factor-9
             (IRF-9) in interferon tau regulation of IRF-1},
   Journal = {Biology Of Reproduction},
   Volume = {66},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {393 -- 400},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {February},
   Key = {Stewart02}
}

@article{fds174192,
   Author = {MD Stewart and Y Choi and GA Johnson and LY Yu-Lee and FW Bazer and TE
             Spencer},
   Title = {Roles of Stat1, Stat2, and interferon regulatory factor-9
             (IRF-9) in interferon tau regulation of IRF-1.},
   Journal = {Biology of reproduction},
   Volume = {66},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {393-400},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0006-3363},
   Keywords = {Blotting, Western • Cell Line • Cells, Cultured
             • DNA-Binding Proteins • Fibroblasts • Humans
             • Indicators and Reagents • Interferon Regulatory
             Factor-1 • Interferon Type I •
             Interferon-Stimulated Gene Factor 3 •
             Interferon-Stimulated Gene Factor 3, gamma Subunit •
             Phosphoproteins • Phosphorylation • Pregnancy
             Proteins • RNA, Messenger • Reverse Transcriptase
             Polymerase Chain Reaction • STAT1 Transcription Factor
             • STAT2 Transcription Factor • Signal Transduction
             • Trans-Activators • Transcription Factors •
             Tyrosine • biosynthesis • genetics •
             metabolism • physiology • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Interferon tau (IFNtau) is the pregnancy recognition signal
             produced by the conceptus trophectoderm and acts in a
             paracine manner on the ovine endometrium to increase
             expression of IFN-stimulated genes primarily in the stroma
             and deep glandular epithelium, including IFN regulatory
             factor-1 (IRF-1). The roles of Stat1, Stat2, and IRF-9 in
             IFNtau regulation of IRF-1 expression were determined using
             human stromal fibroblasts lacking specific IFN signaling
             components or complemented with specific Stat1 mutants. In
             parental (2fTGH) cells treated with IFNtau, Stat1alpha/beta
             was tyrosine phosphorylated by 15 min, and IRF-1 mRNA and
             protein increased from 0 to 6 h, was maximal at 6 h, and
             decreased to 24 h. In contrast, IFNtau did not affect IRF-1
             expression in Stat1- and Stat2-deficient cells or in
             Stat1-deficient cells complemented with Stat1 Y701Q or Stat1
             R602L mutants. In Stat1-deficient cells complemented with
             the Stat1 S727A mutant, Stat1alpha, or Stat1beta and treated
             with IFNtau, IRF-1 increased from 0 to 6 h, was maximal at 6
             h, and decreased thereafter. In IRF-9-deficient cells
             stimulated with IFNtau, IRF-1 increased from 0 to 6 h but
             did not exhibit the sharp decline from 6 to 12 h observed in
             other cells. Collectively, results indicate that IFNtau
             effect on IRF-1 expression is primarily regulated by
             tyrosine-phosphorylated Stat1alpha or Stat1beta dimers,
             whereas the decline of IRF-1 after 6 h of IFNtau treatment
             is regulated by IRF-9.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds174192}
}

@booklet{Gupta02,
   Author = {Gupta, AK and Johnson, GA and Nelson, RC},
   Title = {Optimization of eight-element multi-detector helical CT for
             imaging the abdomen},
   Journal = {Radiology},
   Volume = {222},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {589-589},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {February},
   Key = {Gupta02}
}

@article{fds269015,
   Author = {Brau, ACS and Wheeler, CT and Hedlund, LW and Johnson,
             GA},
   Title = {Fiber-optic stethoscope: a cardiac monitoring and gating
             system for magnetic resonance microscopy.},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance in Medicine},
   Volume = {47},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {314-321},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0740-3194},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11810675},
   Keywords = {Animals • Electrocardiography • Esophagoscopy*
             • Fiber Optics* • Heart Atria • Heart Rate
             • Heart Ventricles • Hemodynamic Processes •
             Magnetic Resonance Imaging • Mice • Mice, Inbred
             C57BL • Microscopy • Myocardial Contraction •
             Rats • Stethoscopes* • anatomy & histology* •
             instrumentation* • physiology},
   Abstract = {A fundamental problem associated with using the conventional
             electrocardiograph (ECG) to monitor a subject's cardiac
             activity during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the
             distortion of the ECG due to electromagnetic interference.
             This problem is particularly pronounced in MR microscopy
             (MRI of small animals at microscopic resolutions (< 0.03
             mm(3))) because the strong, rapidly-switching magnetic field
             gradients induce artifacts in the animal's ECG that often
             mimic electrophysiologic activity, impairing the use of the
             ECG for cardiac monitoring and gating purposes. The
             fiber-optic stethoscope system offers a novel approach to
             measuring cardiac activity that, unlike the ECG, is immune
             to electromagnetic effects. The fiber-optic stethoscope is
             perorally inserted into the esophagus of small animals to
             optically detect pulsatile compression of the esophageal
             wall. The optical system is shown to provide a robust
             cardiac monitoring and gating signal in rats and mice during
             routine cardiac MR microscopy.},
   Key = {fds269015}
}

@article{fds292761,
   Author = {Spielmann, AL and Nelson, RC and Lowry, CR and Johnson, GA and Sundaramoothy, G and Sheafor, DH and Paulson, EK},
   Title = {Liver: single breath-hold dynamic subtraction CT with
             multi-detector row helical technology feasibility
             study.},
   Journal = {Radiology},
   Volume = {222},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {278-283},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0033-8419},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11756737},
   Keywords = {Adult • Aged • Feasibility Studies • Female
             • Humans • Liver Neoplasms • Male •
             Middle Aged • Neovascularization, Pathologic •
             Prospective Studies • Subtraction Technique •
             Tomography, X-Ray Computed • methods* •
             radiography • radiography* • secondary},
   Abstract = {Fifty-two patients with known or suspected hypervascular
             malignancy were examined to determine the technical
             feasibility of performing single-breath-hold dynamic
             subtraction computed tomography (CT) of the liver with
             multi-detector row helical CT. The precontrast and hepatic
             arterial CT scans, which were acquired during the same
             breath hold, were subtracted. The mean liver-to-muscle
             contrast ratio on the precontrast, hepatic arterial, and
             subtracted images was 1.3, 1.4, and 2.3, respectively. In 13
             patients with lesions, the subtracted images showed a
             2.5-fold increase in mean lesion contrast compared with the
             hepatic arterial CT scans.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1148/radiol.2221010190},
   Key = {fds292761}
}

@booklet{Joyce02,
   Author = {M. M. Joyce and T. R. Hansen and G. A. Johnson},
   Title = {Interferon-stimulated gene 17 is expressed in the porcine
             uterus and may be critical to placental development across
             species.},
   Journal = {Biology Of Reproduction},
   Volume = {66},
   Pages = {185 -- 186},
   Year = {2002},
   Key = {Joyce02}
}

@booklet{Johnson02d,
   Author = {G. A. Johnson and M. M. Joyce and R. C. Burghardt},
   Title = {Osteopontin/early T-cell activation factor-1 is expressed by
             fetal placental immune cells after day 20 of pregnancy in
             sheep but not pigs.},
   Journal = {Biology Of Reproduction},
   Volume = {66},
   Pages = {272 -- 273},
   Year = {2002},
   Key = {Johnson02d}
}

@booklet{Hartt02,
   Author = {L. S. Hartt and M. M. Joyce and S. J. Sinor and H. Z. Liu and G. A. Johnson and D. K. Vanderwall and T. L.
             Ott},
   Title = {Temporal and spatial regulation of estrogen receptor a (ER)
             and progesterone receptor (PR) expression in the endometrium
             of nonpregnant and early pregnant mares.},
   Journal = {Biology Of Reproduction},
   Volume = {66},
   Pages = {316 -- 316},
   Year = {2002},
   Key = {Hartt02}
}

@booklet{Burghardt02,
   Author = {R. C. Burghardt and G. A. Johnson and L. A. Jaeger and H. Ka and J. E. Garlow and T. E. Spencer and F. W.
             Bazer},
   Title = {Integrins and extracellular matrix proteins at the
             maternal-fetal interface in domestic animals},
   Journal = {Cells Tissues Organs},
   Volume = {172},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {202 -- 217},
   Year = {2002},
   Key = {Burghardt02}
}

@booklet{Sinor02,
   Author = {S. J. Sinor and M. M. Joyce and S. J. Yankey and A. M.
             Assiri and K. Kodali and L. S. Hartt and M. Robison and G.
             A. Johnson and T. L. Ott},
   Title = {Mx, estrogen receptor (ER), and progesterone receptor (PR)
             expression in ovine placentomal and interplacentomal
             endometrium during days 25 to 120 of pregnancy.},
   Journal = {Biology Of Reproduction},
   Volume = {66},
   Pages = {244 -- 244},
   Year = {2002},
   Key = {Sinor02}
}

@booklet{Pfarrer02,
   Author = {C. D. Pfarrer and S. Hallack and G. A. Johnson and R. C.
             Burghardt and F. W. Bazer and R. Leiser},
   Title = {Expression of osteopontin in bovine placentomes and
             interplacentomal areas from early placentation until
             term.},
   Journal = {Biology Of Reproduction},
   Volume = {66},
   Pages = {229 -- 230},
   Year = {2002},
   Key = {Pfarrer02}
}

@booklet{Al-ramadan02,
   Author = {S. Y. Al-ramadan and G. A. Johnson and L. A. Jaeger and S.
             P. Brinsko and R. C. Burghardt},
   Title = {Distribution of integrin subunits, MUC-1, and osteopontin in
             equine uterine epithelium and conceptuses during early
             pregnancy.},
   Journal = {Biology Of Reproduction},
   Volume = {66},
   Pages = {323 -- 323},
   Year = {2002},
   Key = {Al-ramadan02}
}

@article{fds268752,
   Author = {Johnson, GA and Cofer, GP and Gewalt, SL and Hedlund, LW and IEEE, and IEEE},
   Title = {An engineering approach to image-based phenotyping},
   Journal = {2002 IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON BIOMEDICAL IMAGING,
             PROCEEDINGS},
   Pages = {381-383},
   Year = {2002},
   ISBN = {0-7803-7584-X},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000178000400095&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds268752}
}

@article{fds268887,
   Author = {Hedlund, LW and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Mechanical ventilation for imaging the small animal
             lung.},
   Journal = {ILAR Journal},
   Volume = {43},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {159-174},
   Year = {2002},
   ISSN = {1084-2020},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12105383},
   Keywords = {Anatomy, Cross-Sectional • Animals • Animals,
             Laboratory • Disease Models, Animal • Guinea Pigs
             • Lung* • Magnetic Resonance Imaging • Rats
             • Respiration, Artificial • anatomy & histology
             • instrumentation • methods* • physiology
             • physiology* • physiopathology},
   Abstract = {This review emphasizes some of the challenges and benefits
             of in vivo imaging of the small animal lung. Because
             mechanical ventilation plays a key role in high-quality,
             high-resolution imaging of the small animal lung, the
             article focuses particularly on the problems of ventilation
             support, control of breathing motion and lung volume, and
             imaging during different phases of the breathing cycle.
             Solutions for these problems are discussed primarily in
             relation to magnetic resonance imaging, both conventional
             proton imaging and the newer, hyperpolarized helium imaging
             of pulmonary airways. Examples of applications of these
             imaging solutions to normal and diseased lung are
             illustrated in the rat and guinea pig. Although difficult to
             perform, pulmonary imaging in the small animal can be a
             valuable source of information not only for the normal lung,
             but also for the lung challenged by disease.},
   Key = {fds268887}
}

@article{fds174284,
   Author = {RC Burghardt and GA Johnson and LA Jaeger and H Ka and JE Garlow and TE
             Spencer, FW Bazer},
   Title = {Integrins and extracellular matrix proteins at the
             maternal-fetal interface in domestic animals.},
   Journal = {Cells, tissues, organs},
   Volume = {172},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {202-17},
   Year = {2002},
   ISSN = {1422-6405},
   Keywords = {Animals • Embryo Implantation • Endometrium •
             Extracellular Matrix Proteins • Female • Humans
             • Integrins • Maternal-Fetal Exchange* •
             Osteopontin • Peptide Fragments • Placenta •
             Pregnancy • Protein Precursors • Sheep •
             Sialoglycoproteins • Swine • Transforming Growth
             Factor beta1 • cytology • genetics •
             metabolism • metabolism* • physiology •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {Establishment of pregnancy in mammals requires coordinated
             conceptus-maternal interactions involving numerous hormones,
             growth factors and cytokines acting via specific receptors
             in the uterus. Uterine secretions play an important role in
             establishing synchrony between development of the conceptus
             and uterine receptivity, as well as in conceptus remodeling,
             adhesion, implantation and placentation in domestic species.
             Studies of non-invasive implantation in domestic livestock
             provide valuable opportunities to investigate fundamental
             processes of the initial events of apposition, attachment
             and adhesive interactions that are shared among species. In
             pigs and sheep, it appears that integrins play a dominant
             role in these fundamental processes via interactions with
             extracellular matrix molecules and other ligands to
             transduce cellular signals in uterine epithelial cells and
             conceptus trophectoderm. This review considers several of
             the potential integrin-binding ligands involved in the
             complex implantation adhesion cascade in pigs and sheep
             along with in vitro evidence for the transduction of
             cytoplasmic signals that may be required to sustain fetal
             and maternal contributions to the formation of the
             epitheliochorial placenta.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds174284}
}

@article{fds174305,
   Author = {SC Walker and T Shin and GM Zaunbrecher and JE Romano and GA Johnson and FW
             Bazer, JA Piedrahita},
   Title = {A highly efficient method for porcine cloning by nuclear
             transfer using in vitro-matured oocytes.},
   Journal = {Cloning and stem cells},
   Volume = {4},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {105-12},
   Year = {2002},
   ISSN = {1536-2302},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/153623002320253283},
   Keywords = {Animals • Cloning, Organism • Culture Techniques
             • Embryo Transfer • Female • Microsatellite
             Repeats • Nuclear Transfer Techniques* • Oocytes
             • Pregnancy • Sex Ratio • Swine •
             cytology* • genetics • genetics* •
             methods*},
   Abstract = {To date, the efficiency of pig cloning by nuclear transfer
             of somatic cell nuclei has been extremely low, with less
             than 1% of transferred embryos surviving to term. Even the
             utilization of complex procedures such as two rounds of
             nuclear transfer has not resulted in greater overall
             efficiencies. As a result, the applicability of the
             technology for the generation of transgenic and cloned
             animals has not moved forward rapidly. We report here a
             simple nuclear transfer protocol, utilizing commercially
             available in vitro-matured oocytes, that results in greater
             than 5% overall cloning efficiency. Of five recipients
             receiving nuclear transfer embryos produced with a fetal
             fibroblast cell line as nuclear donor, all five established
             pregnancies by day 28 (100%), and 4/5 (80%) went to term.
             Efficiencies for each transfer were 7% (9 piglets/128
             doublets transferred), 5% (5/100), 12% (7/59), and 6.6%
             (7/106). The overall efficiency in all recipients was 5.5%
             and in pregnant recipients 7.7%, with a total of 28 cloned
             piglets produced. With the average fusion rate being 58%,
             the percentage of fused doublets producing a live piglet
             approached 12%. The method described here can be undertaken
             by a single micromanipulator at a reasonable cost, and
             should facilitate the broad utilization of porcine cloning
             technology in transgenic and nontransgenic
             applications.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1089/153623002320253283},
   Key = {fds174305}
}

@booklet{Johnson02b,
   Author = {G. A. Johnson and T. R. Hoverstad},
   Title = {Effect of row spacing and herbicide application timing on
             weed control and grain yield in corn (Zea
             mays)},
   Journal = {Weed Technology},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {548 -- 553},
   Year = {2002},
   Key = {Johnson02b}
}

@booklet{Scribner01,
   Author = {D. R. Scribner and J. L. Walker and G. A. Johnson and S. D.
             Mcmeekin and M. A. Gold and R. S. Mannel},
   Title = {Surgical management of early-stage endometrial cancer in the
             elderly: Is laparoscopy feasible?},
   Journal = {Gynecologic Oncology},
   Volume = {83},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {563 -- 568},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {December},
   Key = {Scribner01}
}

@article{fds174187,
   Author = {DR Scribner Jr and JL Walker and GA Johnson and SD McMeekin and MA Gold and RS Mannel},
   Title = {Surgical management of early-stage endometrial cancer in the
             elderly: is laparoscopy feasible?},
   Journal = {Gynecologic oncology},
   Volume = {83},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {563-8},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0090-8258},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/gyno.2001.6463},
   Keywords = {Aged • Aged, 80 and over • Endometrial Neoplasms
             • Female • Humans • Hysterectomy, Vaginal
             • Laparoscopy • Lymph Node Excision •
             Neoplasm Staging • Retrospective Studies •
             methods* • pathology • surgery*},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To give insight into the utility of laparoscopic
             staging of endometrial cancer in the elderly population by
             reviewing the surgical management of clinically stage I
             endometrial cancer patients. METHODS: A retrospective
             analysis evaluating patients that were > or =65 years old
             and had planned laparoscopic staging, traditional staging
             via a laparotomy, or a transvaginal hysterectomy as
             management of their early endometrial cancer. The
             laparoscopic group had complete staging with bilateral
             pelvic and paraaortic lymph node dissections and was
             compared to the group who had staging performed via
             laparotomy. Patients were identified by our institution's
             database and data were collected by review of their medical
             records. Data were collected on demographics, pathology, and
             procedural information including completion rates, operating
             room (OR) time, estimated blood loss (EBL), transfusions,
             lymph node count, complications, and length of stay.
             Associations between variables were analyzed by Student's t
             tests and chi(2) testing using Excel v. 9.0. RESULTS: From
             February 25, 1994, through December 21, 2000, 125 elderly
             patients were identified. Sixty-seven patients had planned
             laparoscopic staging (Group 1), 45 patients had staging via
             planned laparotomy (Group 2), and 13 patients had a
             transvaginal hysterectomy (Group 3). Group 1 and Group 2
             were compared regarding surgical and postoperative data. Age
             was not different between these groups (75.9 vs 74.7 years,
             P = NS). Quetelet index was also similar (29.4 vs 29.9, P =
             NS) 32.8% of Group 1 had > or =1 previous laparotomy
             compared to 51.1% in Group 2 (P = NS). In Group 1, 53/67
             (79.1%) had stage I or II disease compared to 29/45 (64.4%)
             in Group 2 (P = NS). Laparoscopy was completed in 52/67
             (77.6%) attempted procedures. The reasons for conversion to
             laparotomy were obesity 7/67 (10.4%), bleeding 4/67 (6.0%),
             intraperitoneal cancer 3/67 (4.5%), and adhesions 1/67
             (1.5%). OR time was significantly longer in successful Group
             1 patients compared to Group 2 patients (236 vs 148 min, p =
             0.0001). EBL was similar between these groups (298 vs 336
             ml, P = NS). Ten of 52 (19.2%) of successful Group 1
             patients received a blood transfusion compared to 1/45
             (2.2%) of Group 2 patients (P < 0.0001). Pelvic, common
             iliac, and paraaortic lymph node counts were similar between
             successful Group 1 patients and those in Group 2 combined
             with those that received a laparotomy in Group 1 (17.8, 5.2,
             6.6 vs 19.1, 5.1, 5.2, P = NS). Length of stay (LOS) was
             significantly shorter in Group 1 versus Group 2 (3.0 vs 5.8
             days, P < 0.0001). There were less fevers (6.0 vs 15.6%, P =
             0.01), less postoperative ileus's (0 vs 15.6%, P < 0.001),
             and less wound complications (6.0 vs 26.7%, P = 0.002) in
             Group 1 compared to Group 2. Group 3 average age was 77.5
             years. Concurrent medical comorbidities were the main reason
             for the transvaginal approach. OR time averaged 104.5 min.
             The average length of stay was 2.1 days with no procedural
             or postoperative complications. CONCLUSIONS: The favorable
             results from this retrospective study refute the bias that
             age is a relative contraindication to laparoscopic surgery.
             Laparoscopic staging was associated with an increased OR
             time and an increased rate of transfusion but equivalent
             blood loss and lymph node counts. Possible advantages are
             decreased length of stay, less postoperative ileus, and less
             infections complications. Transvaginal hysterectomy still
             remains a proven option for women with serious comorbid
             medical problems with short OR times, minimal complications,
             and short lengths of stay.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1006/gyno.2001.6463},
   Key = {fds174187}
}

@booklet{Gray01,
   Author = {C. A. Gray and F. F. Bartol and B. J. Tarleton and A. A.
             Wiley and G. A. Johnson and F. W. Bazer and T. E.
             Spencer},
   Title = {Developmental biology of uterine glands},
   Journal = {Biology Of Reproduction},
   Volume = {65},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1311 -- 1323},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {November},
   Key = {Gray01}
}

@article{fds174253,
   Author = {CA Gray and FF Bartol and BJ Tarleton and AA Wiley and GA Johnson and FW
             Bazer, TE Spencer},
   Title = {Developmental biology of uterine glands.},
   Journal = {Biology of reproduction},
   Volume = {65},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1311-23},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0006-3363},
   Keywords = {Animals • Endometrium • Estradiol • Female
             • Humans • Morphogenesis • Prolactin •
             Receptors, Estradiol • Receptors, Prolactin •
             Uterus • embryology • embryology* •
             physiology},
   Abstract = {All mammalian uteri contain endometrial glands that
             synthesize or transport and secrete substances essential for
             survival and development of the conceptus (embryo/fetus and
             associated extraembryonic membranes). In rodents, uterine
             secretory products of the endometrial glands are
             unequivocally required for establishment of uterine
             receptivity and conceptus implantation. Analyses of the
             ovine uterine gland knockout model support a primary role
             for endometrial glands and, by default, their secretions in
             peri-implantation conceptus survival and development.
             Uterine adenogenesis is the process whereby endometrial
             glands develop. In humans, this process begins in the fetus,
             continues postnatally, and is completed during puberty. In
             contrast, endometrial adenogenesis is primarily a postnatal
             event in sheep, pigs, and rodents. Typically, endometrial
             adenogenesis involves differentiation and budding of
             glandular epithelium from luminal epithelium, followed by
             invagination and extensive tubular coiling and branching
             morphogenesis throughout the uterine stroma to the
             myometrium. This process requires site-specific alterations
             in cell proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM)
             remodeling as well as paracrine cell-cell and cell-ECM
             interactions that support the actions of specific hormones
             and growth factors. Studies of uterine development in
             neonatal ungulates implicate prolactin, estradiol-17 beta,
             and their receptors in mechanisms regulating endometrial
             adenogenesis. These same hormones appear to regulate
             endometrial gland morphogenesis in menstruating primates and
             humans during reconstruction of the functionalis from the
             basalis endometrium after menses. In sheep and pigs,
             extensive endometrial gland hyperplasia and hypertrophy
             occur during gestation, presumably to provide increasing
             histotrophic support for conceptus growth and development.
             In the rabbit, sheep, and pig, a servomechanism is proposed
             to regulate endometrial gland development and differentiated
             function during pregnancy that involves sequential actions
             of ovarian steroid hormones, pregnancy recognition signals,
             and lactogenic hormones from the pituitary or placenta. That
             disruption of uterine development during critical
             organizational periods can alter the functional capacity and
             embryotrophic potential of the adult uterus reinforces the
             importance of understanding the developmental biology of
             uterine glands. Unexplained high rates of peri-implantation
             embryonic loss in humans and livestock may reflect defects
             in endometrial gland morphogenesis due to genetic errors,
             epigenetic influences of endocrine disruptors, and
             pathological lesions.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds174253}
}

@booklet{Frush01,
   Author = {Frush, DP and Yoshizumi, TT and Paulson, EK and Johnson,
             GA},
   Title = {Radiation dose from helical CT in children: Comparison of
             multi-slice and single-slice protocols},
   Journal = {Radiology},
   Volume = {221},
   Pages = {246-246},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0033-8419},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000172126600589&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {Frush01}
}

@booklet{Paulson01,
   Author = {Paulson, EK and Yoshizumi, TT and Frush, DP and Johnson,
             GA},
   Title = {Multi-detector vs single-detector CT: The organ doses are
             higher than you think},
   Journal = {Radiology},
   Volume = {221},
   Pages = {403-403},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0033-8419},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000172126601192&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {Paulson01}
}

@booklet{Tengowski01,
   Author = {Tengowski, MW and Suddarth, SA and Cofer, GP and Wheeler, CT and Botts,
             S and Fasulo, LM and Jeffries-Griffor, JL and Amacher, DE and Lawton,
             MP and Hedlund, LW and Zhang, XW and Burkhardt, JE and Johnson,
             GA},
   Title = {Using technology to develop a hepatic lipidosis blomarker in
             the rat},
   Journal = {Molecular Biology of the Cell},
   Volume = {12},
   Pages = {261A-261A},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {1059-1524},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000172372501425&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {Tengowski01}
}

@booklet{Choi01,
   Author = {Y. S. Choi and G. A. Johnson and R. C. Burghardt and L. R.
             Berghman and M. M. Joyce and K. M. Taylor and M. D. Stewart and F. W. Bazer and T. E. Spencer},
   Title = {Interferon regulatory factor-two restricts expression of
             interferon-stimulated genes to the endometrial stroma and
             glandular epithelium of the ovine uterus},
   Journal = {Biology Of Reproduction},
   Volume = {65},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1038 -- 1049},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {October},
   Key = {Choi01}
}

@article{fds174124,
   Author = {Y Choi and GA Johnson and RC Burghardt and LR Berghman and MM Joyce and KM
             Taylor, MD Stewart and FW Bazer and TE Spencer},
   Title = {Interferon regulatory factor-two restricts expression of
             interferon-stimulated genes to the endometrial stroma and
             glandular epithelium of the ovine uterus.},
   Journal = {Biology of reproduction},
   Volume = {65},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1038-49},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0006-3363},
   Keywords = {Animals • DNA-Binding Proteins • Endometrium
             • Epithelium • Estrous Cycle • Female •
             Fluorescent Antibody Technique • Gene Expression*
             • Interferon Regulatory Factor-1 • Interferon
             Regulatory Factor-2 • Interferon Type I •
             Interferon-Stimulated Gene Factor 3 • Interferons
             • Phosphoproteins • Pregnancy Proteins •
             Promoter Regions, Genetic • RNA, Messenger •
             Recombinant Proteins • Repressor Proteins* • STAT1
             Transcription Factor • STAT2 Transcription Factor
             • Sheep* • Stromal Cells • Trans-Activators
             • Transcription Factors • Transcriptional
             Activation • Transfection • Uterus • analysis
             • drug effects • genetics • metabolism •
             metabolism* • pharmacology • pharmacology* •
             physiology • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Interferon tau (IFNtau) is the signal for maternal
             recognition of pregnancy in ruminants. The positive effects
             of IFNtau on IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) expression are
             mediated by ISG factor 3 (ISGF3), which is composed of
             signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat) 1,
             Stat 2, and IFN regulatory factor-9 (IRF-9), and by
             gamma-activated factor (GAF), which is a Stat 1 homodimer.
             Induction of ISGs, such as ISG17 and 2',5'-oligoadenylate
             synthetase, by IFNtau during pregnancy is limited to the
             endometrial stroma (S) and glandular epithelium (GE) of the
             ovine uterus. The IRF-2, a potent transcriptional repressor
             of ISG expression, is expressed in the luminal epithelium
             (LE). This study determined effects of the estrous cycle,
             pregnancy, and IFNtau on expression of Stat 1, Stat 2,
             IRF-9, IRF-1, and IRF-2 genes in the ovine endometrium. In
             cyclic ewes, Stat 1, Stat 2, IRF-1, and IRF-9 mRNA and
             protein were detected at low levels in the S and GE. During
             pregnancy, expression of these genes increased only in the S
             and GE. Expression of IRF-2 was detected only in the LE and
             superficial GE (sGE) of both cyclic and pregnant ewes. In
             cyclic ewes, intrauterine administration of IFNtau
             stimulated Stat 1, Stat 2, IRF-9, and IRF-1 expression in
             the endometrium. Ovine IRF-2 repressed transcriptional
             activity driven by IFN-stimulated response elements that
             bind ISGF3, but not by gamma-activation sequences that bind
             GAF. These results suggest that IRF-2 in the LE and sGE
             restricts IFNtau induction of ISGs to the S and GE. In the S
             and GE, IFNtau hyperactivation of ISG expression likely
             involves formation and actions of the transcription factors
             ISGF3 and, perhaps, IRF-1.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds174124}
}

@booklet{Johnson01,
   Author = {G. A. Johnson and F. W. Bazer and L. A. Jaeger and H. Ka and J. E. Garlow and C. Pfarrer and T. E. Spencer and R. C.
             Burghardt},
   Title = {Muc-1, integrin, and osteopontin expression during the
             implantation cascade in sheep},
   Journal = {Biology Of Reproduction},
   Volume = {65},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {820 -- 828},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {September},
   Key = {Johnson01}
}

@booklet{Scribner01a,
   Author = {D. R. Scribner and J. L. Walker and G. A. Johnson and S. D.
             Mcmeekin and M. A. Gold and R. S. Mannel},
   Title = {Laparoscopic pelvic and paraaortic lymph node dissection:
             Analysis of the first 100 cases},
   Journal = {Gynecologic Oncology},
   Volume = {82},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {498 -- 503},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {September},
   Key = {Scribner01a}
}

@article{fds174103,
   Author = {GA Johnson and FW Bazer and LA Jaeger and H Ka and JE Garlow and C Pfarrer and TE Spencer and RC Burghardt},
   Title = {Muc-1, integrin, and osteopontin expression during the
             implantation cascade in sheep.},
   Journal = {Biology of reproduction},
   Volume = {65},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {820-8},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0006-3363},
   Keywords = {Actinin • Animals • Cell Adhesion •
             Cytoskeleton • Embryo Implantation • Endometrium
             • Epithelium • Estrous Cycle • Female •
             Fluorescent Antibody Technique • Gestational Age •
             Immunohistochemistry • Integrins • Interferon Type
             I • Mucin-1 • Osteopontin • Pregnancy •
             Pregnancy Proteins • RNA, Messenger • Recombinant
             Proteins • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain
             Reaction • Sheep • Sialoglycoproteins • Talin
             • Trophoblasts • Uterus • analysis •
             analysis* • chemistry • genetics • genetics*
             • pharmacology • physiology •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {The extracellular matrix protein osteopontin (OPN) is a
             component of histotroph that increases in uterine flushings
             from pregnant ewes during the peri-implantation period and
             is localized on the apical surfaces of the uterine luminal
             epithelium (LE) and conceptus trophectoderm (Tr). The
             potential involvement of OPN in the implantation adhesion
             cascade in sheep was investigated by examining temporal,
             spatial, and potential functional relationships between OPN,
             Muc-1, and integrin subunits during the estrous cycle and
             early pregnancy. Immunoreactive Muc-1 was highly expressed
             at the apical surfaces of uterine luminal (LE) and glandular
             epithelium (GE) in both cycling and pregnant ewes but was
             decreased dramatically on LE by Day 9 and was nearly
             undetectable by Day 17 of pregnancy when intimate contact
             between LE and Tr begins. In contrast, integrin subunits
             alpha(v), alpha(4), alpha(5), beta(1), beta(3), and beta(5)
             were constitutively expressed on conceptus Tr and at the
             apical surface of uterine LE and GE in both cyclic and early
             pregnant ewes. The apical expression of these subunits could
             contribute to the apical assembly of several OPN receptors
             including the alpha(v)beta(3), alpha(v)beta(1),
             alpha(v)beta(5), alpha(4)beta(1), and alpha(5)beta(1)
             heterodimers on endometrial LE and GE, and conceptus Tr in
             sheep. Functional analysis of potential OPN interactions
             with conceptus and endometrial integrins was performed on LE
             and Tr cells in vitro using beads coated with OPN,
             poly-L-lysine, or recombinant OPN in which the Arg-Gly-Asp
             sequence was replaced with RGE or RAD. Transmembrane
             accumulation of talin or alpha-actinin at the apical surface
             of uterine LE and conceptus Tr cells in contact with
             OPN-coated beads revealed functional integrin activation and
             cytoskeletal reorganization in response to OPN binding.
             These results provide a physiological framework for the role
             of OPN, a potential mediator of implantation in sheep, as a
             bridge between integrin heterodimers expressed by Tr and
             uterine LE responsible for adhesion for initial conceptus
             attachment.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds174103}
}

@article{fds174212,
   Author = {DR Scribner Jr and JL Walker and GA Johnson and SD McMeekin and MA Gold and RS Mannel},
   Title = {Laparoscopic pelvic and paraaortic lymph node dissection:
             analysis of the first 100 cases.},
   Journal = {Gynecologic oncology},
   Volume = {82},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {498-503},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0090-8258},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/gyno.2001.6314},
   Keywords = {Adult • Aged • Aged, 80 and over • Aorta,
             Thoracic • Endometrial Neoplasms • Female •
             Humans • Laparoscopy • Lymph Node Excision •
             Middle Aged • Neoplasm Staging • Ovarian Neoplasms
             • Pelvis • Retrospective Studies • adverse
             effects • methods* • pathology •
             surgery*},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the first
             100 cases of planned laparoscopic pelvic and paraaortic
             lymph node dissection (LND) done for staging of gynecologic
             cancers. The goal of the study was to assess prognostic
             factors for conversion to laparotomy and document
             complications. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients
             who had planned laparoscopic bilateral pelvic and bilateral
             paraaortic LND for staging of their gynecologic cancer was
             performed. Patients were identified by our institutional
             database and data were collected by review of their medical
             records. Data were obtained regarding demographics, stage,
             histology, length of stay, and procedural information
             including completion rates, operating room time, estimated
             blood loss, assistant, lymph node count, and complications.
             Associations between variables were analyzed using Student t
             tests, analysis of variance, and chi(2) testing (Excel
             v7.0). RESULTS: A total of 103 patients were identified from
             12/15/95 to 8/28/00. Demographics included mean age of 66.2
             (25-92) and mean Quetelet index (QI) of 30.8 (15.9-56.1). A
             total of 34/103 (33.0%) had > or =1 previous laparotomy.
             Ninety-five patients had endometrial cancer and 8 had
             ovarian cancer. Eighty-six of 103 (83.5%) were stage I or
             II. The length of stay was shorter for those who had
             laparoscopy than for those who needed conversion to
             laparotomy (2.8 vs 5.6 days, P < 0.0001). Laparoscopy was
             completed in 73/103 (70.9%) of the cases. Completion rates
             were 62/76 (81.6%) with QI < 35 vs 11/27 (40.7%) with QI >
             or = 35, P < 0.001. Significantly more patients had their
             laparoscopy completed when an attending gynecologic
             oncologist was the first assistant compared to a fellow or a
             community obstetrician/gynecologist (92.9%, 69.0%, 64.5%, P
             < 0.0001). The top three reasons for conversion to
             laparotomy were obesity, 12/30 (29.1%), adhesions, 5/30
             (16.7%), and intraperitoneal disease, 5/30 (16.7%). Pelvic,
             common iliac, and paraaortic lymph node counts did not
             differ when compared to those of patients who had conversion
             to laparotomy (18.1, 5.1, 6.8 vs 17.3, 5.7, 6.8, P = ns).
             Complications included 2 urinary tract injuries, 2 pulmonary
             embolisms, and 6 wound infections (all in the laparotomy
             group). Two deaths occurred, 1 due to a vascular injury on
             initial trocar insertion and 1 due to a pulmonary embolism
             after a laparotomy for bowel herniation through a trocar
             incision. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic bilateral pelvic and
             paraaortic LND can be completed successfully in 70.9% of
             patients. Age, obesity, previous surgery, and the need to
             perform this procedure in the community were not
             contraindications. Advantages include a shorter hospital
             stay, similar nodal counts, and acceptable
             complications.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1006/gyno.2001.6314},
   Key = {fds174212}
}

@booklet{Todd01,
   Author = {M. D. Todd and G. A. Johnson and B. L. Althouse},
   Title = {A novel Bragg grating sensor interrogation system utilizing
             a scanning filter, a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and a 3 x 3
             coupler},
   Journal = {Measurement Science \& Technology},
   Volume = {12},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {771 -- 777},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {July},
   Key = {Todd01}
}

@booklet{Fleming01,
   Author = {J. A. G. W. Fleming and Y. Choi and G. A. Johnson and T. E.
             Spencer and F. W. Bazer},
   Title = {Cloning of the ovine estrogen receptor-alpha promoter and
             functional regulation by ovine interferon-tau},
   Journal = {Endocrinology},
   Volume = {142},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {2879 -- 2887},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {July},
   Key = {Fleming01}
}

@article{fds174194,
   Author = {JA Fleming and Y Choi and GA Johnson and TE Spencer and FW
             Bazer},
   Title = {Cloning of the ovine estrogen receptor-alpha promoter and
             functional regulation by ovine interferon-tau.},
   Journal = {Endocrinology},
   Volume = {142},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {2879-87},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0013-7227},
   Keywords = {Animals • Artificial Gene Fusion • Base Sequence
             • Cell Line, Transformed • Cloning, Molecular*
             • DNA-Binding Proteins • Electrophoresis •
             Endometrium • Enhancer Elements, Genetic •
             Epithelial Cells • Estrogen Receptor alpha •
             Female • Gene Deletion • Interferon Regulatory
             Factor-2 • Interferon Type I • Mutation •
             Pregnancy Proteins • Promoter Regions, Genetic •
             Receptors, Estrogen • Recombinant Proteins •
             Repressor Proteins* • Sheep • Thymidine Kinase
             • Transcription Factors* • Transcription, Genetic
             • cytology • drug effects • genetics •
             genetics* • metabolism • metabolism* •
             pharmacology • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Interferon-tau (IFNtau), the ruminant pregnancy recognition
             signal, inhibits transcription of the estrogen receptor
             alpha (ERalpha) gene in the endometrial lumenal epithelium
             of the sheep uterus, thereby abrogating production of
             luteolytic PGF(2alpha) pulses. The effects of IFNtau are
             mediated in part by IFN-stimulated response elements (ISREs)
             and IFN regulatory factor elements (IRFEs). The
             promoter/enhancer region of the ovine ERalpha gene was
             cloned, sequenced, and predicted to contain four IRFEs and
             one ISRE. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicated
             that the -2110 IRFE bound only IRF-1, whereas the -1877 IRFE
             and the -1284 ISRE were functional in binding IRF-1 and
             IRF-2. IFNtau inhibited transcriptional activity of the
             2.7-kb ovine ERalpha promoter in transfection assays using
             ovine lumenal epithelium cells. Analyses of sequential
             5'-deletion mutants of the ovine ERalpha promoter indicated
             that the effects of IFNtau may be mediated by IRFEs as well
             as other elements. Overexpression of ovine IRF-2, but not
             IRF-1, inhibited transcriptional activity of several regions
             of the ovine ERalpha promoter containing an IRFE or an ISRE
             as well as some, but not all, regions lacking these
             elements.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds174194}
}

@booklet{Ka01,
   Author = {H. Ka and L. A. Jaeger and G. A. Johnson and T. E. Spencer and F. W. Bazer},
   Title = {Keratinocyte growth factor is up-regulated by estrogen in
             the porcine uterine endometrium and functions in
             trophectoderm cell proliferation and differentiation},
   Journal = {Endocrinology},
   Volume = {142},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {2303 -- 2310},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {June},
   Key = {Ka01}
}

@booklet{Todd01a,
   Author = {M. D. Todd and G. A. Johnson and S. T. Vohra},
   Title = {Depolyment of a fiber Bragg grating-based measurement system
             in a structural health monitoring application},
   Journal = {Smart Materials \& Structures},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {534 -- 539},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {June},
   Key = {Todd01a}
}

@booklet{Wang01,
   Author = {G. Wang and K. Pran and G. Sagvolden and G. B. Havsgard and A. E. Jensen and G. A. Johnson and S. T.
             Vohra},
   Title = {Ship hull structure monitoring using fibre optic
             sensors},
   Journal = {Smart Materials \& Structures},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {472 -- 478},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {June},
   Key = {Wang01}
}

@article{fds174110,
   Author = {H Ka and LA Jaeger and GA Johnson and TE Spencer and FW
             Bazer},
   Title = {Keratinocyte growth factor is up-regulated by estrogen in
             the porcine uterine endometrium and functions in
             trophectoderm cell proliferation and differentiation.},
   Journal = {Endocrinology},
   Volume = {142},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {2303-10},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0013-7227},
   Keywords = {Animals • Cell Differentiation • Cell Division
             • Culture Techniques • Endometrium • Enzyme
             Activation • Estradiol • Estrogens •
             Estrogens, Catechol • Female • Fibroblast Growth
             Factor 7 • Fibroblast Growth Factors • Gene
             Expression Regulation • Gestational Age •
             Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1 • Mitogen-Activated
             Protein Kinase 3 • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
             • Phosphorylation • Pregnancy • Progesterone
             • Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen • Receptor,
             Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 2 • Receptors,
             Fibroblast Growth Factor* • Receptors, Growth Factor
             • Recombinant Proteins • Swine* •
             Trophoblasts • analysis • cytology • drug
             effects • genetics* • metabolism •
             metabolism* • pharmacology • pharmacology*},
   Abstract = {Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is expressed by uterine
             endometrial epithelial cells during the estrous cycle and
             during pregnancy in pigs, whereas KGF receptor is expressed
             in conceptus trophectoderm and endometrial epithelia. In
             particular, KGF expression in the endometrium is highest on
             day 12 of pregnancy. This corresponds to the period of
             maternal recognition of pregnancy in pigs, which is signaled
             by large amounts of estrogen secreted by conceptus
             trophectoderm acting on the endometrium. Our hypothesis is
             that estrogens of conceptus origin stimulate endometrial
             epithelial KGF expression, and, in turn, secreted KGF
             stimulates proliferation and differentiation of conceptus
             trophectoderm. To determine the factors affecting KGF
             expression in the uterus, endometrial explants from gilts on
             day 9 of the estrous cycle were cultured in the presence of
             17beta-estradiol, catechol estrogens, or progesterone.
             17beta-Estradiol stimulated the expression of KGF (P <
             0.05), whereas catechol estrogens had no effect (P > 0.05).
             Between days 9 and 15 of pregnancy, proliferating cell
             nuclear antigen was abundant in conceptuses, but was barely
             detectable in uterine endometrial epithelia. To determine
             the effects of KGF on conceptus trophectoderm, porcine
             trophectoderm (pTr) cells were treated with recombinant rat
             KGF (rKGF). rKGF increased the proliferation of pTr cells (P
             < 0.01) as measured by [(3)H]thymidine incorporation. rKGF
             elicited phosphorylation of KGF receptor and activated the
             mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK1/2) cascade in pTr
             cells. pTr cell differentiation was affected by rKGF,
             because it increased expression of urokinase-type
             plasminogen activator, a marker for differentiation in pTr
             cells. Collectively, these results indicate that estrogen,
             the pregnancy recognition signal from the conceptus in pigs,
             increases uterine epithelial KGF expression, and, in turn,
             KGF stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of
             conceptus trophectoderm.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds174110}
}

@article{fds174283,
   Author = {G Wang and GA Johnson and TE Spencer and FW Bazer},
   Title = {Isolation, immortalization, and initial characterization of
             uterine cell lines: an in vitro model system for the porcine
             uterus.},
   Journal = {In vitro cellular & developmental biology.
             Animal},
   Volume = {36},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {650-6},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {1071-2690},
   Keywords = {Animals • Blotting, Western • Cell Division •
             Cell Line, Transformed • Female • Models,
             Biological* • Swine • Uterus •
             cytology*},
   Abstract = {The aim of this study was to develop immortalized cell lines
             from porcine uterus. Endometrial cells including luminal
             epithelium (LE), glandular epithelium (GE), stroma (ST), and
             myometrium (MYO) were enzymatically isolated from the uterus
             of a day 12 pregnant gilt. Primary cultures were
             immortalized by transduction with a retroviral vector
             containing the E6 and E7 open reading frames of human
             papillomavirus type 16 (LXSN-16E6E7) packaged by the
             amphotropic fibroblast line PA-317. Cells having integrated
             the vector were selected by resistance to the neomycin
             analog G418 (0.4-1.5 mg/ml). Surviving cells were maintained
             in complete culture medium containing G418 (0.1 mg/ml) and
             subcultured for 1 yr. Expression of the E7 protein was
             confirmed in all cell lines by Western blotting. Phase
             contrast microscopy revealed that LE and GE cells exhibited
             cobblestone morphology, whereas ST and MYO cells exhibited
             spindle-shaped morphology. The epithelial origin of LE and
             GE was confirmed by positive immunostaining for cytokeratin.
             Stromal and MYO cells were vimentin-positive, but
             cytokeratin-negative. The MYO cell lines were positive for
             smooth muscle alpha-actin staining, whereas LE, GE, and ST
             cell lines were negative for alpha-actin. Western blotting
             indicated that all cell lines expressed both estrogen and
             progesterone receptors, but only GE cells secreted
             uteroferrin (UF). Collectively, these porcine uterine cell
             lines provide an in vitro model for studying cell
             type-specific actions of hormones and cytokines, signal
             transduction pathways, cell-cell interactions, and gene
             expression.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds174283}
}

@booklet{Kelly01,
   Author = {S. J. Kelly and M. Delnomdedieu and M. I. Oliverio and L. D.
             Williams and M. G. P. Saifer and M. R. Sherman and T. M.
             Coffman and G. A. Johnson and M. S. Hershfield},
   Title = {Diabetes insipidus in uricase-deficient mice: A model for
             evaluating therapy with poly(ethylene glycol)-modified
             uricase},
   Journal = {Journal Of The American Society Of Nephrology},
   Volume = {12},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1001 -- 1009},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {May},
   Key = {Kelly01}
}

@booklet{Stewart01,
   Author = {M. D. Stewart and G. A. Johnson and F. W. Bazer and T. E.
             Spencer},
   Title = {Interferon-tau (IFN tau) regulation of IFN-stimulated gene
             expression in cell lines lacking specific IFN-signaling
             components},
   Journal = {Endocrinology},
   Volume = {142},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1786 -- 1794},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {May},
   Key = {Stewart01}
}

@booklet{Johnson01b,
   Author = {G. A. Johnson and M. D. Stewart and C. A. Gray and Y. Choi and R. C. Burghardt and L. Y. Yu-lee and F. W. Bazer and T.
             E. Spencer},
   Title = {Effects of the estrous cycle, pregnancy, and interferon tau
             on 2 ',5 '-oligoadenylate synthetase expression in the ovine
             uterus},
   Journal = {Biology Of Reproduction},
   Volume = {64},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1392 -- 1399},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {May},
   Key = {Johnson01b}
}

@article{fds174144,
   Author = {MD Stewart and GA Johnson and FW Bazer and TE Spencer},
   Title = {Interferon-tau (IFNtau) regulation of IFN-stimulated gene
             expression in cell lines lacking specific IFN-signaling
             components.},
   Journal = {Endocrinology},
   Volume = {142},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1786-94},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0013-7227},
   Keywords = {2',5'-Oligoadenylate Synthetase • Cell Line •
             DNA-Binding Proteins • Fibroblasts • Gene
             Expression Regulation • Humans • Interferon Type I
             • Interferon-Stimulated Gene Factor 3 •
             Interferon-Stimulated Gene Factor 3, gamma Subunit •
             Phosphorylation • Pregnancy Proteins • STAT1
             Transcription Factor • STAT2 Transcription Factor
             • STAT3 Transcription Factor • Trans-Activators
             • Transcription Factors • biosynthesis • drug
             effects* • genetics* • metabolism •
             pharmacology* • physiology},
   Abstract = {Interferon-tau (IFNtau) is a unique type I IFN secreted by
             the ruminant conceptus that acts in a paracrine manner on
             the endometrial epithelium to signal pregnancy recognition.
             In the ovine endometrium, IFNtau suppresses estrogen
             receptor alpha and oxytocin receptor gene expression, but
             increases or induces expression of IFN-simulated genes
             (ISGs), including signal transducer and activator of
             transcription-1 (STAT1), STAT2, ISG factor-3gamma
             (ISGF3gamma)/p48/IFN regulatory factor-9, and
             2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS). Human fibroblast cell
             lines lacking specific IFN signaling components were
             employed to determine the roles of STAT1, STAT2, and
             ISGF3gamma in the effects of IFNtau on ISG protein
             expression. Results indicated that STAT1alpha or STAT1beta
             is required for IFNtau effects on STAT2, ISGF3gamma, and OAS
             (40/46, 69/71, and 100 kDa). STAT2 is required for effects
             on STAT1, ISGF3gamma, and all OAS forms. ISGF3gamma is
             required for effects of IFNtau on STAT2 and 40/46- and
             69/71-kDa OAS and plays a role in the effects of IFNtau on
             100-kDa OAS and STAT1. Mutation of Tyr(701), but not
             Ser(727), of STAT1 abolished the effects of IFNtau on ISG
             expression. Mutation of the SH2 domain of STAT1 abolished
             the effects of IFNtau on all ISGs and reduced increases in
             100-kDa OAS. These data illustrate the importance of
             transcription factors composed of STAT1, STAT2, and
             ISGF3gamma in the signaling pathway mediating the effects of
             IFNtau on ISG expression.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds174144}
}

@article{fds174204,
   Author = {GA Johnson, MD Stewart and CA Gray and Y Choi and RC Burghardt and LY
             Yu-Lee, FW Bazer and TE Spencer},
   Title = {Effects of the estrous cycle, pregnancy, and interferon tau
             on 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase expression in the ovine
             uterus.},
   Journal = {Biology of reproduction},
   Volume = {64},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1392-9},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0006-3363},
   Keywords = {2',5'-Oligoadenylate Synthetase • Animals • Cell
             Line • Endometrium • Estrus • Female •
             Gene Expression* • Interferon Type I • Pregnancy
             • Pregnancy Proteins • Recombinant Proteins •
             Sheep • Uterus • administration & dosage •
             drug effects • genetics* • metabolism •
             metabolism* • pharmacology • pharmacology* •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {The enzymes which comprise the 2',5'-oligoadenylate
             synthetase (OAS) family are interferon (IFN) stimulated
             genes which regulate ribonuclease L antiviral responses and
             may play additional roles in control of cellular growth and
             differentiation. This study characterized OAS expression in
             the endometrium of cyclic and pregnant ewes as well as
             determined effects of IFNtau and progesterone on OAS
             expression in cyclic or ovariectomized ewes and in
             endometrial epithelial and stromal cell lines. In cyclic
             ewes, low levels of OAS protein were detected in the
             endometrial stroma (S) and glandular epithelium (GE). In
             early pregnant ewes, OAS expression increased in the S and
             GE on Day 15. OAS expression in the lumenal epithelium (LE)
             was not detected in uteri from either cyclic or pregnant
             ewes. Intrauterine administration of IFNtau stimulated OAS
             expression in the S and GE, and this effect of IFNtau was
             dependent on progesterone. Ovine endometrial LE, GE, and S
             cell lines responded to IFNtau with induction of OAS
             proteins. In all three cell lines, the 40/46-kDa OAS forms
             were induced by IFNtau, whereas the 100-kDa OAS form
             appeared to be constitutively expressed and not affected by
             IFNtau. The 69/71-kDa OAS forms were induced by IFNtau in
             the S and GE cell lines, but not in the LE. Collectively,
             these results indicate that OAS expression in the
             endometrial S and GE of the early pregnant ovine uterus is
             directly regulated by IFNtau from conceptus and requires the
             presence of progesterone.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds174204}
}

@article{fds269101,
   Author = {Kelly, SJ and Delnomdedieu, M and Oliverio, MI and Williams, LD and Saifer, MG and Sherman, MR and Coffman, TM and Johnson, GA and Hershfield, MS},
   Title = {Diabetes insipidus in uricase-deficient mice: a model for
             evaluating therapy with poly(ethylene glycol)-modified
             uricase.},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Society of Nephrology :
             JASN},
   Volume = {12},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1001-1009},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {1046-6673},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11316859},
   Keywords = {Animals • Body Water • Diabetes Insipidus •
             Disease Models, Animal • Gout • Humans •
             Kidney Concentrating Ability • Mice • Mice, Inbred
             C57BL • Mice, Knockout • Polyethylene Glycols
             • Recombinant Proteins • Urate Oxidase • Uric
             Acid • deficiency* • drug therapy • drug
             therapy* • enzymology* • genetics •
             metabolism • pathology • physiopathology •
             therapeutic use • therapeutic use* •
             urine},
   Abstract = {Uricase-deficient mice develop uric acid nephropathy, with
             high mortality rates before weaning. Urate excretion was
             quantitated and renal function was better defined in this
             study, to facilitate the use of these mice as a model for
             evaluating poly(ethylene glycol)-modified recombinant
             mammalian uricases (PEG-uricase) as a potential therapy for
             gout and uric acid nephropathy. The uric acid/creatinine
             ratio in the urine of uricase-deficient mice ranges from 10
             to >30; on a weight basis, these mice excrete 20- to 40-fold
             more urate than do human subjects. These mice consistently
             develop a severe defect in renal concentrating ability,
             resulting in an approximately sixfold greater urine volume
             and a fivefold greater fluid requirement, compared with
             normal mice. This nephrogenic diabetes insipidus leads to
             dehydration and death of nursing mice but, with adequate
             water replacement, high urine flow protects adults from
             progressive renal damage. Treatment of uricase-deficient
             mice with PEG-uricase markedly reduced urate levels and,
             when initiated before weaning, preserved the renal
             architecture (as evaluated by magnetic resonance
             micros-copy) and prevented the loss of renal concentrating
             function. PEG-uricase was far more effective and less
             immunogenic than unmodified uricase. Retention of uricase in
             most mammals and its loss in humans and some other primates
             may reflect the evolution of renal function under different
             environmental conditions. PEG-uricase could provide an
             effective therapy for uric acid nephropathy and refractory
             gout in human patients.},
   Key = {fds269101}
}

@booklet{Mantha01,
   Author = {S. V. Mantha and G. A. Johnson and T. A.
             Day},
   Title = {Evidence from action and fluorescence spectra that
             UV-induced violet-blue-green fluorescence enhances leaf
             photosynthesis},
   Journal = {Photochemistry And Photobiology},
   Volume = {73},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {249 -- 256},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {Mantha01}
}

@booklet{Asselin01,
   Author = {E. Asselin and G. A. Johnson and T. E. Spencer and F. W.
             Bazer},
   Title = {Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and-2 messenger ribonucleic
             acids in the ovine uterus: Regulation by pregnancy,
             progesterone, and interferon-tau},
   Journal = {Biology Of Reproduction},
   Volume = {64},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {992 -- 1000},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {Asselin01}
}

@booklet{Moller01,
   Author = {H. E. Moller and L. W. Hedlund and X. J. Chen and M. R.
             Carey and M. S. Chawla and C. T. Wheeler and G. A.
             Johnson},
   Title = {Measurements of hyperpolarized gas properties in the lung.
             Part III: He-3 T-1},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance In Medicine},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {421 -- 430},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {Moller01}
}

@article{fds174166,
   Author = {SV Mantha and GA Johnson and TA Day},
   Title = {Evidence from action and fluorescence spectra that
             UV-induced violet-blue-green fluorescence enhances leaf
             photosynthesis.},
   Journal = {Photochemistry and photobiology},
   Volume = {73},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {249-56},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0031-8655},
   Keywords = {Angiosperms • Photosynthesis • Plant Leaves •
             Spectrometry, Fluorescence • Ultraviolet Rays* •
             physiology • radiation effects*},
   Abstract = {We assessed the contribution of UV-induced violet-blue-green
             leaf fluorescence to photosynthesis in Poa annua, Sorghum
             halepense and Nerium oleander by measuring UV-induced
             fluorescence spectra (280-380 nm excitation, 400-550 nm
             emission) from leaf surfaces and determining the
             monochromatic UV action spectra for leaf photosynthetic
             O2-evolution. Peak fluorescence emission wavelengths from
             leaf surfaces ranged from violet (408 nm) to blue (448 nm),
             while excitation peaks for these maxima ranged from 333 to
             344 nm. Action spectra were developed by supplementing
             monochromatic radiation from 280 to 440 nm, in 20 nm
             increments, to a visible nonsaturating background of 500
             mumol m-2 s-1 photosynthetically active radiation and
             measuring photosynthetic O2-evolution rates. Photosynthetic
             rates tended to be higher with the 340 nm supplement than
             with higher or lower wavelength UV supplements. Comparing
             photosynthetic rates with the 340 nm supplement to those
             with the 400 nm supplement, the percentage enhancement in
             photosynthetic rates at 340 nm ranged from 7.8 to 9.8%. We
             suspect that 340 nm UV improves photosynthetic rates via
             fluorescence that provides violet-blue-green photons for
             photosynthetic energy conversion because (1) the peak
             excitation wavelength (340 nm) for violet-blue-green
             fluorescence from leaves was also the most effective UV
             wavelength at enhancing photosynthetic rates, and (2) the
             magnitude of photosynthetic enhancements attributable to
             supplemental 340 nm UV was well correlated (R2 = 0.90) with
             the apparent intensity of 340 nm UV-induced
             violet-blue-green fluorescence emission from
             leaves.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds174166}
}

@article{fds174228,
   Author = {E Asselin and GA Johnson and TE Spencer and FW Bazer},
   Title = {Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and -2 messenger ribonucleic
             acids in the ovine uterus: regulation by pregnancy,
             progesterone, and interferon-tau.},
   Journal = {Biology of reproduction},
   Volume = {64},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {992-1000},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0006-3363},
   Keywords = {Animals • Chemokine CCL2 • Chemokine CCL8 •
             Endometrium • Estrus • Female •
             Histocytochemistry • Image Processing,
             Computer-Assisted • Interferon Type I • Monocyte
             Chemoattractant Proteins • Nucleic Acid Hybridization
             • Pregnancy • Pregnancy Proteins • Pregnancy,
             Animal • Progesterone • RNA, Messenger •
             Random Allocation • Recombinant Proteins • Reverse
             Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction • Sheep •
             Steroids • biosynthesis • cytology • genetics
             • genetics* • metabolism • metabolism* •
             pharmacology • pharmacology* • physiology* •
             veterinary},
   Abstract = {Endometrial leukocytes may play important roles during
             pregnancy. Because chemokines are regulators of immune cell
             activity and trafficking, this study determined if mRNAs for
             monocyte chemotactic proteins (MCP) were present in the
             ovine uterus and regulated by progesterone (P) and/or
             recombinant ovine interferon tau (roIFN-tau). Uteri of
             normal cycling and pregnant ewes (experiment 1) and uteri of
             ovariectomized ewes receiving intrauterine infusions of
             IFN-tau and/or i.m. injections of P (experiment 2) were used
             to detect MCP-1 and MCP-2 mRNA. In experiment 1, slot-blot
             hybridization analysis of endometrial total RNA revealed
             that MCP-1 and MCP-2 mRNA levels did not change during the
             estrous cycle but increased between Days 13 and 19 of
             pregnancy. Using in situ hybridization, MCP-1 and MCP-2 mRNA
             were localized to immune cells in the subepithelial compact
             stroma. Histomorphological studies and in situ hybridization
             for major basic protein (MBP) indicated that MCP-positive
             immune cells were eosinophils. In experiment 2, treatment
             with P and roIFN-tau increased (P < 0.05) the number of
             MCP-1- and MCP-2-expressing eosinophils in the endometrium
             compared to ewes treated with P alone. Injection of the P
             receptor antagonist (ZK 137,316) inhibited effects of P
             and/or roIFN-tau to recruit eosinophils expressing MCP-1 and
             MCP-2 mRNAs. Endometrial production of MCPs by eosinophils
             during early pregnancy may play a role(s) in central
             implantation and/or placentation in ewes that is crucial for
             successful establishment of pregnancy.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds174228}
}

@article{fds268912,
   Author = {Johnson, GA and Cofer, GP and Hedlund, LW and Maronpot, RR and Suddarth,
             SA},
   Title = {Registered (1)H and (3)He magnetic resonance microscopy of
             the lung.},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance in Medicine},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {365-370},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0740-3194},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11241691},
   Keywords = {Animals • Anisotropy • Helium* • Hydrogen*
             • Image Enhancement* • Image Processing,
             Computer-Assisted • Imaging, Three-Dimensional •
             Isotopes • Lung • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
             • Male • Microscopy • Rats • Rats,
             Inbred F344 • Sensitivity and Specificity •
             methods* • pathology*},
   Abstract = {Using in vivo magnetic resonance microscopy, registered (1)H
             and hyperpolarized (3)He images of the rat lung were
             obtained with a resolution of 0.098 x 0.098 x 0.469 mm (4.5
             x 10(-3) mm(3)). The requisite stability and SNR was
             achieved through an integration of scan-synchronous
             ventilation, dual-frequency RF coils, anisotropic projection
             encoding, and variable RF excitation. The total acquisition
             time was 21 min for the (3)He images and 64 min for the (1)H
             image. Airways down to the 6th and 7th orders are clearly
             visible. Magn Reson Med 45:365-370, 2001.},
   Doi = {10.1002/1522-2594(200103)45:3<365::AID-MRM1047>3.0.CO;2-0},
   Key = {fds268912}
}

@article{fds268938,
   Author = {Möller, HE and Hedlund, LW and Chen, XJ and Carey, MR and Chawla, MS and Wheeler, CT and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Measurements of hyperpolarized gas properties in the lung.
             Part III: (3)He T(1).},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance in Medicine},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {421-430},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0740-3194},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11241699},
   Keywords = {Animals • Cardiac Output • Functional Residual
             Capacity • Guinea Pigs • Heart Arrest, Induced
             • Helium* • Image Enhancement* • Isotopes
             • Lung • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy* •
             Oxygen • Pulmonary Gas Exchange • blood •
             pathology • physiology • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Hyperpolarized (3)He spin-lattice relaxation was
             investigated in the guinea pig lung using spectroscopy and
             imaging techniques with a repetitive RF pulse series. T(1)
             was dominated by interactions with oxygen and was used to
             measure the alveolar O(2) partial pressure. In animals
             ventilated with a mixture of 79% (3)He and 21% O(2), T(1)
             dropped from 19.6 sec in vivo to 14.6 sec after cardiac
             arrest, reflecting the termination of the intrapulmonary gas
             exchange. The initial difference in oxygen concentration
             between inspired and alveolar air, and the temporal decay
             during apnea were related to functional parameters.
             Estimates of oxygen uptake were 29 +/- 11 mL min(-1) kg(-1)
             under normoxic conditions, and 9.0 +/- 2.0 mL min(-1) kg(-1)
             under hypoxic conditions. Cardiac output was estimated to be
             400 +/- 160 mL min(-1) kg(-1). The functional residual
             capacity derived from spirometric magnetic resonance
             experiments varied with body mass between 5.4 +/- 0.3 mL and
             10.7 +/- 1.1 mL. Magn Reson Med 45:421-430,
             2001.},
   Key = {fds268938}
}

@booklet{Binelli01,
   Author = {M. Binelli and P. Subramaniam and T. Diaz and G. A. Johnson and T. R. Hansen and L. Badinga and W. W.
             Thatcher},
   Title = {Bovine interferon-tau stimulates the Janus kinase-signal
             transducer and activator of transcription pathway in bovine
             endometrial epithelial cells},
   Journal = {Biology Of Reproduction},
   Volume = {64},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {654 -- 665},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {February},
   Key = {Binelli01}
}

@article{fds174175,
   Author = {M Binelli and P Subramaniam and T Diaz and GA Johnson and TR Hansen and L
             Badinga, WW Thatcher},
   Title = {Bovine interferon-tau stimulates the Janus kinase-signal
             transducer and activator of transcription pathway in bovine
             endometrial epithelial cells.},
   Journal = {Biology of reproduction},
   Volume = {64},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {654-65},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0006-3363},
   Keywords = {Animals • Cattle • DNA-Binding Proteins •
             Dimerization • Electrophoresis • Endometrium
             • Epithelial Cells • Female • Immunoblotting
             • Immunohistochemistry • Interferon Type I •
             Janus Kinase 1 • Nuclear Proteins • Phenotype
             • Phosphorylation • Precipitin Tests •
             Pregnancy Proteins • Protein-Tyrosine Kinases •
             STAT1 Transcription Factor • Signal Transduction •
             Time Factors • Trans-Activators • cytology •
             drug effects • drug effects* • enzymology •
             genetics* • metabolism • metabolism* •
             pharmacology*},
   Abstract = {Trophoblastic bovine interferon-tau (bIFN-tau) suppresses
             luteolytic pulses of endometrial prostaglandin F(2alpha)
             (PGF(2alpha)) at the time of maternal recognition of
             pregnancy. This results in maintenance of the corpus luteum
             in cattle. The hypothesis that effects of bIFN-tau in the
             endometrium were through activation of the Janus kinase
             (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription
             (STAT) pathway of signal transduction was tested. Whole
             cell, cytosolic, and nuclear extracts from bovine
             endometrial cells treated with bIFN-tau were analyzed by
             immunoprecipitation, immunoblotting, and electrophoretic
             mobility shift assays in a series of dose- and
             time-dependency experiments. Bovine IFN-tau stimulated
             tyrosine phosphorylation, homo- and heterodimer formation,
             nuclear translocation, and DNA binding of STAT proteins 1,
             2, and 3. Moreover, bIFN-tau induced synthesis of
             interferon-regulatory factor. In conclusion, bIFN-tau
             stimulates the JAK-STAT pathway in the bovine endometrium.
             It is proposed that activation of the JAK-STAT pathway is
             involved in regulating the antiluteolytic effects of
             bIFN-tau.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds174175}
}

@article{fds174083,
   Author = {MD Mermelstein and R Posey Jr and GA Johnson and ST
             Vohra},
   Title = {Rayleigh scattering optical frequency correlation in a
             single-mode optical fiber.},
   Journal = {Optics letters},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {58-60},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0146-9592},
   Abstract = {The bichromatic optical frequency correlation function for
             Rayleigh backscattering from a pulse of laser light
             propagating along a single-mode optical fiber has been
             calculated and measured. It is shown that the optical
             correlation frequency, Dnu(c) , is equal to the reciprocal
             of pulse width T(w) . These results are important for the
             development of wavelength diversity techniques for the
             reduction of coherent Rayleigh noise in distributed Rayleigh
             backscattering single-mode optical fiber
             sensors.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds174083}
}

@booklet{Ede01,
   Author = {P. N. Ede and G. A. Johnson},
   Title = {Energy relations of gas estimated from flare radiation in
             Nigeria},
   Journal = {International Journal Of Energy Research},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {85 -- 91},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {Ede01}
}

@booklet{Stewart01a,
   Author = {D. M. Stewart and G. A. Johnson and C. A. Vyhlidal and R. C.
             Burghardt and S. H. Safe and L. Y. Yu-lee and F. W. Bazer and T. E. Spencer},
   Title = {Interferon-tau activates multiple signal transducer and
             activator of transcription proteins and has complex effects
             on interferon-responsive gene transcription in ovine
             endometrial epithelial cells},
   Journal = {Endocrinology},
   Volume = {142},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {98 -- 107},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {Stewart01a}
}

@booklet{Mermelstein01,
   Author = {M. D. Mermelstein and R. Posey and G. A. Johnson and S. T.
             Vohra},
   Title = {Rayleigh scattering optical frequency correlation in a
             single-mode optical fiber},
   Journal = {Optics Letters},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {58 -- 60},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {Mermelstein01}
}

@article{fds174117,
   Author = {DM Stewart and GA Johnson and CA Vyhlidal and RC Burghardt and SH Safe and LY Yu-Lee and FW Bazer and TE Spencer},
   Title = {Interferon-tau activates multiple signal transducer and
             activator of transcription proteins and has complex effects
             on interferon-responsive gene transcription in ovine
             endometrial epithelial cells.},
   Journal = {Endocrinology},
   Volume = {142},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {98-107},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0013-7227},
   Keywords = {Animals • Cell Nucleus • Cells, Cultured •
             DNA-Binding Proteins • Endometrium • Epithelial
             Cells • Female • Interferon Type I •
             Interferon-Stimulated Gene Factor 3 • Luciferases
             • Phosphorylation • Pregnancy Proteins •
             Promoter Regions, Genetic • Protein Transport •
             Recombinant Fusion Proteins • STAT1 Transcription
             Factor • STAT2 Transcription Factor • Sheep •
             Signal Transduction • Trans-Activators •
             Transcription Factors • Transcription, Genetic •
             Transfection • analysis • cytology • drug
             effects • genetics* • metabolism •
             metabolism* • pharmacology* • physiology •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {Interferon-tau (IFNtau), a type I IFN produced by sheep
             conceptus trophectoderm, is the signal for maternal
             recognition of pregnancy. Although it is clear that IFNtau
             suppresses transcription of the estrogen receptor alpha and
             oxytocin receptor genes and induces expression of various
             IFN-stimulated genes within the endometrial epithelium,
             little is known of the signal transduction pathway activated
             by the hormone. This study determined the effects of IFNtau
             on signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)
             activation, expression, DNA binding, and transcriptional
             activation using an ovine endometrial epithelial cell line.
             IFNtau induced persistent tyrosine phosphorylation and
             nuclear translocation of STAT1 and -2 (10 min to 48 h), but
             transient phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of
             STAT3, -5a/b, and -6 (10 to <60 min). IFNtau increased
             expression of STAT1 and -2, but not STAT3, -5a/b, and -6.
             IFN-stimulated gene factor-3 and STAT1 homodimers formed and
             bound an IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) and
             gamma-activated sequence (GAS) element, respectively. IFNtau
             increased transcription of GAS-driven promoters at 3 h, but
             suppressed their activity at 24 h. In contrast, the activity
             of an ISRE-driven promoter was increased at 3 and 24 h.
             These results indicate that IFNtau activates multiple STATs
             and has differential effects on ISRE- and GAS-driven gene
             transcription.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds174117}
}

@article{fds325756,
   Author = {Wetzel, AW and Pomerantz, S and Nave, D and Meixner, W and Johnson,
             GA},
   Title = {Distributed multiuser visualization of time varying
             anatomical data},
   Journal = {Proceedings - Applied Imagery Pattern Recognition
             Workshop},
   Volume = {2001-January},
   Pages = {109-114},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {0769512453},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/AIPR.2001.991211},
   Abstract = {© 2001 IEEE. We describe a networked environment for
             navigating and visualizing 3-dimensional anatomical data
             with extensions for time varying volumes. The Duke Center
             for In Vivo Microscopy (CIVM) has been capturing volumetric
             data of mice using magnetic resonance microscopy. Current
             data sets are 51Z3 with 16 bit precision per voxel at an
             isotropic resolution of 50 microns. A new instrument will
             provide larger 512 ∗ 512 ∗ 2048 volumes. Because
             magnetic resonance imaging is nondestructive, both rapid
             time series and longer interval developmental series can be
             taken from living specimens. Our work builds on techniques
             put in place at the Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center and the
             University of Michigan for navigating Visible Human data
             using a client-server implementation, but applied to CIVM
             mouse data. Extension of the system to 4-dimensional data
             sets involves changes to compressed data representations and
             client viewing mechanisms. An essential aspect of the mouse
             studies is to facilitate comparison between different
             specimens, or even the same specimen over time, for studies
             of morphologic phenotype expression in gene
             knockouts.},
   Doi = {10.1109/AIPR.2001.991211},
   Key = {fds325756}
}

@booklet{Choi01a,
   Author = {Y. Choi and G. A. Johnson and R. C. Burghardt and L. R.
             Berghman and M. M. Joyce and T. E. Spencer and F. W.
             Bazer},
   Title = {Epithelial expression of interferon regulatory factor two
             restricts expression of interferon tau-stimulated genes to
             the endometrial stroma and glandular epithelium of the ovine
             uterus.},
   Journal = {Biology Of Reproduction},
   Volume = {64},
   Pages = {108 -- 108},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {Choi01a}
}

@booklet{Gray01a,
   Author = {C. A. Gray and G. A. Johnson and R. C. Burghardt and F. W.
             Bazer and T. E. Spencer},
   Title = {The defect in conceptus elongation in uterine gland knockout
             (UGKO) ewes is due to an absence of endometrial glands, but
             not differences in expression of lumenal epithelial adhesion
             molecules.},
   Journal = {Biology Of Reproduction},
   Volume = {64},
   Pages = {188 -- 188},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {Gray01a}
}

@booklet{Bazer01,
   Author = {F. W. Bazer and T. E. Spencer and G. A. Johnson and R. C.
             Burghardt and L. A. Jaeger},
   Title = {Servomechanism in the ovine uterus for establishment and
             maintenance of pregnancy.},
   Journal = {Biology Of Reproduction},
   Volume = {64},
   Pages = {90 -- 90},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {Bazer01}
}

@booklet{Johnson01a,
   Author = {G. A. Johnson and F. W. Bazer and J. E. Garlow and T. E.
             Spencer and C. T. Pfarrer and R. C. Burghardt},
   Title = {Osteopontin and activated alpha(v)beta(5) integrin receptors
             during implantation and placentation in sheep.},
   Journal = {Biology Of Reproduction},
   Volume = {64},
   Pages = {203 -- 203},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {Johnson01a}
}

@booklet{Joyce01,
   Author = {M. M. Joyce and T. E. Spencer and F. W. Bazer and R. C.
             Burghardt and C. Pfarrer and G. A. Johnson},
   Title = {Evidence for stromal decidualization in the pregnant ovine
             uterus.},
   Journal = {Biology Of Reproduction},
   Volume = {64},
   Pages = {317 -- 318},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {Joyce01}
}

@booklet{Johnson01c,
   Author = {Johnson, GA and Cofer, GP and Hedlund, LW and Maronpot, RR and Suddarth,
             SA},
   Title = {Registered 1H and 3He magnetic
             resonance microscopy of the lung},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance in Medicine},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {365-370},
   Year = {2001},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1522-2594(200103)45:3<365::AID-MRM1047>3.0.CO;2-0},
   Abstract = {Using in vivo magnetic resonance microscopy, registered 1H
             and hyperpolarized 3He images of the rat lung were obtained
             with a resolution of 0.098 × 0.098 × 0.469 mm (4.5 × 10-3
             mm3). The requisite stability and SNR was achieved through
             an integration of scan-synchronous ventilation,
             dual-frequency RF coils, anisotropic projection encoding,
             and variable RF excitation. The total acquisition time was
             21 min for the 3He images and 64 min for the 1H image.
             Airways down to the 6th and 7th orders are clearly visible.
             © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.},
   Doi = {10.1002/1522-2594(200103)45:3<365::AID-MRM1047>3.0.CO;2-0},
   Key = {Johnson01c}
}

@article{fds174181,
   Author = {LA Jaeger and GA Johnson and H Ka and JG Garlow and RC Burghardt and TE
             Spencer, FW Bazer},
   Title = {Functional analysis of autocrine and paracrine signalling at
             the uterine-conceptus interface in pigs.},
   Journal = {Reproduction (Cambridge, England) Supplement},
   Volume = {58},
   Pages = {191-207},
   Year = {2001},
   ISSN = {1477-0415},
   Keywords = {Animals • Autocrine Communication • Blastocyst
             • Cell Communication • Cytokines • Embryo
             Implantation • Estrogens • Extracellular Matrix
             Proteins • Female • Growth Substances •
             Integrins • Paracrine Communication • Pregnancy
             • Progesterone • Receptors, Estrogen •
             Receptors, Progesterone • Swine • Uterus •
             metabolism • metabolism* • physiology •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {The complexity of implantation necessitates intimate
             dialogue between conceptus and maternal cells, and precise
             coordination of maternal and conceptus signalling events.
             Maternal and conceptus-derived steroid hormones, growth
             factors and cytokines, as well as integrins and their
             ligands, have important and inter-related roles in mediating
             adhesion between apical aspects of conceptus trophectoderm
             and maternal uterine luminal epithelium that leads to
             formation of an epitheliochorial placenta. Integrin
             receptors appear to play fundamental roles in the
             implantation cascade and may interact with extracellular
             matrix molecules and other ligands to transduce cellular
             signals through autocrine and paracrine mechanisms.
             Functional in vitro analyses can be used to monitor
             individual contributions of specific integrin receptors and
             ligands to the signalling cascades of the maternal-conceptus
             interface. Integrative studies of implantation in pigs,
             using in vivo and in vitro approaches, are required to
             understand conceptus attachment and implantation in this
             species, and provide valuable opportunities to understand
             the fundamental mechanisms of implantation in all
             species.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds174181}
}

@booklet{Jefferies01,
   Author = {B. Jefferies and G. A. Johnson},
   Title = {Feynman's operational calculi for noncommuting operators:
             Definitions and elementary properties},
   Journal = {Russian Journal Of Mathematical Physics},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {153 -- 171},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {Jefferies01}
}

@booklet{Walsh01,
   Author = {B. Walsh and G. A. Johnson},
   Title = {Validation: Never an endpoint: A systems development life
             cycle approach to good clinical practice},
   Journal = {Drug Information Journal},
   Volume = {35},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {809 -- 817},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {Walsh01}
}

@booklet{Tengowski00,
   Author = {Tengowski, MW and Hedlund, LW and Guyot, DJ and Burkhardt, JE and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Magnetic resonance microscopy predicts findings in a
             theophylline-induced rat model of reproductive
             toxicity},
   Journal = {Molecular Biology of the Cell},
   Volume = {11},
   Pages = {125A-125A},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {1059-1524},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000165525900655&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {Tengowski00}
}

@article{fds269111,
   Author = {Chen, XJ and Hedlund, LW and Möller, HE and Chawla, MS and Maronpot,
             RR and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Detection of emphysema in rat lungs by using magnetic
             resonance measurements of 3He diffusion.},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of
             USA},
   Volume = {97},
   Number = {21},
   Pages = {11478-11481},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0027-8424},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11027348},
   Keywords = {Animals • Emphysema • Helium • Humans •
             Lung • Magnetic Resonance Imaging • Male •
             Rats • Rats, Inbred F344 • diagnosis* •
             pathology*},
   Abstract = {Emphysema is a pulmonary disease characterized by alveolar
             wall destruction, resulting in enlargement of gas exchange
             spaces without fibrosis. This condition is a part of chronic
             obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which causes 3.5% of
             deaths worldwide [Anonymous (1990) World Health Stat. Q.
             Special, 1-51] and contributes greatly to the global burden
             of disease [Murray, C. J. & Lopez, A. D. (1996) Science 274,
             740-743]. Alveolar regeneration has been shown in animal
             models and could have potential for clinical treatment of
             early-stage emphysema. However, current techniques for
             detection of emphysema are not sensitive at the initial
             stages. Early-stage human panacinar emphysema is modeled in
             elastase-treated animals. Here, we provide an in vivo
             imaging method for differentiating normal and emphysematous
             rat lungs by measuring the apparent diffusion coefficient
             (ADC) of hyperpolarized (3)He by using magnetic resonance
             imaging. These data show that the ADC is significantly
             larger in elastase-treated rats, indicating alveolar
             expansion. Whereas these rats were clinically asymptomatic,
             conventional histology confirmed presence of injury. Our
             results indicate that measurement of the hyperpolarized
             (3)He ADC can be a valuable research tool and has potential
             application in the clinical setting.},
   Doi = {10.1073/pnas.97.21.11478},
   Key = {fds269111}
}

@booklet{Chen00,
   Author = {X. J. Chen and L. W. Hedlund and H. E. Moller and M. S.
             Chawla and R. R. Maronpot and G. A. Johnson},
   Title = {Detection of emphysema in rat lungs by using magnetic
             resonance measurements of He-3 diffusion},
   Journal = {Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences Of The
             United States Of America},
   Volume = {97},
   Number = {21},
   Pages = {11478 -- 11481},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {October},
   Key = {Chen00}
}

@booklet{Lee00,
   Author = {C. K. Lee and R. L. Weaks and G. A. Johnson and F. W. Bazer and J. A. Piedrahita},
   Title = {Effects of protease inhibitors and antioxidants on in vitro
             survival of porcine primordial germ cells},
   Journal = {Biology Of Reproduction},
   Volume = {63},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {887 -- 897},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {September},
   Key = {Lee00}
}

@booklet{Posey00,
   Author = {R. Posey and G. A. Johnson and S. T. Vohra},
   Title = {Strain sensing based on coherent Rayleigh scattering in an
             optical fibre},
   Journal = {Electronics Letters},
   Volume = {36},
   Number = {20},
   Pages = {1688 -- 1689},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {September},
   Key = {Posey00}
}

@article{fds174143,
   Author = {CK Lee and RL Weaks and GA Johnson and FW Bazer and JA
             Piedrahita},
   Title = {Effects of protease inhibitors and antioxidants on In vitro
             survival of porcine primordial germ cells.},
   Journal = {Biology of reproduction},
   Volume = {63},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {887-97},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0006-3363},
   Keywords = {Acetylcysteine • Animals • Antioxidants •
             Apoptosis • Cell Survival • Cells, Cultured •
             DNA Fragmentation • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
             • Fetus • Germ Cells • In Situ Nick-End
             Labeling • Microscopy, Electron • Protease
             Inhibitors • Swine • administration & dosage
             • alpha-Macroglobulins • cytology • drug
             effects • drug effects* • pharmacology •
             pharmacology* • physiology*},
   Abstract = {One of the problems associated with in vitro culture of
             primordial germ cells (PGCs) is the large loss of cells
             during the initial period of culture. This study
             characterized the initial loss and determined the
             effectiveness of two classes of apoptosis inhibitors,
             protease inhibitors, and antioxidants on the ability of
             porcine PGCs to survive in culture. Results from electron
             microscopic analysis and in situ DNA fragmentation assay
             indicated that porcine PGCs rapidly undergo apoptosis when
             placed in culture. Additionally, alpha(2)-macroglobulin, a
             protease inhibitor and cytokine carrier, and
             N:-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant, increased the survival of
             PGCs in vitro. While other protease inhibitors tested did
             not affect survival of PGCs, all antioxidants tested
             improved survival of PGCs (P: < 0.05). Further results
             indicated that the beneficial effect of the antioxidants was
             critical only during the initial period of culture. Finally,
             it was determined that in short-term culture, in the absence
             of feeder layers, antioxidants could partially replace the
             effect(s) of growth factors and reduce apoptosis.
             Collectively, these results indicate that the addition of
             alpha(2)-macroglobulin and antioxidants can increase the
             number of PGCs in vitro by suppressing apoptosis.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds174143}
}

@booklet{Johnson00a,
   Author = {G. A. Johnson and M. D. Todd and B. L. Althouse and C. C.
             Chang},
   Title = {Fiber Bragg grating interrogation and multiplexing with a 3
             x 3 coupler and a scanning filter},
   Journal = {Journal Of Lightwave Technology},
   Volume = {18},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {1101 -- 1105},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {August},
   Key = {Johnson00a}
}

@booklet{Hedlund00,
   Author = {Hedlund, LW and Cofer, GP and Owen, SJ and Allan Johnson,
             G},
   Title = {MR-compatible ventilator for small animals:
             computer-controlled ventilation for proton and noble gas
             imaging.},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance Imaging},
   Volume = {18},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {753-759},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0730-725X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10930785},
   Abstract = {We describe an MR-compatible ventilator that is computer
             controlled to generate a variety of breathing patterns, to
             minimize image degrading effects of breathing motion, and to
             support delivery of gas anesthesia and experimental
             inhalational gases. A key feature of this ventilator is the
             breathing valve that attaches directly to the endotracheal
             tube to reduce dead volume and allows independent control of
             inspiratory and expiratory phases of ventilation. This
             ventilator has been used in a wide variety of MR and x-ray
             microscopy studies of small animals, especially for MR
             imaging the lungs with hyperpolarized gases ((3)He &
             (129)Xe).},
   Key = {Hedlund00}
}

@booklet{Hedlund00a,
   Author = {L. W. Hedlund and H. E. Moller and X. J. Chen and M. S.
             Chawla and G. P. Cofer and G. A. Johnson},
   Title = {Mixing oxygen with hyperpolarized He-3 for small-animal lung
             studies},
   Journal = {Nmr In Biomedicine},
   Volume = {13},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {202 -- 206},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {June},
   Key = {Hedlund00a}
}

@booklet{Stewart00a,
   Author = {M. D. Stewart and G. A. Johnson and C. A. Gray and R. C.
             Burghardt and L. A. Schuler and M. M. Joyce and F. W. Bazer and T. E. Spencer},
   Title = {Prolactin receptor and uterine milk protein expression in
             the ovine endometrium during the estrous cycle and
             pregnancy},
   Journal = {Biology Of Reproduction},
   Volume = {62},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1779 -- 1789},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {June},
   Key = {Stewart00a}
}

@booklet{Scribner00,
   Author = {D. R. Scribner and J. Baldwin and G. A. Johnson},
   Title = {Actinomycosis mimicking a pelvic malignancy - A case
             report},
   Journal = {Journal Of Reproductive Medicine},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {515 -- 518},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {June},
   Key = {Scribner00}
}

@booklet{Ka00a,
   Author = {H. Ka and T. E. Spencer and G. A. Johnson and F. W.
             Bazer},
   Title = {Keratinocyte growth factor: Expression by endometrial
             epithelia of the porcine uterus},
   Journal = {Biology Of Reproduction},
   Volume = {62},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1772 -- 1778},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {June},
   Key = {Ka00a}
}

@article{fds174080,
   Author = {H Ka and TE Spencer and GA Johnson and FW Bazer},
   Title = {Keratinocyte growth factor: expression by endometrial
             epithelia of the porcine uterus.},
   Journal = {Biology of reproduction},
   Volume = {62},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1772-8},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0006-3363},
   Keywords = {Animals • Blotting, Northern • Cloning, Molecular
             • DNA, Complementary • Endometrium •
             Epithelium • Estrus • Female • Fibroblast
             Growth Factor 10 • Fibroblast Growth Factor 7 •
             Fibroblast Growth Factors* • Gene Expression* •
             Growth Substances • In Situ Hybridization •
             Pregnancy • RNA, Messenger • Swine* •
             analysis • genetics* • metabolism •
             metabolism*},
   Abstract = {Keratinocyte growth factor/fibroblast growth factor-7
             (KGF/FGF-7) is an established paracrine mediator of
             hormone-regulated epithelial growth and differentiation. In
             all organs studied, KGF is uniquely expressed in cells of
             mesenchymal origin. To determine whether KGF and its
             receptor, keratinocyte growth factor receptor (KGFR) or
             fibroblast growth factor receptor-2IIIb, were expressed in
             the porcine uterus as a potential paracrine system mediating
             progesterone action, we cloned KGF and KGFR partial cDNAs
             from the porcine endometrium. KGF and KGFR expression was
             detected in endometrium by Northern blot hybridization.
             Interestingly, in situ hybridization results demonstrated
             that KGF was expressed by endometrial epithelia and was
             particularly abundant between Days 12 and 15 of the estrous
             cycle and pregnancy. KGF secretion into the lumen of the
             porcine uterus was also detected on Day 12 of the estrous
             cycle and pregnancy. KGFR was expressed in both endometrial
             epithelia and conceptus trophectoderm. These novel findings
             suggest that KGF may act on the uterine endometrial
             epithelium in an autocrine manner and on the conceptus
             trophectoderm in a paracrine manner in the pig, which is the
             only species possessing a true epitheliochorial type of
             placentation.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds174080}
}

@article{fds174216,
   Author = {MD Stewart and GA Johnson and CA Gray and RC Burghardt and LA Schuler and MM Joyce and FW Bazer and TE Spencer},
   Title = {Prolactin receptor and uterine milk protein expression in
             the ovine endometrium during the estrous cycle and
             pregnancy.},
   Journal = {Biology of reproduction},
   Volume = {62},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1779-89},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0006-3363},
   Keywords = {Animals • Endometrium • Estrus • Female
             • Fluorescent Antibody Technique • Gene
             Expression* • Glycoproteins • Immunohistochemistry
             • In Situ Hybridization • Pregnancy • RNA,
             Messenger • Receptors, Prolactin • Reverse
             Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction • Serpins*
             • Sheep* • analysis • genetics* •
             metabolism* • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Lactogenic hormones regulate epithelial proliferation,
             differentiation, and function in a variety of
             epitheliomesenchymal organs. During pregnancy, the ovine
             uterus is a potential site for endocrine and paracrine
             actions of lactogenic hormones in the form of pituitary
             prolactin (PRL) and placental lactogen (PL). These studies
             determined temporal and spatial alterations in PRL receptor
             (PRL-R) and expression of uterine milk proteins (UTMP), a
             marker of endometrial secretory activity, in the ovine
             endometrium during the estrous cycle and pregnancy.
             Slot-blot hybridization analysis indicated that steady-state
             levels of endometrial PRL-R mRNA increased during pregnancy.
             In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analyses
             indicated that PRL-R mRNA and protein were exclusively
             expressed in the endometrial glandular epithelium (GE). No
             PRL-R mRNA expression was detected in luminal epithelium,
             stroma, myometrium, or conceptus trophectoderm. Reverse
             transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses determined
             that the endometrial GE expressed both long and short
             alternative splice forms of the ovine PRL-R gene. Slot-blot
             hybridization analysis indicated that steady-state levels of
             intercaruncular endometrial UTMP mRNA increased about 3-fold
             between Days 20 and 60, increased another 3-fold between
             Days 60 and 80, and then declined slightly to Day 120. In
             pregnant ewes, UTMP mRNA expression was restricted to the
             endometrial GE in the stratum spongiosum (sGE), increased
             substantially between Days 15 and 17, and, between Days 17
             to 50 of gestation, was markedly higher in upper than lower
             sGE. After Day 50, hyperplasia of the sGE was accompanied by
             increased UTMP mRNA expression by all sGE. Collectively,
             results indicate that 1) endometrial sGE is a primary target
             for actions of lactogenic hormones and 2) UTMP mRNA
             expression is correlated with PL production by the
             trophectoderm and state of sGE differentiation during
             pregnancy. It is proposed that activation of PRL-R signal
             transduction pathways by PRL and PL plays a major role in
             endometrial GE remodeling and differentiated function during
             pregnancy in support of conceptus growth and
             development.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds174216}
}

@article{fds174257,
   Author = {DR Scribner Jr and J Baldwin and GA Johnson},
   Title = {Actinomycosis mimicking a pelvic malignancy. A case
             report.},
   Journal = {The Journal of reproductive medicine},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {515-8},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0024-7758},
   Keywords = {Abdominal Pain • Actinomycosis • Colorectal
             Neoplasms • Diagnosis, Differential • Female
             • Humans • Middle Aged • Uterine Diseases
             • complications • diagnosis • diagnosis*
             • etiology* • pathology •
             surgery},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Pelvic actinomycosis is difficult to diagnose
             preoperatively. The chronic infection is locally
             infiltrative and causes a profound induration of infected
             tissue planes. This induration, combined with absence of
             fever and leukocytosis, can mimic a pelvic malignancy. CASE:
             A 55-year-old woman was diagnosed with a pelvic mass after a
             two-month history of intermittent lower abdominal pain. The
             patient had had an intrauterine device for 12 years; it was
             removed two months prior to an exploratory laparotomy for
             the symptomatic mass. The mass was highly suggestive of
             colorectal cancer, with the rectosigmoid colon indurated and
             adherent to the uterus and sacrum. The induration of the
             colon extended caudally to within 3 cm of the anal verge. An
             abdominoperineal resection was performed along with a total
             abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and
             colostomy. Pathology revealed acute and chronic
             endometritis, left tuboovarian abscess and extensive, acute
             inflammation of the rectosigmoid colon without evidence of
             diverticuli. Actinomycosis was diagnosed based on the
             characteristic sulphur granules seen on hemotoxylin and
             eosin staining. CONCLUSION: Actinomycosis can mimic pelvic
             and abdominal malignancies. Surgeons should be aware of this
             infection to potentially spare women morbidity from
             excessive surgical procedures.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds174257}
}

@article{fds268988,
   Author = {Hedlund, LW and Möller, HE and Chen, XJ and Chawla, MS and Cofer, GP and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Mixing oxygen with hyperpolarized (3)He for small-animal
             lung studies.},
   Journal = {Nmr in Biomedicine},
   Volume = {13},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {202-206},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0952-3480},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10867697},
   Keywords = {Animals • Animals, Laboratory • Helium* •
             Intubation, Intratracheal • Isotopes • Lung •
             Magnetic Resonance Imaging • Oxygen* • Rats •
             Respiratory Function Tests • anatomy & histology •
             instrumentation • methods* • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Hyperpolarized helium (HP (3)He) is useful for direct MR
             imaging of the gas spaces of small animal lungs. Previously,
             breaths of 100% HP (3)He were alternated with breaths of air
             to maximize helium signal in the lungs and to minimize the
             depolarizing effects of O(2). However, for high-resolution
             imaging requiring many HP (3)He breaths (hundreds) and for
             pulmonary disease studies, a method was needed to
             simultaneously deliver O(2) and HP (3)He with each breath
             without significant loss of polarization. We modified our
             existing computer-controlled ventilator by adding a plastic
             valve, additional relays and a controller. O(2) and HP (3)He
             are mixed at the beginning of each breath within the body of
             a breathing valve, which is attached directly to the
             endotracheal tube. With this mixing method, we found that
             T(1) relaxation of HP (3)He in the guinea pig lung was about
             20 s compared to 30 s with alternate air/HP (3)He breathing.
             Because imaging times during each breath are short (about
             500 ms), the HP (3)He signal loss from O(2) contact is
             calculated to be less than 5%. We concluded that the
             advantages of mixing HP (3)He with O(2), such as shorter
             imaging times (reduced T(1) losses in reservoir) and
             improved physiologic stability, outweigh the small signal
             loss from the depolarizing effects of oxygen on HP
             (3)He.},
   Key = {fds268988}
}

@booklet{Benveniste00,
   Author = {Benveniste, H and Kim, K and Zhang, L and Johnson,
             GA},
   Title = {Magnetic resonance microscopy of the C57BL mouse
             brain},
   Journal = {NeuroImage},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {601-611},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {1053-8119},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000087963600003&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1006/nimg.2000.0567},
   Key = {Benveniste00}
}

@article{fds292763,
   Author = {Benveniste, H and Kim, K and Zhang, L and Johnson,
             GA},
   Title = {Magnetic resonance microscopy of the C57BL mouse
             brain.},
   Journal = {NeuroImage},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {6 Pt 1},
   Pages = {601-611},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {1053-8119},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10860789},
   Keywords = {Animals • Brain • Caudate Nucleus • Globus
             Pallidus • Hippocampus • Image Enhancement •
             Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy* • Mice • Mice,
             Inbred C57BL • Neocortex • Putamen • anatomy
             & histology • anatomy & histology*},
   Abstract = {With the rapid progression in gene technologies, transgenic,
             targeted, and chemically induced mutations in mice are
             continually created. The major goal of these studies is to
             understand and characterize the effects of genotype on
             anatomy, physiology, and behavior and ultimately the role of
             genotype in development of disease. The demand for imaging
             techniques with high spatial resolution potential is rising
             because such imaging tools would expedite anatomical
             phenotyping in the genetically altered mice. Magnetic
             resonance microscopy (MRM) is a noninvasive, inherently
             three-dimensional (3D) imaging technique capable of
             visualizing several anatomical structures in the small
             mouse. The 3D nature of MRM also allows for interpretation
             of complex spatial relationships between substructures,
             which is important when phenotyping anatomically. The goal
             of this paper is to systematically describe three major
             brain regions in the C57BL/6J mouse at microanatomical
             spatial resolution ranges using in vitro MRM. We explore
             different MR contrast parameters, voxel sizes, and
             signal-to-noise ratios to best characterize C57BL/6J mouse
             brain microstructure by MRM. Further, we compare all MRM
             images with Nissl-stained brain sections. Major findings
             were as follows: T2* MR images visualized several gross
             anatomical regions in the mouse brain but not, for example,
             subregions within the hippocampus. Diffusion proton stains
             on the other hand were superior to T2* MR images and
             delineated many subregions within the hippocampus proper.
             Finally, contrast enhancement facilitated visualization of
             hippocampal anatomy on the T2* MR images. The results of
             this study are part of an ongoing initiative at our Center
             focused on creating a complete C57BL/6J mouse anatomical 3D
             image database by MRM.},
   Doi = {10.1006/nimg.2000.0567},
   Key = {fds292763}
}

@booklet{Johnson00b,
   Author = {G. A. Johnson and T. E. Spencer and R. C. Burghardt and K.
             M. Taylor and C. A. Gray and F. W. Bazer},
   Title = {Progesterone modulation of osteopontin gene expression in
             the ovine uterus},
   Journal = {Biology Of Reproduction},
   Volume = {62},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1315 -- 1321},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {May},
   Key = {Johnson00b}
}

@article{fds174108,
   Author = {GA Johnson and TE Spencer and RC Burghardt and KM Taylor and CA Gray and FW
             Bazer},
   Title = {Progesterone modulation of osteopontin gene expression in
             the ovine uterus.},
   Journal = {Biology of reproduction},
   Volume = {62},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1315-21},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0006-3363},
   Keywords = {Animals • Blotting, Western • Endometrium •
             Epithelial Cells • Female • Fluorescent Antibody
             Technique • Gene Expression • In Situ
             Hybridization • Interferons • Osteopontin •
             Ovariectomy • Progesterone • Receptors,
             Progesterone • Recombinant Proteins • Sheep •
             Sialoglycoproteins • Uterus • antagonists &
             inhibitors • cytology • drug effects •
             genetics* • metabolism • metabolism* •
             pharmacology • physiology • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Osteopontin (OPN) is an acidic phosphorylated glycoprotein
             component of the extracellular matrix that binds to
             integrins at the cell surface to promote cell-cell
             attachment and cell spreading. This matrix constituent is a
             ligand that could potentially bind integrins on
             trophectoderm and endometrium to facilitate superficial
             implantation and placentation. OPN mRNA increases in the
             endometrial glandular epithelium (GE) of early-pregnant
             ewes, and OPN protein is secreted into the uterine lumen.
             Therefore, progesterone and/or interferon-tau (IFNtau) may
             regulate OPN expression in the uterine GE. Cyclic ewes were
             ovariectomized and fitted with intrauterine (i. u.)
             catheters on Day 5 and treated daily with steroids (i.m.)
             and protein (i.u.) as follows: 1) progesterone (P, Days
             5-24) and control serum proteins (CX, Days 11-24); 2) P and
             ZK 136.317 (ZK; progesterone receptor [PR] antagonist, Days
             11-24) and CX proteins; 3) P and recombinant ovine IFNtau
             (roIFNtau, Days 11-24); or 4) P and ZK and roIFNtau. All
             ewes were hysterectomized on Day 25. Progesterone induced
             the expression of endometrial OPN mRNA in the GE and
             increased secretion of a 45-kDa OPN protein from endometrial
             explants maintained in culture for 24 h. Administration of
             ZK ablated progesterone effects. Intrauterine infusion of
             roIFNtau did not affect OPN gene expression or secretion in
             any of the steroid treatments. Interestingly, OPN
             mRNA-positive GE cells lacked detectable PR expression,
             although PR were detected in the stroma. Results indicate
             that progesterone regulates OPN expression in GE through a
             complex mechanism that includes PR down-regulation, and we
             suggest the possible involvement of a progesterone-induced
             stromal cell-derived growth factor(s) that acts as a
             progestamedin.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds174108}
}

@booklet{Jaeger00a,
   Author = {L. A. Jaeger and L. S. Bustamante and G. A. Johnson and F.
             W. Bazer and R. C. Burghardt},
   Title = {Functional activation of conceptus and maternal
             integrins},
   Journal = {Faseb Journal},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {A783 -- A783},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {Jaeger00a}
}

@booklet{Chawla00,
   Author = {M. S. Chawla and X. J. Chen and G. P. Cofer and L. W.
             Hedlund and M. B. Kerby and T. B. Ottoboni and G. A.
             Johnson},
   Title = {Hyperpolarized He-3 microspheres as a novel vascular signal
             source for MRI},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance In Medicine},
   Volume = {43},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {440 -- 445},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {Chawla00}
}

@booklet{Johnson00d,
   Author = {G. A. Johnson and T. E. Spencer and R. C. Burghardt and M.
             M. Joyce and F. W. Bazer},
   Title = {Interferon-tau and progesterone regulate ubiquitin
             cross-reactive protein expression in the ovine
             uterus},
   Journal = {Biology Of Reproduction},
   Volume = {62},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {622 -- 627},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {Johnson00d}
}

@booklet{Rogers00,
   Author = {P. Rogers and P. A. Hailey and G. A. Johnson and V. A. Dight and C. Read and A. Shingler and P. Savage and T. Roche and J. Mondry},
   Title = {A comprehensive and flexible approach to the
             automated-dissolution testing of pharmaceutical drug
             products incorporating direct UV-vis fiber-optic analysis,
             on-line fluorescence analysis, and off-line storage
             options},
   Journal = {Laboratory Robotics And Automation},
   Volume = {12},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {12 -- 22},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {Rogers00}
}

@article{fds132847,
   Author = {AC Nugent and GA Johnson},
   Title = {T1rho imaging using magnetization-prepared projection
             encoding (MaPPE).},
   Journal = {Magnetic resonance in medicine : official journal of the
             Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine / Society of
             Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, UNITED STATES},
   Volume = {43},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {421-8},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0740-3194},
   Keywords = {Animals • Image Enhancement • Magnetic Resonance
             Spectroscopy • Magnetics • Mathematics • Mice
             • Phantoms, Imaging • Time Factors •
             methods*},
   Abstract = {T1rho contrast weighting using a magnetization-prepared
             projection encoding (MaPPE) pulse sequence was investigated.
             Fast radial imaging was implemented by applying
             magnetization preparation pulses, each followed by multiple
             RF alpha pulses encoding radial trajectories of k-space.
             Acquiring multiple views per preparatory pulse imposes
             view-to-view variation; the resultant distortion of the
             point-spread function is examined. The issue of maximizing
             signal while preserving the intended contrast weighting is
             addressed. Under modification of repetition time and flip
             angle (alpha), three distinct behavior regimes of the
             sequence are identified. The utility of the pulse sequence
             as a quantitative relaxation measurement tool is also
             examined by comparing imaging and spectroscopy experiments.
             A mouse was imaged in vitro to demonstrate the viability of
             application to MR histology. These images exhibit the
             utility of spinlocking and projection encoding as an
             aftemative contrast source to both T2-weighted MaPPE images
             and conventional T2-weighted spin-echo images.},
   Key = {fds132847}
}

@article{fds174133,
   Author = {GA Johnson and TE Spencer and RC Burghardt and MM Joyce and FW
             Bazer},
   Title = {Interferon-tau and progesterone regulate ubiquitin
             cross-reactive protein expression in the ovine
             uterus.},
   Journal = {Biology of reproduction},
   Volume = {62},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {622-7},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0006-3363},
   Keywords = {Animals • Blotting, Western • Female •
             Hormone Antagonists • Hysterectomy • In Situ
             Hybridization • Interferon Type I • Pregnancy
             Proteins • Progesterone • Sheep • Ubiquitins
             • Uterus • analogs & derivatives* •
             antagonists & inhibitors • drug effects • genetics
             • metabolism • metabolism* • pharmacology
             • physiology},
   Abstract = {Ubiquitin cross-reactive protein (UCRP) is a functional
             ubiquitin homolog synthesized by the ruminant endometrium in
             response to conceptus-derived interferon-tau (IFNtau).
             Progesterone is required for IFNtau to exert antiluteolytic
             actions on the endometrium. Therefore, this study was
             designed to determine whether progesterone is requisite for
             IFNtau induction of UCRP expression within the ovine uterus.
             Cyclic ewes were ovariectomized and fitted with intrauterine
             (i.u.) catheters on Day 5 and treated daily with steroids
             (i.m.) and protein (i.u.) as follows: 1) progesterone (P,
             Days 5-24) and control serum proteins (CX, Days 11-24); 2) P
             and ZK 137.316 (ZK; progesterone receptor antagonist, Days
             11-24) and CX proteins; 3) P and recombinant ovine IFNtau
             (roIFNtau, Days 11-24); or 4) P and ZK and roIFNtau. All
             ewes were hysterectomized on Day 25. In P-treated ewes,
             roIFNtau increased endometrial UCRP mRNA and protein levels.
             However, administration of ZK to ewes ablated roIFNtau
             induction of UCRP. Recombinant ovine IFNtau induced
             expression of UCRP mRNA in progestinized endometrial luminal
             (LE) and glandular (GE) epithelium as well as in both
             stratum compactum and spongiosum layers of the stroma (ST).
             Progesterone receptor protein was located in endometrial ST,
             but not in LE and GE from these ewes. Results support the
             hypothesis that progesterone is required for IFNtau
             induction of type I IFN-responsive genes, such as UCRP, in
             the ruminant uterus.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds174133}
}

@booklet{Nugent00,
   Author = {Nugent, AC and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {T1rho imaging using magnetization-prepared projection
             encoding (MaPPE).},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance in Medicine},
   Volume = {43},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {421-428},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0740-3194},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10725885},
   Abstract = {T1rho contrast weighting using a magnetization-prepared
             projection encoding (MaPPE) pulse sequence was investigated.
             Fast radial imaging was implemented by applying
             magnetization preparation pulses, each followed by multiple
             RF alpha pulses encoding radial trajectories of k-space.
             Acquiring multiple views per preparatory pulse imposes
             view-to-view variation; the resultant distortion of the
             point-spread function is examined. The issue of maximizing
             signal while preserving the intended contrast weighting is
             addressed. Under modification of repetition time and flip
             angle (alpha), three distinct behavior regimes of the
             sequence are identified. The utility of the pulse sequence
             as a quantitative relaxation measurement tool is also
             examined by comparing imaging and spectroscopy experiments.
             A mouse was imaged in vitro to demonstrate the viability of
             application to MR histology. These images exhibit the
             utility of spinlocking and projection encoding as an
             aftemative contrast source to both T2-weighted MaPPE images
             and conventional T2-weighted spin-echo images.},
   Key = {Nugent00}
}

@article{fds269056,
   Author = {Chawla, MS and Chen, XJ and Cofer, GP and Hedlund, LW and Kerby, MB and Ottoboni, TB and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Hyperpolarized 3He microspheres as a novel vascular signal
             source for MRI.},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance in Medicine},
   Volume = {43},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {440-445},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0740-3194},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10725887},
   Keywords = {Animals • Helium • Image Enhancement •
             Magnetic Resonance Angiography* • Male •
             Microscopy, Electron, Scanning • Microspheres •
             Pelvis • Phantoms, Imaging • Rats • blood
             supply • chemistry* • methods},
   Abstract = {Hyperpolarized (HP) 3He can be encapsulated within
             biologically compatible microspheres while retaining
             sufficient polarization to be used as a signal source for
             MRI. Two microsphere sizes were used, with mean diameters of
             5.3 +/- 1.3 microm and 10.9 +/- 3.0 microm. These
             suspensions ranged in concentration from 0.9-7.0% gas by
             volume. Spectroscopic measurements in phantoms at 2 T
             yielded 3He relaxation times that varied with gas
             concentration. At the highest 3He concentration, the
             spinlattice relaxation time, T1, was 63.8 +/- 9.4 sec, while
             the transverse magnetization decayed with a time constant of
             T2* = 11.0 +/- 0.4 msec. In vivo MR images of the pelvic
             veins in a rat were acquired during intravenous injection of
             3He microspheres (SNR approximately equal 15). Advantages
             such as intravascular confinement, lack of background
             signal, and limited recirculation indicate quantitative
             perfusion measurements may be improved using this novel
             signal source.},
   Key = {fds269056}
}

@booklet{Johnson00c,
   Author = {G. A. Johnson and S. V. Mantha and T. A.
             Day},
   Title = {A spectrofluorometric survey of UV-induced blue-green
             fluorescence in foliage of 35 species},
   Journal = {Journal Of Plant Physiology},
   Volume = {156},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {242 -- 252},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {February},
   Key = {Johnson00c}
}

@article{fds310029,
   Author = {Oliverio, MI and Delnomdedieu, M and Best, CF and Li, P and Morris, M and Callahan, MF and Johnson, GA and Smithies, O and Coffman,
             TM},
   Title = {Abnormal water metabolism in mice lacking the type 1A
             receptor for ANG II.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physiology: Renal Physiology},
   Volume = {278},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {F75-F82},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1931-857X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10644657},
   Keywords = {Animals • Body Weight • Deamino Arginine
             Vasopressin • Female • Genotype • Kidney
             • Kidney Concentrating Ability • Losartan •
             Male • Mice • Osmolar Concentration •
             Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1 • Receptors, Angiotensin
             • Urine • Urodynamics • Vasopressins •
             Water • Water Deprivation • anatomy & histology
             • antagonists & inhibitors • blood •
             chemistry • deficiency* • drug effects •
             genetics • metabolism* • pharmacology •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {Mice lacking AT(1A) receptors for ANG II have a defect in
             urinary concentration manifested by an inability to increase
             urinary osmolality to levels seen in controls after
             thirsting. This defect results in extreme serum
             hypertonicity during water deprivation. In the basal state,
             plasma vasopressin levels are similar in wild-type controls
             and Agtr1a -/- mice. Plasma vasopressin levels increase
             normally in the AT(1A) receptor-deficient mice after 24 h of
             water deprivation, suggesting that the defect in urine
             concentration is intrinsic to the kidney. Using magnetic
             resonance microscopy, we find that the absence of AT(1A)
             receptors is associated with a modest reduction in the
             distance from the kidney surface to the tip of the papilla.
             However, this structural abnormality seems to play little
             role in the urinary concentrating defect in Agtr1a -/- mice
             since the impairment is largely reproduced in wild-type mice
             by treatment with an AT(1)-receptor antagonist. These
             studies demonstrate a critical role for the AT(1A) receptor
             in maintaining inner medullary structures in the kidney and
             in regulating renal water excretion.},
   Key = {fds310029}
}

@booklet{Ka00,
   Author = {H. H. Ka and L. A. Jaeger and G. A. Johnson and T. E.
             Spencer and F. W. Bazer},
   Title = {Regulation of keratinocyte growth factor expression and its
             function in the porcine uterus.},
   Journal = {Biology Of Reproduction},
   Volume = {62},
   Pages = {297 -- 297},
   Year = {2000},
   Key = {Ka00}
}

@booklet{Stewart00,
   Author = {M. D. Stewart and G. A. Johnson and R. C. Burghardt and C.
             A. Vyhlidal and S. H. Safe and F. W. Bazer and T. E.
             Spencer},
   Title = {Effects of interferon tau on short- and long-term activation
             of STAT proteins in immortalized ovine uterine luminal
             epithelial cells.},
   Journal = {Biology Of Reproduction},
   Volume = {62},
   Pages = {118 -- 118},
   Year = {2000},
   Key = {Stewart00}
}

@booklet{Hicks00,
   Author = {B. A. Hicks and K. G. Carnahan and J. A. Baldock and S. J.
             Yankee and F. W. Bazer and G. A. Johnson and T. E. Spencer and T. L. Ott},
   Title = {Expression of the antiviral protein Mx in an immortalized
             ovine uterine glandular epithelial cell line.},
   Journal = {Biology Of Reproduction},
   Volume = {62},
   Pages = {288 -- 289},
   Year = {2000},
   Key = {Hicks00}
}

@booklet{Bazer00,
   Author = {F. W. Bazer and J. A. G. W. Fleming and G. A. Johnson and Y.
             S. Choi and M. D. Stewart and T. E. Spencer},
   Title = {Interferon tau inhibits transcription of the ovine estrogen
             receptor alpha gene: Involvement of STATs and
             IRFs.},
   Journal = {Biology Of Reproduction},
   Volume = {62},
   Pages = {292 -- 292},
   Year = {2000},
   Key = {Bazer00}
}

@booklet{Jaeger00,
   Author = {L. A. Jaeger and R. C. Burghardt and G. A. Johnson and F. W.
             Bazer},
   Title = {Activation of conceptus and maternal integrins by
             transforming growth factor beta latency associated
             peptide.},
   Journal = {Biology Of Reproduction},
   Volume = {62},
   Pages = {281 -- 281},
   Year = {2000},
   Key = {Jaeger00}
}

@booklet{Johnson00,
   Author = {G. A. Johnson and F. W. Bazer and L. A. Jaeger and T. E.
             Spencer and C. Pfarrer and R. C. Burghardt},
   Title = {Role of MUC-1, integrins and extracellular matrix components
             in the implantation cascade in sheep.},
   Journal = {Biology Of Reproduction},
   Volume = {62},
   Pages = {281 -- 282},
   Year = {2000},
   Key = {Johnson00}
}

@booklet{Garlow00,
   Author = {J. E. Garlow and H. H. Ka and G. A. Johnson and L. A. Jaeger and R. C. Burghardt and F. W. Bazer},
   Title = {Role of osteopontin during early pregnancy in
             pigs.},
   Journal = {Biology Of Reproduction},
   Volume = {62},
   Pages = {282 -- 282},
   Year = {2000},
   Key = {Garlow00}
}

@booklet{Spencer00,
   Author = {T. E. Spencer and G. A. Johnson and M. D. Stewart and M. M.
             Joyce and C. A. Gray and K. M. Taylor and A. Gertler and E.
             Gootwine and F. W. Bazer},
   Title = {Effects of ovine placental lactogen and growth hormone on
             ovine endometrial function.},
   Journal = {Biology Of Reproduction},
   Volume = {62},
   Pages = {264 -- 264},
   Year = {2000},
   Key = {Spencer00}
}

@booklet{Lester00,
   Author = {Lester, DS and Pine, PS and Delnomdedieu, M and Johannessen, JN and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Virtual neuropathology: Three-dimensional visualization of
             lesions due to toxic insult},
   Journal = {Toxicologic Pathology (Sage)},
   Volume = {28},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {100-104},
   Year = {2000},
   ISSN = {0192-6233},
   Abstract = {A first-pass approach incorporating high-field magnetic
             resonance imaging (MRI) was used for rapid detection of
             neuropathologic lesions in fixed rat brains. This inherently
             3-dimensional and nondestructive technique provides
             high-resolution, high-contrast images of fixed neuronal
             tissue in the absence of sectioning or staining. This
             technique, magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM), was used to
             identify diverse lesions in 2 well-established rat
             neurotoxicity models. The intrinsic contrast in the images
             delineated lesions that were identified using a battery of
             histologic stains, some of which would not be used in
             routine screening. Furthermore, the MRM images provided the
             locations of lesions, which were verified upon subsequent
             sectioning and staining of the same samples. The inherent
             contrast generated by water properties is exploited in MRM
             by choosing suitable pulse sequences, or proton stains. This
             approach provides the potential for a comprehensive initial
             MRM screen for neurotoxicity in preclinical models with the
             capability for extrapolation to clinical analyses using
             classical MRI.},
   Key = {Lester00}
}

@article{fds289613,
   Author = {Nugent, AC and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Imaging using magnetization-prepared projection encoding
             (MaPPE)},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance in Medicine},
   Volume = {43},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {421-428},
   Year = {2000},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1522-2594(200003)43:3<421::AID-MRM14>3.0.CO;2-},
   Abstract = {T(1p), contrast weighting using a magnetization-prepared
             projection encoding (MaPPE) pulse sequence was investigated.
             Fast radial imaging was implemented by applying
             magnetization preparation pulses, each followed by multiple
             RF α pulses encoding radial trajectories of k-space.
             Acquiring multiple views per preparatory pulse imposes
             view-to-view variation; the resultant distortion of the
             point-spread function is examined. The issue of maximizing
             signal while preserving the intended contrast weighting is
             addressed. Under modification of repetition time and flip
             angle (α), three distinct behavior regimes of the sequence
             are identified. The utility of the pulse sequence as a
             quantitative relaxation measurement tool is also examined by
             comparing imaging and spectroscopy experiments. A mouse was
             imaged in vitro to demonstrate the viability of application
             to MR histology. These images exhibit the utility of
             spinlocking and projection encoding as an alternative
             contrast source to both T2-weighted MaPPE images and
             conventional T2-weighted spin-echo images. (C) 2000
             Wiley-Liss, Inc.},
   Doi = {10.1002/(SICI)1522-2594(200003)43:3<421::AID-MRM14>3.0.CO;2-},
   Key = {fds289613}
}

@booklet{Oliverio00,
   Author = {Oliverio, MI and Delnomdedieu, M and Best, CF and Li, P and Morris, M and Callahan, MF and Johnson, GA and Smithies, O and Coffman,
             TM},
   Title = {Abnormal water metabolism in mice lacking the type 1A
             receptor for ANG II},
   Journal = {American journal of physiology. Renal physiology},
   Volume = {278},
   Number = {1 47-1},
   Pages = {F75-F82},
   Year = {2000},
   ISSN = {0363-6127},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10644657},
   Abstract = {Mice lacking AT1(A) receptors for ANG II have a defect in
             urinary concentration manifested by an inability to increase
             urinary osmolality to levels seen in controls after
             thirsting. This defect results in extreme serum
             hypertonicity during water deprivation. In the basal state,
             plasma vasopressin levels are similar in wild-type controls
             and Agtr 1a -/- mice. Plasma vasopressin levels increase
             normally in the AT(1A) receptor-deficient mice after 24 h of
             water deprivation, suggesting that the defect in urine
             concentration is intrinsic to the kidney. Using magnetic
             resonance microscopy, we find that the absence of AT(1A)
             receptors is associated with a modest reduction in the
             distance from the kidney surface to the tip of the papilla.
             However, this structural abnormality seems to play little
             role in the urinary concentrating defect in Agtr 1a -/- mice
             since the impairment is largely reproduced in wild-type mice
             by treatment with an AT1-receptor antagonist. These studies
             demonstrate a critical role for the AT(1A) receptor in
             maintaining inner medullary structures in the kidney and in
             regulating renal water excretion.},
   Key = {Oliverio00}
}

@booklet{Wang00,
   Author = {G. Y. Wang and G. A. Johnson and T. E. Spencer and F. W.
             Bazer},
   Title = {Isolation, immortalization, and initial characterization of
             uterine cell lines: An in vitro model system for the porcine
             uterus},
   Journal = {In Vitro Cellular \& Developmental Biology-animal},
   Volume = {36},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {650 -- 656},
   Year = {2000},
   Key = {Wang00}
}

@booklet{Colbach00,
   Author = {N. Colbach and F. Forcella and G. A. Johnson},
   Title = {Spatial and temporal stability of weed populations over five
             years},
   Journal = {Weed Science},
   Volume = {48},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {366 -- 377},
   Year = {2000},
   Key = {Colbach00}
}

@booklet{Scribner99,
   Author = {D. R. Scribner and R. S. Mannel and J. L. Walker and G. A.
             Johnson},
   Title = {Cost analysis of laparoscopy versus laparotomy for early
             endometrial cancer},
   Journal = {Gynecologic Oncology},
   Volume = {75},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {460 -- 463},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {December},
   Key = {Scribner99}
}

@booklet{Spencer99,
   Author = {T. E. Spencer and A. Gray and G. A. Johnson and K. M. Taylor and A. Gertler and E. Gootwine and T. L. Ott and F. W.
             Bazer},
   Title = {Effects of recombinant ovine interferon tau, placental
             lactogen, and growth hormone on the ovine
             uterus},
   Journal = {Biology Of Reproduction},
   Volume = {61},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1409 -- 1418},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {December},
   Key = {Spencer99}
}

@article{fds174304,
   Author = {TE Spencer and A Gray and GA Johnson and KM Taylor and A Gertler and E
             Gootwine, TL Ott and FW Bazer},
   Title = {Effects of recombinant ovine interferon tau, placental
             lactogen, and growth hormone on the ovine
             uterus.},
   Journal = {Biology of reproduction},
   Volume = {61},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1409-18},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0006-3363},
   Keywords = {Animals • Corpus Luteum • Endometrium •
             Female • Gene Expression • Glycoproteins •
             Growth Hormone • Interferon Type I • Ki-67 Antigen
             • Ovariectomy • Placental Lactogen •
             Pregnancy Proteins • RNA, Messenger • Receptors,
             Estrogen • Receptors, Oxytocin • Receptors,
             Progesterone • Recombinant Proteins • Serpins*
             • Sheep* • analysis • chemistry • drug
             effects • genetics • pharmacology •
             pharmacology* • physiology • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Studies were conducted to determine effects of intrauterine
             administration of recombinant ovine interferon tau (IFNtau),
             placental lactogen (PL), and growth hormone (GH) on
             endometrial function. In the first study, administration of
             IFNtau to cyclic ewes for one period (Days 11-15) resulted
             in an interestrous interval (IEI) of approximately 30 days,
             whereas administration for two periods (Days 11-15 and Days
             21-25) extended the IEI to greater than 50 days.
             Administration of IFNtau from Days 11 to 15 and of PL or GH
             from Days 21 to 25 failed to extend the IEI more than for
             IFNtau alone. In the second study, effects of IFNtau, PL,
             and GH on endometrial differentiation and function were
             determined in ovariectomized ewes receiving ovarian steroid
             replacement therapy. Endometrial expression of mRNAs for
             estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and
             oxytocin receptor (OTR) were not affected by PL or GH
             treatment; however, uterine milk protein mRNA levels and
             stratum spongiosum gland density were increased by both PL
             and GH treatments. Collectively, results indicated that 1)
             PL and GH do not regulate endometrial PR, ER, and OTR
             expression or affect corpus luteum life span; 2)
             down-regulation of epithelial PR expression is requisite for
             progesterone induction of secretory gene expression in
             uterine glandular epithelium; 3) effects of PL and GH on
             endometrial function require IFNtau; and 4) PL and GH
             regulate endometrial gland proliferation and perhaps
             differentiated function.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds174304}
}

@article{fds174313,
   Author = {DR Scribner Jr and RS Mannel and JL Walker and GA
             Johnson},
   Title = {Cost analysis of laparoscopy versus laparotomy for early
             endometrial cancer.},
   Journal = {Gynecologic oncology},
   Volume = {75},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {460-3},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0090-8258},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/gyno.1999.5606},
   Keywords = {Aged • Costs and Cost Analysis • Endometrial
             Neoplasms • Female • Humans • Laparoscopy
             • Laparotomy • Lymph Node Excision • Neoplasm
             Staging • Retrospective Studies • economics*
             • pathology • surgery*},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine
             whether the cost associated with treatment of early stage
             endometrial cancer differs on the basis of the surgical
             approach. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on
             a series of women with presumed early stage endometrial
             cancer treated between 5/96 and 1/99 at a single
             institution. The patients were grouped according to the
             surgical approach utilized. The first group consisted of 19
             patients who underwent laparoscopic assisted vaginal
             hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and
             laparoscopic pelvic and paraaortic lymph node dissection.
             The second group consisted of 17 patients who underwent a
             total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy,
             and pelvic and paraaortic lymph node dissection. The two
             groups were compared with a two-tailed Student t test.
             Variables analyzed included age, Quetelet index (QI),
             surgical stage, number of lymph nodes, surgical time,
             estimated blood loss, postoperative complications, number of
             days in the hospital, and costs. The cost analysis was
             divided into room and board, pharmacy, ancillary services,
             operating room equipment, operating room services, and
             anesthesia. RESULTS: Both groups were similar in age, QI,
             and distribution of stage. The laparoscopic group required
             more OR time (237 vs 157 min, P < 0.001); however, the
             number of lymph nodes, estimated blood loss, and
             postoperative complications were not significantly different
             between the groups. The laparoscopic group required
             significantly shorter hospitalization than the laparotomy
             group (3.7 vs 5.2 days, P < 0.001) resulting in less room
             and board ($299 vs $454, P < 0.001) as well as pharmacy
             costs ($443 vs $625, P < 0.02). The cost of anesthesia was
             higher in the laparoscopic group ($696 vs $444, P < 0.001)
             but the costs of OR equipment, OR services, and total costs
             were not statistically different between the groups.
             CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic surgical management of early stage
             endometrial cancer is feasible with minimal morbidity. The
             cost savings of early hospital discharge is offset by longer
             surgical time and higher anesthetic costs. The total costs
             for each surgical approach are not statistically different.
             The presumed advantages of less pain, early resumption of
             normal activities, and overall improvement of quality of
             life await further investigation.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1006/gyno.1999.5606},
   Key = {fds174313}
}

@article{fds268897,
   Author = {Benveniste, H and Einstein, G and Kim, KR and Hulette, C and Johnson,
             GA},
   Title = {Detection of neuritic plaques in Alzheimer's disease by
             magnetic resonance microscopy.},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of
             USA},
   Volume = {96},
   Number = {24},
   Pages = {14079-14084},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0027-8424},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10570201},
   Keywords = {Aged • Aged, 80 and over • Alzheimer Disease
             • Coloring Agents • Humans • Magnetic
             Resonance Imaging • Middle Aged • Protons •
             Senile Plaques • methods • pathology*},
   Abstract = {Magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) theoretically provides
             the spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio needed to
             resolve neuritic plaques, the neuropathological hallmark of
             Alzheimer's disease (AD). Two previously unexplored MR
             contrast parameters, T2* and diffusion, are tested for
             plaque-specific contrast to noise. Autopsy specimens from
             nondemented controls (n = 3) and patients with AD (n = 5)
             were used. Three-dimensional T2* and diffusion MR images
             with voxel sizes ranging from 3 x 10(-3) mm(3) to 5.9 x
             10(-5) mm(3) were acquired. After imaging, specimens were
             cut and stained with a microwave king silver stain to
             demonstrate neuritic plaques. From controls, the alveus,
             fimbria, pyramidal cell layer, hippocampal sulcus, and
             granule cell layer were detected by either T2* or diffusion
             contrast. These structures were used as landmarks when
             correlating MRMs with histological sections. At a voxel
             resolution of 5.9 x 10(-5) mm(3), neuritic plaques could be
             detected by T2*. The neuritic plaques emerged as black,
             spherical elements on T2* MRMs and could be distinguished
             from vessels only in cross-section when presented in three
             dimension. Here we provide MR images of neuritic plaques in
             vitro. The MRM results reported provide a new direction for
             applying this technology in vivo. Clearly, the ability to
             detect and follow the early progression of amyloid-positive
             brain lesions will greatly aid and simplify the many
             possibilities to intervene pharmacologically in
             AD.},
   Key = {fds268897}
}

@booklet{Carroll99,
   Author = {T. L. Carroll and G. A. Johnson and L. M. Pecora and D. J.
             Mar},
   Title = {Parameter-insensitive and narrow-band synchronization of
             chaotic circuits},
   Journal = {International Journal Of Bifurcation And
             Chaos},
   Volume = {9},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {2189 -- 2196},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {November},
   Key = {Carroll99}
}

@booklet{Johnson99a,
   Author = {G. A. Johnson and R. C. Burghardt and G. R. Newton and F. W.
             Bazer and T. E. Spencer},
   Title = {Development and characterization of immortalized ovine
             endometrial cell lines},
   Journal = {Biology Of Reproduction},
   Volume = {61},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1324 -- 1330},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {November},
   Key = {Johnson99a}
}

@article{fds174198,
   Author = {GA Johnson and RC Burghardt and GR Newton and FW Bazer and TE
             Spencer},
   Title = {Development and characterization of immortalized ovine
             endometrial cell lines.},
   Journal = {Biology of reproduction},
   Volume = {61},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1324-30},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0006-3363},
   Keywords = {Animals • Blotting, Western • Cell Line •
             Cell Nucleus • DNA-Binding Proteins • Endocrine
             System • Endometrium • Female • Fluorescent
             Antibody Technique, Direct • Interferon Regulatory
             Factor-1 • Interferon Type I • Microscopy,
             Fluorescence • Paracrine Communication •
             Phosphoproteins • Pregnancy Proteins • Receptors,
             Estrogen • Receptors, Progesterone • Recombinant
             Proteins • Sheep • Signal Transduction •
             Transcription Factors • Ubiquitins • analogs &
             derivatives • biosynthesis • cytology* •
             metabolism • physiology},
   Abstract = {The objective of this study was to generate immortalized
             endometrial epithelial and stromal cell lines from the ovine
             uterus. Luminal (LE) and glandular epithelial (GE) cells and
             stromal (ST) cells were enzymatically isolated from the
             uterus of a Day 5 cyclic ewe (estrus on Day 0), and primary
             cultures were immortalized by transduction with a retroviral
             vector (LXSN-16E6E7) packaged by the amphotropic fibroblast
             line PA-317. Cells having integrated the vector were
             selected by resistance to the neomycin analogue G418
             (0.6-0.8 mg/ml). Surviving cells were maintained in complete
             culture medium containing G418 (0.1 mg/ml) and subcultured
             for more than 40 passages. Phase-contrast microscopy
             revealed that LE and GE cells exhibited a cobblestone
             morphology whereas immortalized ST cells were spindle
             shaped. The epithelial origin of LE and GE was confirmed by
             positive cytokeratin immunostaining, and ST cells were
             vimentin positive. All cell lines were negative for smooth
             muscle alpha-actin staining. Western blot analyses of cell
             extracts revealed the presence of signal transducers and
             activators of transcription (STAT) proteins 1, 2, and 3. In
             the LE cells, interferon tau (IFNtau) induced nuclear
             translocation of STAT proteins 1 and 2 and up-regulated
             several IFN-inducible genes, including STATs 1, 2, and 3 and
             ubiquitin cross-reactive protein (UCRP/ISG17). In the LE
             cell line, IFN regulatory factor one was transiently
             up-regulated and then down-regulated by IFNtau.
             Immunostaining revealed the presence of nuclear estrogen
             receptor and progesterone receptor in all cell lines. These
             ovine endometrial cell lines provide useful in vitro model
             systems for the study of hormone and cytokine action, signal
             transduction pathways, cell-cell interactions, and gene
             expression in specific cell types of the ovine
             endometrium.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds174198}
}

@booklet{Nelson99,
   Author = {Nelson, RC and Johnson, GA and Spielman, AL and Lowry, CR and Sundaramoorthy, G and Sheafor, DH},
   Title = {Single breath-hold dynamic subtraction CT of the liver
             using-multidetector helical technology},
   Journal = {Radiology},
   Volume = {213P},
   Pages = {125-125},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {November},
   Key = {Nelson99}
}

@booklet{Johnson99c,
   Author = {G. A. Johnson and R. C. Burghardt and T. E. Spencer and G.
             C. R. Newton and T. L. Ott and F. W. Bazer},
   Title = {Ovine osteopontin: II. Osteopontin and alpha(v)beta(3)
             integrin expression in the uterus and conceptus during the
             periimplantation period},
   Journal = {Biology Of Reproduction},
   Volume = {61},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {892 -- 899},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {October},
   Key = {Johnson99c}
}

@booklet{Todd99,
   Author = {M. D. Todd and G. A. Johnson and C. C. Chang},
   Title = {Passive, light intensity-independent interferometric method
             for fibre Bragg grating interrogation},
   Journal = {Electronics Letters},
   Volume = {35},
   Number = {22},
   Pages = {1970 -- 1971},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {October},
   Key = {Todd99}
}

@booklet{Johnson99b,
   Author = {G. A. Johnson and T. E. Spencer and R. C. Burghardt and F.
             W. Bazer},
   Title = {Ovine osteopontin: I. Cloning and expression of messenger
             ribonucleic acid in the uterus during the periimplantation
             period},
   Journal = {Biology Of Reproduction},
   Volume = {61},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {884 -- 891},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {October},
   Key = {Johnson99b}
}

@booklet{Chen99a,
   Author = {X. J. Chen and H. E. Moller and M. S. Chawla and G. P. Cofer and B. Driehuys and L. W. Hedlund and J. R. Macfall and G.
             A. Johnson},
   Title = {Spatially resolved measurements of hyperpolarized gas
             properties in the lung in vivo. Part II:
             T-2*},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance In Medicine},
   Volume = {42},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {729 -- 737},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {October},
   Key = {Chen99a}
}

@article{fds132869,
   Author = {XJ Chen and HE Möller and MS Chawla and GP Cofer and B Driehuys and LW
             Hedlund, GA Johnson},
   Title = {Spatially resolved measurements of hyperpolarized gas
             properties in the lung in vivo. Part I: diffusion
             coefficient.},
   Journal = {Magnetic resonance in medicine : official journal of the
             Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine / Society of
             Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, UNITED STATES},
   Volume = {42},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {721-8},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0740-3194},
   Keywords = {Animals • Guinea Pigs • Helium • Isotopes
             • Lung • Magnetic Resonance Imaging •
             Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity • Xenon Isotopes •
             anatomy & histology* • diagnostic use •
             methods*},
   Abstract = {In imaging of hyperpolarized noble gases, a knowledge of the
             diffusion coefficient (D) is important both as a contrast
             mechanism and in the design of pulse sequences. We have made
             diffusion coefficient maps of both hyperpolarized (3)He and
             (129)Xe in guinea pig lungs. Along the length of the
             trachea, (3)He D values were on average 2.4 cm(2)/sec,
             closely reproducing calculated values for free gas (2.05
             cm(2)/sec). The (3)He D values measured perpendicular to the
             length of the trachea were approximately a factor of two
             less, indicating restriction to diffusion. Further evidence
             of restricted diffusion was seen in the distal pulmonary
             airspaces as the average (3)He D was 0.16 cm(2)/sec. An
             additional cause for the smaller (3)He D in the lung was due
             to the presence of air, which is composed of heavier and
             larger gases. The (129)Xe results show similar trends, with
             the trachea D averaging 0.068 cm(2)/sec and the lung D
             averaging 0.021 cm(2)/sec. Magn Reson Med 42:721-728,
             1999.},
   Key = {fds132869}
}

@article{fds174150,
   Author = {GA Johnson and TE Spencer and RC Burghardt and FW
             Bazer},
   Title = {Ovine osteopontin: I. Cloning and expression of messenger
             ribonucleic acid in the uterus during the periimplantation
             period.},
   Journal = {Biology of reproduction},
   Volume = {61},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {884-91},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0006-3363},
   Keywords = {Amino Acid Sequence • Animals • Base Sequence
             • Blotting, Western • Cloning, Molecular •
             Embryonic Development • Estrus • Female •
             Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental* • In Situ
             Hybridization • Molecular Sequence Data •
             Osteopontin • Pregnancy • Pregnancy, Animal •
             RNA, Messenger • Sheep • Sialoglycoproteins •
             Time Factors • Uterus • biosynthesis •
             biosynthesis* • genetics* • metabolism* •
             physiology • veterinary},
   Abstract = {Trophoblast-derived interferon tau (IFNtau) acts on the
             endometrium to increase secretion of several proteins during
             the pregnancy recognition period in ruminants. One of these
             is a 70-kDa acidic protein that has not been identified. Our
             hypothesis was that the 70-kDa acidic protein is osteopontin
             (OPN). OPN is an acidic glycoprotein that fragments upon
             freezing and thawing or treatment with proteases including
             thrombin. OPN contains a Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (GRGDS)
             sequence that binds to cell surface integrins to promote
             cell-cell attachment and cell spreading. Using antisera to
             recombinant human OPN, both 70-kDa and 45-kDa proteins were
             identified in uterine flushings from pregnant ewes by
             Western blotting. A clone containing the entire ovine OPN
             cDNA coding sequence was isolated by screening a Day 15
             pregnant ovine endometrial cDNA library with a partial ovine
             OPN cDNA. In pregnant ewes, steady-state levels of OPN
             endometrial mRNA increased (P < 0. 01) after Day 17. In both
             cyclic and pregnant ewes, in situ hybridization analysis
             showed that OPN mRNA was localized on unidentified immune
             cells within the stratum compactum of the endometrium. In
             pregnant ewes, OPN mRNA was also expressed by the glandular
             epithelium. Results suggest that progesterone and/or IFNtau
             induce expression and secretion of OPN by uterine glands
             during the periimplantation period and that OPN may induce
             adhesion between luminal epithelium and trophectoderm to
             facilitate superficial implantation.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds174150}
}

@article{fds174167,
   Author = {GA Johnson and RC Burghardt and TE Spencer and GR Newton and TL Ott and FW
             Bazer},
   Title = {Ovine osteopontin: II. Osteopontin and alpha(v)beta(3)
             integrin expression in the uterus and conceptus during the
             periimplantation period.},
   Journal = {Biology of reproduction},
   Volume = {61},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {892-9},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0006-3363},
   Keywords = {Animals • Blotting, Western • Culture Media,
             Conditioned • Culture Techniques •
             Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel • Embryo, Mammalian
             • Embryonic Development* • Endometrium •
             F