## Publications of Berndt Mueller    :chronological  alphabetical  combined listing:

%% Books
@book{fds42606,
Title = {Nonperturbative Quantum Chromodynamics. Proceedings, 8th
Workshop, Paris, France, June 7-11, 2004},
Journal = {Int. J. Mod. Phys. A},
Volume = {20},
Pages = {4363-4697},
Editor = {B. Müller and C. I. Tan},
Year = {2005},
url = {http://worldscinet.com/ijmpa/20/2019/S0217751X052019.html},
Key = {fds42606}
}

@book{fds14750,
Author = {J. Kapusta and B. Müller and J. Rafelski},
Title = {Quark-Gluon Plasma - Theoretical Foundations (An annotated
reprint collection).},
Publisher = {Elsevier},
Year = {2003},
Key = {fds14750}
}

@book{fds38417,
Title = {Quantum Chromodynamics. Proceedings, 7th Workshop,
Villefranche-s-Mer, France, January 6-10,
2003},
Publisher = {World Scientific},
Editor = {H. M. Fried and B. Müller and Y. Gabellini},
Year = {2003},
Key = {fds38417}
}

@book{fds38416,
Title = {Non-Perturbative QCD, Proceedings, 6th Workshop, Paris,
France, June 5-9, 2001},
Publisher = {World Scientific},
Editor = {H. M. Fried and Y. Gabellini and B. Müller},
Year = {2002},
Key = {fds38416}
}

@article{Fried:2000jc,
Title = {Quantum Chromodynamics. Proceedings 5th Workshop,
Villefranche-s-Mer, France, January 3-7,
2000},
Publisher = {World Scientific},
Editor = {H. M. Fried and B. Müller},
Year = {2001},
Key = {Fried:2000jc}
}

@article{Fried:1999kn,
Title = {Quantum chromodynamics. Proceedings, 4th Workshop, Paris,
France, June 1-6, 1998},
Publisher = {World Scientific},
Editor = {H. M. Fried and B. Müller},
Year = {1999},
Key = {Fried:1999kn}
}

@article{Muller:1999br,
Title = {RHIC Physics and Beyond -- Kay Kay Gee Day},
Publisher = {American Institute of Physics (CP 482)},
Editor = {B. Müller and R. D. Pisarski},
Year = {1999},
Key = {Muller:1999br}
}

@article{Fried:1997sp,
Title = {Quantum chromodynamics: Collisions, confinement and chaos.
Proceedings, 3rd Workshop on Fundamental Physics, Paris,
France, June 3-8, 1996},
Publisher = {World Scientific},
Editor = {B. Fried and B. Müller},
Year = {1997},
Key = {Fried:1997sp}
}

@article{Muller:1995he,
Author = {B. Müller and J. Reinhardt and M. T. Strickland},
Title = {Neural networks: An Introduction},
Publisher = {Springer-Verlag},
Year = {1995},
Key = {Muller:1995he}
}

@article{Fried:1995iv,
Title = {Quantum infrared physics. Proceedings, Workshop, Paris,
France, June 6-10, 1994},
Publisher = {World Scientific},
Editor = {H. M. Fried and B. Müller},
Year = {1995},
Key = {Fried:1995iv}
}

@article{Biro:1995jc,
Author = {T. S. Biro and S. G. Matinyan and B. Müller},
Title = {Chaos and Gauge Field Theory},
Publisher = {World Scientific},
Year = {1995},
Key = {Biro:1995jc}
}

@article{Greiner:1993sl,
Author = {W. Greiner and B. Müller},
Title = {Quantum mechanics II: Symmetries},
Publisher = {Springer-Verlag},
Year = {1994},
Key = {Greiner:1993sl}
}

@article{Greiner:1993qp,
Author = {W. Greiner and B. Müller},
Title = {Gauge theory of weak interactions},
Publisher = {Springer-Verlag},
Year = {1993},
Key = {Greiner:1993qp}
}

@article{Fried:1993jr,
Title = {QCD vacuum structure. Proceedings, Workshop, Paris, France,
June 1-5, 1992},
Publisher = {World Scientific},
Editor = {H. M. Fried and B. Müller},
Year = {1993},
Key = {Fried:1993jr}
}

@article{Fried:1991up,
Title = {Vacuum structure in intense fields. Proceedings, NATO
Advanced Study Institute, Cargese, France, July 31 - August
10, 1990},
Publisher = {Plenum Press},
Editor = {H. M. Fried and B. Müller},
Year = {1991},
Key = {Fried:1991up}
}

@article{Muller:1985ed,
Author = {B. Müller},
Title = {The physics of the quark-gluon plasma},
Publisher = {Springer-Verlag (LNP 225)},
Year = {1985},
Key = {Muller:1985ed}
}

@book{fds38418,
Author = {W. Greiner and B. Müller and J. Rafelski},
Title = {Quantum Electrodynamics of Strong Fields},
Publisher = {Springer-Verlag},
Year = {1985},
Key = {fds38418}
}

%% Papers Published
@article{fds336459,
Author = {Yao, X and Müller, B},
Title = {Doubly charmed baryon production in heavy ion
collisions},
Journal = {Physical Review D},
Volume = {97},
Number = {7},
Year = {2018},
Month = {April},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.97.074003},
Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution
to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal
citation, and DOI. Funded by SCOAP 3 . We give an estimate
of Ξcc++ production rate and transverse momentum spectra in
relativistic heavy ion collisions. We use Boltzmann
transport equations to describe the dynamical evolution of
charm quarks and diquarks inside quark-gluon plasma.
In-medium formation and dissociation rates of charm diquarks
are calculated from potential nonrelativistic QCD for the
diquark sector. We solve the transport equations by Monte
Carlo simulations. For 2.76 TeV Pb-Pb collisions with 0-10%
centrality, the number of Ξcc++ produced in the transverse
momentum range 0-5 GeV and rapidity from -1 to 1 is roughly
0.02 per collision. We repeat the calculation with a melting
temperature 250 MeV above which no diquarks can be formed.
The number of Ξcc++ produced in the same kinematic region
is about 0.0125 per collision. We discuss how to study
diquarks at finite temperature on a lattice and construct
the antitriplet free energy in a gauge invariant but path
dependent way. We also comment on extensions of the
calculation to other doubly heavy baryons and doubly heavy
tetraquarks and the feasibility of experimental
measurements.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.97.074003},
Key = {fds336459}
}

@article{fds333318,
Author = {Müller, B and Schäfer, A},
Title = {Hot spaghetti: Viscous gravitational collapse},
Journal = {The European Physical Journal A},
Volume = {54},
Number = {2},
Year = {2018},
Month = {February},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epja/i2018-12411-0},
Abstract = {© 2018, SIF, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer
Nature. We explore the fate of matter falling into a
macroscopic Schwarzschild black hole for the simplified case
of a radially collapsing thin spherical shell for which the
back reaction of the geometry can be neglected. We treat the
internal dynamics of the in-falling matter in the framework
of viscous relativistic hydrodynamics and calculate how the
internal temperature of the collapsing matter evolves as it
falls toward the Schwarzschild singularity. We find that
viscous hydrodynamics fails when either the dissipative
radial pressure exceeds the thermal pressure and the total
radial pressure becomes negative, or the time scale of
variation of the tidal forces acting on the collapsing
matter becomes shorter than the characteristic hydrodynamic
response time.},
Doi = {10.1140/epja/i2018-12411-0},
Key = {fds333318}
}

@article{fds333319,
Author = {Biró, T and Greiner, C and Müller, B and Rafelski, J and Stöcker,
H},
Title = {Topical Issue on Frontiers in Nuclear, Heavy Ion and Strong
Field Physics},
Journal = {The European Physical Journal A},
Volume = {54},
Number = {2},
Year = {2018},
Month = {February},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epja/i2018-12477-6},
Doi = {10.1140/epja/i2018-12477-6},
Key = {fds333319}
}

@article{fds336460,
Author = {Yao, X and Müller, B},
Title = {Approach to equilibrium of quarkonium in quark-gluon
plasma},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {97},
Number = {1},
Year = {2018},
Month = {January},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.97.014908},
We calculate the dissociation and recombination rates of
ϒ(1S) in quark-gluon plasma by using potential
nonrelativistic QCD. We then study the dynamical in-medium
evolution of the bb-ϒ system in a periodic box via the
Boltzmann equation and explore how the system reaches
equilibrium. We find that interactions between the free
heavy quarks and the medium are necessary for the system to
reach equilibrium. We find that the angular distribution of
ϒ(1S) probes the stages at which recombination occurs.
Finally, we study the system under a longitudinal expansion
and show that different initial conditions evolve to
distinct final ratios of hidden and open b flavors. We argue
that experimental measurements of the ratio could address
open questions in the quarkonium production in heavy ion
collisions.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.97.014908},
Key = {fds336460}
}

@article{fds331489,
Author = {Koch, P and Müller, B and Rafelski, J},
Title = {From strangeness enhancement to quark–gluon plasma
discovery},
Journal = {International Journal of Modern Physics A},
Volume = {32},
Number = {31},
Pages = {1730024-1730024},
Year = {2017},
Month = {November},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0217751X17300241},
Doi = {10.1142/S0217751X17300241},
Key = {fds331489}
}

@article{fds336461,
Author = {Müller, B and Schäfer, A},
Title = {Erratum: Transverse energy density fluctuations in heavy-ion
collisions in a Gaussian model [Phys. Rev. D 85 , 114030
(2012)]},
Journal = {Physical Review D},
Volume = {96},
Number = {5},
Year = {2017},
Month = {September},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.96.059903},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.96.059903},
Key = {fds336461}
}

@article{fds331199,
Author = {Yao, X and Mehen, T and Müller, B},
Title = {Dynamical screening of resonant scattering and thermal
nuclear scattering rate in a plasma},
Journal = {Physical Review D},
Volume = {95},
Number = {11},
Year = {2017},
Month = {June},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.95.116002},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.95.116002},
Key = {fds331199}
}

@article{fds332872,
Author = {Müller, B},
Title = {The future of RHIC},
Journal = {Proceedings of Science},
Volume = {2017-January},
Year = {2017},
Month = {January},
recent results and future plans for the Relativistic Heavy
Ion Collider.},
Key = {fds332872}
}

@article{fds322935,
Author = {Yang, D-L and Müller, B},
Title = {Shear viscosities of photons in strongly coupled
plasmas},
Journal = {Physics Letters B},
Volume = {760},
Pages = {565-570},
Year = {2016},
Month = {September},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2016.07.034},
Doi = {10.1016/j.physletb.2016.07.034},
Key = {fds322935}
}

@article{fds331490,
Author = {Accardi, A and Albacete, JL and Anselmino, M and Armesto, N and Aschenauer, EC and Bacchetta, A and Boer, D and Brooks, WK and Burton,
T and Chang, N-B and Deng, W-T and Deshpande, A and Diehl, M and Dumitru,
A and Dupré, R and Ent, R and Fazio, S and Gao, H and Guzey, V and Hakobyan,
H and Hao, Y and Hasch, D and Holt, R and Horn, T and Huang, M and Hutton, A and Hyde, C and Jalilian-Marian, J and Klein, S and Kopeliovich, B and Kovchegov, Y and Kumar, K and Kumerički, K and Lamont, MAC and Lappi,
T and Lee, J-H and Lee, Y and Levin, EM and Lin, F-L and Litvinenko, V and Ludlam, TW and Marquet, C and Meziani, Z-E and McKeown, R and Metz, A and Milner, R and Morozov, VS and Mueller, AH and Müller, B and Müller, D and Nadel-Turonski, P and Paukkunen, H and Prokudin, A and Ptitsyn, V and Qian, X and Qiu, J-W and Ramsey-Musolf, M and Roser, T and Sabatié, F and Sassot, R and Schnell, G and Schweitzer, P and Sichtermann, E and Stratmann, M and Strikman, M and Sullivan, M and Taneja, S and Toll, T and Trbojevic, D and Ullrich, T and Venugopalan, R and Vigdor, S and Vogelsang, W and Weiss, C and Xiao, B-W and Yuan, F and Zhang, Y-H and Zheng, L},
Title = {Electron-Ion Collider: The next QCD frontier},
Journal = {The European Physical Journal A},
Volume = {52},
Number = {9},
Year = {2016},
Month = {September},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epja/i2016-16268-9},
Doi = {10.1140/epja/i2016-16268-9},
Key = {fds331490}
}

@article{fds331200,
Author = {Yao, X and Mehen, T and Müller, B},
Title = {An effective field theory approach to the stabilization of 8
Be in a QED plasma},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {43},
Number = {7},
Pages = {07LT02-07LT02},
Year = {2016},
Month = {July},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0954-3899/43/7/07LT02},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/43/7/07LT02},
Key = {fds331200}
}

@article{fds247169,
Author = {Müller, B and Yang, D-L},
Title = {Viscous leptons in the quark gluon plasma},
Journal = {Physical Review D},
Volume = {91},
Number = {12},
Year = {2015},
Month = {June},
ISSN = {1550-7998},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.91.125010},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.91.125010},
Key = {fds247169}
}

@article{fds247168,
Author = {Muller, B},
Title = {PHENIX and the quest for the quark-gluon
plasma},
Journal = {Progress of Theoretical and Experimental
Physics},
Volume = {2015},
Number = {3},
Pages = {3A103},
Year = {2015},
Month = {January},
url = {http://ptep.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/ptu137?ijkey=DAefZTjUnytOCaA&keytype=ref},
Abstract = {http://ptep.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/ptu137?ijkey=DAefZTjUnytOCaA&keytype=ref},
Doi = {10.1093/ptep/ptu137},
Key = {fds247168}
}

@article{fds247170,
Author = {Coleman-Smith, C and Müller, B},
Title = {How to catch a ‘fat’ proton},
Journal = {Annals of Physics},
Volume = {352},
Pages = {59-69},
Year = {2015},
Month = {January},
ISSN = {0003-4916},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aop.2014.07.040},
Doi = {10.1016/j.aop.2014.07.040},
Key = {fds247170}
}

@article{fds247171,
Author = {Asakawa, M and Bass, SA and Mueller, B},
Title = {Center domains and their phenomenological consequences in
ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {931},
Pages = {1120-1124},
Year = {2014},
Month = {November},
ISSN = {0375-9474},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2014.08.005},
Abstract = {© 2014 Elsevier B.V. We argue that the domain structure of
deconfined QCD matter, which can be inferred from the
properties of the Polyakov loop, can simultaneously explain
the two most prominent experimental features of the
quark-gluon plasma, namely its near ideal fluid properties
and its large opacity.},
Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2014.08.005},
Key = {fds247171}
}

@article{fds247173,
Author = {Asakawa, M and Bass, SA and Mueller, B},
Title = {Center domains and their phenomenological consequences in
ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {931},
Pages = {1120-1124},
Year = {2014},
Month = {November},
ISSN = {0375-9474},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2014.08.005},
Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2014.08.005},
Key = {fds247173}
}

@article{fds247172,
Author = {Burke, KM and Buzzatti, A and Chang, N and Gale, C and Gyulassy, M and Heinz, U and Jeon, S and Majumder, A and Müller, B and Qin, G-Y and Schenke, B and Shen, C and Wang, X-N and Xu, J and Young, C and Zhang,
H},
Title = {Extracting the jet transport coefficient from jet quenching
in high-energy heavy-ion collisions},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {90},
Number = {1},
Pages = {015909},
Year = {2014},
Month = {July},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.90.014909},
Abstract = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1312.5003},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.90.014909},
Key = {fds247172}
}

@article{fds247174,
Author = {Qin, G-Y and Müller, B},
Title = {Elliptic and triangular flow anisotropy in deuteron-gold
collisions at GeV at RHIC and in proton-lead collisions at
TeV at the LHC},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {89},
Number = {4},
Pages = {044902},
Year = {2014},
Month = {April},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.89.044902},
Abstract = {http://arXiv.org/abs/1306.3439},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.89.044902},
Key = {fds247174}
}

@article{fds247176,
Author = {Coleman-Smith, CE and Müller, B},
Title = {Mapping the proton’s fluctuating size and
shape},
Journal = {Physical Review D},
Volume = {89},
Number = {2},
Pages = {025019},
Year = {2014},
Month = {January},
ISSN = {1550-7998},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.89.025019},
Abstract = {http://arXiv.org/abs/1307.5911},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.89.025019},
Key = {fds247176}
}

@article{fds247177,
Author = {Müller, B and Wu, S-Y and Yang, D-L},
Title = {Elliptic flow from thermal photons with magnetic field in
holography},
Journal = {Physical Review D},
Volume = {89},
Number = {2},
Pages = {025019},
Year = {2014},
Month = {January},
ISSN = {1550-7998},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.89.026013},
Abstract = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1308.6568},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.89.026013},
Key = {fds247177}
}

@article{fds247178,
Author = {Caceres, E and Kundu, A and Müller, B and Vaman, D and Yang,
DL},
Title = {Jet quenching and holographic thermalization},
Journal = {Aip Conference Proceedings},
Volume = {1560},
Pages = {672-674},
Year = {2013},
Month = {December},
ISSN = {0094-243X},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4826868},
Abstract = {We employ the AdS/CFT correspondence to investigate the
thermalization of the strongly-coupled plasma and the jet
quenching of a hard probe traversing such a thermalizing
medium. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.},
Doi = {10.1063/1.4826868},
Key = {fds247178}
}

@article{fds247182,
Author = {Balasubramanian, V and Bernamonti, A and de Boer, J and Craps, B and Franti, L and Galli, F and Keski-Vakkuri, E and Müller, B and Schäfer,
A},
Title = {Inhomogeneous thermalization in strongly coupled field
theories.},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {111},
Number = {23},
Pages = {231602},
Year = {2013},
Month = {December},
ISSN = {0031-9007},
url = {http://arXiv.org/pdf/1307.1487},
Abstract = {To describe theoretically the creation and evolution of the
quark-gluon plasma, one typically employs three ingredients:
a model for the initial state, nonhydrodynamic early time
evolution, and hydrodynamics. In this Letter we study the
nonhydrodynamic early time evolution using the AdS/CFT
correspondence in the presence of inhomogeneities. We find
that the AdS description of the early time evolution is well
matched by free streaming. Near the end of the early time
interval where our analytic computations are reliable, the
stress tensor agrees with the second order hydrodynamic
stress tensor computed from the local energy density and
fluid velocity. Our techniques may also be useful for the
study of far-from-equilibrium strongly coupled systems in
other areas of physics.},
Doi = {10.1103/physrevlett.111.231602},
Key = {fds247182}
}

@article{fds247179,
Author = {Müller, B},
Title = {Investigation of hot QCD matter: theoretical
aspects},
Journal = {Physica Scripta},
Volume = {T158},
Pages = {014004-014004},
Year = {2013},
Month = {December},
ISSN = {0031-8949},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1309.7616},
Abstract = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1309.7616},
Doi = {10.1088/0031-8949/2013/T158/014004},
Key = {fds247179}
}

@article{fds324420,
Author = {Balasubramanian, V and Bernamonti, A and de Boer, J and Craps, B and Franti, L and Galli, F and Keski-Vakkuri, E and Mueller, B and Schaefer,
A},
Title = {Inhomogeneous holographic thermalization},
Journal = {Journal of High Energy Physics},
Volume = {10},
Number = {10},
Pages = {082},
Year = {2013},
Month = {October},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1307.7086},
Abstract = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1307.7086},
Doi = {10.1007/JHEP10(2013)082},
Key = {fds324420}
}

@article{fds247187,
Author = {Coleman-Smith, CE and Mueller, B},
Title = {What can we learn from dijets? A systematic study at RHIC
with VNI/BMS.},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {910},
Pages = {429-432},
Year = {2013},
Month = {August},
ISSN = {0375-9474},
Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2012.12.014},
Key = {fds247187}
}

@article{fds247273,
Author = {Müller, B},
Title = {No Pain, No Gain: Hard Probes of the Quark–Gluon Plasma
Coming of Age},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {910-911},
Pages = {5-11},
Year = {2013},
Month = {August},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1207.7302},
Abstract = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1207.7302},
Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2012.12.069},
Key = {fds247273}
}

@article{fds247188,
Author = {Kapusta, JI and Mueller, B and Stephanov, M},
Title = {Hydrodynamic noise and Bjorken expansion},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {904},
Pages = {499C-502C},
Year = {2013},
Month = {May},
ISSN = {0375-9474},
Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2013.02.062},
Key = {fds247188}
}

@article{fds247190,
Author = {Cao, S and Qin, G-Y and Bass, SA and Müller, B},
Title = {Collisional vs. Radiative Energy Loss of Heavy Quark in a
Hot and Dense Nuclear Matter},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {904-905},
Pages = {653c-656c},
Year = {2013},
Month = {May},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1209.5410},
Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2013.02.100},
Key = {fds247190}
}

@article{fds247193,
Author = {Balasubramanian, V and Bernamonti, A and Craps, B and Keränen, V and Keski-Vakkuri, E and Müller, B and Thorlacius, L and Vanhoof,
J},
Title = {Thermalization of the spectral function in strongly coupled
two dimensional conformal field theories},
Journal = {Journal of High Energy Physics},
Volume = {2013},
Number = {4},
Pages = {069},
Year = {2013},
Month = {April},
ISSN = {1126-6708},
url = {http://arXiv.org/pdf/1212.6066},
Abstract = {Using Wigner transforms of Green functions, we discuss
non-equilibrium generalizations of spectral functions and
occupation numbers. We develop methods for computing
time-dependent spectral functions in conformal field
theories holographically dual to thin-shell AdS-Vaidya
Doi = {10.1007/JHEP04(2013)069},
Key = {fds247193}
}

@article{fds247195,
Author = {AYYAR, V and MÜLLER, B},
Title = {APPROACH TO EQUILIBRIUM IN THE CALDEIRA–LEGGETT
MODEL},
Journal = {International Journal of Modern Physics E},
Volume = {22},
Number = {03},
Pages = {1350016-1350016},
Year = {2013},
Month = {March},
ISSN = {0218-3013},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1212.3538},
Abstract = {The Caldeira-Leggett (CL) model describes a microscopic
quantum system, represented by a harmonic oscillator, in
interaction with a heat bath, represented by a large number
of harmonic oscillators with a range of frequencies. We
consider the case when the system oscillator starts out in
the ground state and then thermalizes due to interactions
with the heat bath, which is at temperature θ. We calculate
the position autocorrelation function 〈x(t')x(t)〉 of the
system oscillator at two different times and study its
behavior in the small and large time limits. Our results
show that the system oscillator thermalizes as expected. We
also confirm by explicit calculation that the position
autocorrelation function exhibits periodicity for imaginary
values of the time difference t'-t = iτ at late-(real)
times t. © 2013 World Scientific Publishing
Company.},
Doi = {10.1142/S021830131350016X},
Key = {fds247195}
}

@article{fds247197,
Author = {Coleman-Smith, CE and Mueller, B},
Title = {A "Helium atom" of space: Dynamical instability of the
isochoric pentahedron},
Journal = {Physical Review D},
Volume = {87},
Number = {4},
Pages = {044047},
Year = {2013},
Month = {February},
ISSN = {1550-7998},
Abstract = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1212.1930},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.87.044047},
Key = {fds247197}
}

@article{fds220245,
Author = {Petersen, H. and Müller, B.},
Title = {On the possibility of event shape selection in
relativistic heavy ion collisions},
Journal = {Phys. Rev. C},
Volume = {88},
Pages = {044918},
Year = {2013},
url = {http://arXiv.org/pdf/1305.2735},
Abstract = {http://arXiv.org/abs/1305.2735},
Key = {fds220245}
}

@article{fds218430,
Author = {Müller, B. and Yang, D.L.},
Title = {Light probes in a strongly coupled anisotropic
plasma},
Journal = {Phys. Rev. D},
Volume = {87},
Pages = {046004},
Year = {2013},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1212.1930},
Abstract = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1212.1930},
Key = {fds218430}
}

@article{fds247167,
Author = {Coleman-Smith, C and Müller, B},
Title = {How to catch a 'fat' proton},
Journal = {Annals of Physics},
Year = {2013},
ISSN = {0003-4916},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aop.2014.07.040},
Abstract = {© 2014 Elsevier Inc.We argue that high-multiplicity events
in proton-proton or proton-nucleus collisions originate from
large-size fluctuations of the nucleon shape. We discuss a
pair of simple models of such proton shape fluctuations. A
"fat" proton with a size of 3fm occurs with observable
frequency. In light of this result, collective flow behavior
in the ensuing nuclear interaction seems feasible. We
discuss the influence of these models on the parton
structure of the proton.},
Doi = {10.1016/j.aop.2014.07.040},
Key = {fds247167}
}

@article{fds247181,
Author = {Cao, S and Qin, G-Y and Bass, SA and Mueller, B and IOP},
Title = {Heavy quark energy loss and angular de-correlation in a
quark-gluon plasma matter},
Journal = {Journal of Physics: Conference Series},
Volume = {446},
Pages = {012035-012035},
Year = {2013},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/446/1/012035},
Doi = {10.1088/1742-6596/446/1/012035},
Key = {fds247181}
}

@article{fds247184,
Author = {Iida, H and Kunihiro, T and Müller, B and Ohnishi, A and Schäfer, A and Takahashi, TT},
Title = {Entropy production in classical Yang-Mills theory from
glasma initial conditions},
Journal = {Physical Review D},
Volume = {88},
Number = {9},
Year = {2013},
ISSN = {1550-7998},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.88.094006},
Abstract = {We study the thermalization process in classical Yang-Mills
field theory starting from noisy glasmalike initial
conditions by investigating the initial-value sensitivity of
trajectories. Kunihiro et al. linked entropy generation to
the Kolmogorov-Sinaï entropy, which gives the entropy
production rate in classical chaotic systems, calculated
numerically for classical Yang-Mills fields starting from
purely random initial field configurations. In contrast, we
study here glasmalike initial conditions. For small random
fluctuations, we obtain qualitatively similar results, while
no entropy increase is observed when such fluctuations are
absent. We analyze the intermediate-time Lyapunov spectrum
for several time windows and calculate the Kolmogorov-Sinaï
entropy. We find a large number of positive Lyapunov
exponents at the early stages of time evolution. Also, for
later times, their number is a sizeable fraction of the
total number of degrees of freedom. The spectrum of positive
Lyapunov exponents at first changes rapidly but then
stabilizes, indicating that the dynamics of the gauge fields
approaches a steady state. Thus, we conclude that also for
glasmalike initial conditions, a significant amount of
entropy is produced by classical gluon field dynamics. ©
2013 American Physical Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.88.094006},
Key = {fds247184}
}

@article{fds247185,
Author = {Petersen, H and Müller, B},
Title = {Possibility of event shape selection in relativistic heavy
ion collisions},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {88},
Number = {4},
Year = {2013},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.88.044918},
Abstract = {We investigate the possibility of selecting heavy ion
collision events with certain features in the initial state
(event engineering). Anisotropic flow measurements in heavy
ion reactions have confirmed the almost ideal fluid
dynamical behavior of the hot and dense quark-gluon plasma
state. As a consequence, it is intriguing to pursue the idea
of selecting collisions with a certain special initial
geometry, e.g., a large ellipsoidal or triangular
deformation, by classifying events by the value of their
final observed flow coefficients. This procedure could be
especially interesting for azimuthally dependent jet energy
loss studies. We investigate the correlation between initial
state features and final state momentum space anisotropies
within an event-by-event hybrid approach. We find that the
finite particle number and hadronic rescattering of the
final state leads to large event-by-event fluctuations in
the observables that could be used to characterize the
features of the initial state. This makes event engineering
by final state selection difficult. © 2013 American
Physical Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.88.044918},
Key = {fds247185}
}

@article{fds247186,
Author = {Kirakosyan, M and Leonidov, A and Müller, B},
Title = {Turbulence-induced instabilities in EP and
QGP},
Journal = {Acta Physica Polonica B, Proceedings Supplement},
Volume = {6},
Number = {2},
Pages = {403-408},
Year = {2013},
ISSN = {1899-2358},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.5506/APhysPolBSupp.6.403},
Abstract = {Polarization properties of turbulent stochastically
inhomogeneous ultrarelativistic QED plasma are studied. It
is shown that the sign of nonlinear turbulent Landau damping
corresponds to an instability of the spacelike modes and,
for sufficiently large turbulent fields, to an actual
instability of a system.},
Doi = {10.5506/APhysPolBSupp.6.403},
Key = {fds247186}
}

@article{fds247189,
Author = {Coleman-Smith, CE and Müller, B and Bass, SA},
Title = {Systematic Monte-Carlo studies of dijets at RHIC using the
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {904-905},
Pages = {759c-762c},
Year = {2013},
ISSN = {0375-9474},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2013.02.128},
Abstract = {We present a study of the dijet suppression at RHIC using
the parton cascade model. We examine the modification of the
dijet asymmetry A j and the fragmentation distributions z
and j T in terms of: q̂; the path length of leading and
sub-leading jets; cuts on the jet energy distributions; jet
cone angle and the jet-medium interaction mechanism. We have
jet fragmentation distributions. We find that A j is most
sensitive to q̂ and less sensitive to the nature of the
jet-medium interaction mechanism. The fragmentation
distributions show jet modification and differentiate
Elsevier B.V.},
Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2013.02.128},
Key = {fds247189}
}

@article{fds247196,
Author = {Müller, B and Yang, D-L},
Title = {Light probes in a strongly coupled anisotropic
plasma},
Journal = {Physical Review D},
Volume = {87},
Number = {4},
Pages = {046004},
Year = {2013},
ISSN = {1550-7998},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.87.046004},
Abstract = {We employ the gauge/gravity duality to study the jet
quenching of light probes traversing a static yet
anisotropic strongly coupled N=4 super Yang-Mills plasma. We
compute the stopping distance of an image jet induced by a
massless source field, which is characterized by a massless
particle falling along the null geodesic in the WKB
approximation, in an anisotropic dual geometry introduced by
Mateos and Trancancelli. At mid and large anisotropic
regimes, the stopping distances of a probe traveling in the
anisotropic plasma along various orientations are suppressed
compared to those in an isotropic plasma, especially along
the longitudinal direction at equal temperature. However,
when fixing the entropy density, the anisotropic values of
stopping distances near the transverse directions slightly
surpass the isotropic values. In general, the jet quenching
of light probes is increased by the anisotropic effect in a
strongly coupled and equilibrium plasma. © 2013 American
Physical Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.87.046004},
Key = {fds247196}
}

@article{fds247183,
Author = {Arnold, P and Florkowski, W and Fodor, Z and Foka, P and Harris, J and Lisa, M and Meyer, H and Milov, A and Mischke, A and Müller, B and Rischke, DH},
Title = {What is the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) and how do we find
out?},
Journal = {Proceedings of Science},
Year = {2012},
Month = {December},
ISSN = {1824-8039},
Abstract = {We present a panel discussion about our current state of
knowledge about the Quark-Gluon Plasma. The nine panelists
were asked to address the question: What do we want to know
about the quark-gluon plasma, and how can we find the
answers? The contributions illuminate our present
understanding and highlight various aspects of the ongoing
debate about the future directions of relativistic heavy-ion
author(s).},
Key = {fds247183}
}

@article{fds247275,
Author = {Müller, B and Schukraft, J and Wysłouch, B},
Title = {First Results from Pb+Pb Collisions at the
LHC},
Journal = {Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Science},
Volume = {62},
Number = {1},
Pages = {361-386},
Year = {2012},
Month = {November},
ISSN = {0163-8998},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1202.3233v1.pdf},
Abstract = {At the end of 2010, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN
started operation with heavy-ion beams, colliding lead
nuclei at a center-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV per nucleon.
These collisions ushered in a new era in ultrarelativistic
heavy-ion physics at energies exceeding that of previous
accelerators by more than an order of magnitude. This review
summarizes the results from the first year of heavy-ion
physics at the LHC obtained by the three experiments
participating in the heavy-ion program: ALICE, ATLAS, and
CMS. © 2012 by Annual Reviews.},
Doi = {10.1146/annurev-nucl-102711-094910},
Key = {fds247275}
}

@article{fds247274,
Author = {Coleman-Smith, CE and Mueller, B},
Title = {Results of a systematic study of dijet suppression measured
at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {86},
Number = {5},
Pages = {054901},
Year = {2012},
Month = {November},
ISSN = {2469-9985},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.86.054901},
Key = {fds247274}
}

@article{fds247272,
Author = {Asakawa, M and Bass, SA and Mueller, B},
Title = {Center Domains and their Phenomenological
Consequences},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {110},
Pages = {202301},
Year = {2012},
Month = {July},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1208.2426},
Abstract = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1208.2426},
Key = {fds247272}
}

@article{fds247278,
Author = {Qin, G-Y and Müller, B},
Title = {Counting hot/cold spots in quark-gluon plasma},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {85},
Number = {6},
Pages = {061901(R)},
Year = {2012},
Month = {June},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1109.5961},
Abstract = {We study how local fluctuations in the initial states of
relativistic heavy-ion collisions manifest in the
correlations between different orders of harmonic moments of
the density profiles, particularly those involving only odd
harmonics that arise purely from initial-state fluctuations.
We find the strengths of those correlations are sensitive to
the number of hot and cold spots in the initial states.
Hydrodynamic evolution of the fireball translates
initial-state geometric anisotropies as well as their
correlations into final-state momentum anisotropies and
correlations. We conclude that the measurement of the
correlations between different harmonic moments of
final-state azimuthal distribution can be employed to
quantify the inhomogeneity of the initial density profiles
such as the population of hot and cold spots that are
produced in high-energy nuclear collisions. © 2012 American
Physical Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.85.061901},
Key = {fds247278}
}

@article{fds247280,
Author = {Kapusta, JI and Müller, B and Stephanov, M},
Title = {Relativistic theory of hydrodynamic fluctuations with
applications to heavy-ion collisions},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {85},
Number = {5},
Pages = {054906},
Year = {2012},
Month = {May},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1112.6405},
Abstract = {We develop the relativistic theory of hydrodynamic
fluctuations for application to high-energy heavy-ion
collisions. In particular, we investigate their effect on
the expanding boost-invariant (Bjorken) solution of the
hydrodynamic equations. We discover that correlations over a
long rapidity range are induced by the propagation of the
sound modes. Due to the expansion, the dispersion law for
these modes is nonlinear and attenuated even in the limit of
zero viscosity. As a result, there is a nondissipative wake
behind the sound front which is generated by any
instantaneous pointlike fluctuation. We evaluate the
two-particle correlators using the initial conditions and
hydrodynamic parameters relevant for heavy-ion collisions at
RHIC and LHC. In principle these correlators can be used to
obtain information about the viscosities because the
magnitudes of the fluctuations are directly proportional to
them. © 2012 American Physical Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.85.054906},
Key = {fds247280}
}

@article{fds247282,
Author = {Müller, B},
Title = {Strangeness and the quark-gluon PLASMA: Thirty years of
discovery},
Journal = {Acta Physica Polonica B},
Volume = {43},
Number = {4},
Pages = {761-770},
Year = {2012},
Month = {April},
ISSN = {0587-4254},
url = {http://th-www.if.uj.edu.pl/acta/vol43/pdf/v43p0761.pdf},
Abstract = {I review the role of strange quarks as probes of hot QCD
matter.},
Doi = {10.5506/APhysPolB.43.761},
Key = {fds247282}
}

@article{fds318458,
Author = {Yang, D-L and Müller, B},
Title = {J/ψ production by magnetic excitation of
η},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {39},
Number = {1},
Pages = {015007-015007},
Year = {2012},
Month = {January},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0954-3899/39/1/015007},
Abstract = {We compute the probability of J/ production from the
interaction between c and the strong magnetic field
generated in relativistic heavy ion collisions. The
computation is first carried out in the heavy quark
effective model, in which the M1 radiative transition is
considered. Then, we investigate the transition in the
framework of non-relativistic heavy hadron chiral
perturbation theory and show that the polarization of J/
produced by this process is parallel to the direction of
magnetic field and thus perpendicular to the reaction plane.
The transition probability obtained in both approaches is of
order 2 × 104. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/39/1/015007},
Key = {fds318458}
}

@article{fds247194,
Author = {Qin, G-Y and Müller, B},
Title = {Erratum: Explanation of dijet asymmetry in Pb-pb collisions
at the large hadron collider (Physical Review
Letters)},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {108},
Number = {18},
Year = {2012},
ISSN = {0031-9007},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.189904},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.189904},
Key = {fds247194}
}

@article{fds247260,
Author = {Coleman-Smith, CE and Qin, G-Y and Bass, SA and Müller,
B},
Title = {Jet modification in a brick of QGP matter},
Journal = {Aip Conference Proceedings},
Volume = {1441},
Pages = {892-894},
Year = {2012},
ISSN = {0094-243X},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3700711},
Abstract = {We have implemented the LPM effect into a microscopic
transport model with partonic degrees of freedom by
following the algorithm of Zapp &amp; Wiedemann. The
Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal (LPM) effect is a quantum
interference process that modifies the emission of radiation
in the presence of a dense medium. In QCD this results in a
is an important effect for the modification of jets by their
passage through the QGP. We verify the leading parton energy
loss in the model against the leading order
Baier-Dokshitzer-Mueller-Peigne-Schiff-Zakharov (BDMPS-Z)
result. We apply our model to the recent observations of the
modification of di-jets at the LHC. © 2012 American
Institute of Physics.},
Doi = {10.1063/1.3700711},
Key = {fds247260}
}

@article{fds247277,
Author = {Jacak, BV and Müller, B},
Title = {The exploration of hot nuclear matter},
Journal = {Science (New York, N.Y.)},
Volume = {337},
Number = {6092},
Pages = {310-314},
Year = {2012},
ISSN = {0036-8075},
url = {http://www.sciencemag.org/content/337/6092/310.full},
Abstract = {When nuclear matter is heated beyond 2 trillion degrees, it
becomes a strongly coupled plasma of quarks and gluons.
Experiments using highly energetic collisions between heavy
nuclei have revealed that this new state of matter is a
nearly ideal, highly opaque liquid. A description based on
string theory and black holes in five dimensions has made
the quark-gluon plasma an archetypical strongly coupled
quantum system. Open questions about the structure and
theory of the quark-gluon plasma are under active
investigation. Many of the insights are also relevant to
ultracold fermionic atoms and strongly correlated condensed
matter.},
Doi = {10.1126/science.1215901},
Key = {fds247277}
}

@article{fds247279,
Author = {M, and uuml, and ller, B and Sch, and auml, and fer,
A},
Title = {Transverse energy density fluctuations in the color glass
condensate model},
Journal = {Phys. Rev. D},
Volume = {85},
Number = {11},
Pages = {114030},
Year = {2012},
ISSN = {1550-7998},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/arXiv:1111.3347},
Abstract = {http://arXiv.org/abs/arXiv:1111.3347},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.85.114030},
Key = {fds247279}
}

@article{fds247281,
Author = {Kapusta, J and Müller, B and Stephanov, M},
Title = {Relativistic noise},
Journal = {Acta Physica Polonica B},
Volume = {43},
Number = {4},
Pages = {781-790},
Year = {2012},
ISSN = {0587-4254},
url = {http://th-www.if.uj.edu.pl/acta/vol43/pdf/v43p0781.pdf},
Abstract = {The relativistic theory of hydrodynamic fluctuations, or
noise, is derived and applied to high energy heavy ion
collisions. These fluctuations are inherent in any
space-time varying system and are present in addition to
initial state fluctuations. We illustrate the effects with
the boost-invariant Bjorken solution to the hydrodynamic
equations. Long range correlations in rapidity are induced
by propagation of sound modes. The magnitude of these
correlations is directly proportional to the viscosities.
These fluctuations should be enhanced near a phase
transition or rapid crossover.},
Doi = {10.5506/APhysPolB.43.781},
Key = {fds247281}
}

@article{fds247283,
Author = {Tsai, H-M and Müller, B},
Title = {Entropy production and equilibration in Yang-Mills quantum
mechanics},
Journal = {Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter
Physics},
Volume = {85},
Number = {1},
Pages = {011110},
Year = {2012},
ISSN = {1539-3755},
url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/4970 Duke open
access},
Abstract = {The Husimi distribution provides for a coarse-grained
representation of the phase-space distribution of a quantum
system, which may be used to track the growth of entropy of
the system. We present a general and systematic method of
solving the Husimi equation of motion for an isolated
quantum system, and we construct a coarse-grained
Hamiltonian whose expectation value is exactly conserved. As
an application, we numerically solve the Husimi equation of
motion for two-dimensional Yang-Mills quantum mechanics (the
x-y model) and calculate the time evolution of the
coarse-grained entropy of a highly excited state. We show
that the coarse-grained entropy saturates to a value that
coincides with the microcanonical entropy corresponding to
the energy of the system. © 2012 American Physical
Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.85.011110},
Key = {fds247283}
}

@article{fds247285,
Author = {Yang, DL and uuml, M and ller, B},
Title = {J/Ψ production by magnetic excitation of
ηc},
Journal = {J. Phys. G},
Volume = {39},
Number = {1},
Pages = {015007},
Year = {2012},
ISSN = {0954-3899},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1108.2525},
Abstract = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1108.2525},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/39/1/015007},
Key = {fds247285}
}

@article{fds304597,
Author = {Müller, B and Schäfer, A},
Title = {Transverse energy density fluctuations in heavy-ion
collisions in a gaussian model},
Journal = {Physical Review D},
Volume = {85},
Number = {11},
Year = {2012},
ISSN = {1550-7998},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.85.114030},
Abstract = {We calculate the transverse correlation of fluctuations of
the deposited energy density in nuclear collisions in the
framework of a Gaussian model similar to the color glass
condensate model. © 2012 American Physical
Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.85.114030},
Key = {fds304597}
}

@article{fds247284,
Author = {MÜLLER, B and SCHÄFER, A},
Title = {ENTROPY CREATION IN RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION
COLLISIONS},
Journal = {International Journal of Modern Physics E},
Volume = {20},
Number = {11},
Pages = {2235-2267},
Year = {2011},
Month = {November},
ISSN = {0218-3013},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1110.2378},
Abstract = {We review current ideas on entropy production during the
different stages of a relativistic nuclear collision. This
includes recent results on decoherence entropy and the
entropy produced during the hydrodynamic phase by viscous
effects. We start by a discussion of decoherence caused by
gluon bremsstrahlung in the very first interactions of
gluons from the colliding nuclei. We then present a general
framework, based on the Husimi distribution function, for
the calculation of entropy growth in quantum field theories,
which is applicable to the early ("glasma") phase of the
collision during which most of the entropy is generated. The
entropy calculated from the Husimi distribution exhibits
linear growth when the quantum field contains unstable modes
and the growth rate is asymptotically equal to the
KolmogorovSinaï entropy. We outline how the approach can be
used to investigate the problem of entropy production in a
relativistic heavy ion reaction from first principles. We
show that the same result can be obtained in the framework
of a completely different approach called eigenstate
thermalization hypothesis. Finally we discuss some recent
results on entropy production in the strong coupling limit,
Publishing Company.},
Doi = {10.1142/S0218301311020459},
Key = {fds247284}
}

@article{fds247291,
Author = {Balasubramanian, V and Bernamonti, A and de Boer, J and Copland, N and Craps, B and Keski-Vakkuri, E and Müller, B and Schäfer, A and Shigemori, M and Staessens, W},
Title = {Holographic thermalization},
Journal = {Physical Review D},
Volume = {84},
Number = {2},
Pages = {026010},
Year = {2011},
Month = {July},
ISSN = {1550-7998},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1103.2683},
Abstract = {Using the AdS/CFT correspondence, we probe the scale
dependence of thermalization in strongly coupled field
theories following a sudden injection of energy via
calculations of two-point functions, Wilson loops, and
entanglement entropy in d=2, 3, 4. In the saddle-point
approximation these probes are computed in AdS space in
terms of invariant geometric objects-geodesics, minimal
surfaces, and minimal volumes. Our calculations for
two-dimensional field theories are analytical. In our
strongly coupled setting, all probes in all dimensions share
certain universal features in their thermalization: (1) a
slight delay in the onset of thermalization, (2) an apparent
nonanalyticity at the endpoint of thermalization, (3)
top-down thermalization where the UV thermalizes first. For
homogeneous initial conditions the entanglement entropy
thermalizes slowest and sets a timescale for equilibration
that saturates a causality bound over the range of scales
studied. The growth rate of entanglement entropy density is
nearly volume-independent for small volumes, but slows for
larger volumes. © 2011 American Physical
Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.84.026010},
Key = {fds247291}
}

@article{fds247290,
Author = {Balasubramanian, V and Bernamonti, A and de Boer, J and Copland, N and Craps, B and Keski-Vakkuri, E and Müller, B and Schäfer, A and Shigemori, M and Staessens, W},
Title = {Thermalization of strongly coupled field
theories.},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {106},
Number = {19},
Pages = {191601},
Year = {2011},
Month = {May},
ISSN = {0031-9007},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1012.4753},
Abstract = {Using the holographic mapping to a gravity dual, we
calculate 2-point functions, Wilson loops, and entanglement
entropy in strongly coupled field theories in d=2, 3, and 4
to probe the scale dependence of thermalization following a
sudden injection of energy. For homogeneous initial
conditions, the entanglement entropy thermalizes slowest and
sets a time scale for equilibration that saturates a
causality bound. The growth rate of entanglement entropy
density is nearly volume-independent for small volumes but
slows for larger volumes. In this setting, the UV
thermalizes first.},
Doi = {10.1103/physrevlett.106.191601},
Key = {fds247290}
}

@article{fds247242,
Author = {Qin, G-Y and Müller, B},
Title = {Explanation of Dijet Asymmetry in Pb-Pb Collisions at the
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {106},
Number = {16},
Year = {2011},
Month = {April},
ISSN = {0031-9007},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.106.162302},
Abstract = {We investigate the medium modification of a partonic jet
shower traversing in a hot quark-gluon plasma. We derive and
solve a differential equation that governs the evolution of
the radiated gluon distribution as the jet propagates
through the medium. Energy contained inside the jet cone is
lost by dissipation through elastic collisions with the
medium and by scattering of shower partons to larger angles.
We find that the jet energy loss at early times is dominated
by medium effects on the vacuum radiation, and by
medium-induced radiation effects at late times. We compare
our numerical results for the nuclear modification of the
dijet asymmetry with that recently reported by the ATLAS
Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.106.162302},
Key = {fds247242}
}

@article{fds247287,
Author = {Müller, B},
Title = {Parton energy loss in strongly coupled AdS/CFT},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {855},
Number = {1},
Pages = {74-82},
Year = {2011},
Month = {April},
ISSN = {0375-9474},
url = {http://arXiv.org/pdf/1010.4258},
Abstract = {This is a brief review of the theory and phenomenology of
parton energy loss in strongly coupled field theories with a
gravity dual and its comparison with parton energy loss in
QCD at weak coupling. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.},
Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2011.02.022},
Key = {fds247287}
}

@article{fds247288,
Author = {Asakawa, M and Bass, SA and Müller, B},
Title = {Anomalous transport processes in turbulent non-Abelian
plasmas},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {854},
Number = {1},
Pages = {76-80},
Year = {2011},
Month = {March},
ISSN = {0375-9474},
url = {http://arXiv.org/pdf/1008.3496},
Abstract = {Turbulent color fields, which can arise in the early and
late stages of relativistic heavy ion collisions, may
contribute significantly to the transport processes in the
matter created in these collisions. We review the theory of
these anomalous transport processes and discuss their
possible phenomenology in the glasma and quasistationary
expanding quark-gluon plasma. © 2010 Elsevier
B.V.},
Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2010.07.013},
Key = {fds247288}
}

@article{fds247293,
Author = {Stave, S and Ahmed, MW and France, RH and Henshaw, SS and Müller, B and Perdue, BA and Prior, RM and Spraker, MC and Weller,
HR},
Title = {Understanding the ??B11(p,α)αα
reaction at the 0.675 MeV resonance},
Journal = {Physics Letters B},
Volume = {696},
Number = {1-2},
Pages = {26-29},
Year = {2011},
Month = {January},
ISSN = {0370-2693},
Doi = {10.1016/j.physletb.2010.12.015},
Key = {fds247293}
}

@article{fds247241,
Author = {Stave, S and Ahmed, MW and France, RH and Henshaw, SS and Müller, B and Perdue, BA and Prior, RM and Spraker, MC and Weller,
HR},
Title = {Understanding the B11(p,α)αα reaction at the
0.675 MeV resonance},
Journal = {Physics Letters B},
Volume = {696},
Number = {1-2},
Pages = {26-29},
Year = {2011},
ISSN = {0370-2693},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2010.12.015},
Abstract = {The B11(p,α)αα reaction at energies between 200 keV and a
few MeV has a very long history, dating back to studies by
Lord Rutherford and Dee and Gilbert in the 1930s. It is
shown that the modern view of this reaction, established in
1987, is incorrect. This model viewed the reaction as a
two-step process with a primary high energy α-particle
having ℓ=1 going to the first excited state of Be8, with
the subsequent emission of two low energy secondary
α-particles. We have found that an earlier result (1969)
which showed that the primary α-particle must have ℓ=3
does, as originally noted, account for the data. Our
simulations show that this view leads to the prediction of
two high energy α-particles (of almost equal energy), as
originally proposed in 1936, one being the primary
α-particle and the other a secondary α-particle.
Coincidence data verify the existence of these two high
energy α-particles. The implications of this result on
astrophysics and fusion energy production are noted. © 2010
Elsevier B.V.},
Doi = {10.1016/j.physletb.2010.12.015},
Key = {fds247241}
}

@article{fds247276,
Author = {Armesto, N and Cole, B and Gale, C and Horowitz, WA and Jacobs, P and Jeon,
S and van Leeuwen, M and Majumder, A and uuml, M and ller, B and Qin,
GY},
Title = {Comparison of jet quenching formalisms for a quark-gluon
plasma "brick"},
Journal = {Phys. Rev. C},
Volume = {86},
Pages = {064904},
Year = {2011},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1106.1106},
Abstract = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1106.1106},
Key = {fds247276}
}

@article{fds247286,
Author = {Müller, B},
Title = {The limits of ordinary matter},
Journal = {Science (New York, N.Y.)},
Volume = {332},
Number = {6037},
Pages = {1513-1514},
Year = {2011},
ISSN = {0036-8075},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1207995},
Abstract = {The temperature at which quarks escape the confines of
protons and neutrons has been determined from high-energy
particle collision data.},
Doi = {10.1126/science.1207995},
Key = {fds247286}
}

@article{fds247289,
Author = {Qin, GY and uuml, M and ller, B},
Title = {Di-jet asymmetry in Pb+Pb collisions at the Large Hadron
Collide},
Journal = {Phys. Rev. Lett.},
Volume = {106},
Pages = {162302},
Year = {2011},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1012.5280},
Abstract = {http://arXiv.org/abs/1012.5280},
Key = {fds247289}
}

@article{fds247292,
Author = {Qin, G-Y and Petersen, H and Bass, SA and Müller,
B},
Title = {Translation of collision geometry fluctuations into momentum
anisotropies in relativistic heavy-ion collisions},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {82},
Number = {6},
Pages = {064903},
Year = {2010},
Month = {December},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://arXiv.org/pdf/1009.1847},
Abstract = {We develop a systematic framework for the study of the
initial collision geometry fluctuations in relativistic
heavy-ion collisions and investigate how they evolve through
different stages of the fireball history and translate into
final-particle momentum anisotropies. We find in our
event-by-event analysis that only the few lowest momentum
anisotropy parameters survive after the hydrodynamical
evolution of the system. The geometry of the produced medium
is found to be affected by the pre-equilibrium evolution of
the medium and the thermal smearing of the discretized
event-by-event initial conditions, both of which tend to
smear out the spatial anisotropies. We find such effects to
be more prominent for higher moments than for lower moments.
The correlations between odd and even spatial anisotropy
parameters during the pre-equilibrium expansion are
quantitatively studied and found to be small. Our study
provides a theoretical foundation for the understanding of
initial-state fluctuations and the collective expansion
dynamics in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. © 2010 The
American Physical Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.82.064903},
Key = {fds247292}
}

@article{fds247295,
Author = {Kunihiro, T and Müller, B and Ohnishi, A and Schäfer, A and Takahashi,
TT and Yamamoto, A},
Title = {Chaotic behavior in classical Yang-Mills
dynamics},
Journal = {Physical Review D},
Volume = {82},
Number = {11},
Pages = {114015},
Year = {2010},
Month = {December},
ISSN = {1550-7998},
url = {http://arXiv.org/pdf/1008.1156},
Abstract = {Understanding the underlying mechanisms causing rapid
thermalization deduced for high-energy heavy ion collisions
is still a challenge. To estimate the thermalization time,
entropy growth for classical Yang-Mills theories is studied,
based on the determination of Lyapunov exponents. Distinct
regimes for short, medium and long sampling times are
characterized by different properties of their spectrum of
Lyapunov exponents. Clarifying the existence of these
regimes and their implications for gauge-field dynamics is
application we conclude that for pure gauge theories with
random initial conditions thermalization occurs within a few
fm/c, an estimate which can be reduced by the inclusion of
fermions, specific initial conditions, etc. © 2010 The
American Physical Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.82.114015},
Key = {fds247295}
}

@article{fds247296,
Author = {Majumder, A and Müller, B},
Title = {Hadron Mass Spectrum from Lattice QCD},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {105},
Number = {25},
Pages = {252002},
Year = {2010},
Month = {December},
ISSN = {0031-9007},
url = {http://arXiv.org/pdf/1008.1747},
Abstract = {Finite temperature lattice simulations of quantum
chromodynamics (QCD) are sensitive to the hadronic mass
spectrum for temperatures below the "critical" temperature
Tc≈160MeV. We show that a recent precision determination
of the QCD trace anomaly shows evidence for the existence of
a large number of hadron states beyond those known from
experiment. The lattice results are well represented by an
exponentially growing mass spectrum up to a temperature
T=155MeV. Using simple parametrizations of the hadron mass
spectrum we show how one may estimate the total spectral
weight in these yet undermined states. © 2010 The American
Physical Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.252002},
Key = {fds247296}
}

@article{fds247297,
Author = {Müller, B and Schäfer, A},
Title = {Charge fluctuations from the chiral magnetic effect in
nuclear collisions},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {82},
Number = {5},
Pages = {057902},
Year = {2010},
Month = {November},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://arXiv.org/pdf/1009.1053},
Abstract = {We derive a nonlocal effective Lagrangian for the chiral
magnetic effect. An electric field is generated by winding
number fluctuations of the nonabelian gauge field in the
presence of a strong magnetic field. We estimate the
magnitude of charge asymmetry fluctuations with respect to
the reaction plane induced by the chiral magnetic effect in
relativistic heavy-ion collisions to be less than 10⊃-6,
several orders of magnitude smaller than the signal observed
in the STAR experiment. © 2010 The American Physical
Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.82.057902},
Key = {fds247297}
}

@article{fds247294,
Author = {Petersen, H and Qin, G-Y and Bass, SA and Müller,
B},
Title = {Triangular flow in event-by-event ideal hydrodynamics in Au
Au collisions at GeV},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {82},
Number = {4},
Pages = {041901},
Year = {2010},
Month = {October},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/4268 Duke open
access},
Abstract = {The first calculation of triangular flow ν3 in Au+Au
collisions at √sNN = 200A GeV from an event-by-event (3 +
1) d transport+hydrodynamics hybrid approach is presented.
As a response to the initial triangularity Ie{cyrillic,
ukrainian}3 of the collision zone, ν3 is computed in a
similar way to the standard event-plane analysis for
elliptic flow ν2. It is found that the triangular flow
exhibits weak centrality dependence and is roughly equal to
elliptic flow in most central collisions. We also explore
the transverse momentum and rapidity dependence of ν2 and
ν3 for charged particles as well as identified particles.
We conclude that an event-by-event treatment of the ideal
hydrodynamic evolution startingwith realistic initial
conditions generates the main features expected for
triangular flow. © 2010 The American Physical
Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.82.041901},
Key = {fds247294}
}

@article{fds247299,
Author = {Asakawa, M and Majumder, A and Müller, B},
Title = {Electric charge separation in strong transient magnetic
fields},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {81},
Number = {6},
Pages = {064912},
Year = {2010},
Month = {June},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/4262 Duke open
access},
Abstract = {We discuss various mechanisms for the creation of an
asymmetric charge fluctuation with respect to the reaction
plane among hadrons emitted in relativistic heavy-ion
collisions. We show that such mechanisms exist in both the
hadronic gas and the partonic phases of quantum
chromodynamics. The mechanisms considered here all require
the presence of a strong magnetic field (the "chiral
magnetic effect"), but they do not involve parity or
charge-parity violations. We analyze how a transient local
electric current fluctuation generated by the chiral
magnetic effect can dynamically evolve into an asymmetric
charge distribution among final-state hadrons in momentum
space. We estimate the magnitude of the event-by-event
fluctuations of the final-state charge asymmetry owing to
Physical Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.81.064912},
Key = {fds247299}
}

@article{fds247300,
Author = {Mrówczyński, S and Müller, B},
Title = {Quasilinear transport approach to equilibration of
quark-gluon plasmas},
Journal = {Physical Review D},
Volume = {81},
Number = {6},
Pages = {065021},
Year = {2010},
Month = {March},
ISSN = {1550-7998},
url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/4273 Duke open
access},
Abstract = {We derive the transport equations of quark-gluon plasma in
the quasilinear approximation. The equations are either of
the Balescu-Lenard or Fokker-Planck form. The plasma's
dynamics is assumed to be governed by longitudinal
chromoelectric fields. The isotropic plasma, which is
stable, and the two-stream system, which is unstable, are
considered in detail. A process of equilibration is briefly
discussed in both cases. The peaks of the two-stream
distribution are shown to rapidly dissolve in time. © 2010
The American Physical Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.81.065021},
Key = {fds247300}
}

@article{fds247298,
Author = {Shin, GR and Bass, SA and Müller, B},
Title = {Transport theoretical description of collisional energy loss
in infinite quark-gluon matter},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {37},
Number = {10},
Pages = {105112},
Year = {2010},
ISSN = {0954-3899},
url = {http://arXiv.org/pdf/1006.1668},
Abstract = {We study the time evolution of a high-momentum gluon or
quark propagating through an infinite, thermalized, partonic
medium utilizing a Boltzmann equation approach. We calculate
the collisional energy loss of the parton, study its
temperature and flavor dependence as well as the momentum
broadening incurred through multiple interactions. Our
transport calculations agree well with analytic calculations
of collisional energy loss where available, but offer the
unique opportunity to address the medium response as well in
a consistent fashion. © 2010 IOP Publishing
Ltd.},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/37/10/105112},
Key = {fds247298}
}

@article{fds247180,
Author = {Greiner, W and Müller, B},
Title = {Gauge theory of weak interactions},
Journal = {Gauge Theory of Weak Interactions},
Pages = {1-404},
Year = {2009},
Month = {December},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-87843-8},
Abstract = {"Gauge Theory of Weak Interactions" treats the unification
of electromagnetic and weak interactions and considers
related phenomena. First, the Fermi theory of beta decay is
presented, followed by a discussion of parity violation,
clarifying the importance of symmetries. Then the concept of
a spontaneously broken gauge theory is introduced, and all
necessary mathematical tools are carefully developed. The
"standard model" of unified electroweak interactions is
thoroughly discussed including current developments. The
final chapter contains an introduction to unified theories
of strong and electroweak interactions. Numerous solved
examples and problems make this volume uniquely suited as a
text for an advanced course. This fourth edition has been
carefully revised. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009
All rights are reserved.},
Doi = {10.1007/978-3-540-87843-8},
Key = {fds247180}
}

@article{fds247302,
Author = {Majumder, A and Müller, B and Mrówczyński, S},
Title = {Momentum broadening of a fast parton in a perturbative
quark-gluon plasma},
Journal = {Physical Review D},
Volume = {80},
Number = {12},
Pages = {125020},
Year = {2009},
Month = {December},
ISSN = {1550-7998},
url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/4270 Duke open
access},
Abstract = {The average transverse momentum transfer per unit path
length to a fast parton scattering elastically in a
perturbative quark-gluon plasma is related to the radiative
energy loss of the parton. We first calculate the momentum
transfer coefficient q^ in terms of a classical Langevin
problem and then define it quantum mechanically through a
scattering matrix element. After treating the well-known
case of a quark-gluon plasma in equilibrium, we consider an
off-equilibrium unstable plasma. As a specific example, we
treat the two-stream plasma with unstable modes of
longitudinal chromoelectric field. In the presence of the
instabilities, q^ is shown to exponentially grow in time. ©
2009 The American Physical Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.80.125020},
Key = {fds247302}
}

@article{fds247239,
Author = {Tsai, H-M and Müller, B},
Title = {Aspects of thermal strange quark production: the
deconfinement and chiral phase transitions},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {830},
Number = {1-4},
Pages = {551c-554c},
Year = {2009},
Month = {November},
ISSN = {0375-9474},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2009.09.045},
Abstract = {We study the gluonic sector of the three-flavor PNJL model
by obtaining the adjoint Polyakov loop and the gluon
distribution function in the mean-field approximation.
Besides, we explore the thermal strange quark
pair-production processes, q over(q, -) → s over(s, -) and
g g → s over(s, -), with the aid of the three-flavor PNJL
model. The results help us identify the temperature where
the gluonic contribution to the production rate becomes
dominant, which is an innovative phenomenon compared with
the result obtained in free perturbation theory. © 2009
Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2009.09.045},
Key = {fds247239}
}

@article{fds247303,
Author = {Fries, RJ and Kunihiro, T and Müller, B and Ohnishi, A and Schäfer,
A},
Title = {From 0 to 5000 in 2 × 10−24 seconds: Entropy production
in relativistic heavy-ion collisions},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {830},
Number = {1-4},
Pages = {519c-522c},
Year = {2009},
Month = {November},
ISSN = {0375-9474},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2009.09.041},
Abstract = {We review what is known about the contributions to the final
entropy from the different stages of a relativistic nuclear
collision, including recent results on the decoherence
entropy and the entropy produced during the hydrodynamic
phase by viscous effects. We then present a general
framework, based on the Husimi distribution function, for
the calculation of entropy growth in quantum field theories,
which is applicable to the earliest ("glasma") phase of the
collision during which most of the entropy is generated. The
entropy calculated from the Husimi distribution exhibits
linear growth when the quantum field contains unstable modes
and is asymptotically equal to the Kolmogorov-Sinaï (KS)
entropy. We outline how the approach can be used to
investigate the problem of entropy production in a
relativistic heavy-ion reaction from first principles. ©
Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2009.09.041},
Key = {fds247303}
}

@article{fds247306,
Author = {Tsai, H-M and Müller, B},
Title = {Phenomenology of the three-flavor PNJL model and thermal
strange quark production},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {36},
Number = {7},
Pages = {075101-075101},
Year = {2009},
Month = {July},
ISSN = {0954-3899},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/0811.2216},
Abstract = {We study the temperature dependence of the adjoint Polyakov
loop and its implication for the momentum spectrum of gluons
in the mean-field approximation. This allows us to calculate
the contribution of the thermal (transverse) gluons to the
thermodynamic pressure. As an application, we evaluate the
rates for the strange quark pair-production processes and as
functions of temperature including thermal effects on quark
deconfinement and chiral symmetry breaking. © 2009 IOP
Publishing Ltd.},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/36/7/075101},
Key = {fds247306}
}

@article{fds287694,
Author = {Müller, B},
Title = {The flavours of the quark–gluon plasma},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {36},
Number = {6},
Pages = {064001-064001},
Year = {2009},
Month = {June},
ISSN = {0954-3899},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0954-3899/36/6/064001},
Abstract = {Quarks of other flavours than up and down, i.e. s, c and b
quarks, have been long recognized as effective probes of the
structure of hot QCD matter. In this paper, I review some of
the motivations for their investigation and discuss the
salient results obtained so far, with a focus on the results
from the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC). Some ideas
for future studies are also mentioned. © 2009 IOP
Publishing Ltd.},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/36/6/064001},
Key = {fds287694}
}

@article{fds247309,
Author = {Müller, B},
Title = {The “perfect” fluid quenches jets almost
perfectly},
Journal = {Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics},
Volume = {62},
Number = {2},
Pages = {551-555},
Year = {2009},
Month = {April},
ISSN = {0146-6410},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ppnp.2008.12.028},
Abstract = {The QCD matter produced in nuclear collisions at the
Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) has been found to
have a very low shear viscosity, which is close to the lower
bound allowed by unitarity. The matter has also been found
to strongly suppress the emission of energetic hadrons. This
phenomenon, called "jet quenching" is interpreted to be the
result of a large energy loss by the precursor parton on its
path through the dense matter, primarily due to gluon
radiation. I discuss how the two phenomena are related. The
RHIC data suggest, in some scenarios of jet quenching, that
the quark-gluon plasma created in nuclear collisions is
characterized by strong coupling, but still admits a
quasi-particle description. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights
reserved.},
Doi = {10.1016/j.ppnp.2008.12.028},
Key = {fds247309}
}

@article{fds247307,
Author = {Fries, RJ and Müller, B and Schäfer, A},
Title = {Decoherence and entropy production in relativistic nuclear
collisions},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {79},
Number = {3},
Pages = {034904},
Year = {2009},
Month = {March},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.79.034904},
Abstract = {Short thermalization times of less than 1 fm/c for quark and
gluon matter have been suggested by recent experiments at
the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. It has been difficult
to justify this rapid thermalization in first-principle
calculations based on perturbation theory or the color glass
condensate picture. Here, we address the related question of
the decoherence of the gluon field, which is a necessary
component of thermalization. We present a simplified
leading-order computation of the decoherence time of a gluon
ensemble subject to an incoming flux of Weizsäcker-Williams
gluons. We also discuss the entropy produced during the
decoherence process and its relation to the entropy in the
final state that has been measured experimentally. © 2009
The American Physical Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.79.034904},
Key = {fds247307}
}

@article{fds247308,
Author = {Kunihiro, T and Muller, B and Ohnishi, A and Schafer,
A},
Title = {Towards a Theory of Entropy Production in the Little and Big
Bang},
Journal = {Progress of Theoretical Physics},
Volume = {121},
Number = {3},
Pages = {555-575},
Year = {2009},
Month = {March},
ISSN = {0033-068X},
Abstract = {We propose a broadly applicable formalism for the
description of coarse grained entropy production in quantum
mechanical processes. Our formalism is based on the Husimi
transform of the quantum state, which encodes the notion
that information about any quantum state is limited by the
experimental resolution. We show in two analytically
tractable cases (the decay of an unstable vacuum state and
reheating after cosmic inflation) that the growth rate of
the Wehrl entropy associated with the Husimi function
approaches the classical Kolmogorov-Sinai' entropy. We also
discuss various possible applications of our formalism,
including the production of entropy in the early stages of a
relativistic heavy ion collision.},
Doi = {10.1143/PTP.121.555},
Key = {fds247308}
}

@article{fds324421,
Author = {Asakawa, M and Bass, SA and Mueller, B and Nonaka,
C},
Title = {Hydrodynamic Expansion with the QCD Critical Point(Thermal
Quantum Field Theories and Their Applications)},
Volume = {116},
Number = {6},
Pages = {F36-F38},
Publisher = {Soryushiron Kenkyu},
Year = {2009},
Month = {February},
Abstract = {The presence of a critical point in the QCD phase diagram
can deform the trajectories describing the evolution of the
expanding fireball in the μ_B-T phase diagram. If the
average emission time of hadrons is a function of transverse
velocity, as microscopic simulations of the hadronic
freezeout dynamics suggest, the deformation of the
hydrodynamic trajectories will change the transverse
velocity (β_T) dependence of the proton-antiproton ratio
when the fireball passes in the vicinity of the critical
point. An unusual β_T-dependence of the p^^-/p ratio in a
narrow beam energy window would thus signal the presence of
the critical point.},
Key = {fds324421}
}

@article{fds247240,
Author = {Neufeld, RB and Müller, B},
Title = {The sound generated by a fast parton in the quark-gluon
plasma is a crescendo},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {830},
Number = {1-4},
Pages = {789c-792c},
Year = {2009},
ISSN = {0375-9474},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2009.10.072},
Abstract = {The total energy deposited into the medium per unit length
by a fast parton traversing a quarkgluon plasma is
calculated. We take the medium excitation due to collisions
to be given by the well known expression for the collisional
drag force. The parton's radiative energy loss contributes
to the energy deposition because each radiated gluon acts as
an additional source of collisional energy loss in the
medium. In our model, this leads to a length dependence on
the differential energy loss due to the interactions of
radiated gluons with the medium. The final result, which is
a sum of the primary and the secondary contributions, is
then treated as the coefficient of a local hydrodynamic
source term. Results are presented for energy density wave
induced by two fast, back-to-back partons created in an
initial hard interaction. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights
reserved.},
Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2009.10.072},
Key = {fds247240}
}

@article{fds247258,
Author = {Lee, KS and Bass, S and Müller, B and Nonaka, C},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {36},
Number = {6},
Year = {2009},
ISSN = {0954-3899},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0954-3899/36/6/064034},
Abstract = {The recombination model as a model for hadronization from a
quark-gluon plasma has been recently revived since it has
advantages in explaining several important features of the
final state produced in heavy-ion collisions at the RHIC,
such as the constituent quark number scaling of the elliptic
coefficient versus the transverse energy of identified
near 5 GeV/c, and the measured large value of
baryon-to-meson ratio (of the order of unity) in the same pT
range. We have developed a dynamic simulation model of
heavy-ion collisions in which a quark-gluon plasma, starting
from a certain initial condition, evolves hydrodynamically
until it reaches the phase boundary, and then hadronizes by
valence quark recombination. Rescattering after
hadronization is described by UrQMD. We discuss some details
of the model and report first, preliminary results. © 2009
IOP Publishing Ltd.},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/36/6/064034},
Key = {fds247258}
}

@article{fds247259,
Author = {Nonaka, C and Asakawa, M and Bass, SA and Müller,
B},
Title = {Signals of the QCD Critical Point in Hydrodynamic
Evolutions},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {830},
Number = {1-4},
Pages = {291c-294c},
Year = {2009},
ISSN = {0375-9474},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2009.10.025},
Abstract = {The presence of a critical point in the QCD phase diagram
can deform the trajectories describing the evolution of the
expanding fireball in the μB - T phase diagram. The
deformation of the hydrodynamic trajectories will change the
transverse velocity (βT) dependence of the
proton-antiproton ratio when the fireball passes in the
vicinity of the critical point. An unusual βT dependence of
the over(p, -) / p ratio in a narrow beam energy window
would thus signal the presence of the critical point. ©
2009.},
Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2009.10.025},
Key = {fds247259}
}

@article{fds247301,
Author = {uuml, M and ller, B},
Title = {Viewpoint: Looking for parity violation in heavy-ion
collisions},
Journal = {Physics},
Volume = {2},
Pages = {104},
Year = {2009},
url = {http://physics.aps.org/articles/v2/104},
Key = {fds247301}
}

@article{fds247304,
Author = {Neufeld, RB and Müller, B},
Title = {Sound Produced by a Fast Parton in the Quark-Gluon Plasma is
a "crescendo"},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {103},
Number = {4},
Pages = {042301},
Year = {2009},
ISSN = {0031-9007},
url = {http://arXiv.org/pdf/0902.2950},
Abstract = {We calculate the total energy deposited into the medium per
unit length by fast partons traversing a quark-gluon plasma.
The medium excitation due to collisions is taken to be given
by the well-known expression for the collisional drag force.
The radiative energy loss of the parton contributes to the
energy deposition because each radiated gluon acts as an
additional source of collisional energy loss in the medium.
We derive a differential equation which governs how the
spectrum of radiated gluons is modified when this energy
loss is taken into account. This modified spectrum is then
used to calculate the additional energy deposition due to
the interactions of radiated gluons with the medium.
Numerical results are presented for the medium response for
the case of two energetic back-to-back partons created in a
hard interaction. © 2009 The American Physical
Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.042301},
Key = {fds247304}
}

@article{fds247310,
Author = {Neufeld, RB and Müller, B and Ruppert, J},
Title = {Sonic Mach cones induced by fast partons in a perturbative
quark-gluon plasma},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {78},
Number = {4},
Pages = {041901},
Year = {2008},
Month = {October},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://arXiv.org/pdf/0802.2254},
Abstract = {We derive the space-time distribution of energy and momentum
deposited by a fast parton traversing a weakly coupled
quark-gluon plasma by treating the fast parton as the source
of an external color field perturbing the medium. We then
use our result as a source term for the linearized
hydrodynamical equations of the medium. We show that the
solution contains a sonic Mach cone and a dissipative wake
if the parton moves at a supersonic speed. © 2008 The
American Physical Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.78.041901},
Key = {fds247310}
}

@article{fds247311,
Author = {Asakawa, M and Bass, SA and Müller, B and Nonaka,
C},
Title = {Transverse velocity dependence of the proton-antiproton
ratio as a signature of the QCD critical
point.},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {101},
Number = {12},
Pages = {122302},
Year = {2008},
Month = {September},
ISSN = {0031-9007},
url = {http://arXiv.org/pdf/0803.2449},
Abstract = {The presence of a critical point in the QCD phase diagram
can deform the trajectories describing the evolution of the
expanding fireball in the mu_B-T phase diagram. If the
average emission time of hadrons is a function of transverse
velocity, as microscopic simulations of the hadronic
freeze-out dynamics suggest, the deformation of the
hydrodynamic trajectories will change the transverse
velocity (beta_T) dependence of the proton-antiproton ratio
when the fireball passes in the vicinity of the critical
point. An unusual beta_T dependence of the [over]p/p ratio
in a narrow beam energy window would thus signal the
presence of the critical point.},
Doi = {10.1103/physrevlett.101.122302},
Key = {fds247311}
}

@article{fds247312,
Author = {Fries, RJ and Müller, B and Schäfer, A},
Title = {Stress tensor and bulk viscosity in relativistic nuclear
collisions},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {78},
Number = {3},
Pages = {034913},
Year = {2008},
Month = {September},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://arXiv.org/pdf/0807.4333v2},
Abstract = {We discuss the influence of different initial conditions for
the stress tensor and the effect of bulk viscosity on the
expansion and cooling of the fireball created in
relativistic heavy ion collisions. In particular, we explore
the evolution of longitudinal and transverse components of
the pressure and the extent of dissipative entropy
production in the one-dimensional, boost-invariant
hydrodynamic model. We find that a bulk viscosity consistent
with recent estimates from lattice QCD further slows the
equilibration of the system; however, it does not
significantly increase the entropy produced. © 2008 The
American Physical Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.78.034913},
Key = {fds247312}
}

@article{fds182766,
Author = {Kitazawa, M. and Asakawa, M. and Müller, B. and Nonaka,
C.},
Title = {Measurement of shear viscosity in lattice gauge theory
without Kubo formula},
Journal = {PoS LATTICE2008},
Pages = {183},
Year = {2008},
url = {http://pos.sissa.it//archive/conferences/066/183/LATTICE},
Key = {fds182766}
}

@article{Majumder:2007ne,
Author = {Majumder, A and Fries, RJ and Müller, B},
Title = {Photon bremsstrahlung and diffusive broadening of a hard
jet},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {77},
Number = {6},
Pages = {065209},
Year = {2008},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/arXiv:0711.2475 [nucl-th]},
Abstract = {The photon bremsstrahlung rate from a quark jet produced in
deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) off a large nucleus is
studied in the collinear limit. The leading medium-enhanced
higher twist corrections that describe the multiple
scattering of the jet in the nucleus are re-summed to all
orders of twist. The propagation of the jet in the absence
of further radiative energy loss is shown to be governed by
a transverse momentum diffusion equation. We compute the
final photon spectrum in the limit of soft photons, taking
photon momentum fraction y. In this limit, the photon
spectrum in a physical gauge is shown to arise from two
interfering sources: one where the initial hard scattering
produces an off-shell quark, which immediately radiates the
photon and then undergoes subsequent soft rescattering, and
an alternative in which the quark is produced on-shell and
propagates through the medium until it is driven off-shell
by rescattering and radiates the photon. Our result has a
simple formal structure as a product of the photon splitting
function, the quark transverse momentum distribution coming
from a diffusion equation, and a dimensionless factor that
encodes the effect of the interferences encountered by the
propagating quark over the length of the medium. The
destructive nature of such interferences in the small-y
limit is responsible for the origin of the
Landau-Pomeranchuck-Migdal (LPM) effect. Along the way we
also discuss possible implications for quark jets in hot
nuclear matter. © 2008 The American Physical
Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.77.065209},
Key = {Majumder:2007ne}
}

@article{Majumder:2007hx,
Author = {Majumder, A and Müller, B},
Title = {Higher twist jet broadening and classical
propagation},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {77},
Number = {5},
Pages = {054903},
Year = {2008},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/arXiv:0705.1147 [nucl-th]},
Abstract = {The transverse broadening of jets produced in deep-inelastic
scattering (DIS) off a large nucleus is studied in the
collinear limit. A class of medium enhanced higher twist
corrections are resummed to calculate the transverse
momentum distribution of the produced collinear jet. In
contrast to previous approaches, resummation of the leading
length enhanced higher twist corrections is shown to lead to
a two-dimensional diffusion equation for the transverse
momentum of the propagating jet. Results for the average
transverse momentum obtained from this approach are then
compared to the broadening expected from a classical
Langevin analysis for the propagation of the jet under the
action of the fluctuating color Lorentz force inside the
nucleons. The set of approximations that lead to identical
results from the two approaches are outlined. The
relationship between the momentum diffusion constant D and
the transport coefficient q^ is explicitly derived. © 2008
The American Physical Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.77.054903},
Key = {Majumder:2007hx}
}

@article{fds247236,
Author = {Müller, B},
Title = {Theoretical challenges posed by the data from
RHIC},
Journal = {Progress of Theoretical Physics Supplement},
Number = {174},
Pages = {103-121},
Year = {2008},
ISSN = {0375-9687},
Abstract = {In this lecture, I discuss how the RHIC data are challenging
our theoretical understanding of QCD matter. Important
components of this challenge include how equilibrated QCD
matter is formed, whether its statistical and dynamical
properties permit a quasi-particle description, and what its
transport properties are.},
Key = {fds247236}
}

@article{fds247237,
Author = {Müller, B and Neufeld, RB},
Title = {The sound of a fast parton in QCD},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {35},
Number = {10},
Year = {2008},
ISSN = {0954-3899},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0954-3899/35/10/104108},
Abstract = {The spacetime distribution of energy and momentum deposited
by a fast parton traversing a weakly coupled quark-gluon
plasma is calculated by treating the fast parton as the
source of an external color field perturbing the medium.
When the result is used as a source term in the linearized
hydrodynamical equations of the medium, the solution is
found to contain a sonic Mach cone and a dissipative wake if
the parton moves at supersonic speed. © 2008 IOP Publishing
Ltd.},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/35/10/104108},
Key = {fds247237}
}

@article{Muller:2007rs,
Author = {Müller, B},
Title = {From quark-gluon plasma to the perfect liquid},
Journal = {Acta Physica Polonica B},
Volume = {38},
Number = {12},
Pages = {3705-3729},
Year = {2007},
Month = {December},
ISSN = {0587-4254},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/arXiv:0710.3366 [nucl-th]},
Abstract = {After reviewing some basic concepts of the theory of
strongly interacting matter above nuclear energy density and
reviewing some salient results of the experimental program
at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), these
lectures explain why the quark-gluon plasma observed in the
RHIC experiments has been called a "perfect liquid" They
then give an introduction to some recent ideas concerning
the possible origin of the nearly inviscid nature of the
quark-gluon plasma and discuss the connection between low
viscosity and strong parton energy loss of hot QCD
matter.},
Key = {Muller:2007rs}
}

@article{Majumder:2007zh,
Author = {Majumder, A and Müller, B and Wang, X-N},
Title = {Small Shear Viscosity of a Quark-Gluon Plasma Implies Strong
Jet Quenching},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {99},
Number = {19},
Pages = {192301},
Year = {2007},
Month = {November},
ISSN = {0031-9007},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/0703082},
Abstract = {We derive an expression relating the transport parameter q
and the shear viscosity η of a weakly coupled quark-gluon
plasma. A deviation from this relation can be regarded as a
quantitative measure of "strong coupling" of the medium. The
ratio T3/q, where T is the temperature, is a more broadly
valid measure of the coupling strength of the medium than
η/s, where s denotes the entropy density. Different
estimates of q derived from existing Relativistic Heavy Ion
Collider data are shown to imply radically different
structures of the produced matter. © 2007 The American
Physical Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.99.192301},
Key = {Majumder:2007zh}
}

@article{fds247317,
Author = {Majumder, A and Müller, B and Bass, SA},
Title = {Longitudinal broadening of quenched jets in turbulent color
fields.},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {99},
Number = {4},
Pages = {042301},
Year = {2007},
Month = {July},
url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17678353},
Abstract = {The nearside distribution of particles at intermediate
transverse momentum, associated with a high momentum trigger
hadron produced in a high energy heavy-ion collision, is
broadened in rapidity compared with the jet cone. This
broadened distribution is thought to contain the energy lost
by the progenitor parton of the trigger hadron. We show that
the broadening can be explained as the final-state
deflection of the gluons radiated from the hard parton
inside the medium by soft, transversely oriented, turbulent
color fields that arise in the presence of plasma
instabilities. The magnitude of the effect is found to grow
with medium size and density and diminish with increasing
Doi = {10.1103/physrevlett.99.042301},
Key = {fds247317}
}

@article{fds247235,
Author = {Müller, B},
Title = {Hard Probes at LHC},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {783},
Number = {1-4},
Pages = {403-416},
Year = {2007},
Month = {February},
ISSN = {0375-9474},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2006.11.091},
Abstract = {This talk gives a theoretical perspective of the physics
issues awaiting us when heavy ions will collide in the LHC.
Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2006.11.091},
Key = {fds247235}
}

@article{fds247319,
Author = {Kanada-En'yo, Y and Müller, B},
Title = {Suppression of -wave baryons in quark recombination},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {74},
Number = {6},
Pages = {061901},
Year = {2006},
Month = {December},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/nucl-th/0608015},
Abstract = {We show that the observed suppression of the Λ(1520)/Λ
ratio in central Au+Au collisions at the BNL Relativistic
Heavy Ion Collider can be naturally understood in the
constituent quark recombination model. © 2006 The American
Physical Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.74.061901},
Key = {fds247319}
}

@article{fds247325,
Author = {Müller, B and Nagle, JL},
Title = {Results from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider},
Journal = {Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Science},
Volume = {56},
Number = {1},
Pages = {93-135},
Year = {2006},
Month = {November},
ISSN = {0163-8998},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/nucl-th/0602029.pdf},
Abstract = {This review describes the current status of the heavy ion
research program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider
(RHIC). The new suite of experiments and the collider
energies have opened up new probes of the medium created in
the collisions. Our review focuses on the experimental
discoveries to date at RHIC and their interpretation in
light of the field's present theoretical understanding of
the dynamics of relativistic heavy ion collisions and of the
structure of strongly interacting matter at high energy
reserved.},
Doi = {10.1146/annurev.nucl.56.080805.140556},
Key = {fds247325}
}

@article{fds247318,
Author = {Asakawa, M and Bass, SA and Muller, B},
Title = {Anomalous Transport Processes in Anisotropically Expanding
Quark-Gluon Plasmas},
Journal = {Progress of Theoretical Physics},
Volume = {116},
Number = {4},
Pages = {725-755},
Year = {2006},
Month = {October},
ISSN = {0033-068X},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/0608270},
Abstract = {We derive an expression for the anomalous viscosity in an
anisotropically expanding quark-gluon-plasma, which arises
from interactions of thermal partons with dynamically
generated color fields. The anomalous viscosity dominates
over the collisional viscosity for large velocity gradients
or weak coupling. This effect may provide an explanation for
the apparent "nearly perfect" liquidity of the matter
produced in nuclear collisions at RHIC without the
assumption that it is a strongly coupled
state.},
Doi = {10.1143/PTP.116.725},
Key = {fds247318}
}

@article{fds247320,
Author = {Müller, B},
Title = {Quark Matter 2005 – Theoretical Summary},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {774},
Number = {1-4},
Pages = {433-453},
Year = {2006},
Month = {August},
ISSN = {0375-9474},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/nucl-th/0508062.pdf},
Abstract = {This is a review of the latest developments in the theory of
superdense nuclear matter, formed in relativistic heavy ion
collisions or in the core of collapsed stars, as they were
reported and discussed at the Quark Matter 2005 conference
in Budapest (Hungary). © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights
reserved.},
Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2006.06.063},
Key = {fds247320}
}

@article{fds247326,
Author = {Asakawa, M and Bass, SA and Müller, B},
Title = {Anomalous viscosity of an expanding quark-gluon
plasma.},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {96},
Number = {25},
Pages = {252301},
Year = {2006},
Month = {June},
ISSN = {0031-9007},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/0603092.pdf},
Abstract = {We argue that an expanding quark-gluon plasma has an
anomalous viscosity, which arises from interactions with
dynamically generated color fields. We derive an expression
for the anomalous viscosity in the turbulent plasma domain
and apply it to the hydrodynamic expansion phase, when the
quark-gluon plasma is near equilibrium. The anomalous
viscosity dominates over the collisional viscosity for weak
coupling and not too late times. This effect may provide an
explanation for the apparent "nearly perfect" liquidity of
the matter produced in nuclear collisions at the
Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider without the assumption that
it is a strongly coupled state.},
Doi = {10.1103/physrevlett.96.252301},
Key = {fds247326}
}

@article{fds247324,
Author = {Matinyan, SG and Müller, B},
Title = {The partition function in the Wigner–Kirkwood
expansion},
Journal = {Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General},
Volume = {39},
Number = {18},
Pages = {L285-L292},
Year = {2006},
Month = {May},
ISSN = {0305-4470},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0602041.pdf},
Abstract = {We study the semiclassical Wigner-Kirkwood (WK) expansion of
the partition function Z(t) for arbitrary even homogeneous
potentials, starting from the Bloch equation. As is well
known, the phase-space kernel of Z satisfies the so-called
Uhlenbeck-Beth equation, which depends on the gradients of
the potential. We perform a chain of transformations to
obtain novel forms of this equation that invite analogies
with various physical phenomena and formalisms, such as
diffusion processes, the Fokker-Planck equation and
supersymmetric quantum mechanics. © 2006 IOP Publishing
Ltd.},
Doi = {10.1088/0305-4470/39/18/L05},
Key = {fds247324}
}

@article{fds304595,
Author = {Matinyan, SG and Müller, B},
Title = {Adventures of the coupled Yang–Mills oscillators: II.
YM–Higgs quantum mechanics},
Journal = {Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General},
Volume = {39},
Number = {1},
Pages = {61-72},
Year = {2006},
Month = {January},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0305-4470/39/1/005},
Abstract = {We continue our study of the quantum mechanical motion in
the x 2y2 potentials for n ≤ 2, 3, which arise in the
spatially homogeneous limit of the Yang-Mills (YM)
equations. In the present paper, we develop a new approach
to the calculation of the partition function Z(t) beyond the
Thomas-Fermi (TF) approximation by adding a harmonic (Higgs)
potential and taking the limit v → 0, where v is the
vacuum expectation value of the Higgs field. Using the
Wigner-Kirkwood method to calculate higher-order corrections
in ℏ, we show that the limit v → 0 leads to power-like
singularities of the type v-n, which reflect the possibility
of escape of the particle along the channels in the
classical limit. We show how these singularities can be
eliminated by taking into account the quantum fluctuations
dictated by the form of the potential. © 2006 IOP
Publishing Ltd.},
Doi = {10.1088/0305-4470/39/1/005},
Key = {fds304595}
}

@article{fds304596,
Author = {Matinyan, SG and Müller, B},
Title = {Adventures of the coupled Yang–Mills oscillators: I.
Semiclassical expansion},
Journal = {Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General},
Volume = {39},
Number = {1},
Pages = {45-59},
Year = {2006},
Month = {January},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0305-4470/39/1/004},
Abstract = {We study the quantum mechanical motion in the x2y2
potentials with n ≤ 2, 3, which arise in the spatially
homogeneous limit of the Yang-Mills (YM) equations. These
systems show strong stochasticity in the classical limit
(ℏ ≤ 0) and exhibit a quantum mechanical confinement
feature. We calculate the partition function Z(t) going
beyond the Thomas-Fermi (TF) approximation by means of the
semiclassical expansion using the Wigner-Kirkwood (WK)
method. We derive a novel compact form of the differential
equation for the WK function. After separating the motion in
the channels of the equipotential surface from the motion in
the central region, we show that the leading higher order
corrections to the TF term vanish up to eighth order in ℏ,
if we treat the quantum motion in the hyperbolic channels
correctly by adiabatic separation of the degrees of freedom.
Finally, we obtain an asymptotic expansion of the partition
function in terms of the parameter g 2ℏ4t3. © 2006 IOP
Publishing Ltd.},
Doi = {10.1088/0305-4470/39/1/004},
Key = {fds304596}
}

@article{fds247232,
Author = {Ruppert, J and Renk, T and Müller, B},
Title = {Mass and width of the ρ-meson in a nuclear medium from
Brown-Rho scaling and QCD sum rules},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {73},
Number = {3},
Year = {2006},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.73.034907},
Abstract = {We explore the range of values of the in-medium width of a
ρ-meson at rest which is compatibale with the QCD sum rule
approach in a nuclear medium assuming vector meson dominance
and a Brown-Rho scaling law of the ρ-meson mass with the
chiral condensate. The lower and upper bounds for the
in-medium width are found to be strongly increasing with the
decreasing mass of the ρ-meson (increasing nuclear
density). We also study the bounds for the in-medium width
in models not satisfying the Brown-Rho scaling law. It is
shown that the in-medium width depends on how rapidly the
mass decreases in comparison to the change of the quark
condensate. The bounds for the in-medium width increase with
density only if the relative change of the quark condensate
is stronger than the relative decrease in mass. This is
important for experimental tests of the Brown-Rho scaling
American Physical Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.73.034907},
Key = {fds247232}
}

@article{fds247256,
Author = {Bass, SA and Fries, RJ and Müller, B},
Title = {Correlations in the Parton Recombination
Model},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {774},
Number = {1-4},
Pages = {635-638},
Year = {2006},
ISSN = {0375-9474},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2006.06.103},
Abstract = {We describe how parton recombination can address the recent
measurement of dynamical jet-like two particle correlations.
In addition we discuss the possible effect realistic
light-cone wave-functions including higher Fock-states may
have on the well-known elliptic flow valence-quark number
scaling law. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights
reserved.},
Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2006.06.103},
Key = {fds247256}
}

@article{fds247305,
Author = {Asakawa, M and Bass, SA and Müller, B},
Title = {The flavours of the quark-gluon plasma},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {32},
Number = {12},
Pages = {064001},
Year = {2006},
ISSN = {0954-3899},
url = {http://arXiv.org/pdf/0812.4638},
Abstract = {Flavour probes depend on the transport properties of the
quark-gluon plasma. An expanding quark-gluon plasma has an
anomalous viscosity, which arises from interactions with
dynamically generated colour fields. The anomalous viscosity
dominates over the collisional viscosity for weak coupling
and at not too late times. In addition to possibly providing
an explanation for the apparent nearly 'perfect' liquidity
of the matter produced in nuclear collisions at RHIC,
similar anomalous effects can affect the rate of flavour
equilibration and the diffusion constant of heavy quarks. ©
2006 IOP Publishing Ltd.},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/32/12/S50},
Key = {fds247305}
}

@article{fds247321,
Author = {Majumder, A and Müller, B},
Title = {Baryonic strangeness and related susceptibilities in
QCD},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {74},
Number = {5},
Pages = {054901},
Year = {2006},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/nucl-th/0605079},
Abstract = {The ratios of off-diagonal to diagonal conserved charge
susceptibilities, e.g., χBS/χS,χQS/χS, related to the
quark flavor susceptibilities, have proven to be discerning
probes of the flavor carrying degrees of freedom in hot
strongly interacting matter. Various constraining relations
between the different susceptibilities are derived based on
the Gell-Mann-Nishijima formula and the assumption of
isospin symmetry. Using generic models of deconfined matter
and results from lattice quantum chromodynamics, it is
demonstrated that the flavor-carrying degrees of freedom at
a temperature above 1.5Tc are quarklike quasiparticles. A
new observable related by isospin symmetry to CBS=-3χBS/χS
and equal to it in the baryon free regime is identified.
This new observable, which is blind to neutral and
nonstrange particles, carries the potential of being
measured in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. © 2006 The
American Physical Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.74.054901},
Key = {fds247321}
}

@article{fds247327,
Author = {Müller, B and Schäfer, A},
Title = {Decoherence time in high energy heavy ion
collisions},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {73},
Number = {5},
Pages = {054905},
Year = {2006},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/0512100.pdf},
Abstract = {We calculate the decoherence time of the ground state wave
function of a nucleus in a high energy heavy ion collision.
We define this time as the decay time of the ratio
TrD2/TrD)2 of traces of the density matrix D. We find that
this time is smaller or equal to 1/Qs, where the saturation
scale Qs is defined within the color glass condensate model
of parton saturation. Our result supports the notion that
the extremely rapid entropy production deduced for the early
stage of heavy ion collisions at collider energies is to a
large extent caused by the decoherence of the initial-state
wave functions. © 2006 The American Physical
Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.73.054905},
Key = {fds247327}
}

@article{fds247328,
Author = {Ruppert, J and Renk, T and uuml, M and ller, B},
Title = {Mass and width of the rho meson in a nuclear medium from
Brown-Rho scaling},
Journal = {Phys. Rev. C},
Volume = {73},
Pages = {034907},
Year = {2006},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/0509134.pdf},
Abstract = {http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/0509134},
Key = {fds247328}
}

@article{fds247334,
Author = {Ruppert, J and Müller, B},
Title = {Waking the colored plasma},
Journal = {Physics Letters B},
Volume = {618},
Number = {1-4},
Pages = {123-130},
Year = {2005},
Month = {July},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/0503158.pdf},
Abstract = {We calculate the wake induced in a hot, dense QCD medium by
a fast parton in the framework of linear response theory. We
discuss two different scenarios: a weakly coupled
quark-gluon plasma (pQGP) described by hard-thermal loop
(HTL) perturbation theory and a strongly coupled QGP (sQGP),
Doi = {10.1016/j.physletb.2005.04.075},
Key = {fds247334}
}

@article{Muller:2004kk,
Author = {Müller, B},
Title = {Hadronic signals of deconfinement at RHIC},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {750},
Number = {1},
Pages = {84-97},
Year = {2005},
Month = {March},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/nucl-th/0404015},
deconfinement and chiral symmetry restoration in hot QCD
matter in the light of the results from the first three
years of the experimental program at the relativistic heavy
ion collider. © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights
reserved.},
Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2004.12.067},
Key = {Muller:2004kk}
}

@article{Muller:2004dd,
Author = {Müller, B.},
Title = {Heavy ions: Prospects at the LHC},
Journal = {Czech. J. Phys.},
Volume = {55},
Series = {Suppl. B},
Year = {2005},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/0410115},
Abstract = {http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/0410115},
Key = {Muller:2004dd}
}

@article{fds247192,
Author = {Müller, B and Tan, C-I},
Title = {International Journal of Modern Physics A:
Preface},
Journal = {International Journal of Modern Physics A},
Volume = {20},
Number = {19},
Pages = {vii},
Year = {2005},
Key = {fds247192}
}

@article{fds247253,
Author = {Nonaka, C and Fries, RJ and Müller, B and Bass, SA and Asakawa,
M},
Title = {Recombination plus fragmentation model at RHIC: Elliptic
flow},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {31},
Number = {4},
Pages = {S429-S435},
Year = {2005},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0954-3899/31/4/053},
Abstract = {We discuss hadron production in relativistic heavy-ion
collisions in the framework of the recombination and
fragmentation model. We propose elliptic flow as a useful
tool for exploring final interactions of resonances, the
hadron structure of exotic particles and the phase structure
of the reaction. © 2005 IOP Publishing Ltd.},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/31/4/053},
Key = {fds247253}
}

@article{fds247254,
Author = {Nonaka, C and Fries, RJ and Müller, B and Bass, SA and Asakawa,
M},
Title = {Hadronization at RHIC: Interplay of recombination and
fragmentation},
Journal = {Acta Physica Hungarica A) Heavy Ion Physics},
Volume = {24},
Number = {1-4},
Pages = {227-233},
Year = {2005},
ISSN = {1219-7580},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/APH.24.2005.1-4.31},
Abstract = {We discuss the hadron production in heavy ion collisions by
the recombination and fragmentation model. We propose the
elliptic flow as the useful tool for exploring final
interactions for resonances, hadron structure for exotic
Budapest.},
Doi = {10.1556/APH.24.2005.1-4.31},
Key = {fds247254}
}

@article{fds247255,
Author = {Nonaka, C and Müller, B and Bass, SA and Asakawa,
M},
Title = {Possible resolutions of the D-puzzle},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {71},
Number = {5},
Year = {2005},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.71.051901},
Abstract = {We explore possible ways of explaining the net charge
event-by-event fluctuations in Au+Au collisions observed in
experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider within a
quark recombination model. We estimate the number of quarks
at recombination and their implications for the predicted
net charge fluctuations. We also discuss the consequences of
diquark and quark-antiquark clustering above the
deconfinement temperature. © 2005 The American Physical
Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.71.051901},
Key = {fds247255}
}

@article{fds247322,
Author = {Matinyan, SG and M, B and uuml, and ller},
Title = {Adventures of the coupled Yang-Mills oscillators: II.
YM-Higgs quantum mechanics},
Journal = {J. Phys. A},
Volume = {39},
Number = {1},
Pages = {45-59},
Year = {2005},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0506239},
Abstract = {http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0506239},
Doi = {10.1088/0305-4470/39/1/005},
Key = {fds247322}
}

@article{fds247323,
Author = {Matinyan, SG and M, B and uuml, and ller},
Title = {Adventures of the coupled Yang-Mills oscillators: I.
semiclassical expansion},
Journal = {J. Phys. A},
Volume = {39},
Number = {1},
Pages = {61-72},
Year = {2005},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0506214},
Abstract = {http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0506214},
Doi = {10.1088/0305-4470/39/1/004},
Key = {fds247323}
}

@article{fds247329,
Author = {Fries, RJ and Müller, B and Srivastava, DK},
Title = {Centrality dependence of direct photons in Au + Au
collisions at sNN=200 GeV},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {72},
Number = {4},
Pages = {041902(R)},
Year = {2005},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/nucl-th/0507018.pdf},
Abstract = {We calculate the spectra of high-energy photons emitted in
relativistic Au + Au collisions for various centralities and
compare to data recently collected at the Relativistic Heavy
Ion Collider by the PHENIX Collaboration. Our results for
photons from primary hard scatterings and photons from
interactions of jets with the medium are consistent with the
measurements of neutral pion and direct photon production in
p+p collisions and give a good description of direct photon
spectra measured in Au + Au collisions. The contribution of
photons from jet-to-photon conversion in the medium can be
as large as the photon yield from hard scatterings in the
momentum range pT≈2-6 GeV/c. We show that this novel
mechanism is not ruled out by any existing data. © 2005 The
American Physical Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.72.041902},
Key = {fds247329}
}

@article{fds247330,
Author = {Müller, B and Rajagopal, K},
Title = {From entropy and jet quenching to deconfinement?},
Journal = {European Physical Journal C},
Volume = {43},
Number = {1-4},
Pages = {15-21},
Year = {2005},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/0502174.pdf},
Abstract = {The challenge of demonstrating that the matter produced in
heavy ion collisions is a deconfined quark-gluon plasma as
predicted by lattice QCD calculations is the challenge of
measuring the number of thermodynamic degrees of freedom
$\nu\sim\varepsilon/T∧4$ at the time t 0 at which the
matter comes into approximate local thermal equilibrium and
begins to behave like a hydrodynamic fluid. Data from
experiments done at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider have
been used to estimate t 0 and to put a lower bound on the
energy density $\varepsilon(t_0)$ . However measuring $\nu$
has seemed out of reach because no current data serve even
as qualitative proxies for the temperature T(t 0). We point
out that $\nu$ may equally appropriately be defined via
$\nu\sim s∧4/\varepsilon∧3$ where s is the entropy
density which can be estimated from the measured final state
entropy. This estimate is based on the testable assumption
of an isentropic expansion. The observation of jet quenching
has the potential to provide an upper bound on the energy
density at early times. Our goal is to motivate such an
analysis by pointing out that it would set a lower bound on
$\nu$. © Springer-Verlag 2005.},
Doi = {10.1140/epjc/s2005-02256-3},
Key = {fds247330}
}

@article{fds247331,
Author = {Müller, B and Fries, RJ and Bass, SA},
Title = {Thermal recombination: Beyond the valence quark
approximation},
Journal = {Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and
High-Energy Physics},
Volume = {618},
Number = {1-4},
Pages = {77-83},
Year = {2005},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/nucl-th/0503003.pdf},
Abstract = {Quark counting rules derived from recombination models agree
well with data on hadron production at intermediate
transverse momenta in relativistic heavy-ion collisions.
They convey a simple picture of hadrons consisting only of
valence quarks. We discuss the inclusion of higher Fock
structure. We show that, when recombination occurs from a
thermal medium, hadron spectra remain unaffected by the
inclusion of higher Fock states. However, the quark number
scaling for elliptic flow is somewhat affected. We discuss
the implications for our understanding of data from the
Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All
rights reserved.},
Doi = {10.1016/j.physletb.2005.05.025},
Key = {fds247331}
}

@article{fds247333,
Author = {Nonaka, C and uuml, M and ller, B and Bass, SA and Asakawa,
M},
Title = {Possible resolution of the D-paradox},
Journal = {Phys. Rev. C},
Volume = {71},
Pages = {051901},
Year = {2005},
Key = {fds247333}
}

@article{Fries:2004hd,
Author = {Fries, RJ and Bass, SA and Müller, B},
Title = {Correlated emission of hadrons from recombination of
correlated partons},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {94},
Number = {12},
Pages = {122301},
Year = {2005},
ISSN = {0031-9007},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/nucl-th/0407102},
Abstract = {We discuss different sources of hadron correlations in
relativistic heavy ion collisions. We show that correlations
among partons in a quasithermal medium can lead to the
correlated emission of hadrons by quark recombination and
argue that this mechanism offers a plausible explanation for
the dihadron correlations in the few GeV/c momentum range
observed in Au + Au collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy
Ion Collider. © 2005 The American Physical
Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.94.122301},
Key = {Fries:2004hd}
}

@article{Bass:2004de,
Author = {Bass, SA and Müller, B and Srivastava, DK},
Title = {Photon interferometry of Au+Au collisions at the BNL
Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider.},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {93},
Number = {16},
Pages = {162301},
Year = {2004},
Month = {October},
ISSN = {0031-9007},
url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15524982},
Abstract = {We calculate the two-body correlation function of direct
photons produced in central Au+Au collisions at the
Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider. Our calculation includes
contributions from the early preequilibrium phase in which
photons are produced via hard parton scatterings as well as
radiation of photons from a thermalized quark-gluon plasma
and the subsequent expanding hadron gas. We find that high
energy photon interferometry provides a faithful probe of
the details of the space-time evolution and of the early
reaction stages of the system.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.93.162301},
Key = {Bass:2004de}
}

@article{Fries:2003fr,
Author = {Fries, RJ and Mueller, B},
Title = {Heavy ions at LHC: Theoretical issues},
Journal = {The European Physical Journal C},
Volume = {34},
Pages = {S279-S285},
Year = {2004},
Month = {July},
ISSN = {1434-6044},
Abstract = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0307043},
Doi = {10.1140/epjcd/s2004-04-026-6},
Key = {Fries:2003fr}
}

@article{fds247231,
Author = {Müller, B},
Title = {Musings about the Few-Body Problem},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {737},
Number = {SUPPL.},
Pages = {3-6},
Year = {2004},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2004.03.216},
Abstract = {I review some anecdotal history of the few-body problem in
physics, survey the present scope of the field, and mention
some unsolved problems as possible future challenges. ©
Doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2004.03.216},
Key = {fds247231}
}

@article{fds247248,
Author = {Bass, SA and Müller, B and Stephans, GSF and Ullrich,
T},
Title = {Preface: The 7th International Conference on Strangeness in
Quark Matter},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {30},
Number = {1},
Pages = {i-ii},
Year = {2004},
Key = {fds247248}
}

@article{fds247250,
Author = {Fries, RJ and Müller, B and Nonaka, C and Bass, SA},
Title = {Hadronization in heavy-ion collisions: Recombination or
fragmentation?},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {30},
Number = {1},
Pages = {S223-S228},
Year = {2004},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0954-3899/30/1/025},
Abstract = {We show that hadron production in relativistic heavy-ion
collisions at transverse momenta larger than 2 GeV/c can be
explained by the competition of two different hadronization
mechanisms. Above 5 GeV/c hadron production can be described
by fragmentation of partons that are created perturbatively.
Below 5 GeV/c recombination of partons from the dense and
hot fireball dominates. This can explain some of the
surprising features of RHIC data such as the constant
baryon-to-meson ratio of about one and the small nuclear
suppression for baryons between 2 to 4 GeV/c.},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/30/1/025},
Key = {fds247250}
}

@article{Müller:2004ce,
Author = {uuml, M and ller, B and Srivastava, DK},
Title = {How relativistic heavy ion collisions can help
us},
Journal = {Physics News (Indian Physics Association)},
Volume = {35},
Number = {2-4},
Pages = {3-10},
Year = {2004},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/nucl-th/0407010},
Abstract = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0407010},
Key = {Müller:2004ce}
}

@article{Nonaka:2003ew,
Author = {Nonaka, C and uuml, M and ller, B and Asakawa, M and Bass,
SA},
Title = {Elliptic flow of resonances at RHIC: Probing final
state},
Journal = {Phys. Rev. C},
Volume = {69},
Number = {3},
Pages = {031902},
Year = {2004},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/nucl-th/0312081},
Abstract = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0312081},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.69.031902},
Key = {Nonaka:2003ew}
}

@article{Biro:2004na,
Author = {Biró, TS and Purcsel, G and Müller, B},
Title = {What is the temperature in heavy ion collisions?},
Journal = {Acta Physica Hungarica, Series A: Heavy Ion
Physics},
Volume = {21},
Number = {1},
Pages = {85-94},
Year = {2004},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/0404115},
Abstract = {We consider the Tsallis distribution as a source of the
apparent slope of one-particle spectra in heavy-ion
collisions and investigate the equation of state of this
special kind of quark matter in the framework of
non-extensive thermodynamics. We relate the energy per
particle to the power-law tail of spectra at a given
temperature.},
Doi = {10.1556/APH.21.2004.1.9},
Key = {Biro:2004na}
}

@article{Bass:2004vh,
Author = {Bass, SA and Müller, B and Srivastava, DK},
Title = {RHIC physics with the parton cascade model},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {30},
Number = {8},
Pages = {S1283-S1286},
Year = {2004},
ISSN = {1219-7580},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/nucl-th/0403033},
Abstract = {We present an analysis of the net baryon number rapidity
distribution and of direct photon emission in the framework
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/30/8/109},
Key = {Bass:2004vh}
}

@article{Biro:2003vz,
Author = {Biró, TS and Müller, B},
Title = {Almost exponential transverse spectra from power law
spectra},
Journal = {Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and
High-Energy Physics},
Volume = {578},
Number = {1-2},
Pages = {78-84},
Year = {2004},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/0309052},
Abstract = {We point out that exponential shape of transverse spectra
can be obtained as the Fourier transform of the limiting
distribution of randomly positioned partons with power law
spectra given by pQCD, which actually realize Tsallis
distributions. Such spectra were used to obtain hadron
yields by recombination in relativistic heavy-ion collisions
at RHIC energies. © 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights
reserved.},
Doi = {10.1016/j.physletb.2003.10.052},
Key = {Biro:2003vz}
}

@article{fds304598,
Author = {Nonaka, C and Müller, B and Asakawa, M and Bass, SA and Fries,
RJ},
Title = {Elliptic flow of resonances in relativistic heavy ion
collisions: Probing final state interactions and the
structure of resonances},
Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
Volume = {69},
Number = {3},
Pages = {031902-031901},
Year = {2004},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.69.031902},
Abstract = {We propose the measurement of the elliptic flow of hadron
resonances at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider as a tool
to probe the amount of hadronic final state interactions for
resonances at intermediate and large transverse momenta.
This can be achieved by looking at systematic deviations of
the measured flow coefficient ν2 from the scaling law given
by the quark recombination formalism. Our method can be
generalized to explore the structure of exotic particles,
such as the recently found pentaquark Θ+(1540).},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.69.031902},
Key = {fds304598}
}

@article{Bass:2003mk,
Author = {Bass, SA and M ller, B and Srivastava, DK},
Title = {Transverse momentum distribution of net baryon number at
RHIC},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {29},
Number = {10},
Pages = {L51-L58},
Year = {2003},
Month = {October},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/nucl-th/0307027},
Abstract = {We calculate the transverse momentum distribution of net
quarks (quarks minus antiquarks) in Au+Au collisions at the
Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider in the framework of the
parton cascade model at two different rapidities. Parton
re-scattering and fragmentation are seen to lead to a
substantial difference in the slopes of these distributions
between mid- and forward-rapidities, in qualitative
agreement with the corresponding data for the net baryon
distribution.},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/29/10/101},
Key = {Bass:2003mk}
}

@article{Asakawa:2002vj,
Author = {Asakawa, M and Minakata, H and Müller, B},
Title = {Negative elliptic flow from anomaly induced DCC
formation},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {721},
Pages = {C305-C308},
Year = {2003},
Month = {June},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/nucl-th/0212070},
Abstract = {We discuss characteristic experimental signatures related to
the mechanism of DCC formation triggered by the chiral U(l)
anomaly in relativistic heavy ion collisions. We predict an
enhancement of the fraction of neutral pions compared with
all pions in the direction perpendicular to the scattering
plane. To quantify the effect on the angular distribution of
neutral pions, we compute the elliptic flow parameter u2 as
a function of the transverse momentum. We find values of
order -0.05 at small momenta for neutral pions. We also
compute the v2 parameter for inclusive photons, which is
easier to measure, and confirmed that the negative a few
percent effect prevails in this observable.},
Doi = {10.1016/S0375-9474(03)01056-X},
Key = {Asakawa:2002vj}
}

@article{Fries:2003vb,
Author = {Fries, RJ and Müller, B and Nonaka, C and Bass, SA},
Title = {Hadronization in heavy-ion collisions: recombination and
fragmentation of partons.},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {90},
Number = {20},
Pages = {202303},
Year = {2003},
Month = {May},
ISSN = {0031-9007},
url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12785886},
Abstract = {We argue that the emission of hadrons with transverse
momentum up to about 5 GeV/c in central relativistic heavy
ion collisions is dominated by recombination, rather than
fragmentation of partons. This mechanism provides a natural
explanation for the observed constant baryon-to-meson ratio
of about one and the apparent lack of a nuclear suppression
of the baryon yield in this momentum range. Fragmentation
becomes dominant at higher transverse momentum, but the
transition point is delayed by the energy loss of fast
partons in dense matter.},
Doi = {10.1103/physrevlett.90.202303},
Key = {Fries:2003vb}
}

@article{fds247607,
Author = {Müller, B},
Title = {Parton Cascades in High-Energy Nuclear Collisions},
Journal = {International Journal of Modern Physics E},
Volume = {12},
Number = {02},
Pages = {165-176},
Year = {2003},
Month = {April},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0218301303001247},
Abstract = {This is a review of the parton cascade model (PCM) which
provides a QCD-based description of nucleus-nucleus
reactions at very high energy. The PCM describes the
collision dynamics within the early and dense phase of the
reaction in terms of the relativistic, probabilistic
transport of perturbative excitations (partons) of the QCD
vacuum, combined with the renormalization group flow of the
parton virtuality. The current state of numerical
implementations of the model, as well as its predictions for
nuclear collisions at RHIC and LHC are discussed.},
Doi = {10.1142/S0218301303001247},
Key = {fds247607}
}

@article{Bass:2002pm,
Author = {Bass, SA and Müller, B and Srivastava, DK},
Title = {Light from cascading partons in relativistic heavy-ion
collisions.},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {90},
Number = {8},
Pages = {082301},
Year = {2003},
Month = {February},
ISSN = {0031-9007},
url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12633418},
Abstract = {We calculate the production of high energy photons from
Compton and annihilation processes as well as fragmentation
off quarks in the parton cascade model. The multiple
scattering of partons is seen to lead to a substantial
production of high energy photons, which rises further when
parton multiplication due to final state radiation is
included. The photon yield is found to be directly
proportional to the number of hard collisions and thus
provides valuable information on the preequilibrium reaction
dynamics.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.90.082301},
Key = {Bass:2002pm}
}

@article{Muller:2003dn,
Author = {Müller, B.},
Title = {Parton cascades in high-energy nuclear collisions},
Journal = {Int. J. Mod. Phys. E},
Volume = {12},
Pages = {165-176},
Year = {2003},
Key = {Muller:2003dn}
}

@article{fds28625,
Author = {T.S. Biro and B. Müller and S.G. Matinyan},
Title = {Beyond quantum field theory: Chaotic lattices?},
Year = {2003},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-lat/0305023.pdf},
Abstract = {http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-lat/0305023},
Key = {fds28625}
}

@article{fds4367,
Author = {Bass, S. A. and Müller, B. and Srivastava, D.
K.},
Title = {Semihard scattering of partons at SPS and RHIC: A study in
contrast},
Journal = {Phys. Rev. C},
Volume = {66},
Pages = {061902(R)},
Year = {2003},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/nucl-th/0210042.pdf},
Abstract = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0210042},
Key = {fds4367}
}

@article{fds28626,
Author = {T.S. Biro and S.G. Matinyan and B. Müller},
Title = {Chaotic quantization: Maybe the Lord plays dice, after
all?},
Volume = {633},
Series = {Lecture Notes in Physics},
Pages = {164-179},
Booktitle = {Decoherence and Entropy in Complex Systems},
Publisher = {Springer-Verlag},
Editor = {H.T. Elze},
Year = {2003},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/0301131.pdf},
Abstract = {http://erxiv.org/abs/hep-th/0301131},
Key = {fds28626}
}

@article{fds247246,
Author = {Bass, SA and Müller, B and Srivastava, DK},
Title = {Parton rescattering and colour screening in Au+Au collisions
at RHIC},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {715},
Pages = {813c-816c},
Year = {2003},
ISSN = {0375-9474},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0375-9474(02)01501-4},
Abstract = {We study the microscopic dynamics of quarks and gluons in
relativistic heavy ion collisions in the framework of the
Parton Cascade Model. We use lowest order perturbative QCD
cross sections with fixed lower momentum cutoff p Tmin. We
calculate the time evolution of the Debye-screening mass μD
for Au+Au collisions at √s = 200 GeV per nucleon pair. We
also determine the energy density reached through hard and
semi-hard processes at RHIC and analyze the extent of
perturbative rescattering among partons. © 2003 Elsevier
Doi = {10.1016/S0375-9474(02)01501-4},
Key = {fds247246}
}

@article{Bass:2002fh,
Author = {Bass, SA and Müller, B and Srivastava, DK},
Title = {Parton rescattering and screening in Au + Au collisions at
RHIC},
Journal = {Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and
High-Energy Physics},
Volume = {551},
Number = {3-4},
Pages = {277-283},
Year = {2003},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/nucl-th/0207042},
Abstract = {We study the microscopic dynamics of quarks and gluons in
relativistic heavy ion collisions in the framework of the
Parton Cascade Model. We use lowest order perturbative QCD
cross sections with fixed lower momentum cutoff PTmin. We
calculate the time-evolution of the Debye-screening mass μD
for Au + Au collisions at √s = 200 GeV per nucleon pair.
The screening mass is used to determine a lower limit for
the allowed range of PTmin. We also determine the energy
density reached through hard and semi-hard processes at
RHIC, obtain a lower bound for the rapidity density of
charged hadrons produced by semi-hard interactions, and
analyze the extent of perturbative rescattering among
partons. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights
reserved.},
Doi = {10.1016/S0370-2693(02)03068-X},
Key = {Bass:2002fh}
}

@article{Fries:2002kt,
Author = {Fries, RJ and Müller, B and Srivastava, DK},
Title = {High-energy photons from passage of jets through quark-gluon
plasma},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {90},
Number = {13},
Pages = {132301/1-132301/4},
Year = {2003},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/nucl-th/0208001},
Abstract = {A novel mechanism for the production of high-energy photons
in relativistic heavy ion collisions is presented.
Calculations indicate that this mechanism is the leading
source of directly produced photons at RHIC in the region
p⊥≤6 GeV/c.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.90.132301},
Key = {Fries:2002kt}
}

@article{Bass:2002vm,
Author = {Bass, SA and Müller, B and Srivastava, DK},
Title = {Net baryon density in Au + Au collisions at the relativistic
heavy ion collider},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {91},
Number = {5},
Pages = {523021-523024},
Year = {2003},
ISSN = {0031-9007},
url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12906590},
Abstract = {The net-baryon multiplicity density distributions in Au + Au
collisions were calculated at 130 and 200 GeV center-of-mass
energy per nucleon pair. The parton cascade model predicted
a net-baryon excess at midrapidity in Au + Au collisions,
which was in agreement with measured values. The transport
of partons to midrapidity, caused by rescattering among
partons, was found to increase the net-baryon number
density.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.91.052302},
Key = {Bass:2002vm}
}

@article{Fries:2003kq,
Author = {Fries, RJ and Müller, B and Nonaka, C and Bass, SA},
Title = {Hadron production in heavy ion collisions: Fragmentation and
recombination from a dense parton phase},
Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
Volume = {68},
Number = {4},
Pages = {449021-4490223},
Year = {2003},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
Abstract = {We discuss hadron production in heavy ion collisions at the
Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). We argue that
hadrons at transverse momenta P T&lt;5 GeV are formed by
recombination of partons from the dense parton phase created
in central collisions at RHIC. We provide a theoretical
description of the recombination process for PT&gt;2 GeV.
Below PT=2 GeV our results smoothly match a purely
statistical description. At high transverse momentum hadron
production is well described in the language of perturbative
QCD by the fragmentation of partons. We give numerical
results for a variety of hadron spectra, ratios, and nuclear
suppression factors. We also discuss the anisotropic flow v2
and give results based on a flow in the parton phase. Our
results are consistent with the existence of a parton phase
at RHIC hadronizing at a temperature of 175 MeV and a radial
flow velocity of 0.55c.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.68.044902},
Key = {Fries:2003kq}
}

@article{Muller:2002fa,
Author = {uuml, M and ller, B},
Title = {Phenomenology of jet quenching in heavy ion
collisions},
Journal = {Phys. Rev. C},
Volume = {67},
Number = {6},
Pages = {061901},
Year = {2003},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/nucl-th/0208038},
Abstract = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0208038},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.67.061901},
Key = {Muller:2002fa}
}

@article{Shin:2003yk,
Author = {Shin, GR and Müller, B},
Title = {Studies of parton thermalization at RHIC},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {29},
Number = {11},
Pages = {2485-2495},
Year = {2003},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/nucl-th/0307084},
Abstract = {We consider the evolution of a parton system which is formed
in the central region just after a relativistic heavy ion
collision. The parton consists of mostly gluons, minijets,
which are produced by elastic scattering between constituent
partons of the colliding nuclei. We assume that the system
can be described by a semi-classical Boltzmann transport
equation, which we solve by means of the test particle Monte
Carlo method including retardation. The partons proliferate
via secondary radiative gg → ggg processes until the
thermalization is reached for some assumptions. The extended
system is thermalized at about t = 1.6 fm c-1 with T = 570
MeV and remains in kinetic equilibrium for about 2 fm c-1
with breaking temperature T = 360 MeV in the rapidity
central region.},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/29/11/004},
Key = {Shin:2003yk}
}

@article{fds304594,
Author = {Müller, B},
Title = {Phenomenology of jet quenching in heavy ion
collisions},
Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
Volume = {67},
Number = {6},
Pages = {619011-619015},
Year = {2003},
Abstract = {We derive an analytical expression for the quenching factor
in the strong quenching limit where the pT spectrum of hard
partons is dominated by surface emission. We explore the
phenomenological consequences of different scaling laws for
the energy loss and calculate the additional suppression of
the away-side jet.},
Key = {fds304594}
}

@article{Bass:2002gb,
Author = {S A Bass and BM and uuml, and ller, DKS},
Title = {Semihard scattering of partons at SPS and RHIC: A Study in
contrast.},
Journal = {Phys. Rev. C, Rapid Communication},
Volume = {66},
Pages = {061902(R)},
Year = {2002},
Month = {December},
url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0210042},
Abstract = {We analyze the contribution of pQCD based semi-hard parton
(re)scattering to the reaction dynamics of relativistic
heavy-ion collisions at SPS and RHIC. While such processes
are able to account for the measured yield of high momentum
direct photons at SPS energies, the conditions necessary for
jet-quenching are not fulfilled. The situation changes
dramatically at RHIC energies.},
Key = {Bass:2002gb}
}

@article{Shin:2002fg,
Author = {Shin, GR and M ller, B},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {28},
Number = {10},
Pages = {2643-2655},
Year = {2002},
Month = {October},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/nucl-th/0207041},
Abstract = {We consider the evolution of a parton system which is formed
at the central rapidity region just after an
ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collision. The evolution of the
system, which is composed of gluons, quarks and antiquarks,
is described by relativistic Boltzmann equations with
collision terms including radiation and retardation effects.
The equations are solved by the test particle method using
Monte Carlo sampling. Our simulations do not show any
evidence of kinetic equilibration, unless the cross sections
are artificially increased to unrealistically large
values.},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/28/10/309},
Key = {Shin:2002fg}
}

@article{Muller:2001wj,
Author = {Müller, B},
Title = {Statistical fluctuations as probes of dense
matter},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {702},
Number = {1-4},
Pages = {281-290},
Year = {2002},
Month = {May},
ISSN = {0375-9474},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/nucl-th/0111008},
Abstract = {The use of statistical fluctuations as probes of the
microscopic dynamics of hot and dense hadronic matter is
reviewed. Critical fluctuations near the critical point of
QCD matter are predicted to enhance fluctuations in pionic
observables. Chemical fluctuations, especially those of
locally conserved quantum numbers, such as electric charge
and baryon number, can probe the nature of the carriers of
these quantum numbers in the dense medium.},
Doi = {10.1016/S0375-9474(02)00715-7},
Key = {Muller:2001wj}
}

@article{fds3051,
Author = {Müller, B.},
Title = {The anthropic principle revisited},
Booktitle = {From integrable models to gauge theories},
Publisher = {World Scientific (Singapore)},
Editor = {Gürzadyan, V.G. et al.},
Year = {2002},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0108259.pdf},
Abstract = {The usage of the anthropic principle in modern cosmology is
reviewed. It is argued that its recent use to explain the
observedvalues of cosmological parameters as most probable
values for an ensemble of universes, is not justified.
However, the anthropic principle can be invoked to argue
that a vast number of universes must exist, in which the
cosmological parameters and constants of nature take on
different values. This argument lends support to the
hypothesis of eternal inflation and suggests that at least
some of the parameters of the Standard Model cannot be
quantitatively derived from an underlying
theory.},
Key = {fds3051}
}

@article{Asakawa:2000dr,
Author = {Asakawa, M and Minakata, H and uuml, M and ller, B},
Title = {Experimental signatures of anomaly induced DCC
formation},
Journal = {Phys. Rev. C},
Volume = {65},
Number = {5},
Pages = {057901},
Year = {2002},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/nucl-th/0011031},
Abstract = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0011031},
Key = {Asakawa:2000dr}
}

@article{Asakawa:2001mn,
Author = {Asakawa, M and Heinz, U and Müller, B},
Title = {Fluctuation probes of quark deconfinement},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {698},
Number = {1-4},
Pages = {519c-522c},
Year = {2002},
ISSN = {0375-9474},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/nucl-th/0106046},
Abstract = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0106046},
Key = {Asakawa:2001mn}
}

@article{fds287695,
Author = {Bass, SA and Müller, B and Srivastava, DK},
Title = {Semihard scattering of partons at √s=17 vs 200 GeV: A
study in contrast},
Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
Volume = {66},
Number = {6},
Pages = {619021-619024},
Year = {2002},
Abstract = {We analyze the contribution of perturbative QCD based
semihard parton (re)scattering to the reaction dynamics of
relativistic heavy-ion collisions at SPS and RHIC. While
such processes are able to account for the measured yield of
high-momentum direct photons at SPS energies, the conditions
necessary for jet quenching are not fulfilled. The situation
changes dramatically at RHIC energies.},
Key = {fds287695}
}

@article{fds304593,
Author = {Asakawa, M and Minakata, H and Müller, B},
Title = {Experimental signatures of anomaly induced disoriented
chiral condensate formation},
Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
Volume = {65},
Number = {5},
Pages = {579011-579013},
Year = {2002},
Abstract = {We discuss characteristic experimental signatures related to
the formation of domains of disoriented chiral condensate
triggered by the axial anomaly in relativistic heavy-ion
collisions. We predict that the enhancement of the fraction
of neutral pions compared to all pions depends on the angle
of emission with respect to the scattering plane and is
concentrated at small transverse momentum and small rapidity
in the center-of-mass frame. The anisotropy with respect to
the reaction plane is also observable in the inclusive
photon distribution.},
Key = {fds304593}
}

@article{Biro:2001dh,
Author = {Biró, TS and Matinyan, SG and Müller, B},
Title = {Chaotic quantization of classical gauge fields},
Journal = {Foundations of Physics Letters},
Volume = {14},
Number = {5},
Pages = {471-485},
Year = {2001},
Month = {October},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/0105279},
Abstract = {We argue that the quantized non-Abelian gauge theory can be
obtained as the infrared limit of the corresponding
classical gauge theory in a higher dimension. We show how
the transformation from classical to quantum field theory
emerges, and calculate Planck's constant from quantities
defined in the underlying classical gauge
theory.},
Doi = {10.1023/A:1015565621215},
Key = {Biro:2001dh}
}

@article{Asakawa:2000wh,
Author = {Asakawa, M and Heinz, U and Müller, B},
Title = {Fluctuation Probes of Quark Deconfinement},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {85},
Number = {10},
Pages = {2072-2075},
Year = {2000},
Month = {September},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/0003169},
Abstract = {A different type of fluctuations in the multiplicities and
momentum distributions of particles emitted in relativistic
heavy-ion collisions is considered. These fluctuations are
sensitive to the microscopic structure of the dense matter.
The fluctuations of locally observed quantities that show a
distinctly different behavior in a hadron gas (HG) and a
quark-gluon plasma (QGP) was considered since the expansion
is too fast for local fluctuations to follow the mean
thermodynamic evolution of the system.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.85.2072},
Key = {Asakawa:2000wh}
}

@article{fds324422,
Author = {Pisarski, RD and Kapusta, JI and Mueller, B},
Title = {Klaus Kinder-Geiger - Obituary},
Journal = {Physics today},
Volume = {53},
Number = {4},
Pages = {88-88},
Year = {2000},
Month = {April},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.883060},
Doi = {10.1063/1.883060},
Key = {fds324422}
}

@article{Fries:2000da,
Author = {Fries, RJ and Schäfer, A and Stein, E and Müller,
B},
Title = {Nuclear enhanced higher-twist effects in the Drell-Yan
process},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics B},
Volume = {582},
Number = {1-3},
Pages = {537-570},
Year = {2000},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/0002074},
Abstract = {We calculate the Drell-Yan cross section, resolving the full
kinematics of the lepton pair, at high transverse momentum
for hadron nucleus collisions. We use the general framework
of Luo, Qiu and Sterman to calculate double scattering
contributions that are of twist-4 and demonstrate their
nuclear enhancement. By comparing single and double
scattering at RHIC energies we find that double scattering
gives contributions of comparable size. We also show that
the angular dependence of the Drell-Yan pair discriminates
between the various double scattering contributions. © 2000
Elsevier Science B.V.},
Key = {Fries:2000da}
}

@article{Bolte:1999th,
Author = {Bolte, JM and uuml, and ller, B and Sch, and auml, and fer,
A},
Title = {Ergodic properties of classical SU(2) lattice gauge
theory},
Journal = {Phys. Rev. D},
Volume = {61},
Number = {5},
Pages = {054506},
Year = {2000},
ISSN = {0556-2821},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-lat/9906037},
Abstract = {http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-lat/9906037},
Key = {Bolte:1999th}
}

@article{Poschl:2000ip,
Author = {Pöschl, W and Müller, B},
Title = {Collision of SU(2) gauge fields in 3+1 dimensions},
Journal = {Computer Physics Communications},
Volume = {125},
Number = {1},
Pages = {282-315},
Year = {2000},
url = {http://www.elsevier.com/IVP/00104655/125/282},
Abstract = {The Yang-Mills equations provide a classical mean field
description of the non-Abelian soft glue field dynamics in
heavy ion collisions at high energies. A C++ code for the
numerical solution on a three-dimensional gauge lattice is
presented. Non-perturbative time-dependent solutions in
position space are calculated in the weak coupling regime of
a gauge lattice within the Hamiltonian approach of Kogut and
Susskind. Applications are demonstrated by simulations of
the Yang-Mills field dynamics in collisions of initially
uniformly color polarized Gaussian wave packets. The
collisions are evolved in time. The time dependent energy
densities, energy flows and energy currents in longitudinal
and transverse directions with respect to the collision axis
are presented. Simulations of this type have recently
revealed an interesting solution which exhibits a
time-delayed sudden increase of the transverse energy
currents in the non-Abelian case' at short times after the
collision.},
Doi = {10.1016/S0010-4655(99)00484-1},
Key = {Poschl:2000ip}
}

@article{fds304591,
Author = {Bolte, J and Müller, B and Schäfer, A},
Title = {Ergodic properties of classical SU(2) lattice gauge
theory},
Journal = {Physical Review D},
Volume = {61},
Number = {5},
Pages = {DUMMY35},
Year = {2000},
ISSN = {0556-2821},
Abstract = {We investigate the relationship between the Lyapunov
exponents of periodic trajectories, the average and
fluctuations of Lyapunov exponents of ergodic trajectories,
and the ergodic autocorrelation time for the twodimensional
hyperbola billiard. We then study the fluctuation properties
of the ergodic Lyapunov spectrum of classical SU(2) gauge
theory on a lattice. Our results are consistent with the
notion that this system is globally hyperbolic. Among the
many powerful theorems applicable to such systems, we
discuss one relating to the fluctuations in the entropy
growth rate. ©2000 The American Physical
Society.},
Key = {fds304591}
}

@article{fds304592,
Author = {Bolte, J and Müller, B and Schäfer, A},
Title = {Ergodic properties of classical SU(2) lattice gauge
theory},
Journal = {Physical Review D},
Volume = {61},
Number = {5},
Pages = {1-7},
Year = {2000},
ISSN = {0556-2821},
Abstract = {We investigate the relationship between the Lyapunov
exponents of periodic trajectories, the average and
fluctuations of Lyapunov exponents of ergodic trajectories,
and the ergodic autocorrelation time for the two-dimensional
hyperbola billiard. We then study the fluctuation properties
of the ergodic Lyapunov spectrum of classical SU(2) gauge
theory on a lattice. Our results are consistent with the
notion that this system is globally hyperbolic. Among the
many powerful theorems applicable to such systems, we
discuss one relating to the fluctuations in the entropy
growth rate. ©2000 The American Physical
Society.},
Key = {fds304592}
}

@article{fds247226,
Author = {Müller, B},
Title = {Quart matter '99 — theoretical summary: What
next?},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {661},
Number = {1-4},
Pages = {272-281},
Year = {1999},
Month = {December},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0375-9474(99)85026-X},
Doi = {10.1016/S0375-9474(99)85026-X},
Key = {fds247226}
}

@article{Fries:1999jj,
Author = {Fries, RJ and Müller, B and Schäfer, A and Stein,
E},
Title = {Angular Dependence of the Nuclear Enhancement of Drell-Yan
Pairs},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {83},
Number = {21},
Pages = {4261-4264},
Year = {1999},
Month = {November},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/9907567},
Abstract = {We calculate the nuclear enhancement in the angular
distribution of Drell-Yan pairs produced in proton-nucleus
reactions. Nuclear effects are encoded in universal twist-4
parton correlation functions. We find that the Lam-Tung
relation for the angular coefficients of the lepton-pair
distribution holds for the double-hard, but not for the
soft-hard, contribution. We also predict that nuclear
enhancement effects at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider
energies can be large.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.83.4261},
Key = {Fries:1999jj}
}

@article{fds247224,
Author = {Rafelski, J and Müller, B},
Title = {Quarks unleashed at low energy},
Journal = {Physics World},
Volume = {12},
Number = {3},
Pages = {23-24},
Year = {1999},
ISSN = {0953-8585},
Key = {fds247224}
}

@article{Bass:1999bu,
Author = {Bass, SA and Müller, B},
Title = {K-factors in parton cascades at RHIC and
SPS},
Journal = {Physics Letters B},
Volume = {471},
Number = {2-3},
Pages = {108-112},
Year = {1999},
ISSN = {0370-2693},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/nucl-th/9908014},
Abstract = {Different treatments for the inclusion of higher-order
perturbative QCD corrections in parton based transport
models of relativistic heavy-ion collisions are studied and
their influence on experimental observables is investigated.
At RHIC, particle multiplicities may vary by more than 30%,
depending on the correction scheme. A detailed analysis of
the squared relative momentum transfers Q2 to be expected in
parton (re)scatterings at RHIC casts doubt on the
applicability of pQCD based transport approaches at the SPS
and rules out the application of higher-order correction
schemes based on a rescaling of Q2 in the running coupling
Elsevier Science B.V.},
Doi = {10.1016/S0370-2693(99)01364-7},
Key = {Bass:1999bu}
}

@article{Poschl:1998px,
Author = {ouml, P and schl, W and uuml, M and ller, B},
Title = {Real time dynamics of colliding gauge fields and the 'glue
burst'},
Journal = {Phys. Rev. D},
Volume = {60},
Number = {11},
Pages = {114505},
Year = {1999},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/nucl-th/9812066},
Abstract = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/9812066},
Key = {Poschl:1998px}
}

@article{Bass:1998nz,
Author = {Bass, SA and Müller, B and Pöschl, W},
Title = {Lattice gauge description of colliding nuclei},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {25},
Number = {11},
Pages = {L109-L115},
Year = {1999},
ISSN = {0954-3899},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/nucl-th/9808011},
Abstract = {We propose a novel formalism for simultaneously describing
both the hard and soft parton dynamics in ultrarelativistic
collisions of nuclei. The emission of gluons from the
initially coherent parton configurations of the colliding
nuclei and low-p1 colour coherence effects are treated in
the framework of a Yang-Mills transport equation on a
coupled lattice-particle system. A collision term is added
to the transport equation to account for the remaining
intermediate and high-p1 interactions in an infrared finite
manner.},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/25/11/101},
Key = {Bass:1998nz}
}

@article{fds304590,
Author = {Pöschl, W and Müller, B},
Title = {Real time dynamics of colliding gauge fields and the "glue
burst"},
Journal = {Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and
Cosmology},
Volume = {60},
Number = {11},
Pages = {1-16},
Year = {1999},
Abstract = {The Yang-Mills equations provide a classical mean field
description of gauge fields. In view of developing a
coherent description of the formation of the quark gluon
plasma in high energetic nucleus-nucleus collisions we study
pure gauge field dynamics in 3 + 1 dimensions. In collisions
of wave packets, numerically simulated on a SU(2) gauge
lattice, we study transverse and longitudinal energy
currents. For wave packets with different polarizations in
color space, we observe a time-delayed fragmentation after
the collision resulting in a rapid expansion into transverse
directions. We call this phenomenon the "glue burst." An
analysis of the Yang-Mills equations reveals the explanation
for this behavior. It is pointed out that this effect could
play a role in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions.
Key = {fds304590}
}

@article{Matinyan:1998cb,
Author = {Matinyan, SG and Müller, B},
Title = {Model of charmonium absorption by light mesons},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {58},
Number = {5},
Pages = {2994-2997},
Year = {1998},
Month = {November},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/nucl-th/9806027},
Abstract = {We calculate the cross sections for dissociation of J/ψ by
pions and ρ mesons within the framework of a meson exchange
model. We find that these cross sections are small at
center-of-mass energies less than 1 GeV above threshold, and
that dissociation rates are less than 0.01 fm/c in a thermal
meson gas at temperatures where such a description makes
sense.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.58.2994},
Key = {Matinyan:1998cb}
}

@article{fds304589,
Author = {Moore, GD and Hu, C and Müller, B},
Title = {Chern-Simons number diffusion with hard thermal
loops},
Journal = {Physical Review D},
Volume = {58},
Number = {4},
Pages = {450011-4500124},
Year = {1998},
Month = {June},
ISSN = {0556-2821},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.58.045001},
Abstract = {We construct an extension of the standard Kogut-Susskind
lattice model for classical (3+ 1)-dimensional Yang-Mills
theory, in which "classical particle" degrees of freedom are
added. We argue that this will correctly reproduce the "hard
thermal loop" effects of hard degrees of freedom, while
giving a local implementation which is numerically
tractable. We prove that the extended system is Hamiltonian
and has the same thermodynamics as dimensionally reduced hot
Yang-Mills theory put on a lattice. We present a numerical
update algorithm and study the Abelian theory to verify that
the classical gauge theory self-energy is correctly
modified. Then we use the extended system to study the
diffusion constant for the Chern-Simons number. We verify
the Arnold-Son-Yaffe picture that the diffusion constant is
inversely proportional to the hard thermal loop strength.
Our numbers correspond to a diffusion constant of Γ =
29±6α5wT4 for m2D= 11g2T2/6.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.58.045001},
Key = {fds304589}
}

@article{fds247221,
Author = {Müller, B},
Title = {Signatures for the quark-gluon plasma},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {630},
Number = {1-2},
Pages = {461c-467c},
Year = {1998},
Abstract = {I survey the experimental signatures of a quark-gluon plasma
in the light of present and future experiments. This
includes a review of new theoretical results concerning the
QCD equation of state and the formation of a dense parton
plasma in high energy nuclear collisions.},
Key = {fds247221}
}

@article{fds247222,
Author = {Asakawa, M and Minakata, H and Müller, B},
Title = {Non-central heavy-ion collisions are the place to look for
DCC},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {638},
Number = {1-2},
Pages = {443c-446c},
Year = {1998},
Abstract = {We give two reasons why we believe that non-central
ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions are the place to look
for the disoriented chiral condensates (DCC). First, we
argue that the most probable quench scenario for the
formation of DCC requires non-central collisions. Second, we
show by numerical simulations that strong electromagnetic
fields of heavy ions can exert a surprisingly large effect
on the DCC domain formation through the chiral anomaly. The
effect again requires non-central collisions. Interestingly,
the result of simulations is consistent with the formation
of correlated two domains of the chiral condensate, which
are aligned in space, perpendicular to the scattering plane,
but misaligned in isospin space.},
Key = {fds247222}
}

@article{Geiger:1998ct,
Author = {Geiger, K and Müller, B},
Title = {How Dense Does Parton Matter Get in Pb + Pb Collisions at
the CERN SPS?},
Journal = {Acta Physica Hungarica New Series Heavy Ion
Physics},
Volume = {7},
Number = {2},
Pages = {207-213},
Year = {1998},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/nucl-th/9707048},
Abstract = {We examine the qualitative features of parton production
through materialization in heavy-ion collisions within
perturbative QCD, and estimate the magnitude of the
resulting parton density created during the early stage of
the collisions. The implications for "anomalous" J/ψ
suppression observed in Pb + Pb collisions at the CERN SPS
are discussed. We argue that the A-dependence of absorption
of J/ψ by (partonic) comovers is steeper than assumed in
most phenomenological models, because the absorption process
is dominated by quasi-perturbative QCD interactions. Our
argument is supported by results recently obtained in the
framework of the parton cascade model. We predict
significant "anomalous" suppression for Pb + Pb collisions
at the CERN-SPS, but not for S + U collisions.},
Key = {Geiger:1998ct}
}

@article{Matinyan:1998ps,
Author = {Matinyan, SG and Müller, B and Rischke, DH},
Title = {Classical gluon radiation in ultrarelativistic nuclear
collisions: Space-time structure, instabilities, and
thermalization},
Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
Volume = {57},
Number = {4},
Pages = {1927-1937},
Year = {1998},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/nucl-th/9708053},
Abstract = {We investigate the space-time structure of the classical
gluon field produced in an ultrarelativistic collision
between color charges. The classical solution which was
computed previously in a perturbative approach is shown to
become unstable on account of the non-Abelian
self-interaction neglected in the perturbative solution
scheme. The time scale for growth of the instabilities is
found to be of the order of the distance between the
colliding color charges. We argue that these instabilities
will eventually lead to thermalization of gluons produced in
an ultrarelativistic collision between heavy nuclei. The
rate of thermalization is estimated to be of order g2μ,
where g is the strong coupling constant and μ2 the
transverse color charge density of an ultrarelativistic
nucleus.},
Key = {Matinyan:1998ps}
}

@article{Moore:1998sn,
Author = {Moore, GD and Hu, C and uuml, M and ller, B},
Title = {Chern-Simons number diffusion with hard thermal
loops},
Journal = {Phys. Rev. D},
Volume = {58},
Number = {4},
Pages = {045001},
Year = {1998},
ISSN = {0556-2821},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/9710436},
Abstract = {http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/9710436},
Key = {Moore:1998sn}
}

@article{Asakawa:1998st,
Author = {Asakawa, M and Minakata, H and uuml, M and ller, B},
Title = {Anomaly induced domain formation of disoriented chiral
condensates},
Journal = {Phys. Rev. D},
Volume = {58},
Number = {9},
Pages = {094011},
Year = {1998},
ISSN = {0556-2821},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/9805261},
Abstract = {http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/9805261},
Key = {Asakawa:1998st}
}

@article{fds304605,
Author = {Asakawa, M and Minakata, H and Müller, B},
Title = {Anomaly induced domain formation of disoriented chiral
condensates},
Journal = {Physical Review D},
Volume = {58},
Number = {9},
Pages = {940111-9401114},
Year = {1998},
ISSN = {0556-2821},
Abstract = {We discuss the effect of the chiral anomaly as a possible
mechanism for triggering the formation of domains of
disoriented chiral condensate (DCC) in relativistic heavy
ion collisions. The anomalous π0→2γ coupling and the
strong, Lorentz contracted electromagnetic fields of the
heavy ions combine to produce the "anomaly kick" to the
field configuration of the neutral pion field. We implement
the effect of the anomaly kick in our numerical simulation
of the linear sigma model in a schematic way which preserves
its characteristic features: the effect is coherent over a
large region of space but is opposite in sign above and
below the ion scattering plane. We demonstrate by detailed
simulations with longitudinal expansion that the DCC domain
formation is dramatically enhanced by the anomaly kick in
spite of its small absolute magnitude. We examine the
behavior of various physical quantities such as pion fields,
the axial vector currents, and their correlation functions.
Our results also provide useful insight into the mechanism
and properties of DCC domain formation, in general. Finally,
we discuss some experimental observables which can signal
the anomaly induced formation of DCC.},
Key = {fds304605}
}

@article{Matinyan:1997hd,
Author = {Matinyan, SG and Müller, B},
Title = {Quantum fluctuations and dynamical chaos: An effective
potential approach},
Journal = {Foundations of Physics},
Volume = {27},
Number = {9},
Pages = {1237-1255},
Year = {1997},
Month = {September},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/9610233},
Abstract = {We discuss the intimate connection between the chaotic
dynamics of a classical field theory and the instability of
the one-loop effective action of the associated quantum
field theory. Using the example of massless scalar
electrodynamics, we show how the radiatively induced
spontaneous symmetry breaking stabilizes the vacuum state
against chaos, and we speculate that monopole condensation
can have the same effect in non-Abelian gauge
theories.},
Doi = {10.1007/BF02551526},
Key = {Matinyan:1997hd}
}

@article{Hu:1997sf,
Author = {Hu, CR and Müller, B},
Title = {Classical lattice gauge fields with hard thermal
loops},
Journal = {Physics Letters B},
Volume = {409},
Number = {1-4},
Pages = {377-381},
Year = {1997},
Month = {September},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/9611292},
Abstract = {We propose a formulation of the long-distance dynamics of
gauge theories at finite temperature on a lattice in
Minkowski space, including the effects of hard thermal loops
on the dynamics of the long wavelength modes. Our approach
is based on the dual classical limits of quantum fields as
waves and particles in the infrared and ultraviolet limits,
respectively. It exhibits manifest invariance under
space-dependent lattice gauge transformations and conserves
Gauss' law. © 1997 Elsevier Science B.V.},
Doi = {10.1016/S0370-2693(97)00851-4},
Key = {Hu:1997sf}
}

@article{Srivastava:1997qd,
Author = {Srivastava, DK and Mustafa, MG and Müller, B},
Title = {Expanding quark-gluon plasmas: Transverse flow, chemical
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {56},
Number = {2},
Pages = {1064-1074},
Year = {1997},
Month = {August},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/nucl-th/9611041},
Abstract = {We investigate the chemical equilibration of the parton
distributions in collisions of two heavy nuclei. We use
initial conditions obtained from a self-screened parton
cascade calculation and, for comparison, from the HIJING
model. We consider a one-dimensional as well as a
three-dimensional expansion of the parton plasma and find
that the onset of the transverse expansion impedes the
chemical equilibration. At energies of 100 GeV/nucleon, the
results for one-dimensional and three-dimensional expansions
are quite similar except at large values of the transverse
radius. At energies of several TeV/nucleon, the plasma
initially approaches chemical equilibrium, but then is
driven away from it, when the transverse velocity gradients
develop. We find that the total parton multiplicity density
remains essentially unaffected by the flow, but the
individual concentrations of quarks, antiquarks, and gluons
are sensitive to the transverse flow. The consequences of
the flow are also discernible in the transverse momenta of
the partons and in the lepton pair spectra, where the flow
causes a violation of the so-called MT scaling.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.56.1064},
Key = {Srivastava:1997qd}
}

@article{Srivastava:1997rz,
Author = {Kumar Srivastava and D and Golam Mustafa and M and Müller,
B},
Title = {Chemical equilibration of an expanding quark-gluon
plasma},
Journal = {Physics Letters B},
Volume = {396},
Number = {1-4},
Pages = {45-49},
Year = {1997},
Month = {March},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/9608424},
Abstract = {The chemical equilibration of the parton distribution in
collisions of two heavy nuclei at the CERN Large Hadron
Collider is investigated. Initial conditions are obtained
from a self-screened parton cascade calculation. The onset
of transverse expansion of the system is found to impede the
chemical equilibration. The system initially approaches
chemical equilibrium, but then is driven away from it, when
the transverse velocity becomes large. © 1997 Elsevier
Science B.V.},
Doi = {10.1016/S0370-2693(97)00090-7},
Key = {Srivastava:1997rz}
}

@article{Greiner:1997dx,
Author = {Greiner, C and Müller, B},
Title = {Classical fields near thermal equilibrium},
Journal = {Physical Review D},
Volume = {55},
Number = {2},
Pages = {1026-1046},
Year = {1997},
Month = {January},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/9605048},
Abstract = {We discuss the classical limit for the long-distance
("soft") modes of a quantum field when the hard modes of the
field are in thermal equilibrium. We address the question of
the correct semiclassical dynamics when a momentum cutoff
|p|≤kc≤T is introduced. Higher order contributions lead
to a stochastic interpretation for the effective action in
analogy with quantum Brownian motion, resulting in
dissipation and decoherence for the evolution of the soft
modes. Particular emphasis is put on the understanding of
dissipation. Our discussion focuses mostly on scalar fields,
but we make some remarks on the extension to gauge
theories.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.55.1026},
Key = {Greiner:1997dx}
}

@article{Matinyan:1997ya,
Author = {Matinyan, SG and Müller, B and Rischke, DH},
Title = {Gluon radiation and coherent states in ultrarelativistic
nuclear collisions},
Journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
Volume = {56},
Number = {4},
Pages = {2191-2201},
Year = {1997},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/nucl-th/9705024},
Abstract = {We explore the correspondence between classical gluon
gluons produced in ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions. The
expectation value of the invariant momentum distribution of
gluons in the coherent state is found to agree with the
gluon number distribution obtained classically from the
solution of the Yang-Mills equations. A criterion for the
applicability of the coherent state formalism to the problem
of radiation in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions
is discussed. This criterion is found to be fulfilled for
midrapidity gluons with perturbative transverse momenta
larger than ∼ 1-2 GeV and produced in collisions between
valence partons.},
Key = {Matinyan:1997ya}
}

@article{Heinz:1997wx,
Author = {Heinz, U and Hu, CR and Leupold, S and Matinyan, SG and Müller,
B},
Title = {Thermalization and Lyapunov exponents in Yang-Mills-Higgs
theory},
Journal = {Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and
Cosmology},
Volume = {55},
Number = {4},
Pages = {2464-2476},
Year = {1997},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/9608181},
Abstract = {We investigate thermalization processes occurring at
different time scales in the Yang-Mills-Higgs system at high
temperatures. We determine the largest Lyapunov exponent
associated with the gauge fields and verify its relation to
the perturbatively calculated damping rate of a static gauge
boson.},
Key = {Heinz:1997wx}
}

@article{Matinyan:1997rd,
Author = {Matinyan, SG and Müller, B},
Title = {Quantum fluctuations and dynamical chaos},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {78},
Number = {13},
Pages = {2515-2518},
Year = {1997},
url = {http://prola.aps.org/pdf/PRL/v78/i13/p2515_1},
Abstract = {We discuss the intimate connection between the chaotic
dynamics of a classical field theory and the instability of
the one-loop effective action of the associated quantum
field theory. Using massless scalar electrodynamics as an
example, we show how the radiatively induced spontaneous
symmetry breaking stabilizes the vacuum state against
chaos.},
Key = {Matinyan:1997rd}
}

@article{Harris:1996zx,
Author = {Harris, JW and Müller, B},
Title = {THE SEARCH FOR THE QUARK-GLUON PLASMA},
Journal = {Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Science},
Volume = {46},
Number = {1},
Pages = {71-107},
Year = {1996},
Month = {December},
ISSN = {0163-8998},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/9602235},
Abstract = {We provide an overview of the present understanding of the
transition from hadrons to a quark-gluon plasma, its
signatures, and the experimental results so far. We discuss
results of numerical simulations of the lattice gauge theory
and critically evaluate the various observables that have
been proposed as signatures of the QCD phase transition. We
place the existing data from relativistic heavy-ion
experiments at the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient
Synchrotron (AGS) and CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS)
into perspective and provide an overview of the techniques
and strategies that will be employed in the search for the
quark-gluon plasma at heavy-ion colliders, such as the
Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron
Collider (LHC).},
Doi = {10.1146/annurev.nucl.46.1.71},
Key = {Harris:1996zx}
}

@article{Rau:1996ea,
Author = {Rau, J and Müller, B},
Title = {From reversible quantum microdynamics to irreversible
quantum transport},
Journal = {Physics Reports},
Volume = {272},
Number = {1},
Pages = {1-59},
Year = {1996},
Month = {July},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/nucl-th/9505009},
Abstract = {The transition from reversible microdynamics to irreversible
transport can be studied very efficiently and systematically
with the help of the so-called projection method. After a
concise introduction to that method we illustrate its power
by using it to analyze the well-known rate and quantum
Boltzmann equations, and we present, as a new application,
the derivation of a source term which accounts for the
spontaneous creation of electron-positron pairs in strong
fields. Thereby we emphasize the pivotal role of time
scales: Only if the various time scales exhibited by the
dynamics are widely disparate can the evolution of the
slower degrees of freedom be described by a conventional
Markovian transport equation; otherwise one must account for
finite memory effects. We show how the projection method can
be employed to determine these time scales and how - if
necessary - it allows one to include memory effects in a
straightforward manner. There is also an appendix in which
we discuss the concepts of entropy and macroscopic
irreversibility.},
Doi = {10.1016/0370-1573(95)00077-1},
Key = {Rau:1996ea}
}

@article{Minakata:1996gq,
Author = {Minakata, H and Müller, B},
Title = {Disoriented chiral condensate and strong electromagnetic
fields},
Journal = {Physics Letters B},
Volume = {377},
Number = {1-3},
Pages = {135-139},
Year = {1996},
Month = {June},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/9511348},
Abstract = {We discuss the effect of strong electromagnetic fields on
chiral orientation in the framework of the linear σ model.
Based on lessons we learn from computation of the effective
potential at one loop, we argue that the chiral U(1) anomaly
dominates chiral disorientation driven by electromagnetism.
We show that the anomaly effect induces a
quasi-instantaneous "kick" to field configurations along the
π0 direction in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. We
discuss the possibility that a "kick", even though small in
magnitude, can have a substantial effect on the formation of
chirally misaligned domains.},
Doi = {10.1016/0370-2693(96)00337-1},
Key = {Minakata:1996gq}
}

@article{Hu:1996kd,
Author = {Hu, CR and Matinyan, SG and Müller, B and Sweet,
D},
Title = {Wave packet collisions in Yang-Mills-Higgs
theory},
Journal = {Physical Review D},
Volume = {53},
Number = {7},
Pages = {3823-3834},
Year = {1996},
Month = {April},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/9509305},
Abstract = {We present numerical simulations of colliding wave packets
in spontaneously broken SU(2) Yang-Mills-Higgs theory.
Compared with pure Yang-Mills theory, introducing the Higgs
field leads to new aspects in the dynamics of the system.
The evolution of the gauge field and the Higgs field is
investigated as a function of the amplitude of the wave
packets and of the mass ratio of the Higgs boson and the
gauge boson. We find regions in our parameter space in which
initial wave packets scatter into final configurations with
dramatically different momentum distributions.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.53.3823},
Key = {Hu:1996kd}
}

@article{fds247220,
Author = {Müller, B},
Title = {Strangeness in paradise: The strange quark as a probe of
QCD},
Journal = {Acta Physica Hungarica New Series Heavy Ion
Physics},
Volume = {4},
Number = {1-4},
Pages = {1-14},
Year = {1996},
Abstract = {I review the arguments for considering the strange quark as
a probe of changes in the QCD vacuum, and of the formation
of a quark-gluon plasma, in particular. I survey existing
data showing enhanced production of strange hadrons in
relativistic heavy ion collisions and analyse their
implications in the context of thermal and microscopic
reaction models. My lecture closes with some remarks on
Key = {fds247220}
}

@article{Hu:1996ar,
Author = {Hu, CR and Matinyan, SG and Müller, B},
Title = {Symmetry restoration in gauge boson wave packet collisions
in Yang-Mills-Higgs theory},
Journal = {Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and
Cosmology},
Volume = {54},
Number = {3},
Pages = {2175-2181},
Year = {1996},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/9603434},
Abstract = {We investigate the restoration of spontaneously broken gauge
symmetry in collisions of gauge boson wave packets in the
SU(2) Higgs model.},
Key = {Hu:1996ar}
}

@article{Eskola:1996bp,
Author = {Eskola, KJ and Müller, B and Wang, X-N},
Title = {Screening of initial parton production in ultrarelativistic
heavy-ion collisions},
Journal = {Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and
High-Energy Physics},
Volume = {374},
Number = {1-3},
Pages = {20-24},
Year = {1996},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/9509285},
Abstract = {Screening of initial parton production due to the presence
of on-shell partons in high-energy heavy-ion collisions is
discussed. It is shown that the divergent cross sections in
the calculation of parton production can be regulated
self-consistently without an ad hoc cut-off, and that the
resultant parton production and transverse energy production
rate are finite.},
Key = {Eskola:1996bp}
}

@article{Mrowczynski:1995at,
Author = {Mrówczyński, S and Müller, B},
Title = {Reheating after supercooling in the chiral phase
transition},
Journal = {Physics Letters B},
Volume = {363},
Number = {1-2},
Pages = {1-4},
Year = {1995},
Month = {November},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/nucl-th/9507033},
Abstract = {We study the conversion of the latent heat of a supercooled
quark-gluon plasma into excitations of the pion field.
Supercooling is predicted to occur in the late stages of the
evolution of a quark-gluon plasma produced in energetic
heavy-ion collisions, if the QCD phase transition is of
first order. The supercooled, chirally symmetric state,
which contains potential energy associated with an
energetically unfavorable field configuration, eventually
rolls down to the true minimum of the effective chiral
potential. When this motion is described in terms of the
linear sigma-model, we find that the energy of the coherent
σ-field is very efficiently converted into pionic
excitations due to anharmonic oscillations around the
minimum. The system is expected to partially thermalize
before its disintegration.},
Doi = {10.1016/0370-2693(95)01188-V},
Key = {Mrowczynski:1995at}
}

@article{Biro:1995sh,
Author = {Biró, TS and Matinyan, SG and Müller, B},
Title = {Chaos driven by soft-hard mode coupling in thermal
Yang-Mills theory},
Journal = {Physics Letters B},
Volume = {362},
Number = {1-4},
Pages = {29-33},
Year = {1995},
Month = {November},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0370-2693(95)01205-5},
Abstract = {We argue on a basis of a simple few modes model of SU(2)
Yang-Mills theory that the color off-diagonal coupling of
the soft plasmon to hard thermal excitations of the gauge
field drives the collective plasma oscillations into chaotic
motion despite the presence of the plasmon
mass.},
Doi = {10.1016/0370-2693(95)01205-5},
Key = {Biro:1995sh}
}

@article{Biro:1995hs,
Author = {Biró, TS and Gong, C and Müller, B},
Title = {Lyapunov exponent and plasmon damping rate in non-Abelian
gauge theories},
Journal = {Physical Review D},
Volume = {52},
Number = {2},
Pages = {1260-1266},
Year = {1995},
Month = {July},
ISSN = {0556-2821},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/9409392},
Abstract = {We explain why the maximal positive Lyapunov exponent of
classical SU(N) gauge theory coincides with (twice) the
damping rate of a plasmon at rest in the leading order of
thermal gauge theory. © 1995 The American Physical
Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.52.1260},
Key = {Biro:1995hs}
}

@article{Muller:1995rb,
Author = {Muller, B},
Title = {Physics and signatures of the quark-gluon
plasma},
Journal = {Reports on Progress in Physics},
Volume = {58},
Number = {6},
Pages = {611-636},
Year = {1995},
Month = {June},
ISSN = {0034-4885},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/nucl-th/9410005},
Abstract = {This is a critical review of the various observables that
have been proposed to signal the change from dense hadronic
matter to a quark-gluon plasma at high temperature or baryon
density. I discuss current models of quark-gluon plasma
formation in relativistic heavy-ion collisions and analyse
the virtues and ambiguities of various signatures.},
Doi = {10.1088/0034-4885/58/6/002},
Key = {Muller:1995rb}
}

@article{fds247219,
Author = {Müller, B},
Title = {Quark matter '95: Where are we and what needs to be
done?},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {590},
Number = {1-2},
Pages = {3-10},
Year = {1995},
ISSN = {0375-9474},
Key = {fds247219}
}

@article{Hu:1995ia,
Author = {Hu, CR and Matinyan, SG and Müller, B and Trayanov, A and Gould, TM and Hsu, SDH and Poppitz, ER},
Title = {Wave packet dynamics in Yang-Mills theory},
Journal = {Physical Review D},
Volume = {52},
Number = {4},
Pages = {2402-2411},
Year = {1995},
ISSN = {0556-2821},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/9502276},
Abstract = {We discuss the results of numerical simulations of colliding
wave packets in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. We investigate
their behavior as a function of amplitude and momentum
distribution. We find regions in our parameter space in
which initial wave packets scatter into final configurations
with dramatically different momentum distributions. These
results constitute new classical trajectories with
multiparticle boundary conditions. We explain their
relevance for the calculation of scattering amplitudes in
the semiclassical approximation. Finally, we give directions
for future work. © 1995 The American Physical
Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.52.2402},
Key = {Hu:1995ia}
}

@article{Schramm:1995cd,
Author = {Schramm, AJ and Müller, B},
Title = {Pion fusion in peripheral pp collisions},
Journal = {Physical Review D},
Volume = {52},
Number = {11},
Pages = {6616-6619},
Year = {1995},
ISSN = {0556-2821},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/9410402},
Abstract = {We estimate the cross section for quasielastic double pion
exchange in high energy proton-proton collisions. Total and
elastic ππ cross sections are calculated in an equivalent
pion approximation, with pion-baryon vertices taken from
chiral perturbation theory. © 1995 The American Physical
Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.52.6616},
Key = {Schramm:1995cd}
}

@article{Levai:1995dx,
Author = {Lévai, P and Müller, B and Wang, X-N},
Title = {Open charm production in an equilibrating parton
plasma},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {51},
Number = {6},
Pages = {3326-3335},
Year = {1995},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/9412352},
Abstract = {Open charm production during the equilibration of a gluon
dominated parton plasma is calculated, with both the
time-dependent temperature and parton densities given by a
set of rate equations. Including prethermal production, the
total enhancement of open charm production over the initial
gluon fusion depends sensitively on the initial parton
density and the effective temperature. The dependence of the
prethermal charm production on the space-momentum
correlation in the initial parton phase-space distribution
is also discussed. © 1995 The American Physical
Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.51.3326},
Key = {Levai:1995dx}
}

@article{Mrowczynski:1994nf,
Author = {Mrówczyński, S and Müller, B},
Title = {Wigner functional approach to quantum field
dynamics},
Journal = {Physical Review D},
Volume = {50},
Number = {12},
Pages = {7542-7552},
Year = {1994},
Month = {December},
ISSN = {0556-2821},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/9405036},
Abstract = {We introduce the Wigner functional representing a quantum
field in terms of the field amplitudes and their conjugate
momenta. The equation of motion for the functional of a
scalar field points out the relevance of solutions of the
classical field equations to the time evolution of the
quantum field. We discuss the field in thermodynamical
equilibrium and find the explicit solution of the equations
of motion for the so-called rollover phase transition.
Finally, we briefly discuss the approximate methods for the
evaluation of the Wigner functional that may be used to
numerically simulate the initial value problem. © 1994 The
American Physical Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.50.7542},
Key = {Mrowczynski:1994nf}
}

@article{Geiger:1994dt,
Author = {Geiger, K and Müller, B},
Title = {QCD evolution equations for high energy partons in nuclear
matter},
Journal = {Physical Review D},
Volume = {50},
Number = {1},
Pages = {337-357},
Year = {1994},
Month = {July},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/9312281},
Abstract = {http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/9312281},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.50.337},
Key = {Geiger:1994dt}
}

@article{Gong:1994fz,
Author = {Gong, C and Müller, B and Biró, TS},
Title = {Variational approach to real-time evolution of Yang-Mills
gauge fields on the lattice},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {568},
Number = {4},
Pages = {727-744},
Year = {1994},
Month = {February},
ISSN = {0375-9474},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-lat/9305024},
Abstract = {Applying a variational method to a gaussian wave ansatz, we
have derived a set of semi-classical evolution equations for
SU(2) lattice gauge fields, which take the classical form in
the limit of a vanishing width of the gaussian wave packet.
These equations are used to study the quantum effects on the
classical evolutions of the lattice gauge fields. ©
1994.},
Doi = {10.1016/0375-9474(94)90357-3},
Key = {Gong:1994fz}
}

@article{Biro:1994qc,
Author = {BIRÓ, TS and GONG, C and MÜLLER, B and TRAYANOV,
A},
Title = {HAMILTONIAN DYNAMICS OF YANG-MILLS FIELDS ON A
LATTICE},
Journal = {International Journal of Modern Physics C},
Volume = {05},
Number = {01},
Pages = {113-149},
Year = {1994},
Month = {February},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/nucl-th/9306002},
Abstract = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/9306002},
Doi = {10.1142/S0129183194000106},
Key = {Biro:1994qc}
}

@article{Gong:1994bz,
Author = {Gong, C and Matinyan, SG and Müller, B and Trayanov,
A},
Title = {Manifestation of infrared instabilities in high energy
processes in non-Abelian gauge theories},
Journal = {Physical Review D},
Volume = {49},
Number = {2},
Pages = {R607-R610},
Year = {1994},
Month = {January},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/nucl-th/9310001},
Abstract = {http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/9310001},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.49.R607},
Key = {Gong:1994bz}
}

@article{fds247217,
Author = {Biró, TS and Müller, B and Thoma, MH and Wang, XN},
Title = {Parton equilibration at RHIC and LHC},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {566},
Number = {C},
Pages = {543-546},
Year = {1994},
ISSN = {0375-9474},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0375-9474(94)90689-0},
Abstract = {The processes leading to phase space equilibration of parton
distributions in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions are
investigated. A set of rate equations describing the
chemical equilibration of quarks and gluons based on
perturbative QCD including medium effects are derived, and
their consequences for parton equilibration at RHIC and LHC
Doi = {10.1016/0375-9474(94)90689-0},
Key = {fds247217}
}

@article{fds247218,
Author = {Xin-Nian, W and Müller, B},
Title = {D-meson as a probe of early parton rescattering},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {566},
Number = {C},
Pages = {555-558},
Year = {1994},
ISSN = {0375-9474},
Abstract = {Initial parton scatterings produce a hot and dilute gluonic
gas in high energy nuclear collisions. Pre-equilibrium gluon
rescatterings are shown to have significant contributions to
the charm production. In contrast to the gluon shadowing
effect in the initial parton scattering, the enhancement of
the final total open charm in the central region due to
pre-equilibrium production could be used as a probe of the
early dynamics of the partonic system. ©
1994.},
Key = {fds247218}
}

@article{Gavin:1994px,
Author = {Gavin, S and Müller, B},
Title = {Larger domains of disoriented chiral condensate through
annealing},
Journal = {Physics Letters B},
Volume = {329},
Number = {4},
Pages = {486-492},
Year = {1994},
ISSN = {0370-2693},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/9312349},
Abstract = {Relativistic heavy ion collisions can generate metastable
domains in which the chiral condensate is disoriented.
Nucleussizeddomains can yield measurable fluctuations in the
number of neutral and charged pions. We propose a scenario
in whichdomains are "annealed" by a dynamically evolving
effective potential in the heavy ion system. Domains of
sizes exceeding3 fm are possible in this scenario. ©
1994.},
Doi = {10.1016/0370-2693(94)91094-4},
Key = {Gavin:1994px}
}

@article{Biro:1993qt,
Author = {Biró, TS and van Doorn, E and Müller, B and Thoma, MH and Wang,
X-N},
Title = {Parton equilibration in relativistic heavy ion
collisions},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {48},
Number = {3},
Pages = {1275-1284},
Year = {1993},
Month = {September},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/nucl-th/9303004},
Abstract = {We investigate the processes leading to phase-space
equilibration of parton distributions in nuclear
interactions at collider energies. We derive a set of rate
equations describing the chemical equilibration of gluons
and quarks including medium effects on the relevant QCD
transport coefficients, and discuss their consequences for
parton equilibration in heavy ion collisions. © 1993 The
American Physical Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.48.1275},
Key = {Biro:1993qt}
}

@article{Biro:1993wg,
Author = {Biró, TS and Müller, B},
Title = {Magnetic screening in thermal Yang-Mills
theories},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {561},
Number = {4},
Pages = {477-500},
Year = {1993},
Month = {September},
ISSN = {0375-9474},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/nucl-th/9211011},
Abstract = {We develop a method to calculate the density of magnetic
monopoles in nonabelian gauge theories at finite temperature
in the dilute gas approximation in the semiclassical limit.
This quantity is related to the inverse magnetic screening
length for which we obtain μM = 0.255g2T in SU(2). ©
1993.},
Doi = {10.1016/0375-9474(93)90061-2},
Key = {Biro:1993wg}
}

@article{art109,
Author = {Ionescu, DC and Greiner, W and Muller, B and Soff,
G},
Title = {Collective excitations of the QED vacuum},
Journal = {Physical Review A},
Volume = {47},
Number = {2},
Pages = {854-867},
Year = {1993},
ISSN = {1050-2947},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.47.854},
Abstract = {Using relativistic Green's-function techniques we examined
single-electron excitations from the occupied Dirac sea in
the presence of strong external fields. The energies of
these excited states are determined taking into account the
electron-electron interaction. We also evaluate relativistic
transition strengths incorporating retardation, which
represents a direct measure of correlation effects. The
shifts in excitation energies are computed to be lower than
0.5%, while the correlated transition strengths never
deviate by more than 10% from their bare values. A major
conclusion is that we found no evidence for collectivity in
the electron-positron field around heavy and superheavy
nuclei. © 1993 The American Physical Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevA.47.854},
Key = {art109}
}

@article{Greiner:1993jn,
Author = {Greiner, C and Gong, C and uuml, M and ller, B},
Title = {Some remarks on pion condensation in relativistic heavy ion
collisions},
Journal = {Phys. Lett. B},
Volume = {316},
Number = {2-3},
Pages = {226-230},
Year = {1993},
ISSN = {0370-2693},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/9307336},
Abstract = {http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/9307336},
Doi = {10.1016/0370-2693(93)90317-B},
Key = {Greiner:1993jn}
}

@article{Biedenharn:1993xk,
Author = {Biedenharn, LC and Mueller, B and Tarlini, M},
Title = {The Dirac-Coulomb problem for the κ-Poincar e ́ quantum
group},
Journal = {Physics Letters B},
Volume = {318},
Number = {4},
Pages = {613-616},
Year = {1993},
ISSN = {0370-2693},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/9310173},
Abstract = {The recently introduced κ-Poincar e ́-Dirac equation is
gauged to treat the κ-Dirac-Coulomb problem. For the
resulting equation, we prove that the perturbation to first
order in the quantum group parameter vanishes identically.
The second order perturbation is singular, but assuming a
heuristic cut-off allows a qualitative estimate of the
Doi = {10.1016/0370-2693(93)90462-Q},
Key = {Biedenharn:1993xk}
}

@article{fds304588,
Author = {Greiner, C and Gong, C and Müller, B},
Title = {Pion condensation in relativistic heavy ion
collisions},
Journal = {Physics Letters B},
Volume = {316},
Number = {2-3},
Pages = {226-230},
Year = {1993},
ISSN = {0370-2693},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0370-2693(93)90317-B},
Abstract = {Recently it was pointed out that coherent or condensated
states of pions may account for the explanation of the
Centauro events observed in cosmic ray showers. We argue
that an occurence of condensed pions requires that the
system evolves far out of thermal equilibrium. Besides an
unusual charge ratio distribution we show that such a
produced state also would lead to strong isospin
Doi = {10.1016/0370-2693(93)90317-B},
Key = {fds304588}
}

@article{Muller:1992qc,
Author = {Müller, B and Thoma, MH},
Title = {Vacuum polarization and the electric charge of the
positron},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {69},
Number = {24},
Pages = {3432-3434},
Year = {1992},
Month = {December},
ISSN = {0031-9007},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/9209217},
Abstract = {We show that higher-order vacuum polarization would
contribute a measurable net charge to atoms, if the charges
of electrons and positrons do not balance precisely. We
obtain the limit |Qe + Qē| &lt; 10-18e for the sum of the
charges of electron and positron. This also constitutes a
new bound on certain violations of PCT invariance.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.69.3432},
Key = {Muller:1992qc}
}

@article{fds247215,
Author = {Müller, B},
Title = {Signatures of the quark-gluon plasma},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {544},
Number = {1-2},
Pages = {95-108},
Year = {1992},
Month = {July},
ISSN = {0375-9474},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0375-9474(92)90567-4},
Abstract = {I review the various observables that have been proposed as
signals for the change in the structure of dense hadronic
matter, when it becomes quark-gluon plasma at high
temperature, or quark matter at high baryon density. I also
discuss the inherent ambiguities of these signatures. ©
1992.},
Doi = {10.1016/0375-9474(92)90567-4},
Key = {fds247215}
}

@article{Muller:1992xn,
Author = {uuml, M and ller, B and Wang, X-N},
Title = {Probing parton thermalization time with charm
production},
Journal = {Phys. Rev. Lett.},
Volume = {68},
Pages = {2437-2439},
Year = {1992},
Key = {Muller:1992xn}
}

@article{Muller:1992iw,
Author = {Müller, B and Trayanov, A},
Title = {Deterministic chaos in non-Abelian lattice gauge
theory},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {68},
Number = {23},
Pages = {3387-3390},
Year = {1992},
ISSN = {0031-9007},
Abstract = {We present numerical evidence that the real-time Hamiltonian
dynamics of SU(2) gauge theory on a spatial lattice exhibits
deterministic chaos in the semiclassical limit. We determine
the largest Lyapunov exponent of the gauge field as a
function of energy density, and derive a nonperturbative
expression for the thermalization time.},
Key = {Muller:1992iw}
}

@article{Biro:1992ix,
Author = {Biró, TS and Müller, B and Wang, X-N},
Title = {Color screening in relativistic heavy ion
collisions},
Journal = {Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and
High-Energy Physics},
Volume = {283},
Number = {3-4},
Pages = {171-173},
Year = {1992},
Abstract = {We calculate the color screening length in a
non-equilibrated gluon gas formed by interacting minijets in
relativistic heavy-ion collisions. We show that that the
screening length is too short at CERN LHC collider energy to
permit the formation of independent flux-tubes or strings.
The prediction for RHIC energies is somewhat
ambiguous.},
Key = {Biro:1992ix}
}

@article{Dean:1992vj,
Author = {Dean, DJ and Gyulassy, M and Müller, B and Remler, EA and Strayer, MR and Umar, AS and Wu, J-S},
Title = {Multiparticle production in lepton-nucleus collisions and
relativistic string models},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {46},
Number = {5},
Pages = {2066-2076},
Year = {1992},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.46.2066},
nuclear enhancement of target fragmentation (xf&lt;0)
hadrons in lepton-nucleus reactions are calculated via a
(3+1)-dimensional string-parton model. A (1+1)-dimensional
string model is used to investigate the dependence of
rapidity distributions on the lepton energy loss, =10100
GeV, the atomic number, A=1200, the effective string
tension, =0.52 GeV/fm, the string decay constant, 0=0.52
fm/c, and the string flip cross section, lq=030 mb. The
(3+1)-dimensional string-parton model includes inelastic
show how the A dependence of hadronic production in
lepton-nucleus collisions, especially in the xf&lt;0 region,
may be used to extract information on quark propagation and
Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.46.2066},
Key = {Dean:1992vj}
}

@article{Schramm:1992ex,
Author = {Schramm, S and uuml, M and ller, B and Schramm, AJ},
Title = {Quark - anti-quark condensates in strong magnetic
fields},
Journal = {Mod. Phys. Lett. A},
Volume = {7},
Pages = {973-982},
Year = {1992},
Key = {Schramm:1992ex}
}

@article{Abou-El-Naga:1992ib,
Author = {Abou-El-Naga, N and Geiger, K and Muller, B},
Title = {QCD phenomenology of nucleon-nucleon cross
sections},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {18},
Number = {5},
Pages = {797-805},
Year = {1992},
ISSN = {0954-3899},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0954-3899/18/5/009},
Abstract = {The authors calculate the inclusive parton-parton cross
section in p+p and p+p collisions in the framework of
perturbative QCD and snow that the measured non-diffractive
cross section requires a transverse momentum cut-off p Tmin
of several GeV c-1 at high energy. They consider the
implications for nuclear collisions at RHIC and LHC
energies.},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/18/5/009},
Key = {Abou-El-Naga:1992ib}
}

@article{Schramm:1992vt,
Author = {Schramm, S and Müller, B and Schramm, AJ},
Title = {W boson condensation in p-p collisions?},
Journal = {Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and
High-Energy Physics},
Volume = {277},
Number = {4},
Pages = {512-514},
Year = {1992},
Abstract = {We address the question of whether W± boson condensation
can occur in high-energy collisions.},
Key = {Schramm:1992vt}
}

@article{Schramm:1992vu,
Author = {Schramm, S and Müller, B and Schramm, AJ},
Title = {Exact Dirac propagator in a magnetic "sheet"},
Journal = {Physics Letters A},
Volume = {164},
Number = {1},
Pages = {28-32},
Year = {1992},
ISSN = {0375-9601},
Abstract = {We derive the exact fermionic Green function in an idealized
magnetic field configuration, which becomes exact in the
infinite energy limit. The fields under consideration can be
produced, e.g., in peripheral ultrarelativistic heavy-ion
Key = {Schramm:1992vu}
}

@article{Geiger:1992nj,
Author = {Geiger, K and Müller, B},
Title = {Dynamics of parton cascades in highly relativistic nuclear
collisions},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics B},
Volume = {369},
Number = {3},
Pages = {600-654},
Year = {1992},
ISSN = {0375-9474},
Abstract = {We present a fully relativistic space-time approach for the
simulation of highly-energetic nucleus-nucleus collisions.
The model incorporates the idea of the factorization of
short-range parton-parton interactions and the hadronization
process. The nuclear collisions are described by the time
evolution of the parton distributions in phase space
according to a relativistic transport-equation with a
collision term that embodies the structure of parton-parton
collisions and associated parton emission processes as
calculated in the framework of perturbative QCD. We have
studied A + A collisions from p + p up to 238U + 238U at
center-of-mass energies of 100 GeV/A and 200 GeV/A. Results
for the time evolution of parton multiplicities, transverse
energy production, rapidity and p ⊥ distributions are
presented.},
Key = {Geiger:1992nj}
}

@article{fds318459,
Author = {Geiger, K and Müller, B},
Title = {Dynamics of parton cascades in highly relativistic nuclear
collisions},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {544},
Number = {1-2},
Pages = {467-470},
Year = {1992},
Abstract = {We present a QCD based relativistic kinetic model for high
energy nuclear colisions, which is inspired by the parton
picture of hadronic interactions. The nuclear dynamics is
traced back to the microscopic level of quark and gluon
interactions in the framework of perturbative QCD. The time
evolution of the nuclear system is described in real time by
a relativistic transport equation for the parton
distributions that is solved by Monte Carlo methods. ©
1992.},
Key = {fds318459}
}

@article{Levai:1991be,
Author = {Lévai, P and Müller, B},
Title = {Transverse baryon flow as possible evidence for a
quark-gluon-plasma phase},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {67},
Number = {12},
Pages = {1519-1522},
Year = {1991},
Month = {September},
ISSN = {0031-9007},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.67.1519},
Abstract = {In order to investigate the coupling between collective flow
of nucleons and pions in hot pion-dominated hadronic matter,
we calculate the pion-nucleon drag coefficient in linearized
transport theory. We find that the characteristic time for
flow equalization is longer than the time scale of the
expansion of a hardonic fireball created in high-energy
collisions. The analysis of transverse-momentum data from
p+p collisions at s =1.8 TeV reveals the same flow velocity
for mesons and antinucleons. We argue that this may be
evidence for the formation of a quark-gluon plasma in these
collisions. © 1991 The American Physical
Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.67.1519},
Key = {Levai:1991be}
}

@article{fds304587,
Author = {Scherdin, A and Reinhardt, J and Greiner, W and Müller,
B},
Title = {Low-energy e+e- scattering},
Journal = {Reports on Progress in Physics},
Volume = {54},
Number = {1},
Pages = {1-52},
Year = {1991},
ISSN = {0034-4885},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0034-4885/54/1/001},
Abstract = {Electron-positron scattering provides a model-independent
test for the existence of neutral particles coupling to the
particle resonances X0 in the energy range between threshold
and a few MeV on electron-positron scattering. The
presentation focuses on theoretical aspects, but results of
recent precision measurements of Bhabha scattering and e+e-
annihilation in flight are also briefly surveyed.},
Doi = {10.1088/0034-4885/54/1/001},
Key = {fds304587}
}

@article{fds247212,
Author = {Müller, B and Schramm, AJ},
Title = {Higgs boson production in heavy ion collisions},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {525},
Number = {C},
Pages = {373-377},
Year = {1991},
ISSN = {0375-9474},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0375-9474(91)90348-A},
Abstract = {The idea of producing neutral particles via fusion of
virtual photons accompanying ultra-relaitivistic heavy ions
is reviewed. In particular, the possibility that such a
mechanism could provide a method for producing and detecting
intermediate mass Higgs bosons (MZ ≲ MH ≲ 2MW) is
Doi = {10.1016/0375-9474(91)90348-A},
Key = {fds247212}
}

@article{fds247213,
Author = {Müller, B},
Title = {Strangeness in relativistic heavy ion collisions},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {527},
Number = {C},
Pages = {617-620},
Year = {1991},
ISSN = {0375-9474},
Abstract = {Recently studied aspects of the production of strange
hadrons in relativistic nuclear collisions and their
relevance as a signature of quark-gluon plasma formation are
Key = {fds247213}
}

@article{art108,
Author = {Plunien, G and Müller, B and Greiner, W and Soff,
G},
Title = {Nuclear polarization in heavy atoms and superheavy
quasiatoms},
Journal = {Physical Review A},
Volume = {43},
Number = {11},
Pages = {5853-5866},
Year = {1991},
ISSN = {1050-2947},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.43.5853},
Abstract = {We consider the contribution of nuclear polarization to the
Lamb shift of K- and L-shell electrons in heavy atoms and
quasiatoms. Our formal approach is based on the concept of
effective photon propagators with nuclear-polarization
insertions treating effects of nuclear polarization on the
same footing as usual QED radiative corrections. We
explicitly derive the modification of the photon propagator
for various collective nuclear excitations and calculate the
corresponding effective self-energy shift perturbatively.
The energy shift of the 1s1/2 state in U92238 due to virtual
excitation of nuclear rotational states is shown to be a
considerable correction for atomic high-precision
experiments. In contrast to this, nuclear-polarization
effects are of minor importance for Lamb-shift studies in
Pb82208. © 1991 The American Physical Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevA.43.5853},
Key = {art108}
}

@article{Scherdin:1991xy,
Author = {Scherdin, A and Reinhardt, J and Greiner, W and uuml, M and ller,
B},
Title = {Low-energy e+ e- scattering},
Journal = {Rept. Prog. Phys.},
Volume = {54},
Number = {1},
Pages = {1-52},
Year = {1991},
ISSN = {0034-4885},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0034-4885/54/1/001},
Abstract = {Electron-positron scattering provides a model-independent
test for the existence of neutral particles coupling to the
particle resonances X0 in the energy range between threshold
and a few MeV on electron-positron scattering. The
presentation focuses on theoretical aspects, but results of
recent precision measurements of Bhabha scattering and e+e-
annihilation in flight are also briefly surveyed.},
Doi = {10.1088/0034-4885/54/1/001},
Key = {Scherdin:1991xy}
}

@article{Muller:1991sg,
Author = {Müller, B and Schramm, AJ},
Title = {Higgs boson production in peripheral heavy-ion collisions.
Coherent double-pomeron exchange},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {523},
Number = {3-4},
Pages = {677-693},
Year = {1991},
ISSN = {0375-9474},
Abstract = {Higgs boson production by coherent double-pomeron exchange
in peripheral nuclear collisions at energies of several TeV
per nucleon is calculated. It is shown that a trigger on
quasi-elastic nuclear collisions strongly suppresses the
cross section. The analogous two-photon process is predicted
to dominate for collisions of heavy nuclei. ©
1991.},
Key = {Muller:1991sg}
}

@article{Muller:1991yz,
Author = {uuml, M and ller, B and Schramm, S},
Title = {Quark gluon plasma signatures?},
Journal = {Phys. Rev.},
Volume = {C43},
Pages = {2791-2797},
Year = {1991},
Key = {Muller:1991yz}
}

@article{fds322936,
Author = {Baier, S and Martins, M and Muller, BR and Schulze, M and Zimmermann,
P},
Title = {Investigation of autoionizing levels in the Ag I spectrum
populated by a combination of discharge and laser
excitation},
Journal = {Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical
Physics},
Volume = {23},
Number = {18},
Pages = {3095-3104},
Year = {1990},
Month = {September},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0953-4075/23/18/012},
Doi = {10.1088/0953-4075/23/18/012},
Key = {fds322936}
}

@article{fds247210,
Author = {Geiger, K and Müller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {(η-η′-ι)-mixing, decay and production
mechanisms},
Journal = {Zeitschrift Für Physik C Particles and Fields},
Volume = {48},
Number = {2},
Pages = {257-271},
Year = {1990},
ISSN = {0170-9739},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01554474},
Abstract = {We present a phenomenological model for meson-glueball
mixing and apply it to the mixing of the pseudoscalar mesons
η and η′ with the ι(1440)-particle as the prime
candidate for a 0-+-glueball. Using the MIT bag model
framework, our model incorporates, among other elements,
configuration mixing effects due to virtually excited
states, as well as mixing of quark and gluon components. We
evaluate the portions of quark antiquark and two-gluon
admixtures in η,η′ and ι. The results are used to study
various decay and production processes involving these
particles. In particular, we calculate the radiative and the
2γ-decay widths of the light mesons and make predictions
for the widths of the ι in these channels. Furthermore,
production mechanisms of the light mesons in electromagnetic
and hadronic J/ψ-decays are used to evaluate the branching
ratios for the production of the ι in various
J/ψ-transitions. Our results are generally in reasonable
agreement with experimental data. Especially we predict a
rather large width for the decay ι→ργ and a sizable
production rate for the ι in the transition J/ψ→ωι. ©
1990 Springer-Verlag.},
Doi = {10.1007/BF01554474},
Key = {fds247210}
}

@article{Rau:1990fv,
Author = {Rau, J and Muller, B and Greiner, W and Soff, G},
Title = {Production of supersymmetric particles in ultrarelativistic
heavy-ion collisions},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {16},
Number = {2},
Pages = {211-220},
Year = {1990},
ISSN = {0954-3899},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0954-3899/16/2/010},
Abstract = {Heavy ions with energies of some TeV per nucleon can be
considered as carriers of intense photon fields. In
peripheral collisions elementary particles with masses up to
a few 100 GeV can be produced via two-photon processes. The
authors evaluate total cross sections for the formation of
charged supersymmetric particles, namely sleptons and winos,
in Pb+Pb collisions. At LHC energy Eion=3.5 TeV/u and for
rest masses of around m=50 GeV they obtain sigma (w+w-)
sigma ((W+, w-)) approximately=10 nb and sigma (l+, l-)
approximately=1 nb. Basic features of an impact
parameter-dependent treatment of the production mechanism
are discussed.},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/16/2/010},
Key = {Rau:1990fv}
}

@article{Geiger:1990fy,
Author = {Geiger, K and uuml, M and ller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {(eta - eta-prime - iota) mixing, decay and production
mechanisms},
Journal = {Z. Phys. C},
Volume = {48},
Pages = {257-272},
Year = {1990},
Key = {Geiger:1990fy}
}

@article{Ionescu:1990qt,
Author = {Lonescu, DC and Reinhardt, J and Müller, B and Greiner, W and Soff,
G},
Title = {Localized bound states of fermions interacting via massive
vector bosons},
Journal = {Journal of Mathematical Physics},
Volume = {31},
Number = {3},
Pages = {763-770},
Year = {1990},
ISSN = {0022-2488},
Abstract = {A model for composite systems consisting of fermions with
internal degrees of freedom interacting via intermediate
vector bosons (IVB) is constructed. Highly localized,
low-mass bound states are found in the Hartree-Fock
approximation. The dependence of these states as function of
the coupling constant and vector boson mass is investigated.
In the limit of infinite vector boson mass the interaction
is described by Fermi-type contact forces. © 1990 American
Institute of Physics.},
Key = {Ionescu:1990qt}
}

@article{Harley:1990wp,
Author = {Harley, D and uuml, M and ller, B and Rafelski, J},
Title = {Muon catalyzed fusion for nuclei with Z >
1},
Journal = {J. Phys. G},
Volume = {16},
Pages = {281-294},
Year = {1990},
Key = {Harley:1990wp}
}

@article{art107,
Author = {Harley, D and Müller, B and Rafelski, J},
Title = {Time independent description of the t(d, n)α fusion
reaction in the presence of a muon},
Journal = {Zeitschrift fur Physik. A, Atomic nuclei},
Volume = {336},
Number = {3},
Pages = {303-312},
Year = {1990},
ISSN = {0930-1151},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01292861},
Abstract = {We describe the (α n μ)-(d t μ) continuum above and below
the d+(t μ)1s threshold using the R-matrix formalism. The
continuum is explicitly constructed in an adiabatic
approximation, and the asymptotic phase shifts and
amplitudes in all channels are obtained. The energy
eigenstates are used to compute the fusion reaction cross
section for in-flight d+(t μ) fusion, and fusion reaction
rates involving transitions from the d+(t μ)1s continuum to
be below threshold continuum states. © 1990
Springer-Verlag.},
Doi = {10.1007/BF01292861},
Key = {art107}
}

@article{art106,
Author = {Rafelski, HE and Müller, B},
Title = {PC-fortran programs for muon reactivation calculations in
muon-cataluzed fusion},
Journal = {Computer Physics Communications},
Volume = {59},
Number = {3},
Pages = {521-526},
Year = {1990},
ISSN = {0010-4655},
Abstract = {The introduction of a μ- particle into a mixture of
hydrogen isotopes brings about a repetitive cycle of
processes leading to nuclear fusion and the release of
energy. Sticking is one of the critical processes limiting
the number of fusions induced by one muon during its
lifetime. When the (αμ)+ ion created with the energy
E=3.46 MeV is slowed down in a dense DT mixture, the muon
can be stripped (reactivated), thus allowing the muon to
equations describing the reaction process are solved using
the computer code as documented by L.F. Shampine and M.K.
Gordon [Computer Solution of Ordinary Differential
Equations, the initial value problem (Freeman, San
Key = {art106}
}

@article{Muller:1990wc,
Author = {uuml, M and ller, B and Schramm, AJ},
Title = {Higgs boson production to peripheral heavy ion collisions.
1. Electromagnetic production},
Journal = {Phys. Rev.},
Volume = {D42},
Pages = {3699-3704},
Year = {1990},
Key = {Muller:1990wc}
}

@article{Augustin:1990hc,
Author = {Augustin, J and uuml, M and ller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {Magnetic neutrino scattering by crystals},
Journal = {Phys. Rev.},
Volume = {D41},
Pages = {1683-1686},
Year = {1990},
Key = {Augustin:1990hc}
}

@article{Sailer:1990ia,
Author = {Sailer, K and Schönfeld, T and Schäfer, A and Müller, B and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Transverse size effects in the fragmentation of hadronic
strings},
Journal = {Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and
High-Energy Physics},
Volume = {240},
Number = {3-4},
Pages = {381-388},
Year = {1990},
Abstract = {The transverse momentum distribution of (anti)quarks created
in the chromo-electric field of an infinitely long hadronic
flux tube is derived. The effects of the finite radius of
the hadronic strings on their fragmentation are studied
simulating e+e- annihilation events in the framework of a
dynamical string model that contains two parameters: the
string tension κ=0.89 GeV/fm (determined by the Regge
slope), and the radius of the string. It is shown that a
successfully both the width of the transverse momentum
distribution in the low-pT region and the
multiplicities.},
Key = {Sailer:1990ia}
}

@article{Sailer:1990wa,
Author = {Sailer, K and Greiner, W and uuml, M and ller, B},
Title = {Hadronic matter in the string model},
Journal = {Adv. Ser. Direct. High Energy Phys.},
Volume = {6},
Pages = {299-392},
Year = {1990},
Key = {Sailer:1990wa}
}

@article{Schram:1990ej,
Author = {Schram, Z and Sailer, K and Müller, B and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Boson interferometry in string fragmentation},
Journal = {Zeitschrift Für Physik C Particles and Fields},
Volume = {47},
Number = {1},
Pages = {137-139},
Year = {1990},
ISSN = {0170-9739},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01551924},
Abstract = {Bose-Einstein correlation of identical pions in e+e-
annihilation at {Mathematical expression} GeV c.m. energy is
studied within the framework of a dynamic string model of
hadrons. It is shown that taking Fourier transform of the
measured correlation function is not a totally satisfactory
method to get information on the size of the pion source. ©
1990 Springer-Verlag.},
Doi = {10.1007/BF01551924},
Key = {Schram:1990ej}
}

@article{Augustin:1990rt,
Author = {Augustin, J and Graf, S and Müller, B and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Production of hypothetical, light neutral particles in
high-energy channeling},
Journal = {Zeitschrift fur Physik. A, Atomic nuclei},
Volume = {336},
Number = {3},
Pages = {353-356},
Year = {1990},
ISSN = {0930-1151},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01292868},
Abstract = {The rates for X° creation by photons and electrons
channeling along a crystal axis are estimated. The process
is found to depend strongly on the parameters of the crystal
fields. Promising X° production rates can therefore be
obtained for germanium rather than for lighter elements. ©
1990 Springer-Verlag.},
Doi = {10.1007/BF01292868},
Key = {Augustin:1990rt}
}

@article{Schenfeld:1990yu,
Author = {Schönfeld, T and Schäfer, A and Müller, B and Sailer, K and Reinhardt, J and Greiner, W},
Title = {Pair creation in a flux tube},
Journal = {Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and
High-Energy Physics},
Volume = {247},
Number = {1},
Pages = {5-12},
Year = {1990},
Abstract = {We have studied the pair creation rate in a cylindrical
region of space with a homogeneous electric field parallel
to the cylinder axis. MIT boundary conditions on the surface
of the cylinder are imposed. The wave functions of the
created particles are calculated. In the limit of the
cylinder radius tending towards infinity, the Schwinger
formula is reproduced. Finally, the fraction of produced
strange particles is studied as a function of the cylinder
Key = {Schenfeld:1990yu}
}

@article{Biro:1990vj,
Author = {Biro, TS and Levai, P and uuml, M and ller, B},
Title = {Strangeness production with 'massive' gluons},
Journal = {Phys. Rev.},
Volume = {D42},
Pages = {3078-3087},
Year = {1990},
Key = {Biro:1990vj}
}

@article{fds322937,
Author = {Griepenkerl, K and Müller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {Electron density waves in superconducting
matter},
Journal = {Radiation Effects & Defects in Solids},
Volume = {110},
Number = {1-2},
Pages = {215-216},
Year = {1989},
Month = {October},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10420158908214201},
Doi = {10.1080/10420158908214201},
Key = {fds322937}
}

@article{Sailer:1989eh,
Author = {Sailer, K. and Müller, B. and Greiner,
W.},
Title = {Numerical simulation of the equation of state for the
hadronic matter within the string model},
Journal = {Int. J. Mod. Phys. A},
Volume = {A},
Pages = {437},
Year = {1989},
Key = {Sailer:1989eh}
}

@article{art100,
Author = {deReus, T and uuml, M and ller Nehler, U and Soff, G and Reinhardt, J and uuml, M and ller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {Coupled-channel results for atomic excitations in
intermediate energy heavy ion collisions},
Journal = {Phys. Rev. C},
Volume = {40},
Pages = {752-761},
Year = {1989},
Key = {art100}
}

@article{art99,
Author = {Ionescu, DC and Reinhardt, J and uuml, M and ller, B and Greiner, W and Soff, G},
Title = {Reply to Comment on Nonlinear interactions and
poly-positronium bound states'},
Journal = {J. Phys. G},
Volume = {15},
Pages = {931-932},
Year = {1989},
Key = {art99}
}

@article{art98,
Author = {Ionescu, DC and uuml, M and ller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {Strongly bound bipositronium states in QED?},
Journal = {J. Phys. G},
Volume = {15},
Pages = {L103-L108},
Year = {1989},
Key = {art98}
}

@article{art102,
Author = {Augustin, J and Müller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {Spin exchange in low energy electron-ion
collisions},
Journal = {Zeitschrift für Physik D-Atoms Molecules and
Clusters},
Volume = {14},
Number = {4},
Pages = {317-326},
Year = {1989},
ISSN = {0178-7683},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01429281},
Abstract = {The elastic scattering of an electron by a hydrogenic ion of
charge (Z-1) is investigated. For scattering energies Ekin
in the eV region, where the Bohr-Sommerfeld parameter y is
large compared to one, the cross section for spin exchange
of the electrons is found to be proportional to Z-2 and
E-1kin. Spin exchange is dominated by radiative electron
capture for Z&gt;25. © 1989 Springer-Verlag.},
Doi = {10.1007/BF01429281},
Key = {art102}
}

@article{Neubauer:1989wr,
Author = {Neubauer, DSKM and uuml, and ller, BS and ouml, and cker, H and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Survival of J/Psi in hadronic matter at high energy
density},
Journal = {Mod. Phys. Lett. A},
Volume = {4},
Pages = {1627-1634},
Year = {1989},
Key = {Neubauer:1989wr}
}

@article{Greiner:1989ig,
Author = {Greiner, C and Müller, B},
Title = {Pair correlations of neutral strange particles emitted in
relativistic heavy ion collisions},
Journal = {Physics Letters B},
Volume = {219},
Number = {2-3},
Pages = {199-204},
Year = {1989},
ISSN = {0370-2693},
Abstract = {We point out the possible role of neutral strange particles
(Λ, KoS) as probes for the size of a baryon-rich fireball
formed in relativistic nuclear collisions. A striking
difference in the size parameters determined by the hyperons
on one hand, and kaons or pions on the other hand, may occur
in the case of a phase transition to a quark-gluon plasma.
Key = {Greiner:1989ig}
}

@article{art105,
Author = {Sailer, K and uuml, M and ller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {Numerical simulation of the equation of state for hadronic
matter within the string model},
Journal = {Int. J. Mod. Phys. A},
Volume = {4},
Pages = {437-449},
Year = {1989},
Key = {art105}
}

@article{Graf:1989vw,
Author = {Graf, S and Schramm, S and Reinhardt, J and Muller, B and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Composite particle decay as a possible source of
e+e- lines in heavy-ion
collisions},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {15},
Number = {9},
Pages = {1467-1494},
Year = {1989},
ISSN = {0954-3899},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0954-3899/15/9/017},
Abstract = {The authors discuss an extended particle structure whose
decay into e +e- may be the source of the correlated
electron-positron coincidences in heavy-ion collisions
measured at GSI. The general properties of the particle,
like its excitation spectrum and lifetime, are calculated.
The production of the particle in heavy-ion collisions and
its influence on other experiments is studied.},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/15/9/017},
Key = {Graf:1989vw}
}

@article{Rafelski:1989wq,
Author = {Rafelski, HE and Müller, B and Rafelski, J and Trautmann, D and Viollier, RD},
Title = {Muon reactivation in muon-catalyzed D-T fusion},
Journal = {Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics},
Volume = {22},
Number = {C},
Pages = {279-338},
Year = {1989},
ISSN = {0146-6410},
Abstract = {We comprehensively reanalyze and search for the density
dependence of the effective muon alpha sticking fraction
ωsff observed experimentally in muon catalyzed
deuterium-tritium fusion. In our work particular emphasis
has been put on the density dependent dense hydrogen
stopping power. The main technical details and improvements
in this work are: The (αμ)+ 2s and 2p states are treated
independently and are assigned individual reaction rates.
The essential muonic excitation rates have been recalculated
taking into account finite nuclear mass effects. The
stopping power for a charged projectile in liquid heavy
hydrogen is modified to account for dynamic screening
effects and a density dependent effective ionization
potential. It is shown that the medium dependent stopping
power for the (αμ)+ ion is the crucial factor controlling
the density dependence of the effective sticking fraction.
It is also pointed out that the muonic helium Kα X-ray
yield and the sticking fraction at high density can not be
simultaneously brought into agreement with the experimental
results without invoking novel mechanisms suppressing Stark
mixing in the (Heμ) L-shell. © 1989.},
Key = {Rafelski:1989wq}
}

@article{Grabiak:1989uf,
Author = {Grabiak, M and Muller, B and Greiner, W and Soff, G and Koch,
P},
Title = {Electroweak physics at ultrarelativistic heavy-ion
colliders},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle
Physics},
Volume = {15},
Number = {3},
Pages = {L25-L30},
Year = {1989},
ISSN = {0954-3899},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0954-3899/15/3/001},
Abstract = {Nuclear beams with energies of several TeV per nucleon are
considered as carriers of intense fields of photons in the
energy range up to 100 GeV. Cross sections for intermediate
boson and Higgs production by two-photon collisions are
predicted to be in the nanobarn range. Production of heavy
neutral particles in peripheral collision could be easily
detectable because of low background.},
Doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/15/3/001},
Key = {Grabiak:1989uf}
}

@article{art104,
Author = {uuml, M and ller, B and Rafelski, HE and Rafelski,
J},
Title = {Muon spectrum and convoy effects after muon catalyzed
fusion},
Journal = {Phys. Rev. A},
Volume = {40},
Pages = {2839-2842},
Year = {1989},
Key = {art104}
}

@article{art103,
Author = {Sch, and auml, and fer, ASGIPM and uuml, and ller, B and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Atomic parity violation in U(90+)$}, Journal = {Phys. Rev. A}, Volume = {40}, Number = {12}, Pages = {7362-7365}, Year = {1989}, ISSN = {1050-2947}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.40.7362}, Abstract = {Parity mixing of electron states should be extremely strong for heliumlike uranium. We calculate its size and discuss whether it could be determined experimentally. We analyze one specific scheme for such an experiment. The required laser intensities for two-photon spectroscopy of the 23P0-2 1S0level splitting is of the order of 1017 W/cm2. A determination of parity mixing would require at least 1021 W/cm2. Â© 1989 The American Physical Society.}, Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevA.40.7362}, Key = {art103} } @article{art101, Author = {Plunien, G and Müller, B and Greiner, W and Soff, G}, Title = {Nuclear polarization contribution to the Lamb shift in heavy atoms}, Journal = {Physical Review A}, Volume = {39}, Number = {10}, Pages = {5428-5431}, Year = {1989}, ISSN = {1050-2947}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.39.5428}, Abstract = {The energy shift of the 1s1/2 state in U92238 due to virtual excitation of nuclear rotational modes is shown to be a considerable correction for atomic high-precision experiments. In contrast to this, nuclear polarization effects are of minor importance for Lamb-shift studies in Pb82208. © 1989 The American Physical Society.}, Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevA.39.5428}, Key = {art101} } @article{fds304604, Author = {Schäfer, A and Soff, G and Indelicato, P and Müller, B and Greiner, W}, Title = {Prospects for an atomic parity-violation experiment in U90+}, Journal = {Physical Review A}, Volume = {40}, Number = {12}, Pages = {7362-7365}, Year = {1989}, ISSN = {1050-2947}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.40.7362}, Abstract = {Parity mixing of electron states should be extremely strong for heliumlike uranium. We calculate its size and discuss whether it could be determined experimentally. We analyze one specific scheme for such an experiment. The required laser intensities for two-photon spectroscopy of the 23P0-2 1S0level splitting is of the order of 1017 W/cm2. A determination of parity mixing would require at least 1021 W/cm2. © 1989 The American Physical Society.}, Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevA.40.7362}, Key = {fds304604} } @article{fds247266, Author = {Greiner, C and Rischke, D and Rufa, M and Müller, B and Stöcker, H and Maruhn, J and Greiner, W and Koch, P and G-Reinhard, P}, Title = {Strangeness and heavy ion reactions}, Journal = {Nuclear Physics A}, Volume = {479}, Number = {C}, Pages = {295-309}, Year = {1988}, ISSN = {0375-9474}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0375-9474(88)90445-9}, Abstract = {We investigate possible consequences of strangeness formation in heavy ion reactions at different excitation energies. First of all we study ground state properties of multi-Λ hypernuclei. They seem to have strongly enhanced interaction radii and could be observed and produced in secondary non charge changing reactions of high energy heavy ions. At higher energies we present nonequilibrium calculations for hadronisation and evolution of strange particles and discuss their usefulness for quark matter diagnostics. Furthermore, we discuss the possibility of multistrange quark droplet formation during the phase transition from quark to hadron matter. © 1988.}, Doi = {10.1016/0375-9474(88)90445-9}, Key = {fds247266} } @article{art97, Author = {Graf, S and Reinhardt, J and Müller, U and Müller, B and Greiner, W and Reus, TD and Soff, G}, Title = {Electronic excitations in heavy ion collisions with sequential fission}, Journal = {Zeitschrift fur Physik. A, Atomic nuclei}, Volume = {329}, Number = {3}, Pages = {365-369}, Year = {1988}, ISSN = {0930-1151}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01290242}, Abstract = {We calculate δ-electron and positron distributions resulting from heavy ion collisions under consideration of a sequential fission in the outgoing channel. The resulting spectra are found to be only weakly sensitive to the underlying dynamics of the fission process. Thus experiments of deep inelastic scattering provide information mainly on the primary reaction process. © 1988 Springer-Verlag.}, Doi = {10.1007/BF01290242}, Key = {art97} } @article{art96, Author = {uuml, M and ller, U and deReus, T and Reinhardt, J and uuml, M and ller, B and Greiner, W and Soff, G}, Title = {Positron production in crossed beams of bare uranium nuclei}, Journal = {Phys. Rev. A}, Volume = {37}, Number = {5}, Pages = {1149-1455}, Year = {1988}, ISSN = {1050-2947}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.37.1449}, Abstract = {Positron creation in crossed-beam collisions of high-energy, fully stripped heavy ions is investigated within the coupled-channel formalism. In comparison with fixed-target collisions of highly stripped heavy-ion projectiles positron production probabilities are enhanced by more than one order of magnitude. The increase results from the possibility to excite electrons from the negative energy continuum into all bound states. The positron spectrum is shifted towards higher energies because of the absence of electron screening. Rutherford scattering as well as nuclear collisions with time delay are investigated. We also discuss the filling of empty bound states by electrons from pair-production processes. Â© 1988 The American Physical Society.}, Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevA.37.1449}, Key = {art96} } @article{art95, Author = {Graf, O and Reinhardt, J and uuml, M and ller, B and Greiner, W and Soff, G}, Title = {Angular correlations of coincident electron-positron pairs produced in heavy ion collisions with nuclear time delay}, Journal = {Phys. Rev. Lett.}, Volume = {61}, Pages = {2831-2834}, Year = {1988}, Key = {art95} } @article{art94, Author = {Reus, TD and Müller-Nchler, U and Soff, G and Graf, O and Müller, B and Greiner, W}, Title = {Can multiple structures in positron spectra be caused by atomic effects?}, Journal = {Zeitschrift für Physik D-Atoms Molecules and Clusters}, Volume = {8}, Number = {4}, Pages = {305-313}, Year = {1988}, ISSN = {0178-7683}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01437096}, Abstract = {In recent experiments at least two structures have been detected in positron spectra from subcritical (total charge Z ≦ 174) heavy-ion collisions at bombarding energies ELab=5.7-5.9 MeV/n. The origin of these structures is unexplained up to now. Atomic effects have already been discussed as a possible source in a previous paper, where a schematic ansatz for the electronic transition matrix elements was employed. Meanwhile numerical calculations for K-vacancy formation also exhibited oscillations in the impact parameter dependence when using this ansatz. In this paper we report on a scaling law describing these oscillations. As a consequence certain subsidiary conditions have to be imposed on our schematic ansatz, which in turn yield a new understanding on eligible atomic sources for multiple structures in the emission spectra of positrons. © 1988 Springer-Verlag.}, Doi = {10.1007/BF01437096}, Key = {art94} } @article{art93, Author = {Ionescu, DC and Reinhardt, J and uuml, M and ller, B and Greiner, W and Soff, G}, Title = {Nonlinear extensions of the Dirac equation and their implications in quantum electrodynamics}, Journal = {Phys. Rev. A}, Volume = {38}, Number = {2}, Pages = {616-620}, Year = {1988}, ISSN = {1050-2947}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.38.616}, Abstract = {We investigate the influence of additional nonlinear terms in the Dirac Lagrangian on strongly bound electron states in heavy and superheavy atoms. Upper bounds for the coupling constants are deduced by comparison with precision spectroscopy data in QED. We demonstrate that nonlinear interactions may cause significant modifications of electron binding energies in superheavy quasiatomic systems which would not be visible in ordinary atomic-physics measurements. Â© 1988 The American Physical Society.}, Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevA.38.616}, Key = {art93} } @article{Schaefer:1988pq, Author = {Sch, and auml, and fer, AM and uuml, and ller, B and Greiner, W}, Title = {Local vacuum excitations in strong electromagnetic fields?}, Journal = {Int. J. Mod. Phys. A}, Volume = {3}, Pages = {1751-1757}, Year = {1988}, Key = {Schaefer:1988pq} } @article{Koch:1988nn, Author = {Koch, PM and uuml, and ller, BS and ouml, and cker, H and Greiner, W}, Title = {Antibaryon-baryon ratios as a signal for quark gluon plasma formation}, Journal = {Mod. Phys. Lett. A}, Volume = {3}, Pages = {737-742}, Year = {1988}, Key = {Koch:1988nn} } @article{Schramm:1988np, Author = {Schramm, S and uuml, M and ller, B and Reinhardt, J and Greiner, W}, Title = {Decay of a composite particle as a hypothetical explanation of e+ e- coincidences observed at GSI}, Journal = {Mod. Phys. Lett. A}, Volume = {3}, Pages = {783-793}, Year = {1988}, Key = {Schramm:1988np} } @article{Paulus:1988rn, Author = {Paulus, AFM and uuml, M and ller, B and Greiner, W and Vasak, D}, Title = {Fission of heavy quarkonia in the deformed MIT-bag model}, Journal = {J. Phys. G}, Volume = {14}, Pages = {269-285}, Year = {1988}, Key = {Paulus:1988rn} } @article{Ionescu:1988vq, Author = {Ionescu, DC and Reinhardt, J and Muller, B and Greiner, W and Soff, G}, Title = {Nonlinear interactions and poly-positronium bound states}, Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear Physics}, Volume = {14}, Number = {6}, Pages = {L143-L152}, Year = {1988}, ISSN = {0305-4616}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0305-4616/14/6/004}, Abstract = {The creation of a hypothetical many-electron-positron bound system was suggested as a possible source of the correlated peaks observed in the e + and e- spectra of various heavy-ion collisions. A new electron-electron interaction was assumed, which becomes large in high-Z nuclear collisions. The authors investigate energy states of such (e+e -)n clusters, bound by scalar and vector Fermi-type interactions. For the bi-positronium system (e+e-) 2 they derive a single-particle equation employing the Hartree-Fock method. The required values of the coupling constants are found to be inconsistent with precision QED experiments.}, Doi = {10.1088/0305-4616/14/6/004}, Key = {Ionescu:1988vq} } @article{Kim:1988kv, Author = {Kim, SK and uuml, M and ller, B and Greiner, W}, Title = {Bethe-Salpeter equation for a four fermion system}, Journal = {Mod. Phys. Lett. A}, Volume = {3}, Pages = {953-963}, Year = {1988}, Key = {Kim:1988kv} } @article{Grabiak:1988yh, Author = {Grabiak, M and Müller, B and Greiner, W}, Title = {Exclusion of quasi-bound e+ e- states at MeV energies within the framework of QED}, Journal = {Annals of Physics}, Volume = {185}, Number = {2}, Pages = {284-300}, Year = {1988}, ISSN = {0003-4916}, Abstract = {We give general arguments that no narrow quasi-bound e+ e- state can exist above 2me. We extend the virial theorem of QED to quasi-bound states and show that corrections due to renormalization and due to the fact that a resonance is not an energy eigenstate are small. A "magnetically bound" e+ e- state with energy above 2me would violate this extended virial theorem. © 1988.}, Key = {Grabiak:1988yh} } @article{Geiger:1988bt, Author = {Geiger, K and Reinhardt, J and uuml, M and ller, B and Greiner, W}, Title = {Magnetic moment interactions in the e$^{-}$-e$^{+}\$
system},
Journal = {Z. Phys. A},
Volume = {329},
Number = {1},
Pages = {77-88},
Year = {1988},
ISSN = {0930-1151},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01294818},
Abstract = {We have studied the possible existence of quasibound states
of an electron-positron pair due to their magnetic
interaction in the framework of the equations suggested by
Barut et al. [5]. We derive radial equations for all angular
quantum numbers of the e--e+ system and show, in detail,
that Barut's equations doe not give a consistent, physically
satisfactory description of positronium, except in the
non-relativistic approximation (up to terms of order m
Î±2). Moreover, we do not find evidence that the effective
potentials occurring in the radial equations support
magnetic resonances of the e--e+ system at short particle
Springer-Verlag.},
Doi = {10.1007/BF01294818},
Key = {Geiger:1988bt}
}

@article{Heuer:1988st,
Author = {Heuer, R and Müller, B and Stöcker, H and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Coherent photon production in heavy-ion collisions at
intermediate energies},
Journal = {Zeitschrift fur Physik. A, Atomic nuclei},
Volume = {330},
Number = {3},
Pages = {315-318},
Year = {1988},
ISSN = {0930-1151},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01294876},
Abstract = {We have studied photon production in heavy-ion collisions at
intermediate energies in the Molecular Dynamics approach,
where the radiation amplitudes have been derived from the
many-body dynamics in the classical bremsstrahlung
formalism. This concept allows for a comparison of cross
sections obtained by coherent and incoherent summation of
amplitudes. The numerical results show a significant
enhancement of the coherent cross section for photon
energies below 40 MeV due to the dynamical influence of the
nuclear mean field. © 1988 Springer-Verlag.},
Doi = {10.1007/BF01294876},
Key = {Heuer:1988st}
}

@article{fds304601,
Author = {Ionescu, DC and Reinhardt, J and Müller, B and Greiner, W and Soff,
G},
Title = {Nonlinear extensions of the Dirac equation and their
implications in QED},
Journal = {Physical Review A},
Volume = {38},
Number = {2},
Pages = {616-620},
Year = {1988},
ISSN = {1050-2947},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.38.616},
Abstract = {We investigate the influence of additional nonlinear terms
in the Dirac Lagrangian on strongly bound electron states in
heavy and superheavy atoms. Upper bounds for the coupling
constants are deduced by comparison with precision
spectroscopy data in QED. We demonstrate that nonlinear
interactions may cause significant modifications of electron
binding energies in superheavy quasiatomic systems which
would not be visible in ordinary atomic-physics
measurements. © 1988 The American Physical
Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevA.38.616},
Key = {fds304601}
}

@article{fds304602,
Author = {Müller, U and Reus, TD and Reinhardt, J and Müller, B and Greiner, W and Soff, G},
Title = {Positron production in crossed beams of bare uranium
nuclei},
Journal = {Physical Review A},
Volume = {37},
Number = {5},
Pages = {1449-1455},
Year = {1988},
ISSN = {1050-2947},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.37.1449},
Abstract = {Positron creation in crossed-beam collisions of high-energy,
fully stripped heavy ions is investigated within the
coupled-channel formalism. In comparison with fixed-target
collisions of highly stripped heavy-ion projectiles positron
production probabilities are enhanced by more than one order
of magnitude. The increase results from the possibility to
excite electrons from the negative energy continuum into all
bound states. The positron spectrum is shifted towards
higher energies because of the absence of electron
screening. Rutherford scattering as well as nuclear
collisions with time delay are investigated. We also discuss
the filling of empty bound states by electrons from
pair-production processes. © 1988 The American Physical
Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevA.37.1449},
Key = {fds304602}
}

@article{fds304603,
Author = {Geiger, K and Reinhardt, J and Müller, B and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Magnetic moment interactions in the e--e+
system},
Journal = {Zeitschrift fur Physik. A, Atomic nuclei},
Volume = {329},
Number = {1},
Pages = {77-88},
Year = {1988},
ISSN = {0930-1151},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01294818},
Abstract = {We have studied the possible existence of quasibound states
of an electron-positron pair due to their magnetic
interaction in the framework of the equations suggested by
Barut et al. [5]. We derive radial equations for all angular
quantum numbers of the e--e+ system and show, in detail,
that Barut's equations doe not give a consistent, physically
satisfactory description of positronium, except in the
non-relativistic approximation (up to terms of order m α2).
Moreover, we do not find evidence that the effective
potentials occurring in the radial equations support
magnetic resonances of the e--e+ system at short particle
Doi = {10.1007/BF01294818},
Key = {fds304603}
}

@article{fds322938,
Author = {Soff, G and Schlüter, P and Reinhardt, J and Reus, TD and Wietschorke,
K-H and Schäfer, A and Graf, S and Müller, U and Müller, B and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Puzzling positron peaks in heavy-ion collisions},
Journal = {Physica Scripta},
Volume = {36},
Number = {5},
Pages = {743-755},
Year = {1987},
Month = {November},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0031-8949/36/5/002},
Doi = {10.1088/0031-8949/36/5/002},
Key = {fds322938}
}

@article{fds247209,
Author = {Müller, B},
Title = {Strange particles as signature of the quark-gluon plasma: A
status report},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {461},
Number = {1-2},
Pages = {213-224},
Year = {1987},
ISSN = {0375-9474},
Abstract = {The prospects of detecting the formation of a quark-gluon
plasma in nuclear collisions at very high energy are
reviewed. Predictions that the strange versus nonstrange
antibaryon ratio is a good signal in the baryon-"rich"
region are confirmed. The usefulness of this ratio in the
baryon-free region depends on the length of the coexistence
1987.},
Key = {fds247209}
}

@article{art92,
Author = {Schramm, S and Müller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {Description of multi-particle cluster correlations in the
ground state of many-body systems},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear Physics},
Volume = {13},
Number = {5},
Pages = {L69-L73},
Year = {1987},
ISSN = {0305-4616},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0305-4616/13/5/003},
Abstract = {A new method to describe the presence of multi-particle
clusters in the ground state (vacuum) of a many-body system
is presented. It relies on a unitary transformation in Fock
space and can be used to investigate alpha -clustering in
nuclei as well as clustering in the QCD and in the QED
vacua.},
Doi = {10.1088/0305-4616/13/5/003},
Key = {art92}
}

@article{art91,
Author = {Heinz, H and Müller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {The relativistic fermi gas in a nonuniform velocity
field},
Journal = {Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and Its
Applications},
Volume = {140},
Number = {3},
Pages = {567-584},
Year = {1987},
ISSN = {0378-4371},
Abstract = {We review the relativistic Fermi gas in an inhomogeneous
velocity field and calculate components of the current
vector and the energy-momentum tensor in a comoving frame.
We derive quantum corrections to the classical distribution
function in the framework of the grand canonical ensemble.
Key = {art91}
}

@article{art90,
Author = {Danos, M and uuml, M and ller, B and Rafelski, J},
Title = {Comment on Muon alpha-particle sticking probability in muon
catalyzed fusion'},
Journal = {Phys. Rev. A},
Volume = {35},
Pages = {2741-2743},
Year = {1987},
Key = {art90}
}

@article{art89,
Author = {Müller, B and Takigawa, N},
Title = {How adiabatic is quantum tunneling?},
Journal = {Annals of Physics},
Volume = {173},
Number = {1},
Pages = {163-184},
Year = {1987},
ISSN = {0003-4916},
Abstract = {We consider the coupling between collective and intrinsic
degrees of freedom of a many-dimensional quantum system. We
give a criterion for the validity of the adiabatic
approximation in tunneling processes and derive an equation
for the "lag" of the intrinsic wave function with respect to
the adiabatic groundstate. Solutions for several simple
Key = {art89}
}

@article{art88,
Author = {Graf, O and Reinhardt, J and Reus, TD and Müller, B and Greiner, W and Soff, G},
Title = {Angular correlations of electron-positron pairs produced in
heavy-ion collisions},
Journal = {Zeitschrift fur Physik. A, Atomic nuclei},
Volume = {328},
Number = {1},
Pages = {81-84},
Year = {1987},
ISSN = {0930-1151},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01295185},
Abstract = {We investigate the strength of angular correlations between
coincident electron-positron pairs produced in Pb + Pb
collisions at 5.7 MeV/u. The angular correlations are
predicted to be observable at electron energies above 200
keV, almost independent of positron energy. © 1987
Springer-Verlag.},
Doi = {10.1007/BF01295185},
Key = {art88}
}

@article{art87,
Author = {Mehler, G and uuml, M and ller, B and Greiner, W and Soff,
G},
Title = {K-shell ionization by antiprotons},
Journal = {Phys. Rev. A},
Volume = {36},
Pages = {1454-1457},
Year = {1987},
Key = {art87}
}

@article{art86,
Author = {Mehler, G and Reinhardt, J and Müller, B and Greiner, W and Soff,
G},
Title = {Calculation of L3 subshell alignment within a
coupled-state formalism},
Journal = {Zeitschrift für Physik D-Atoms Molecules and
Clusters},
Volume = {5},
Number = {2},
Pages = {143-145},
Year = {1987},
ISSN = {0178-7683},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01436888},
Abstract = {Theoretical results for the impact parameter dependence of
the A20 alignment parameter are compared with experimental
data. The calculations have been performed within a coupled
channel formalism, using relativistic atomic wave functions
as basis states. © 1987 Springer-Verlag.},
Doi = {10.1007/BF01436888},
Key = {art86}
}

@article{art85,
Author = {Reus, TD and Reinhardt, J and Müller, U and Müller, B and Greiner, W and Soff, G},
Title = {Positron and delta electron emission in the systems Ta + Th
and Au + U},
Journal = {Physica B: Physics of Condensed Matter & C: Atomic,
Molecular and Plasma Physics, Optics},
Volume = {144},
Number = {2},
Pages = {237-246},
Year = {1987},
ISSN = {0378-4363},
Abstract = {We present theoretical positron- and δ-electron spectra for
the sub-critical systems Ta + Th (Ztot = 163) and U + Au
(Ztot = 171) as a function of impact parameter b and
laboratory angle θL. For the system Ta + Th in addition the
excitation function for dynamical positron emission in the
vicinity of the Coulomb barrier was evaluated. Assuming the
formation of long-lived giant nuclei, we determine the
kinetic energy Te+ at which spontaneous positron emission
occurs as a function of Ztot. For constant values of Te+ we
evaluated the corresponding nuclear densities in dependence
on the total nuclear charge. © 1987.},
Key = {art85}
}

@article{art84,
Author = {Schramm, S and Reinhardt, J and Müller, B and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Electron-positron scattering matrix in supercritical
heavy-ion collisions},
Journal = {Physics Letters B},
Volume = {198},
Number = {2},
Pages = {136-138},
Year = {1987},
ISSN = {0370-2693},
Abstract = {The scattering matrix describing the electron-positron
excitation during a heavy-ion collision is discussed. It is
shown that spontaneous positron emission in the presence of
a long nuclear delay time precisely corresponds to the
formal resonance condition of Scharf. ©
1987.},
Key = {art84}
}

@article{art83,
Author = {Reinhardt, J and Scherdin, A and Müller, B and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Resonant Bhabha scattering at MeV energies},
Journal = {Zeitschrift fur Physik. A, Atomic nuclei},
Volume = {327},
Number = {4},
Pages = {367-381},
Year = {1987},
ISSN = {0930-1151},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01289561},
Abstract = {We discuss, on a phenomenological level, the possible
appearance of resonances in e++e- scattering at energies in
the MeV region. The expected resonance cross section and
angular distribution are examined. The observability depends
crucially on the attainable energy resolution which is limit
by the momentum distribution of the electrons contained in
Doi = {10.1007/BF01289561},
Key = {art83}
}

@article{Tupper:1987sf,
Author = {Tupper, G and Danos, M and Müller, B and Rafelski,
J},
Title = {On the detection of cosmic-background neutrinos by acoustic
phonon scattering},
Journal = {Physical Review D},
Volume = {35},
Number = {1},
Pages = {394-396},
Year = {1987},
ISSN = {0556-2821},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.35.394},
Abstract = {We examine the possible detection of cosmic-background
neutrinos by coherent neutrino-phonon scattering. Our
conclusion is that at least for simple detector schemes the
reaction rate is unobservably small. © 1987 The American
Physical Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.35.394},
Key = {Tupper:1987sf}
}

@article{Grabiak:1987qt,
Author = {Grabiak, M and Staadt, G and Müller, B and Greiner, W and Schäfer,
A},
Title = {Spontaneously broken gauge theory in strong external
fields},
Journal = {Physics Letters B},
Volume = {183},
Number = {3-4},
Pages = {259-262},
Year = {1987},
ISSN = {0370-2693},
Abstract = {It was proposed in a former paper [A. Schäfer, B. Müller
and W. Greiner, Phys. Lett. B 149 (1984) 455] that in strong
fields the VEV of a Higgs field can become space and time
dependent and that the Goldstone boson might become visible.
As an example the Glashow-Salam-Weinberg (GSW) in a strong
electromagnetic field was discussed. A careful analysis,
however, shows that this process is not possible unless the
strength of the electric field is of the same order of
magnitude as the mass of the heavy vector bosons W and Z
which is about 80 GeV. The basic reason for this that a
space-dependent Higgs vacuum which is needed in order to
screen the electric field physically corresponds to a
W-field. Because of the large mass of the W-boson this field
cannot be excited unless the strength of the electric field
is of the same order of magnitude as the mass of the
Key = {Grabiak:1987qt}
}

@article{Schaefer:1987sk,
Author = {Sch, and auml, and fer, AM and uuml, and ller, B and Reinhardt,
J},
Title = {Consequences of a hypothetical light vector boson in nuclear
decays},
Journal = {Mod. Phys. Lett. A},
Volume = {2},
Pages = {159-162},
Year = {1987},
Key = {Schaefer:1987sk}
}

@article{Plunien:1987fr,
Author = {Plunien, G and Müller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {Casimir energy at finite temperature},
Journal = {Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and Its
Applications},
Volume = {145},
Number = {1-2},
Pages = {202-219},
Year = {1987},
ISSN = {0378-4371},
Abstract = {We derive an integral representation for the temperature
corrections to the Casimir effect between perfectly
conducting parallel plates placed in the electromagnetic
field for arbitrary dimension. The representation has the
advantage that dependence upon the external constraints and
thermal effects enter separately. The so-called mode sum
function carrying the dependence on the boundaries is
closely connected with the mode number density which is
derived explicitly for the parallel plate configuration. The
relation to local Green function methods is also pointed
Key = {Plunien:1987fr}
}

@article{Stahl:1987xw,
Author = {Stahl, T and Uhlig, M and Müller, B and Greiner, W and Vasak,
D},
Title = {Pion and photon bremsstrahlung in a heavy ion reaction model
with friction},
Journal = {Zeitschrift fur Physik. A, Atomic nuclei},
Volume = {327},
Number = {3},
Pages = {311-322},
Year = {1987},
ISSN = {0930-1151},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01284455},
Abstract = {Based on a classical dynamical model of nuclear motion with
a velocity dependent friction force we calculate pionic and
electromagnetic bremsstrahlung emitted in heavy ion
collisions with bombarding energies between 20 and 84 MeV/n.
For arbitrary projectile-target combinations and with a
fixed value of the only parameter of the model, the friction
coefficient κ, our calculations reproduce the observed beam
energy and target mass dependence for pions. The gamma
yields, calculated with the same value of κ, reproduce the
measured dependence of the cross-section on energy and
target mass, but underestimate the published data by a
factor two. This is a good agreement in view of the
discrepancies between different experimental groups. © 1987
Springer-Verlag.},
Doi = {10.1007/BF01284455},
Key = {Stahl:1987xw}
}

@article{Koch:1986ud,
Author = {Koch, P and Müller, B and Rafelski, J},
Title = {Strangeness in relativistic heavy ion collisions},
Journal = {Physics Reports},
Volume = {142},
Number = {4},
Pages = {167-262},
Year = {1986},
Month = {September},
ISSN = {0370-1573},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0370-1573(86)90096-7},
Abstract = {Abundances of strange antibaryons formed in nuclear
collisions at above 10 GeV/A are considered as a most
accessible diagnostic tool for the study of the possible
formation and physical properties of the quark-gluon plasma
phase of hadronic matter. In this report we describe the
current status and develop a dynamical approach in order to
describe strange particle formation in nuclear collisions at
Doi = {10.1016/0370-1573(86)90096-7},
Key = {Koch:1986ud}
}

@article{fds247175,
Author = {Rafelski, J and Müller, B},
Title = {Strangeness Production in the Quark-Gluon
Plasma},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {56},
Number = {21},
Pages = {2334-2334},
Year = {1986},
Month = {May},
ISSN = {0031-9007},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.56.2334},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.56.2334},
Key = {fds247175}
}

@article{fds247265,
Author = {Müller, B and Reinhardt, J and Greiner, W and Schäfer,
A},
Title = {Erratum: Is there a tightly bound poly-positronium state?
(Journal of Physics G: Nuclear Physics (1986) 12
(L109-L112))},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear Physics},
Volume = {12},
Number = {5},
Pages = {477-},
Year = {1986},
ISSN = {0305-4616},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0305-4616/12/5/511},
Doi = {10.1088/0305-4616/12/5/511},
Key = {fds247265}
}

@article{art82,
Author = {Sch, and auml, and fer, A and M, and uuml, and ller,
B},
Title = {Bounds on the fractal dimension of space},
Journal = {J. Phys. A},
Volume = {19},
Pages = {3891-3902},
Year = {1986},
Key = {art82}
}

@article{art81,
Author = {Danos, M and uuml, M and ller, B and Rafelski, J},
Title = {Detuning reduction of muon sticking in resonant
muon-catalyzed d-t fusion},
Journal = {Phys. Rev. A},
Volume = {34},
Pages = {3642-3645},
Year = {1986},
Key = {art81}
}

@article{art80,
Author = {Reus, TD and Reinhardt, J and Müller, B and Greiner, W and Soff,
G},
Title = {A new scaling law for electron emission in
intermediate-energy heavy ion collisions},
Journal = {Physics Letters B},
Volume = {169},
Number = {2-3},
Pages = {139-142},
Year = {1986},
ISSN = {0370-2693},
Abstract = {A new scaling law is presented for the emission of electrons
in intermediate-energy heavy ion collisions. An improved
formula is obtained which correctly describes electron
emission also in the limit of very short nuclear stopping
times τ. In this limit the intensity falls off with the
fourth power of the kinetic energy Ee - of the emitted
Key = {art80}
}

@article{art79,
Author = {Kirsch, J and Müller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {MO-radiation interference phenomena as a "clock" for nuclear
reaction times},
Journal = {Zeitschrift für Physik D-Atoms Molecules and
Clusters},
Volume = {1},
Number = {1},
Pages = {47-50},
Year = {1986},
ISSN = {0178-7683},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01384657},
Abstract = {Molecular orbital K x-rays emitted during Pb+Pb collisions
are investigated. Two results are presented: A slight
filling up of the minimum observed in the differential
from the M-shell to the L-shell. The minima are shifted with
increasing nuclear contact times to higher photon energies.
The observation of the shift allows the estimation of the
Doi = {10.1007/BF01384657},
Key = {art79}
}

@article{art78,
Author = {Sch, MWEMJDDKSDWSFSDRMBEM and auml, and fer, A and M, and uuml, and ller, B},
Title = {Search for correlated narrow-peak structure in the
two-photon spectrum from 6-MeV/nucleon U+Th
collisions},
Journal = {Phys. Rev. Lett.},
Volume = {57},
Pages = {2139-2142},
Year = {1986},
Key = {art78}
}

@article{art77,
Author = {Schäfer, A and Reinhardt, J and Müller, B and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Models for new particle production in nuclear
collisions},
Journal = {Zeitschrift fur Physik. A, Atomic nuclei},
Volume = {324},
Number = {3},
Pages = {243-259},
Year = {1986},
ISSN = {0930-1151},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01294578},
Abstract = {Following up our earlier work and also stimulated by recent
experimental results on positron production in heavy ion
collisions we investigate various mechanisms for the
production of a light, previously unknown particle in such
collisions. As more conventional mechanisms seem to be
inadequate we concentrate on processes directly or
indirectly connected with the strong electric or magnetic
fields and quark degrees of freedom in nuclei. We also
consider modifications of the color confinement scheme. Our
analysis is confined to schemes staying within the framework
of the standard SU(3)c ×SU(2)×U(1) model. Since most of
the possibilities discussed can be rejected, severe
modifications of basic concepts of particle physics seem to
be required if the production of a new particle is
Doi = {10.1007/BF01294578},
Key = {art77}
}

@article{art76,
Author = {Müller, U and Reus, TD and Reinhardt, J and Müller, B and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Systematics of spontaneous positron lines},
Journal = {Zeitschrift fur Physik. A, Atomic nuclei},
Volume = {323},
Number = {3},
Pages = {261-274},
Year = {1986},
ISSN = {0930-1151},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01283784},
Abstract = {Dynamical and spontaneous positron emission are investigated
for heavy-ion collisions with long time delay using a
semiclassical description. Numerical results and analytical
expressions for the characteristic quantities of the
resulting spontaneous positron line, i.e., its position,
width, and cross section, are compared. The expected
behaviour of the line position and cross section and its
visibility against the spectrum of dynamically created
positrons is discussed in dependence on the united charge Zu
of projectile and target nucleus in a range of systems from
Zu=180 up to Zu=188. The results are confronted with
presently available experimental data, and possible
implications on further experiments are worked out. © 1986
Springer-Verlag.},
Doi = {10.1007/BF01283784},
Key = {art76}
}

@article{art75,
Author = {Schramm, S and Reinhardt, J and Müller, U and Müller, B and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Positron line structures in U-U collisions},
Journal = {Zeitschrift fur Physik. A, Atomic nuclei},
Volume = {323},
Number = {3},
Pages = {275-280},
Year = {1986},
ISSN = {0930-1151},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01283785},
Abstract = {U-U collisions at energies near the Coulomb barrier are
discussed. A quantum mechanical treatment of nuclear motion
including the influence of quasibound states in a pocket of
the scattering potential is developed. Positron emission
probabilities are calculated exhibiting a sharp line due to
the decay of a hole in the supercritical 1 s-state. In
addition conversion processes and multiple pockets in the
potential creating sidebands in the spectrum are computed.
Doi = {10.1007/BF01283785},
Key = {art75}
}

@article{Rafelski:1986hf,
Author = {Koch, P and Müller, B and Rafelski, J},
Title = {Strangeness production and evolution in quark gluon
plasma},
Journal = {Zeitschrift fur Physik. A, Atomic nuclei},
Volume = {324},
Number = {4},
Pages = {453-463},
Year = {1986},
ISSN = {0930-1151},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01290929},
Abstract = {The formation and evolution of strange quarks in quark gluon
plasma is studied assuming perturbative QCD and qualitative
models of plasma phase expansion. Chemical equilibrium
abundance characteristic of the hottest and densest phase of
nuclear collisions is proven to survive the process of
expansion and cooling of the plasma. © 1986
Springer-Verlag.},
Doi = {10.1007/BF01290929},
Key = {Rafelski:1986hf}
}

@article{Muller:1986hy,
Author = {Müller, B and Rafelski, J},
Title = {Production of light pseudoscalar particles in heavy-ion
collisions},
Journal = {Physical Review D},
Volume = {34},
Number = {9},
Pages = {2896-2899},
Year = {1986},
ISSN = {0556-2821},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.34.2896},
Abstract = {We calculate the cross section for the production of a
hypothetical light neutral pseudoscalar particle in
heavy-ion collisions due to the two-photon process. For an
inverse coupling strength f in the 100-GeV range we predict
a cross section of 10-14 fm2 for production of a particle
with 1.5-MeV mass. For the maximal allowed coupling f=5 MeV
and an effective reduction of the particle mass due to
binding the cross section may reach in to the b range. ©
1986 The American Physical Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.34.2896},
Key = {Muller:1986hy}
}

@article{Reinhardt:1986rj,
Author = {Reinhardt, J and Schäfer, A and Müller, B and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Phenomenological consequences of a hypothetical light
neutral particle in heavy ion collisions},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {33},
Number = {1},
Pages = {194-207},
Year = {1986},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.33.194},
Abstract = {We discuss the possibility that the line structure observed
in the spectrum of the positrons produced in heavy ion
collisions is due to the decay of a new neutral elementary
particle. We argue that this can be ruled out unless one is
willing to accept fine tuning of parameters, or to assume
the dominance of nonlinear effects. © 1986 The American
Physical Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.33.194},
Key = {Reinhardt:1986rj}
}

@article{Plunien:1986ca,
Author = {Plunien, G and Müller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {The Casimir effect},
Journal = {Physics Reports},
Volume = {134},
Number = {2-3},
Pages = {87-193},
Year = {1986},
ISSN = {0370-1573},
Abstract = {This report gives an introduction to the Casimir effect in
quantum field theory and its applications. The interaction
between the vacuum of a quantized field and an external
boundary or a classical external field is investigated
laying particular emphasis on Casimir's concept of
measurable change in the vacuum energy. The various methods
for evaluation and regularization of the Casimir energy are
discussed in detail for specific field configurations.
Recent applications of the Casimir effect in supercritical
fields, QCD bag models and electromagnetic media are
Key = {Plunien:1986ca}
}

@article{Muller:1986ch,
Author = {Müller, B and Reinhardt, J},
Title = {Comment on "production mechanisms for a new neutral particle
below 2 MeV"},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {56},
Number = {19},
Pages = {2108-},
Year = {1986},
ISSN = {0031-9007},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.56.2108},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.56.2108},
Key = {Muller:1986ch}
}

@article{Schafer:1986js,
Author = {Sch, and auml, and fer, ARJGW and M, and uuml, and ller,
B},
Title = {Elementary light neutral bosons: New limits from precision
experiments},
Journal = {Mod. Phys. Lett. A},
Volume = {1},
Pages = {1-7},
Year = {1986},
Key = {Schafer:1986js}
}

@article{Muller:1986kg,
Author = {Müller, B and Reinhardt, J and Greiner, W and Schafer,
A},
Title = {Is there a tightly bound poly-positronium
state?},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear Physics},
Volume = {12},
Number = {4},
Pages = {L109-L112},
Year = {1986},
ISSN = {0305-4616},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0305-4616/12/4/002},
Abstract = {The authors suggest that a system containing several
electron-positron pairs (an 'e+e- droplet') could be highly
localised and tightly bound if there exists a many-body
force of short range acting between leptons. Such a state
could have properties required to explain the results of
recent electron-positron coincidence experiments at
GSI.},
Doi = {10.1088/0305-4616/12/4/002},
Key = {Muller:1986kg}
}

@article{Grabiak:1986si,
Author = {Grabiak, M and Müller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {Geometrical properties of gauge theories},
Journal = {Annals of Physics},
Volume = {172},
Number = {1},
Pages = {213-242},
Year = {1986},
ISSN = {0003-4916},
Abstract = {We calculate the metric of the orbit space in the free
Yang-Mills theory and in scalar electrodynamics. From this
metric we derive the curvature of the orbit space. We
examine singular points where the curvature is ill defined.
Finally we discuss the relation of the metric to the
topological properties of the orbit space and the instanton
Key = {Grabiak:1986si}
}

@article{Muller:1986bt,
Author = {M, and uuml, and ller, B and Sch, and auml, and fer,
A},
Title = {Improved bounds on the dimension of space-time},
Journal = {Phys. Rev. Lett.},
Volume = {56},
Pages = {1215-1218},
Year = {1986},
Key = {Muller:1986bt}
}

@article{fds247203,
Author = {Reus, TD and Reinhardt, J and Müller, B and Greiner, W and Müller, U and Soff, G},
Title = {Delta electron emission as an atomic clock in deep-inelastic
and intermediate energy heavy ion collisions},
Journal = {Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics},
Volume = {15},
Number = {C},
Pages = {57-75},
Year = {1985},
ISSN = {0146-6410},
Abstract = {We investigate the spectra of electrons which are emitted
during heavy ion collisions, traditionally denoted as
δ-electrons. The slope in the kinetic energy distribution
of ejected δ-electrons provides a finger-print of the
occuring delay and deceleration times of the underlying
deep-inelastic and intermediate energy collisions on the
time scale 10-21 - 10-24s. © 1985.},
Key = {fds247203}
}

@article{fds247204,
Author = {Fink, J and Maruhn, JA and Müller, B and Müller, U and Neise, L and Reinhardt, J and Reus, TD and Schäfer, A and Schlüter, P and Schmidt,
W and Schramm, S and Soff, G and Vasak, D and Greiner,
W},
Title = {The decay of the vacuum in supercritical fields of giant
nuclear systems},
Journal = {Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics},
Volume = {15},
Number = {C},
Pages = {1-55},
Year = {1985},
ISSN = {0146-6410},
Abstract = {The structure of the vacuum has become of general importance
in modern physics. In this context the vacuum of quantum
electrodynamics plays a special role because it changes
drastically in strong external electric fields and these
changes can be followed in a controllable way in the
laboratory. It is reviewed how in supercritical electric
fields the electron-positron-vacuum, i.e., the ground state
of QED is changing from a neutral to a charged vacuum. The
theoretical concepts, developed during the last 15 years,
can be tested in collisions of very heavy ions, like U+U,
U+Cm, etc. The important theoretical and experimental stages
are described; in particular it is shown that the vacuum
decay might have recently been experimentally verified:
Sharp line structures in the positron spectra with
pronounced threshold effects are the signals of this
fundamental phase transition. Furthermore, the observed
γ-ray and δ-electron spectra, the non-appearance of a
massive line structure in undercritical systems like U+Ta
and the quantitative understanding of the innershell
ionization phenomena in giant quasimolecules (their
agreement with theoretical predictions) give confidence into
this interpretation. At the same time the position line
structures possibly indicate the existence of rather long
living giant nuclear system with Z ∼ 180-190. It is shown
that most likely giant nuclear molecules have been formed as
doorway states, but that other new not yet completely
understood nuclear structure of giant complexes is
indicated. The structure of the giant complexes can
eventually be investigated spectroscopically by the
positrons from the vacuum: The positron spectrum should not
only show the vacuum decay line, but also Raman and Stokes
satellites revealing the nuclear collective modes of the
giant system formed. Various minima in the collective
potential of giant systems should reveal the vacuum decay
and their own local nuclear structure through corresponding
classes of positron lines. The seemingly constancy with (ZT
+ ZP) of the principal positron line structure observed so
far could indicate the formation of always the same giant
object. Other possibilities to explain this effect (vacuum
vibrations, excitation of the same nuclear mode in various
giant systems and its supercritical conversion) are also
discussed. In particular, the possibility of the creation
and decay of a yet unknown particle causing constant
positron line structure is shown to be in contradiction with
atomic precision experiments. Finally the overcritical
phenomenon in other areas of physics (e.g., overcritical
gluo-electric fields, overcritical gravitational fields) is
Key = {fds247204}
}

@article{fds247205,
Author = {Müller, B and Ottinger, C and Yang, M},
Title = {Lα emission from collisional excitation of H
Atoms by threshold energy Ar+
ions},
Volume = {320},
Number = {1},
Pages = {61-69},
Year = {1985},
ISSN = {0340-2193},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01411926},
Abstract = {In a specially designed collision chamber, H atoms produced
by a microwave discharge were excited into the 2 p state by
impact of Ar+ ions in a beam. A degree of dissociation up to
η=94% was measured at the exit of the microwave source,
although in the center of the collision cell η is smaller,
with a lower limit of 33 %. The effect of vibrational
excitation of H2 by the discharge and the resulting
difficulties of measuring η are discussed. The cross
section for Lα emission increases linearly from the
threshold, at 10.2 eVCM, to 17.1 eVCM. The absolute cross
section at this energy is 1.5·10-17 cm2 for η=33% (with a
minimum of 0.6·10-17 cm2, for the maximum possible η). The
absence of an activation barrier rules out some features
shown by an earlier ab initio calculation. © 1985
Springer-Verlag.},
Doi = {10.1007/BF01411926},
Key = {fds247205}
}

@article{fds247206,
Author = {Soff, G and Müller, U and Reus, TD and Reinhardt, J and Müller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {Atomic excitations in supercritical fields of giant nuclear
systems},
Journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section
B: Beam Interactions With Materials and Atoms},
Volume = {10-11},
Number = {PART 1},
Pages = {214-218},
Year = {1985},
ISSN = {0168-583X},
Abstract = {Theoretical results for the δ-electron distribution and
positron emission in superheavy systems are compared with
recent experimental data. Special emphasis is laid on atomic
excitations in deep inelastic nuclear collisions. It is
demonstrated that the study of heavy-ion collisions with
nuclear time delay promises a clear signature for the
spontaneous positron emission. Corresponding experimental
results show evidence for this transition from the neutral
vacuum to a charged ground state and for the existence of
long living nuclear molecules. © 1985.},
Key = {fds247206}
}

@article{fds247207,
Author = {Soff, G and Müller, U and Reus, TD and Reinhardt, J and Müller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {Superheavy quasi-atoms and quantum electrodynamics in strong
fields},
Journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section
B: Beam Interactions With Materials and Atoms},
Volume = {9},
Number = {4},
Pages = {747-752},
Year = {1985},
ISSN = {0168-583X},
Abstract = {Distinct peak structures have been observed in spectra of
positrons emitted in collisions of very heavy ions such as
U-Th, U-U, Th-Cm and U-Cm. Characteristic features of these
structures are discussed and confronted with our theoretical
results. It is argued that this experimental finding could
be associated with the spontaneous positron emission in the
strong Coulomb field of giant nuclear molecules. ©
1985.},
Key = {fds247207}
}

@article{fds247208,
Author = {Schäfer, A and Müller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {Dirakovskiye chastitsy v polye magnitnykh monopolyei i
Journal = {Il Nuovo Cimento A Series 10},
Volume = {89},
Number = {4},
Pages = {437-451},
Year = {1985},
ISSN = {0369-3546},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02884096},
Abstract = {The field of a magnetic pointlike monopole acts in a similar
way on a charged Dirac particle as the field of a very
strong electric point charge. To explore this parallel we
construct a field solution for an extended magnetic-charge
distribution. In contrast to what is found for extended
electric charges, the Hamiltonian remains non-self-adjoint
for an extended magnetic monopole. This suggests that there
exists a fundamental difference between the two cases. In
particular, the appearance of undefined states for point
monopoles is not a consequence of the mere strength of the
magnetic-monopole charge, which has a minimum value fixed by
Dirac's quantization condition. © 1985 Società Italiana di
Fisica.},
Doi = {10.1007/BF02884096},
Key = {fds247208}
}

@article{art74,
Author = {Bosch, F and uuml, M and ller, B},
Title = {Positron production in heavy-ion collisions},
Journal = {Prog. Part. Nucl. Science},
Volume = {16},
Pages = {195-241},
Year = {1985},
Key = {art74}
}

@article{art72,
Author = {Mehler, G and Reus, TD and Müller, U and Reinhardt, J and Müller, B and Greiner, W and Soff, G},
Title = {Coupled state analysis of electron excitations in asymmetric
collision systems},
Journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section
A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated
Equipment},
Volume = {240},
Number = {3},
Pages = {559-566},
Year = {1985},
ISSN = {0168-9002},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0168-9002(85)90682-5},
Abstract = {A coupled channel formalism is presented, using relativistic
basis states of the target atom. Screening effects are
incorporated by means of an effective potential of the
Hartree-Fock-Slater type. Relativistic wave packets are
employed for the description of the continuum. The impact
parameter dependence of the K-hole production in p-Ag
collisions is calculated, including quadrupole contributions
of the projectile Coulomb potential. The results are
compared with experimental data. © 1985.},
Doi = {10.1016/0168-9002(85)90682-5},
Key = {art72}
}

@article{art71,
Author = {Reus, TD and Reinhardt, J and Müller, B and Müller, U and Soff, G and Greiner, W},
Title = {Electromagnetic probes of nuclear collisions at intermediate
energy},
Volume = {321},
Number = {4},
Pages = {589-592},
Year = {1985},
ISSN = {0340-2193},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01432434},
Abstract = {We show that emission of high-energy electrons and photons
in nuclear collisions at intermediate energies is sensitive
to the space-time evolution of the reaction. The electron
and photon spectra measure related but complementary
quantities connected with the nuclear charge distribution.
We show that at 60 MeV/u beam energy production of 50 MeV
electrons is predicted to measurable probability. © 1985
Springer-Verlag.},
Doi = {10.1007/BF01432434},
Key = {art71}
}

@article{art70,
Author = {Reinhardt, J and Müller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {Comment on "new atomic mechanism for positron production in
heavy-ion collisoins"},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {55},
Number = {1},
Pages = {134-},
Year = {1985},
ISSN = {0031-9007},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.55.134},
Abstract = {A Comment on the Letter by W. Lichten and A. Robatino, Phys.
Rev. Lett. 54, 781 (1985). © 1985 The American Physical
Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.55.134},
Key = {art70}
}

@article{Rafelski:1985pb,
Author = {Rafelski, J and Müller, B},
Title = {Muon sticking in muon catalysed doorway D-T
fusion},
Journal = {Physics Letters B},
Volume = {164},
Number = {4-6},
Pages = {223-227},
Year = {1985},
ISSN = {0370-2693},
Abstract = {Loss of muons due to capture (sticking) by the α-particle
formed in a muon catalysed D-T fusion process driven by the
intermediate nuclear resonant state in 5He( 3 2+) is
investigated. Depending on the properties of the resonant
doorway state, the muon sticking probability can be somewhat
greater or significantly smaller than the value ≲1%
obtained under the hypothesis that the nuclear D-T
interaction is independent of relative momentum. ©
1985.},
Key = {Rafelski:1985pb}
}

@article{Schafer:1985fg,
Author = {Sch, and auml, and fer, AM and uuml, and ller, B and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Dirac particles in the field of magnetic monopoles and of
strong electric charges},
Journal = {Nuovo Cim. A},
Volume = {89},
Pages = {437-451},
Year = {1985},
Key = {Schafer:1985fg}
}

@article{Schafer:1985eu,
Author = {Schäfer, A and Müller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {Hartree-Fock-calculation of parity-violation in
cesium},
Volume = {322},
Number = {4},
Pages = {539-545},
Year = {1985},
ISSN = {0340-2193},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01415132},
Abstract = {We present a relativistic Hartree-Fock calculation of the
parity violating E1-matrixelement of the 6 s↔7 s
transition in cesium. Our result E1= -8.4·10-12iea0 for
sin2θw = 0.22 is in good agreement with the experimental
value. We also give a general discussion of the consequences
of a violation of discrete symmetries for the solutions of
the Dirac equation. © 1985 Springer-Verlag.},
Doi = {10.1007/BF01415132},
Key = {Schafer:1985eu}
}

@article{Vasak:1985dd,
Author = {Vasak, D and uuml, M and ller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {Pion and gamma-ray bremsstrahlung in nuclear collisions at
intermediate energies},
Journal = {J. Phys. G},
Volume = {11},
Pages = {1309-1322},
Year = {1985},
Key = {Vasak:1985dd}
}

@article{Schafer:1985qb,
Author = {Schafer, A and Reinhardt, J and Muller, B and Greiner, W and Soff,
G},
Title = {Is there evidence for the production of a new particle in
heavy-ion collisions?},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear Physics},
Volume = {11},
Number = {5},
Pages = {L69-L74},
Year = {1985},
ISSN = {0305-4616},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0305-4616/11/5/001},
Abstract = {The possibility of the production of a new neutral
elementary particle in heavy-ion collisions is
discussed.},
Doi = {10.1088/0305-4616/11/5/001},
Key = {Schafer:1985qb}
}

@article{Muller:1985my,
Author = {Müller, B and Eisenberg, JM},
Title = {Quark-gluon plasma cooling through pion emission in a chiral
bag model},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
Volume = {435},
Number = {3-4},
Pages = {791-809},
Year = {1985},
ISSN = {0375-9474},
Abstract = {A hypothetical quark-gluon plasma is described as a large
bag, filled with quarks, antiquarks, and gluons, of radius R
∼ 2-6 fm and temperature T ∼ 100-250 MeV. We consider
the cooling of this plasma through pion emission at the bag
surface in a chiral-model approach. Comparison is made
between results for a large, spherical bag and a model in
the limit in which the plasma fills half of space and pion
emission is across a planar interface. We find a rather low
initial cooling rate per unit surface area for this
mechanism, of roughly (10-100) × 1023 MeV/fm2.s. This rate
per unit surface becomes independent of R for R ≥ 3 fm,
and, because of the nature of the coupling in the chiral bag
model, varies with temperature as T6. ©
1985.},
Key = {Muller:1985my}
}

@article{art69,
Author = {Vasak, DGWM and uuml, and ller, BST and Uhlig, M},
Title = {Pionic bremsstrahlung in heavy-ion collisions},
Journal = {Nucl. Phys. A},
Volume = {428},
Pages = {291c-304c},
Year = {1984},
Key = {art69}
}

@article{art68,
Author = {Schäfer, A and Müller, B and Vasak, D and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Electric and magnetic polarizability of the nucleon in the
MIT bag model},
Journal = {Physics Letters B},
Volume = {143},
Number = {4-6},
Pages = {323-325},
Year = {1984},
ISSN = {0370-2693},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0370-2693(84)91474-6},
Abstract = {The electric and magnetic polarizabilities of the proton and
neutron are calculated in the framework of the MIT bag
model. Neglecting vacuum-polarization we get αp = αn =
10.8 × 10-4 fm3, βp = 2.3 × 10-4 fm3 and βn = 1.5 ×
10-4 fm3, in good agreement with experiment. The
difficulties in treating the vacuum-polarization consistenly
are discussed. It is argued that the polarizabilities may
offer a possibility to measure the effective size of nucleon
bags inside of nuclei. © 1984.},
Doi = {10.1016/0370-2693(84)91474-6},
Key = {art68}
}

@article{art67,
Author = {Müller, U and Soff, G and Reinhardt, J and Reus, TD and Müller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {Electron emission and positron production in deep inelastic
heavy-ion reactions},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {30},
Number = {4},
Pages = {1199-1207},
Year = {1984},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.30.1199},
Abstract = {Atomic excitations are used to obtain information on the
course of a nuclear reaction. Employing a semiclassical
picture we calculate the emission of δ electrons and
positrons in deep inelastic nuclear reactions for the
example of U+U collisions incorporating nuclear trajectories
resulting from two different nuclear friction models. The
emission spectra exhibit characteristic deviations from
those expected for elastic Coulomb scattering. The
theoretical probabilities are compared with recent
experimental data by Backe et al. A simple model is used to
estimate the influence of a threebody breakup of the
compound system upon atomic excitations. © 1984 The
American Physical Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.30.1199},
Key = {art67}
}

@article{art66,
Author = {Heinz, U and Müller, U and Reinhardt, J and Müller, B and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Time structure and atomic excltation spectra in heavy-ion
collisions with nuclear contact},
Journal = {Annals of Physics},
Volume = {158},
Number = {2},
Pages = {476-512},
Year = {1984},
ISSN = {0003-4916},
Abstract = {From a quantum mechanical model for quasielastic nuclear
scattering, employing a pocket in the internuclear potential
at close distances, a distribution of nuclear delay times is
derived. The influence of this time structure on atomic
excitation spectra is demonstrated using positron emission
from supercritical collisions as an example. In a narrow
regime of beam energies close to the Coulomb barrier, a
considerable probability for collisions with long nuclear
delay times is found, associated with a sharp peak in the
positron spectrum which is due to enhanced spontaneous
positron production. It is pointed out that quasielastic
nuclear scattering alone cannot account for the absolute
numbers of spontaneous positrons as extracted from recent
experiments. A possible generalization of the theory to
include inelastic nuclear processes is briefly discussed. ©
1984.},
Key = {art66}
}

@article{art65,
Author = {Heinz, U and Reinhardt, J and Müller, B and Greiner, W and Pinkston,
WT},
Title = {Nuclear time delay in resonant heavy ion
collisions},
Volume = {316},
Number = {3},
Pages = {341-344},
Year = {1984},
ISSN = {0340-2193},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01439906},
Abstract = {From a quantum mechanical model for quasielastic nuclear
scattering, involving a pocket in the internuclear
potential, we derive a distribution of nuclear delay times.
We show that coherent excitation of states in a rotational
band of nuclear resonances leads to a lighthouse effect in
the nuclear scattering cross section. Its influence on
atomic excitations is shortly discussed for the case of
positron creation in supercritical heavy ion collisions. ©
1984 Springer-Verlag.},
Doi = {10.1007/BF01439906},
Key = {art65}
}

@article{art64,
Author = {Reus, THJD and Reinhardt, J and Muller, B and Greiner, W and Soff, G and Muller, U},
Title = {The influence of electron-electron interaction on
inner-shell excitation processes in heavy-ion
collisions},
Journal = {Journal of the Physics B: Atomic and Molecular
Physics},
Volume = {17},
Number = {4},
Pages = {615-640},
Year = {1984},
ISSN = {0022-3700},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0022-3700/17/4/017},
Abstract = {The authors present calculations of electron excitation
rates in heavy-ion collisions, in which the
electron-electron interaction is treated within a
relativistic self-consistent field approach. In comparison
with earlier calculations neglecting electron shielding, the
authors obtain increased probabilities for K-hole and delta
-electron production, whereas the total positron yield
decreases. Computed probabilities are compared with
available experimental data.},
Doi = {10.1088/0022-3700/17/4/017},
Key = {art64}
}

@article{Schafer:1984pw,
Author = {Schäfer, A and Müller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {Spontaneous symmetry breaking in the presence of strong
fields},
Journal = {Physics Letters B},
Volume = {149},
Number = {6},
Pages = {455-458},
Year = {1984},
ISSN = {0370-2693},
Abstract = {We analyse the properties of spontaneous symmetry breaking
in the presence of external sources, concentrating on the
question whether these sources can lead to a change of the
vacuum expectation value of the Higgs field. We discuss in
particular how the meaning of the Higgs-Kibble mechanisms is
modified by such a vacuum change. The consequences of the
presence of a strong electric charge are investigated in the
framework of the Glashow-Salam-Weinberg model. Finally we
discuss the possibility of actually observing this process.
Key = {Schafer:1984pw}
}

@article{Klevansky:1984by,
Author = {Klevansky, SP and Muller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {On the fission mechanism of an ellipsoidal MIT
bag},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear Physics},
Volume = {10},
Number = {11},
Pages = {1487-1505},
Year = {1984},
ISSN = {0305-4616},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0305-4616/10/11/006},
Abstract = {The single-particle spectrum of a light quark moving in the
field generated by a heavy quark-antiquark pair placed at
the foci of an ellipsoidal bag is calculated in a
variational approach. Residual interactions due to gluon
exchange are accounted for in the random phase approximation
(RPA). It is shown that the Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA)
corresponding to the traditional semiclassical approach for
a spherical cavity is inadequate for alpha s=2.2. In the
spherical limit of an empty bag, the mass of the pion is
underestimated in the RPA (85 MeV) as compared with an
overestimate in the TDA (280 MeV). The RPA becomes unstable
at a fixed deformation of the bag, for a constant value of
alpha s. Employing Green function techniques, we show that
this is an artefact signalling a phase transition from a
filled Fermi vacuum to a correlated one. The presence of
real quark-antiquark pairs within the ground state is
interpreted as a signal that fission may
occur.},
Doi = {10.1088/0305-4616/10/11/006},
Key = {Klevansky:1984by}
}

@article{art63,
Author = {Reinhardt, J and Müller, B and Greiner, W and Müller,
U},
Title = {Description of atomic excitations in heavy-ion
reactions},
Journal = {Physical Review A},
Volume = {28},
Number = {4},
Pages = {2558-2561},
Year = {1983},
ISSN = {1050-2947},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.28.2558},
Abstract = {Excitations of the atomic shell in heavy-ion collisions are
influenced by the presence of a nuclear reaction. In the
present Rapid Communication we point out the equivalence
between a semiclassical description based on the nuclear
autocorrelation function with an earlier model which employs
a distribution of reaction times f(T). For the example of
U+U collisions, results of coupled-channel calculations for
positron creation and K-hole excitations are discussed for
two schematic reaction models. © 1983 The American Physical
Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevA.28.2558},
Key = {art63}
}

@article{art62,
Author = {Heinz, U and Müller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {Quantum mechanical treatment of electron-positron
excitations in heavy ion collisions with nuclear
contact},
Journal = {Annals of Physics},
Volume = {151},
Number = {1},
Pages = {227-261},
Year = {1983},
ISSN = {0003-4916},
Abstract = {A general theory is formulated of electron-positron
excitations in heavy ion collisions with nuclear contact,
treating the nuclear relative motion quantum mechanically. A
set of coupled channel equations for the electronic
occupation amplitudes is derived, which is formally very
similar to the semiclassical theory based on a classical
nuclear trajectory, and reduces to the latter in the JWKB
approximation. The new coupled equations contain all the
quantum mechanical information on the details of the nuclear
scattering during nuclear contact. The importantce of this
formulation for a quantitative theory of spontaneous
positron creation in supercritical systems with nuclear time
delay is pointed out. The possibility of line structures in
the positron spectrum, as predicted semiclassically and
recently discovered experimentally, is discussed in the
framework of the DWBA approximation. For light-particle
scattering off a nuclear resonance, the Blair formula for
vacancy production is recovered in the same approximation.
Key = {art62}
}

@article{art61,
Author = {Müller, B and Reinhardt, J and Greiner, W and Soff,
G},
Title = {Critical remarks on a scaling law for inner-shell
ionization},
Volume = {311},
Number = {3},
Pages = {151-155},
Year = {1983},
ISSN = {0340-2193},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01415099},
Abstract = {In superheavy quasimolecules the number of created 1
sσ-vacancies per collisions P1sσ can be evaluated
approximately by a simple scaling law. This analytical
relation correctly reproduces the measured dependence of
P1sσ on the impact parameter, bombarding energy and
combined nuclear charge Z=Z1+Z2. It is emphasized, however,
that the absolute ionization magnitude is underestimated
typically by a factor of four. This discrepancy has been
successfully resolved by the inclusion of multi-step
excitation processes. It is shown that the derivation of the
normalization constant in a scaling law previously reported
by Armbruster's group is incorrect in the framework of first
order perturbation theory. © 1983 Springer-Verlag.},
Doi = {10.1007/BF01415099},
Key = {art61}
}

@article{art60,
Author = {Kirsch, J and Müller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {Interference effects in MO X-ray spectra caused by nuclear
sticking in superheavy quasimolecules},
Journal = {Physics Letters A},
Volume = {94},
Number = {3-4},
Pages = {151-155},
Year = {1983},
ISSN = {0375-9601},
Abstract = {Molecular orbital K X-rays emitted during Pb + Pb collisions
are investigated assuming nuclear contact with sticking
times of 10-19 s and 3 × 10-20 s, respectively. A peak in
the differential radiation spectrum near the united-atom Kα
line is obtained which becomes sharper with increasing delay
time. The influence of the K-shell population on the
spectrum is also investigated. © 1983.},
Key = {art60}
}

@article{art59,
Author = {Schlüter, P and Reus, TD and Reinhardt, J and Müller, B and Soff,
G},
Title = {Can the observed structures in positron spectra be caused by
internal conversion?},
Volume = {314},
Number = {3},
Pages = {297-302},
Year = {1983},
ISSN = {0340-2193},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01412925},
Abstract = {The energy distribution of positrons emitted in
quasimolecular collisions of Uranium on Uranium and Uranium
on Curium has been measured by several groups. Peak
structures in the positron spectra were observed. We discuss
the possibility that these structures originate from
internal conversion processes following nuclear Coulomb
excitation or transfer reactions. Consequences for the
nuclear photon spectra and the δ-ray distribution are
pointed out and experimental procedures for an unambiguous
determination of the significance of conversion processes
Doi = {10.1007/BF01412925},
Key = {art59}
}

@article{art58,
Author = {Heinz, U and Reinhardt, J and Müller, B and Greiner, W and Müller,
U},
Title = {Beam energy dependence of spontaneous positron creation in
delayed nuclear collisions},
Volume = {314},
Number = {1},
Pages = {125-126},
Year = {1983},
ISSN = {0340-2193},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01411841},
Abstract = {We compute positron emission from U+Cm collisions within a
quantum mechanical model for delayed nuclear collisions. We
demonstrate a striking beam energy dependence of the
strength of the spontaneous positron peak. © 1983
Springer-Verlag.},
Doi = {10.1007/BF01411841},
Key = {art58}
}

@article{art57,
Author = {Müller, U and Soff, G and Reus, TD and Reinhardt, J and Müller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {Positrons from supercritical fields of giant nuclear
systems},
Volume = {313},
Number = {4},
Pages = {263-279},
Year = {1983},
ISSN = {0340-2193},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01439478},
Abstract = {During collisions of heavy nuclei with a combined charge
Z≳160 the electronic 1 s-state is deeply bound due to the
strong Coulomb field, for Z≧173 it even enters as a
resonance the lower continuum of the Dirac-Hamiltonian. In
pure Rutherford scattering no qualitative indication for the
filling of a dynamically created K-hole by the spontaneous
positron creation process is predicted, but the study of
heavy-ion collisions with nuclear time delay due to the
attractive nuclear force promises clear signatures for the
decay of the vacuum. Emphasis is laid also on the
quantitative influence of the electron-electron interaction
and of E0-transitions in the giant nuclear system on
positron emission, the latter treated in a classical
approximation. We compare our results with recent
experimental data of two different groups at GSI, Darmstadt.
Doi = {10.1007/BF01439478},
Key = {art57}
}

@article{Shanker:1983yd,
Author = {Shanker, R and Vasak, D and Warke, CS and Greiner, W and Müller,
B},
Title = {String-like solutions and regge trajectories in a
cylindrically deformed quark bag model},
Journal = {Zeitschrift Für Physik C Particles and Fields},
Volume = {18},
Number = {4},
Pages = {327-340},
Year = {1983},
ISSN = {0170-9739},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01573734},
Abstract = {With the string picture in mind, we study quark bags of a
simple fixed geometry: cylindrical. It is shown that the
Dirac boundary value problem {Mathematical expression} of
the M.I.T. bag model has no solutions, if this quark
confinement condition is applied simultaneously on the
radial walls as well as on the edges of the cylinder. By
introducing a cruder condition, {Mathematical expression},
instead, but now only on the side walls, we calculate
properties of non-strange baryons. A justification for the
use of this cruder condition, {Mathematical expression}, on
the side walls, instead of the proper M.I.T. condition, is
then provided by showing that the M.I.T. "cylindrical" bag
with smooth rounded corners gives essentially the same
results, while being computationally more involved.
Notwithstanding this departure from the M.I.T. confinement
condition on the side walls, we find the following curious
results: for high excitations, this bag attains string-like
shapes. the sequence of baryonic states corresponding to
pure single quark excitations fall on a linear Regge
trajectory with a slope of ≈0.85 GeV-2. These trajectories
hold at low-angular momenta. © 1983 Springer-Verlag.},
Doi = {10.1007/BF01573734},
Key = {Shanker:1983yd}
}

@article{Vasak:1983vm,
Author = {Vasak, D and Wietschorke, K-H and Müller, B and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Fission of bags by spontaneous quark-antiquark pair
production in supercritical colour fields},
Journal = {Zeitschrift Für Physik C Particles and Fields},
Volume = {21},
Number = {1},
Pages = {119-125},
Year = {1983},
ISSN = {0170-9739},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01648786},
Abstract = {We describe the fission of heavy quarkonia as the decay of
the bag vacuum state by spontaneous creation of a light
quark-antiquark pair due to super-critical colour-electric
fields. In the adiabatic approximation the heavy quarks are
reduced to two point charges fixed at the foci of a prolate
ellipsoidal MIT bag. We solve the Dirac equation with the
corresponding quasi-abelian potential numerically and
estimate the critical heavy-quark separation, at which the
energy needed to produce the light quark pair approaches
zero, to be 2.2 fm for the value 4αs/3=0.385 of the strong
coupling constant and the vacuum pressure B1/4=235 MeV.
These values have been used previously by Hasenfratz et al.
to reproduce the spectra of heavy quarkonia. We show that
this "critical distance" lies just above the classical
turning point of those c {Mathematical expression}- and b
{Mathematical expression}-resonances which are presently
Doi = {10.1007/BF01648786},
Key = {Vasak:1983vm}
}

@article{Schafer:1983kc,
Author = {Schäfer, A and Müller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {New scheme for spontaneous symmetry breaking of color
SU(3)},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {50},
Number = {26},
Pages = {2047-2050},
Year = {1983},
ISSN = {0031-9007},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.50.2047},
Abstract = {A new spontaneous-symmetry-breaking mechanism is formulated
for SU(3), which is used to describe the formation of bags
around quarks. The Higgs field is replaced by the scalar
product of two colored fermion fields. This model gives mass
only to one gluon (equivalent to Aμ8) when spontaneously
broken. The consequences of this scheme are discussed, and
it is argued that it can explain several puzzling
high-energy heavy-ion experiments. © 1983 The American
Physical Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.50.2047},
Key = {Schafer:1983kc}
}

@article{Vasak:1983an,
Author = {Vasak, D and Shanker, R and Muller, B and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Deformed solutions of the MIT quark bag model},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear Physics},
Volume = {9},
Number = {5},
Pages = {511-520},
Year = {1983},
ISSN = {0305-4616},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0305-4616/9/5/004},
Abstract = {The authors have solved the quark confinement boundary-value
problem of the MIT bag model numerically for axially
deformed bag shapes. As first results they present a
Nilsson-type level diagram for quarks confined in a deformed
cavity. Minimising the baryon energy with respect to the
shape parameters, they also calculate the masses of baryonic
states. Here the results show very clearly that excited
baryon resonances are intrinsically deformed.},
Doi = {10.1088/0305-4616/9/5/004},
Key = {Vasak:1983an}
}

@article{art56,
Author = {Soffel, M and Müller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {Stability and decay of the Dirac vacuum in external gauge
fields},
Journal = {Physics Reports},
Volume = {85},
Number = {2},
Pages = {51-122},
Year = {1982},
Month = {May},
ISSN = {0370-1573},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0370-1573(82)90129-6},
Abstract = {We consider various gauge fields coupled to the free Dirac
equation according to symmetry principles. The gauge fields
are treated as classical, unquantized fields. Sufficiently
strong time-independent fields may give rise to spontaneous
particle creation and to the decay of the symmetric Dirac
vacuum into a new ground state with broken symmetry. The
vacuum stability of the Dirac field is studied for the cases
of external electromagnetic (U(1)), gravitational (Poincaré
group including torsion) and Yang-Mills (SU(2)) potentials.
Doi = {10.1016/0370-1573(82)90129-6},
Key = {art56}
}

@article{Rafelski:1982pu,
Author = {Rafelski, J and Müller, B},
Title = {Strangeness Production in the Quark-Gluon
Plasma},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {48},
Number = {16},
Pages = {1066-1069},
Year = {1982},
Month = {April},
ISSN = {0031-9007},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.48.1066},
Abstract = {Rates are calculated for the processes gg→ss̄ and
uū,dd̄→ss̄ in highly excited quarkgluon plasma. For
temperature T&gt;~160 MeV the strangeness abundance
saturates during the lifetime (∼10-23 sec) of the plasma
created in high-energy nuclear collisions. The chemical
equilibration time for gluons and light quarks is found to
be less than 10-24 sec. © 1982 The American Physical
Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.48.1066},
Key = {Rafelski:1982pu}
}

@article{art55,
Author = {Soff, G and deReus, T and uuml, M and ller, B and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Delta-electron production rates in the superheavy system
Br+Pb},
Journal = {Phys. Lett. A},
Volume = {88},
Number = {8},
Pages = {398-399},
Year = {1982},
ISSN = {0375-9601},
Abstract = {A coincidence measurement between Î´-electrons and
1sÏƒ-vacancies in the heavy ion collision of 3579Br +
82208Pb is compared with absolute values of theoretical
Key = {art55}
}

@article{art54,
Author = {Soff, G and Schlüter, P and Müller, B and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Self-energy of electrons in critical fields},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {48},
Number = {21},
Pages = {1465-1468},
Year = {1982},
ISSN = {0031-9007},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.48.1465},
Abstract = {The energy shift of K electrons in heavy atoms due to the
self-energy correction has been calculated. This process is
treated to all orders in Zα, where Z denotes the nuclear
charge. For the superheavy system Z=170, where the K-shell
binding energy reaches the pair-production threshold
(E1sb∼2mc2), a shift of +11.0 keV is found. This shift is
almost cancelled by the vacuum polarization, leaving a
negligible effect for all quantum-electrodynamical
corrections of order α but all orders of Zα. © 1982 The
American Physical Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.48.1465},
Key = {art54}
}

@article{Muller:1982gd,
Author = {Müller, B and Rafelski, J},
Title = {Role of internal symmetry in pp annihilation},
Journal = {Physics Letters B},
Volume = {116},
Number = {4},
Pages = {274-278},
Year = {1982},
ISSN = {0370-2693},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0370-2693(82)90341-0},
Abstract = {Internal symmetry influences the form of quantum spectra as
well as the abundance of particles emitted by a thermal
source. Isospin conservation in proton-antiproton
annihilation is used to quantitatively illustrate the
influence of these phenomena on mean pion multiplicities and
the apparent primary pion temperature parameter. ©
1982.},
Doi = {10.1016/0370-2693(82)90341-0},
Key = {Muller:1982gd}
}

@article{Shanker:1982rg,
Author = {Shanker, R and Warke, CS and Greiner, W and Muller,
B},
Title = {Cylindrical deformed quark bags},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear Physics},
Volume = {8},
Number = {4},
Pages = {L33-L38},
Year = {1982},
ISSN = {0305-4616},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0305-4616/8/4/001},
Abstract = {Presents approximate solutions of the MIT bag model for
quarks in cylindrical bags. For a cylindrical bag surface it
is found that Dirac's equation does not admit solutions
corresponding to the linear boundary condition in psi = psi
. It admits, nevertheless, solutions which satisfy the
original confinement condition psi psi =0 exactly. The
pressure balance condition is approximately satisfied
through the variational minimisation of hadronic energy.
These cylindrical quark bags to give not only the string
limit of the bag model but also the correct slope of the
leading Regge trajectory for baryons at the low angular
momenta. States on a given trajectory differ from one
another in axial-momentum excitations of a single
quark.},
Doi = {10.1088/0305-4616/8/4/001},
Key = {Shanker:1982rg}
}

@article{Muller:1982db,
Author = {uuml, M and ller, B and Rafelski, J},
Title = {Self-consistent gluon screening of a strong SU(2)
source},
Journal = {Phys. Rev. D},
Volume = {25},
Pages = {566-572},
Year = {1982},
Key = {Muller:1982db}
}

@article{fds304600,
Author = {Soff, G and Reus, TD and Müller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {δ-electron production rates in the superheavy system Br +
Pb},
Journal = {Physics Letters A},
Volume = {88},
Number = {8},
Pages = {398-399},
Year = {1982},
ISSN = {0375-9601},
Abstract = {A coincidence measurement between δ-electrons and
1sσ-vacancies in the heavy ion collision of 3579Br +
82208Pb is compared with absolute values of theoretical
Key = {fds304600}
}

@article{art53,
Author = {Theis, J and uuml, M and ller, B},
Title = {Variational principle for an improved basis set for the
description of scattering processes},
Journal = {Phys. Rev. A},
Volume = {24},
Pages = {89-96},
Year = {1981},
Key = {art53}
}

@article{art52,
Author = {Alhassid, Y and uuml, M and ller, B and Koonin, SE},
Title = {Mean-field approximation for inclusive observables},
Journal = {Phys. Rev. C},
Volume = {23},
Pages = {487-491},
Year = {1981},
Key = {art52}
}

@article{art51,
Author = {Soff, G and Müller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {Systematics of inner-shell ionization in superheavy
quasimolecules},
Volume = {299},
Number = {3},
Pages = {189-194},
Year = {1981},
ISSN = {0340-2193},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01443935},
Abstract = {We present a detailed comparison of theoretical results on 1
sσ-ionization probabilities and δ-electron production
rates with recent experimental data. The investigations are
restricted to collisions of very heavy ions with
(Z1+Z2)α≳1 below the Coulomb barrier. It is emphasized
that first order time dependent perturbation theory is
inapplicable for an accurate theoretical description of the
Doi = {10.1007/BF01443935},
Key = {art51}
}

@article{art50,
Author = {Heinz, U and Greiner, W and Müller, B},
Title = {Electron-translation effects in heavy-ion
scattering},
Journal = {Physical Review A},
Volume = {23},
Number = {2},
Pages = {562-596},
Year = {1981},
ISSN = {1050-2947},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.23.562},
Abstract = {The origin and importance of electron-translation effects
within a molecular description of electronic excitations in
heavy-ion collisions is investigated. First, a fully
consistent quantum-mechanical description of the scattering
process is developed; the electrons are described by
relativistic molecular orbitals, while the nuclear motion is
approximated nonrelativistically. Leaving the
quantum-mechanical level by using the semiclassical
approximation for the nuclear motion, a set of coupled
differential equations for the occupation amplitudes of the
molecular orbitals is derived. In these coupled-channel
equations the spurious asymptotic dynamical couplings are
corrected for by additional matrix elements stemming from
the electron translation. Hence, a molecular description of
electronic excitations in heavy-ion scattering has been
achieved, which is free from the spurious asymptotic
couplings of the conventional perturbated stationary-state
approach. The importance of electron-translation effects for
continuum electrons and positrons is investigated. To this
end an algorithm for the description of continuum electrons
is proposed, which for the first time should allow for the
calculation of angular distributions for δ electrons.
Finally, the practical consequences of electron-translation
effects are studied by calculating the corrected coupling
matrix elements for the Pb-Cm system and comparing the
corresponding K-vacancy probabilities with conventional
calculations. We critically discuss conventional methods for
cutting off the coupling matrix elements in coupled-channel
calculations. © 1981 The American Physical
Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevA.23.562},
Key = {art50}
}

@article{art49,
Author = {Reinhardt, J and Müller, U and Müller, B and Greiner,
W},
Title = {The decay of the vacuum in the field of superheavy nuclear
systems},
Volume = {303},
Number = {3},
Pages = {173-188},
Year = {1981},
ISSN = {0340-2193},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01424757},
Abstract = {In the strong Coulomb field of a nucleus or quasimolecule
with Z≳172 a change of the QED vacuum has been predicted,
signalled by the spontaneous emission of positrons if holes
in the K-shell are available. The dynamical semiclassical
theory of positron excitation in heavy ion scattering is
presented and extended to collisions with nuclear contact.
Interference patterns in the energy spectrum of the emitted
positrons and, for sufficiently long reaction time T, the
emerging of a characteristic line at the position of the 1
sσ-resonance is predicted. The position and width of the 1
sσ-resonance is calculated in dependence on the nuclear
configuration, the effect of electron screening is taken
into account. Recent experimental indications [1, 2] for
structures in the spectra of positrons emitted in U-U
collisions at energies close to the Coulomb barrier are
discussed in terms of spontaneous positron creation. The
observed spectra could be explained under the assumption of
long lasting nuclear reactions (T≳4·10-20 s) with a cross
section in the millibarn region. Various consequences of
this interpretation are discussed. © 1981
Springer-Verlag.},
Doi = {10.1007/BF01424757},
Key = {art49}
}

@article{art48,
Author = {Gärtner, P and Heinz, U and Müller, B and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Limiting charge for electrostatic point sources},
Volume = {300},
Number = {2-3},
Pages = {143-155},
Year = {1981},
ISSN = {0340-2193},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01412291},
Abstract = {We investigate the behaviour of the vacuum charge around a
supercritical nucleus with Z&gt;137 in dependence on the
nuclear radius. The screening effects are considered in a
quasiclassical approximation. We show that in the point
nucleus limit the nuclear charge is screened by the vacuum
charge up to Z=137. This means that the coupling strength of
a point charge in QED cannot be larger than 1. The influence
of the heavier leptons is also discussed. © 1981
Springer-Verlag.},
Doi = {10.1007/BF01412291},
Key = {art48}
}

@article{art47,
Author = {Reinhardt, J and Müller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {Theory of positron production in heavy-ion
collisions},
Journal = {Physical Review A},
Volume = {24},
Number = {1},
Pages = {103-128},
Year = {1981},
ISSN = {1050-2947},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.24.103},
Abstract = {Collisions of very heavy ions at energies close to the
Coulomb barrier are discussed as a unique tool to study the
behavior of the electron-positron field in the presence of
strong external electromagnetic fields. To calculate the
excitation processes induced by the collision dynamics, a
semiclassical model is employed and adapted to describe the
field-theoretical many-particle system. An expansion in the
adiabatic molecular basis is chosen. Energies and matrix
elements are calculated using the monopole approximation. In
a supercritical (Z1+Z2173) quasiatomic system the 1s level
joins the antiparticle continuum and becomes a resonance,
rendering the neutral vacuum state unstable. Several methods
of treating the corresponding time-dependent problem are
discussed. A projection-operator technique is introduced for
a fully dynamical treatment of the resonance. Positron
excitation rates in s12 and p12 states are obtained by
numerical solution of the coupled-channel equations and are
compared with results from first- plus second-order
perturbation theory. Calculations are performed for
subcritical and supercritical collisions of Pb-Pb, Pb-U,
U-U, and U-Cf. Strong relativistic deformations of the wave
functions and the growing contributions from inner-shell
bound states lead to a very steep Z dependence of positron
production. The results are compared with available data
from experiments done at GSI. Correlations between electrons
and positrons are briefly discussed. © 1981 The American
Physical Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevA.24.103},
Key = {art47}
}

@article{Muller:1981kf,
Author = {Müller, B and Rafelski, J},
Title = {Temperature dependence of the bag constant and the effective
lagrangian for gauge fields at finite temperatures},
Journal = {Physics Letters B},
Volume = {101},
Number = {1-2},
Pages = {111-118},
Year = {1981},
ISSN = {0370-2693},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0370-2693(81)90502-5},
Abstract = {We calculate the free energy for a gauge field at finite
temperature in the presence of a constant gauge magnetic
field in the one-loop approximation, omitting unstable
modes. The effect of finite temperature on the approximate
"true" Savvidy ground state of QCD is derived. A phase
transition to the perturbative ground state at Tcr=1.5Bs 1 4
≈210 MeV is found. © 1981.},
Doi = {10.1016/0370-2693(81)90502-5},
Key = {Muller:1981kf}
}

@article{Schmidt:1981xp,
Author = {Schmidt, G and Greiner, W and Heinz, UW and uuml, M and ller,
B},
Title = {Stability of massive objects in a new scalar-tensor
theory},
Journal = {Phys. Rev.},
Volume = {D24},
Pages = {1484-1490},
Year = {1981},
Key = {Schmidt:1981xp}
}

@article{Soffel:1980kx,
Author = {Soffel, M and Müller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {Dirac particles in Rindler space},
Journal = {Physical Review D},
Volume = {22},
Number = {8},
Pages = {1935-1937},
Year = {1980},
Month = {October},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.22.1935},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.22.1935},
Key = {Soffel:1980kx}
}

@article{Soffel:1980kj,
Author = {Soffel, M and M�ller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {Radiation and the structure of space-time},
Journal = {General Relativity and Gravitation},
Volume = {12},
Number = {4},
Pages = {287-303},
Year = {1980},
Month = {April},
ISSN = {0001-7701},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00756619},
Abstract = {The classical bremsstrahlung problem is discussed with
respect to the global structure of space-time. Various
physical phenomena (such as the Hawking effect, etc.)
connected with the large-scale structure of space-time are
mentioned. © 1980 Plenum Publishing Corporation.},
Doi = {10.1007/BF00756619},
Key = {Soffel:1980kj}
}

@article{fds247201,
Author = {Reinhardt, J and Soff, G and Müller, B and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Dynamical aspects: Coherent production of positrons in heavy
ion collisions},
Journal = {Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics},
Volume = {4},
Number = {C},
Pages = {547-578},
Year = {1980},
ISSN = {0146-6410},
Abstract = {Collisions of very heavy ions are discussed as a means to
investigate quantum electrodynamics in the presence of
strong external fields. The action of the combined Coulomb
field of the closely approaching nuclei leads to strong
binding of the inner electron shells and to large induced
transitions. The resulting mechanisms for the production of
positrons are discussed in detail and compared with recent
experiments. The importance of multi-step excitations is
stressed and first results of coupled channel calculations
Key = {fds247201}
}

@article{fds247202,
Author = {Reinhardt, J and Müller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {Quantum electrodynamics of strong fields in heavy ion
collision},
Journal = {Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics},
Volume = {4},
Number = {C},
Pages = {503-545},
Year = {1980},
ISSN = {0146-6410},
Abstract = {Quantum Electrodynamics of strong external fields is
discussed in the context of atomic physics. For sufficiently
large electromagnetic coupling constant Zα bound states can
approach and even join the antiparticle continuum of the
Dirac equation. The resulting possibility of spontaneous
positron production and the new concept of a charged
electron-positron-vacuum is discussed. The autoionization
model and the exact solutions of the single particle Dirac
equation are supplemented by a quantum-field-theoretical
approach. The influence of vacuum polarization, possible
non-linear field effects and the self-screening of extremely
strong electrical charges are investigated. ©
1980.},
Key = {fds247202}
}

@article{art46,
Author = {Müller, U and Reinhardt, J and Soff, G and Müller, B and Greiner,
W},
Title = {K-vacancy formation in deep inelastic nuclear
reactions},
Volume = {297},
Number = {4},
Pages = {357-358},
Year = {1980},
ISSN = {0340-2193},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01422798},
Abstract = {We investigate the dependence of inner shell vacancy
production on interaction time T in deep inelastic nuclear
reactions. Coupled channel calculations for Xe-Pb, Pb-Pb,
and U-U collisions are presented. In the heaviest system
strong interference minima for both 1sσ and 2p1/2σ
excitation are predicted at T≲3.10-21 sec. © 1980
Springer-Verlag.},
Doi = {10.1007/BF01422798},
Key = {art46}
}

@article{art45,
Author = {uuml, M and ller, B and Oberacker, V},
Title = {Influence of nuclear trajectory variations on atomic
excitation probabilities},
Journal = {Phys. Rev. C},
Volume = {22},
Pages = {1909-1913},
Year = {1980},
Key = {art45}
}

@article{art44,
Author = {Soff, G and Reinhardt, J and Müller, B and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Coupled channel analysis of inner-shell vacancy formation in
superheavy quasimolecules},
Volume = {294},
Number = {2},
Pages = {137-147},
Year = {1980},
ISSN = {0340-2193},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01435048},
Abstract = {We calculate the ionization probability of the
quasimolecular 1 sσ-state in collisions of very heavy ions
with (Z1+Z2) α≳1. Multistep excitation processes between
bound and continuum states are investigated. Due to the
multistep processes the number of created 1 sσ-vacancies is
typically increased by a factor 2-5 over that obtained
within time-dependent perturbation theory (i.e. the one-step
processes). Some implications of the many-electron problem
and the Pauli principle are discussed. The δ-electron
distribution is compared with recent experimental data. ©
1980 Springer-Verlag.},
Doi = {10.1007/BF01435048},
Key = {art44}
}

@article{art43,
Author = {Kirsch, J and uuml, M and ller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {Unified theory of electrons and photons in heavy ion
collisions},
Journal = {Z. Naturforsch.},
Volume = {35a},
Pages = {579-589},
Year = {1980},
Key = {art43}
}

@article{art42,
Author = {auml, G and rtner, P and uuml, M and ller, B and Reinhardt, J and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Limiting charge for point nuclei},
Journal = {Phys. Lett. B},
Volume = {95},
Pages = {181-184},
Year = {1980},
Key = {art42}
}

@article{art41,
Author = {uuml, M and ller, B},
Title = {Some comments on the relativistic Thomas-Fermi
model},
Journal = {Phys. Lett. B},
Volume = {94},
Pages = {275-276},
Year = {1980},
Key = {art41}
}

@article{Vasak:1980sg,
Author = {Vasak, D and uuml, M and ller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {Pion radiation from fast heavy ions},
Journal = {Phys. Scripta},
Volume = {22},
Pages = {25-35},
Year = {1980},
Key = {Vasak:1980sg}
}

@article{Vasak:1980eu,
Author = {Vasak, D and Stöcker, H and Müller, B and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Pion bremsstrahlung and critical phenomena in relativistic
nuclear collisions},
Journal = {Physics Letters B},
Volume = {93},
Number = {3},
Pages = {243-246},
Year = {1980},
ISSN = {0370-2693},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0370-2693(80)90504-3},
Abstract = {We investigate the dependence of pion bremsstrahlung on the
deceleration of the nuclei in relativistic heavy ion
collisions. The vicinity of an abnormal phase in nuclear
matter can lead - owing to critical N-N scattering - to
faster deceleration or decreasing transparency of the
nuclei. This would result in a threshold enhancement of the
pion bremsstrahlung cross section, which in turn can be used
to search for abnormal nuclear states experimentally. ©
1980.},
Doi = {10.1016/0370-2693(80)90504-3},
Key = {Vasak:1980eu}
}

@article{Hofmann:1980rj,
Author = {Hofmann, J and Müller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {Phase transitions in nuclear matter},
Journal = {Physical Review C},
Volume = {22},
Number = {1},
Pages = {221-228},
Year = {1980},
ISSN = {0556-2813},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.22.221},
Abstract = {A method for the description of spin-isospin phase
transitions in nuclear matter is developed. It allows a
complete description of the pion condensation phase
transition in the framework of the Landau-Migdal Fermi
liquid theory. The equation of the order parameter is
derived and the condensation energy is calculated. We study
the influence of pion condensation on the nuclear equation
of state and the temperature dependence of pion
condensation. NUCLEAR STRUCTURE Description of
pion-condensed ground state by Green's function technique.
© 1980 The American Physical Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.22.221},
Key = {Hofmann:1980rj}
}

@article{Schafer:1980bg,
Author = {Schäfer, W and Stöcker, H and Müller, B and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Mach-shock electron distributions from solids},
Volume = {36},
Number = {4},
Pages = {319-322},
Year = {1980},
ISSN = {0340-224X},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01322154},
Abstract = {Heavy ion induced density fluctuations in the electron
plasma of solids known as wakes show the characteristic
features of Mach-shock waves. We propose a method to detect
the electron wake in solid state materials by measuring the
angular distribution of emitted electrons of low energy.
These show up as distinct maxima at certain angles. In the
emission angle we find an increase with bombarding energy,
following the Mach relation cos Θem=vs/v0. © 1980
Springer-Verlag.},
Doi = {10.1007/BF01322154},
Key = {Schafer:1980bg}
}

@article{Soffel:1979ma,
Author = {Soffel, M and Müller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {Vacuum with spin in the ecsk-theory of gravitation},
Journal = {Physics Letters A},
Volume = {70},
Number = {3},
Pages = {167-170},
Year = {1979},
Month = {March},
ISSN = {0375-9601},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0375-9601(79)90195-6},
Abstract = {The decay of the isotropic spin 1/2 particle-antiparticle
vaccum in an external torsion field is shown. For very high
torsion fields the overcritical vacuum is described in a
Doi = {10.1016/0375-9601(79)90195-6},
Key = {Soffel:1979ma}
}

@article{fds247200,
Author = {Kessel, QC and Morgenstern, R and Müller, B and Niehaus,
A},
Title = {Angular correlation between autoionization electrons and
scattered ions in 2000-eV He+-He collisions},
Journal = {Physical Review A},
Volume = {20},
Number = {3},
Pages = {804-813},
Year = {1979},
ISSN = {1050-2947},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.20.804},
Abstract = {Complex population amplitudes for the excitation of magnetic
sublevels of He(2p2)D1 and He(2s2p)P1 states in 2-keV He+
-He collisions have been determined by measuring the energy
spectra of the corresponding autoionization electrons
ejected at different angles in coincidence with the
inelastically scattered ions. It was found that He(2p2)D1 is
excited with a relative probability of 97%. If the direction
of the internuclear line at the distance of closest approach
is taken as z axis, we find that primarily the m=0 sublevel
is populated and that the complete D1 excitation can be
interpreted as due to pure m=0 excitations with respect to
momentary internuclear lines at different points of the
trajectory which are symmetric to the turning point. These
results are discussed within the framework of the
Fano-Lichten promotion model. Quantization along an axis
perpendicular to the scattering plane shows an orientation
of the excited D1 state. From this we find that the angular
momentum Ly transferred from the motion of the heavy
particles to the electron cloud has an expectation value of
Ly-. © 1979 The American Physical Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevA.20.804},
Key = {fds247200}
}

@article{art40,
Author = {Hofmann, J and Müller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {Phase transitions and shock waves in nuclei},
Journal = {Physics Letters B},
Volume = {82},
Number = {2},
Pages = {195-198},
Year = {1979},
ISSN = {0370-2693},
Abstract = {In the present paper we investigate the compatibility of
shock waves and phase transitions in nuclear matter. We
show, that a continuous phase transition, i.e. the
coexistence of the two phases, is not compatible with the
existence of a sharp shock front. In this case shock waves
become hydrodynamically unstable which may lead to a
suppression of shock phenomena in certain energy windows in
high energy heavy ion collisions. © 1979.},
Key = {art40}
}

@article{art39,
Author = {Müller, A and Müller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {Cosmological particle production},
Journal = {Physics Letters A},
Volume = {74},
Number = {3-4},
Pages = {281-284},
Year = {1979},
ISSN = {0375-9601},
Abstract = {We apply the WKB approximation of path integrals to pair
creation in expanding universes. Friedman cosmologies for
arbitrary equations of state p = αρ{variant} are
discussed. Observational data are in favor of a stiff
equation of state (p ∼ ρ{variant}). ©
1979.},
Key = {art39}
}

@article{art38,
Author = {Soff, G and Reinhardt, J and uuml, M and ller, B and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Delta-electron emission in deep-inelastic heavy ion
collisions},
Journal = {Phys. Rev. Lett.},
Volume = {43},
Pages = {1981-1984},
Year = {1979},
Key = {art38}
}

@article{art37,
Author = {Reinhardt, J and Müller, B and Greiner, W and Soff,
G},
Title = {Role of multistep processes in heavy-ion inner-shell
excitations},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {43},
Number = {18},
Pages = {1307-1310},
Year = {1979},
ISSN = {0031-9007},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.43.1307},
Abstract = {This Letter discusses inner-shell excitation in collisions
of very heavy ions (Z1+Z2140) in the framework of the
quasimolecular model. The importance of multistep
excitations and of coupling between continuum states is
demonstrated. The 1sσ vacancy probabilities resulting from
coupled-channels calculations exceed perturbation theory by
a factor 3-5, thus giving good agreement with recent
experimental results. © 1979 The American Physical
Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.43.1307},
Key = {art37}
}

@article{art36,
Author = {Kirsch, J and Betz, W and Reinhardt, J and Müller, B and Greiner, W and Soff, G},
Title = {The impact parameter dependence of the Pb + Pb K - MO
spectrum},
Volume = {292},
Number = {3},
Pages = {227-234},
Year = {1979},
ISSN = {0340-2193},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01547466},
Abstract = {Molecular orbital X-rays are emitted during ion-atom
collisions. The theoretical treatment, numerical results for
the Pb + Pb system and a comparison with background
radiation like NNB, SEB and γ-decay of Coulomb excited
nuclei are presented. © 1979 Springer-Verlag.},
Doi = {10.1007/BF01547466},
Key = {art36}
}

@article{art35,
Author = {Reinhardt, J and Müller, B and Greiner, W and Soff,
G},
Title = {Delta electrons: An atomic clock for deep inelastic
collisions},
Volume = {292},
Number = {2},
Pages = {211-212},
Year = {1979},
ISSN = {0340-2193},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01441628},
Abstract = {We calculate the δ-electron distribution resulting from
heavy ion collisions with projectile energies above the
Coulomb barrier. It is shown that the life time
(Δτ≳10-21s) of superheavy composite systems causes
pronounced oscillations in the electron spectrum. The width
of the oscillations is found to be ΔE=h/Δτ. This effect
can be used to measure nuclear sticking times quite
Doi = {10.1007/BF01441628},
Key = {art35}
}

@article{art34,
Author = {Theis, J and Reinhardt, J and Muller, B},
Title = {How good is the adiabatic basis in heavy ion
collisions?},
Journal = {Journal of the Physics B: Atomic and Molecular
Physics},
Volume = {12},
Number = {16},
Pages = {L479-L483},
Year = {1979},
ISSN = {0022-3700},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0022-3700/12/16/001},
Abstract = {Discusses the optimal choice of the basis for calculations
of inner-shell excitations in the collision of heavy ions.
Starting from a variational principle which minimises the
time-integrated coupling strength, a relation between a
model two-centre distance and the actual internuclear
separation is derived. For 1s sigma excitations in Pb-Pb
collisions it is found that the optimal basis is almost
identical to the adiabatic one. For higher quantum states
Doi = {10.1088/0022-3700/12/16/001},
Key = {art34}
}

@article{art33,
Author = {Soff, G and Greiner, W and Betz, W and uuml, M and ller,
B},
Title = {Electrons in superheavy quasimolecules},
Journal = {Phys. Rev. A},
Volume = {20},
Pages = {169-193},
Year = {1979},
Key = {art33}
}

@article{art32,
Author = {Rihan, TH and Muller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {On the adequacy of first-order perturbation theory for
calculations of inner-shell ionisation},
Journal = {Journal of the Physics B: Atomic and Molecular
Physics},
Volume = {12},
Number = {5},
Pages = {761-774},
Year = {1979},
ISSN = {0022-3700},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0022-3700/12/5/020},
Abstract = {Transition probabilities for inner-shell electrons during
the formation of quasi-molecular systems in heavy-ion
collisions are considered. The effect of transitions to the
continuum on discrete transition probabilities is given via
a simple prescription satisfying unitarity. In this way, it
is also shown that the direct ionisation probabilities will
be modified by virtual transitions to the continuum.
Adopting a scaling model and the authors' prescription, the
effect of such virtual processes on the ionisation of 1s
sigma electrons can be calculated analytically. As an
example, the authors calculated it for the Pb-Pb
quasi-molecular system. It is found that such virtual
processes suppress the direct 1s sigma ionisation
probability for large impact parameters and/or small
relative ion velocities.},
Doi = {10.1088/0022-3700/12/5/020},
Key = {art32}
}

@article{art31,
Author = {wietschorke, K-H and Muller, B and Greiner, W and Soff,
G},
Title = {Self-consistent determination of critical two-centre
distances},
Journal = {Journal of the Physics B: Atomic and Molecular
Physics},
Volume = {12},
Number = {1},
Pages = {L31-L33},
Year = {1979},
ISSN = {0022-3700},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0022-3700/12/1/007},
Abstract = {In collisions of very heavy ions (Z1+Z2 greater than 173)
the binding energy of the quasimolecular 1s sigma state may
exceed twice the electron rest mass. The critical
internuclear separation is calculated within the
relativistic Hartree-Fock-Slater model. For the almost
neutral U-U system, the authors obtained Rcr=26
fm.},
Doi = {10.1088/0022-3700/12/1/007},
Key = {art31}
}

@article{Soffel:1978un,
Author = {Soffel, M and Heinz, U and Müller, B and Greiner,
W},
Title = {A self-consistent solution of the coupled Dirac-Einstein
equations in the mean-field Hartree approximation},
Journal = {Lettere Al Nuovo Cimento},
Volume = {22},
Number = {10},
Pages = {391-396},
Year = {1978},
Month = {July},
ISSN = {0375-930X},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02856155},
Doi = {10.1007/BF02856155},
Key = {Soffel:1978un}
}

@article{fds247199,
Author = {Kessel, QC and Morgenstern, R and Müller, B and Niehaus, A and Thielmann, U},
Title = {Ion-electron coincidence measurements of the azimuthal
dependence of electrons from autoionizing He atoms excited
in 2000-eV He+-He collisions},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {40},
Number = {10},
Pages = {645-648},
Year = {1978},
ISSN = {0031-9007},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.40.645},
Abstract = {The azimuthal angular dependence and corresponding energy
spectra have been measured for electrons ejected at 135°
from the beam direction by autoionizing He atoms in the
(2p2)D1 and (2s2p)P1 states, which were excited by 2000-eV
He+ ions scattered through 6°. The data show a marked
dependence on the azimuthal angle of the scattered
projectile and are used to calculate the moduli and phases
of the population amplitudes of the magnetic sublevels
excited. © 1978 The American Physical Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.40.645},
Key = {fds247199}
}

@article{art30,
Author = {Muller, A and Heinz, U and Muller, B and Greiner,
W},
Title = {On gravitation theories with limiting curvature},
Volume = {11},
Number = {9},
Pages = {1781-1798},
Year = {1978},
ISSN = {0022-3689},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0305-4470/11/9/012},
Abstract = {The authors discuss the solutions of the generalised
gravitational field equations derived from the nonlinear
Lagrangian for a limiting curvature theory and compare the
free space solutions as well as the solutions for an
extended star with the corresponding solutions of the
Einstein equations.},
Doi = {10.1088/0305-4470/11/9/012},
Key = {art30}
}

@article{art29,
Author = {Soff, G and uuml, M and ller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {Spectroscopy of electronic states in superheavy
quasimolecules},
Journal = {Phys. Rev. Lett.},
Volume = {40},
Pages = {540-544},
Year = {1978},
Key = {art29}
}

@article{art28,
Author = {Rihan, TH and Aly, NS and Merzbacher, E and Müller, B and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Relaxation times in intermediate quasi-molecules},
Volume = {285},
Number = {4},
Pages = {397-403},
Year = {1978},
ISSN = {0340-2193},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01813240},
Abstract = {The influence of perturbative interactions is discussed in
the frame-work of time-dependent perturbation theory. A
characteristic time (to be called relaxation time), during
which a given initial state of the system will be depleted,
is defined. In case this relaxation time is smaller than the
collision time of the process, the usual adiabatic
perturbation treatment becomes vague. In this sense, the
usefulness of various approaches to the problem, such as
those based on two-center Dirac wave functions or
Hartree-Fock states can be quantitatively investigated.
Calculations based on two-center Dirac wave functions and a
restricted quasimolecular configuration for the electronic
system in U-U collisions, reveal that the electron-electron
interactions can be safely neglected for the inner-shell
electronic states. A prescription is given to obtain more
reliable transition probabilities when the adiabatic
perturbation treatment fails. It is shown that unitarity is
recovered in such a prescription. © 1978
Springer-Verlag.},
Doi = {10.1007/BF01813240},
Key = {art28}
}

@article{art27,
Author = {Kirsch, J and Betz, W and Reinhardt, J and Soff, G and Müller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {K-X-ray spectrum of the Pb + Pb quasimolecules},
Journal = {Physics Letters B},
Volume = {72},
Number = {3},
Pages = {298-302},
Year = {1978},
ISSN = {0370-2693},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0370-2693(78)90123-5},
Abstract = {We present ab initio calculations of the quasimolecular
K-X-ray spectrum from the Pb + Pb system, where both the
Kd-hole amplitude and the radiation amplitude is calculated
in first order perturbation theory. A comparison with the
background radiation like NNB, SEB and γ-decay of excited
nuclei shows that the molecular X-rays should be measurable
up to X-ray energies corresponding to the characteristic
K-line of the united superheavy atom. ©
1978.},
Doi = {10.1016/0370-2693(78)90123-5},
Key = {art27}
}

@article{art26,
Author = {Soff, G and Betz, W and Müller, B and Greiner, W and Merzbacher,
E},
Title = {Inner shell ionization in the Pb-Pb quasimolecule},
Journal = {Physics Letters A},
Volume = {65},
Number = {1},
Pages = {19-22},
Year = {1978},
ISSN = {0375-9601},
Abstract = {Direct ionization of the 1sσ, 2sσ, 3sσ and 2p 1 2σ
electronic states via radial coupling in the Pb-Pb
quasimolecule is investigated as function of the impact
parameter b. The ionization probability decreases
exponentially like P(b)∼exp(- b a), with a1sσ=19 fm,
a2sσ=76 fm, a3sσ=135 fm and a2p 1 2σ=47 fm. The
high-energy part of the electronic spectrum is dominated by
2sσ and 2p 1 2σ ionization. As total ionization cross
section we find σ1sσ=2 barn and σ2p 1 2σ=59 barn for
Key = {art26}
}

@article{art25,
Author = {Heiligenthal, G and Betz, W and Soff, G and Müller, B and Greiner,
W},
Title = {The influence of rotational coupling on K-vacancy formation
in U-Pb collisions},
Volume = {285},
Number = {1},
Pages = {105-106},
Year = {1978},
ISSN = {0340-2193},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01410233},
Abstract = {The probability for 2p1/2σ-ionization in U-U and Pb-Pb
collisions is calculated. The results are used to explain
the measured impact parameter dependence for K-vacancy
production in U-Pb collisions as the sum of direct
ionization and strong rotational and radial coupling between
the substates of the quasimolecular L-shell. © 1978
Springer-Verlag.},
Doi = {10.1007/BF01410233},
Key = {art25}
}

@article{art24,
Author = {Müller, B and Soff, G and Greiner, W and Ceausescu,
V},
Title = {Scaling behaviour of inner-shell ionization in superheavy
quasi-molecules},
Volume = {285},
Number = {1},
Pages = {27-30},
Year = {1978},
ISSN = {0340-2193},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01410218},
Abstract = {We derive an approximate analytical formula for the K-shell
ionization in collisions of very heavy atoms. The impact
parameter and bombarding energy dependence are well
described. The binding energy of the bound state at closest
approach enters in a simple way, which could provide an
experimental method for a spectroscopy of quasimolecular
Doi = {10.1007/BF01410218},
Key = {art24}
}

@article{Reinhardt:1978cy,
Author = {Reinhardt, J and Oberacker, V and Müller, B and Greiner, W and Soff,
G},
Title = {Positron emission in PbPb and PbU collisions},
Journal = {Physics Letters B},
Volume = {78},
Number = {2-3},
Pages = {183-188},
Year = {1978},
ISSN = {0370-2693},
Abstract = {We present quantitative calculations of positron emission
dynamically induced in the collision of PbPb and PbU. The
results are compared with recent measurements, yielding
evidence for new processes characteristic for quantum
electrodynamics of strong fields. © 1978.},
Key = {Reinhardt:1978cy}
}

@article{Rafelski:1978xy,
Author = {Rafelski, J and Müller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {Spontaneous vacuum decay of supercritical nuclear
composites},
Volume = {285},
Number = {1},
Pages = {49-52},
Year = {1978},
ISSN = {0340-2193},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01410223},
Abstract = {We show that in deep inelastic heavy ion collisions with
Z1+Z2&gt; 173 the spontaneous decay of the neutral vacuum by
emission of positrons may be isolated from other competing
positron producing processes. From the details of the
spontaneous positron spectrum information about the nature
(lifetime, shape and angular momentum) of the composite
nuclear system may be derived. © 1978 Springer-Verlag.},
Doi = {10.1007/BF01410223},
Key = {Rafelski:1978xy}
}

@article{Schafer:1978jq,
Author = {Schäfer, W and Stöcker, H and Müller, B and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Mach cones induced by fast heavy ions in electron
plasma},
Volume = {288},
Number = {4},
Pages = {349-352},
Year = {1978},
ISSN = {0340-2193},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01417717},
Abstract = {Fast heavy ions penetrating through solids initiate density
oscillations of the electron plasma, forming Mach cones if
the projectile velocity exceeds a critical value cs. These
Mach waves should lead to the directed emission of electrons
from the target. The preferential emission angle θ{symbol}
as a function of the bombarding energy is calculated for
Springer-Verlag.},
Doi = {10.1007/BF01417717},
Key = {Schafer:1978jq}
}

@article{Greiner:1978xq,
Author = {Greiner, W and Müller, B and Soff, G},
Title = {Delta electrons as a probe of strong magnetic fields in
heavy ion collisions},
Journal = {Physics Letters A},
Volume = {69},
Number = {1},
Pages = {27-30},
Year = {1978},
ISSN = {0375-9601},
Abstract = {We propose that the spin polarization of delta electrons
should be used as a measure of the strong magnetic fields
(B∼1017 G) induced by the nuclear motion in collisions of
very heavy ions. The polarization is typically of the order
of 10-20 percent in Pb-Pb and U-U collisions. We also
discuss the bombarding energy dependence up to E1ab =
200MeV/u, where 500 keV level splitting between spin up and
down states is obtained. © 1978.},
Key = {Greiner:1978xq}
}

@article{art23,
Author = {Müller, B and Greiner, W and Rafelski, J},
Title = {Interpretation of external fields as temperature},
Journal = {Physics Letters A},
Volume = {63},
Number = {3},
Pages = {181-183},
Year = {1977},
Month = {November},
ISSN = {0375-9601},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0375-9601(77)90866-0},
Abstract = {We show that average excitation of the vacuum state in the
presence of an external electric field can be described by
an effective temperature kT = eE (2πm). We present a
qualitative generalization of our result to other
interactions. Some phenomenological implications concerning
matter at low temperatures in strong electric fields (105
Doi = {10.1016/0375-9601(77)90866-0},
Key = {art23}
}

@article{Soffel:1977yb,
Author = {Soffel, M and Müller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {The electrostatic and gravitational field of spherically
symmetric objects},
Journal = {Physics Letters A},
Volume = {62},
Number = {2},
Pages = {67-69},
Year = {1977},
Month = {July},
ISSN = {0375-9601},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0375-9601(77)90951-3},
Abstract = {The electrostatic and gravitational fields of an extended
spherically symmetric object is presented. The limit to a
point-like object is discussed for Born-Infeld type of
electrodynamics and it is shown, that the extreme
Reissner-Nordstrøm field, where no event horizon occurs, is
Doi = {10.1016/0375-9601(77)90951-3},
Key = {Soffel:1977yb}
}

@article{Soffel:1977wn,
Author = {Soffel, M and Muller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {Particles in a stationary spherically symmetric
gravitational field},
Journal = {Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General},
Volume = {10},
Number = {4},
Pages = {551-560},
Year = {1977},
Month = {April},
ISSN = {0305-4470},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0305-4470/10/4/017},
Abstract = {Dirac's equation has been considered in a Schwarzschild
(Reissner-Nordstrom) background. Resonances in a continuum
of states are found, similar to the Klein-Gordon case. Also
the solutions of the Dirac and Klein-Gordon equations are
investigated for an extended gravitating source. Special
attention has been given to the case in which the radius of
the source tends towards its Schwarzschild radius. A
limiting charge-to-mass ratio for black holes is
obtained.},
Doi = {10.1088/0305-4470/10/4/017},
Key = {Soffel:1977wn}
}

@article{fds304586,
Author = {Fink, HJ and Muller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {Parastatistics as an effective description of complex
particles (nucleus-nucleus collisions and muonic
atoms)},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear Physics},
Volume = {3},
Number = {8},
Pages = {1119-1131},
Year = {1977},
ISSN = {0305-4616},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0305-4616/3/8/021},
Abstract = {Parastatistics with continuous order are proposed. The
various parastatistics are used in scattering theory as an
effective description accounting for the internal structure
of composite particles (nuclei). Also investigated is the
possibility that muons are (composite) para-particles.},
Doi = {10.1088/0305-4616/3/8/021},
Key = {fds304586}
}

@article{art22,
Author = {Fink, HJ and uuml, M and ller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {Parastatistics as an effective description of complex
particles},
Journal = {J. Phys. G},
Volume = {3},
Number = {8},
Pages = {1119-1131},
Year = {1977},
ISSN = {0305-4616},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0305-4616/3/8/021},
Abstract = {Parastatistics with continuous order are proposed. The
various parastatistics are used in scattering theory as an
effective description accounting for the internal structure
of composite particles (nuclei). Also investigated is the
possibility that muons are (composite) para-particles.},
Doi = {10.1088/0305-4616/3/8/021},
Key = {art22}
}

@article{art21,
Author = {Soff, G and Müller, B},
Title = {Transition rates of electrons in superheavy
elements},
Volume = {280},
Number = {3},
Pages = {243-247},
Year = {1977},
ISSN = {0340-2193},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01434348},
Abstract = {Transition rates for electrons in the superheavy elements
Z=114, 126, 134, 145, 164 and 173 are calculated. K, L and
M-shells are considered as final states. The 2 s-1 s
transition of multipolarity M 1 is dominant for Z = 173 with
a transition time of 10-18 s. The radical expectation values
〈r〉 and 〈r2〉1/2 are given. © 1977
Springer-Verlag.},
Doi = {10.1007/BF01434348},
Key = {art21}
}

@article{art20,
Author = {Soff, G and lustig, H-J and Muller, B},
Title = {On the identification of superheavy elements from L and M
spectra},
Journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear Physics},
Volume = {3},
Number = {4},
Pages = {583-590},
Year = {1977},
ISSN = {0305-4616},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0305-4616/3/4/018},
Abstract = {Various possibilities for interpreting the recently observed
X-rays from supposedly superheavy elements are studied.
These X-rays can also be explained by atomic lines of
superheavy elements from the Z=164 and Z=114
islands.},
Doi = {10.1088/0305-4616/3/4/018},
Key = {art20}
}

@article{art19,
Author = {Soff, G and Reinhardt, J and Müller, B and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Shakeoff of the vacuum polarization in quasimolecular
collisions of very heavy ions},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {38},
Number = {11},
Pages = {592-595},
Year = {1977},
ISSN = {0031-9007},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.38.592},
Abstract = {The theory of direct electron-positron pair production in
the collision of heavy ions is formulated in the framework
of the quasimolecular model. The pair production process
acquires a collective nature for (Z1+Z2)&gt;1 and can be
understood as the shakeoff of the strong vacuum polarization
cloud formed in the quasimolecule. The total cross section
is, e.g., 76 b for Pb + Pb at Coulomb barrier energies. ©
1977 The American Physical Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.38.592},
Key = {art19}
}

@article{art18,
Author = {uuml, M and ller, B},
Title = {Positron creation in superheavy quasimolecules},
Journal = {Ann. Rev. Nucl. Science},
Volume = {26},
Pages = {351-383},
Year = {1976},
Key = {art18}
}

@article{art17,
Author = {Betz, W and Soff, G and Müller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {Direct formation of quasimolecular 1sσ vacancies in
uranium-uranium collisions},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {37},
Number = {16},
Pages = {1046-1049},
Year = {1976},
ISSN = {0031-9007},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.37.1046},
Abstract = {The direct (Coulomb) formation of electron vacancies in the
1sσ state of superheavy quasimolecules is investigated for
the first time. Its dependence on the impact parameter,
projectile energy, and its contribution from excitations
into the continum and higher bound states are determined. ©
1976 The American Physical Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.37.1046},
Key = {art17}
}

@article{art16,
Author = {Gros, M and Muller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {Radiative transitions induced in heavy-ion
collisions},
Journal = {Journal of the Physics B: Atomic and Molecular
Physics},
Volume = {9},
Number = {11},
Pages = {1849-1856},
Year = {1976},
ISSN = {0022-3700},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0022-3700/9/11/011},
Abstract = {Amplitudes for radiative transitions in fast-rotating
molecules and heavy-ion collisions are derived. The effect
of the Coriolis force on the electron motion and on the
radiative transition amplitude is formulated. The term in
the transition amplitude dependent on the angular velocity
reflects the influence of the rotation of the
states.},
Doi = {10.1088/0022-3700/9/11/011},
Key = {art16}
}

@article{art15,
Author = {uuml, M and ller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {The two center Dirac equation},
Journal = {Z. Naturforsch.},
Volume = {31a},
Pages = {1-30},
Year = {1976},
Key = {art15}
}

@article{Rafelski:1976rf,
Author = {Rafelski, J and uuml, M and ller, B},
Title = {Magnetic splitting of quasimolecular electronic states in
strong fields},
Journal = {Phys. Rev. Lett.},
Volume = {36},
Pages = {517-520},
Year = {1976},
Key = {Rafelski:1976rf}
}

@article{Muller:1976ms,
Author = {Rafelski, J and Müller, B},
Title = {Vector coupling and bound states of fermions in three space
dimensions},
Journal = {Physical Review D},
Volume = {14},
Number = {12},
Pages = {3532-3535},
Year = {1976},
ISSN = {0556-2821},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.14.3532},
Abstract = {The behavior of fermions interacting via vector gluons in
the strong-coupling limit is investigated. A suitable
coupling between the Dirac and the vector-gluon field gives
rise to bound-state solutions. The coherent field
approximation is employed to find the bound-state masses,
which are further discussed by analytical and numerical
methods and are found to be positive-definite in the example
considered numerically. © 1976 The American Physical
Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.14.3532},
Key = {Muller:1976ms}
}

@article{Rafelski:1976mu,
Author = {Rafelski, J and Müller, B},
Title = {The critical distance in collisions of heavy
ions},
Journal = {Physics Letters B},
Volume = {65},
Number = {3},
Pages = {205-208},
Year = {1976},
ISSN = {0370-2693},
Abstract = {There is a large discrepancy in published values of the
critical distance in heavy-ion collisions. We have
recalculated the critical distance by a more accurate method
for symmetric collisions of point nuclei as a function of Z.
The reasons for the discrepancy are discussed. ©
1976.},
Key = {Rafelski:1976mu}
}

@article{Muller:1975fh,
Author = {Müller, B and Rafelski, J},
Title = {Stabilization of the charged vacuum created by very strong
electrical fields in nuclear matter},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {34},
Number = {6},
Pages = {349-352},
Year = {1975},
ISSN = {0031-9007},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.34.349},
Abstract = {The expectation value of electrical charge in charged vacuum
is calculated utilizing the Thomas-Fermi model. We find
almost complete screening of the nuclear charge. For any
given nuclear density there is an upper bound for the
electrical potential. For normal nuclear densities this
value is - 250 MeV. This suggests that the vacuum is stable
against spontaneous formation of heavy, charged particles.
© 1975 The American Physical Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.34.349},
Key = {Muller:1975fh}
}

@article{art14,
Author = {Smith, RK and Müller, B and Greiner, W and Greenberg, JS and Davis,
CK},
Title = {Sudden rearrangements in intermediate molecular
systems},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {34},
Number = {3},
Pages = {117-120},
Year = {1975},
ISSN = {0031-9007},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.34.117},
Abstract = {Intensity oscillations are observed in the quasimolecular K
x-ray spectrum emitted in high-energy Ni58-Ni58 collisions.
The oscillating structure is shown, theoretically, to
reflect the existence of a two-step mechanism for the
production of molecular-orbital K x rays in which sudden
rearrangements of molecular-orbital populations are produced
by vibrations between atomic and molecular orbitals of
K-hole states during the interpenetration of the electronic
clouds. © 1975 The American Physical Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.34.117},
Key = {art14}
}

@article{art12,
Author = {Müller, B and Smith, RK and Greiner, W},
Title = {Spectroscopy of superheavy two centre orbitals},
Journal = {Physics Letters B},
Volume = {53},
Number = {5},
Pages = {401-404},
Year = {1975},
ISSN = {0370-2693},
Abstract = {The inner shell molecular orbitals formed in heavy ion
collisions become states of superheavy atoms as the two
nuclei amalgamate. It is shown that there is a unique
correspondence between the scattering energy, i.e., the
distance of closest approach, and the shape of the molecular
X-ray spectrum of a superheavy system. Thus molecular
spectroscopy can be used to investigate the shell structure
of superheavy quasimolecules and even, in the limit, of
Key = {art12}
}

@article{art13,
Author = {Smith, K and Muller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {Dynamical theory of intermediate molecular phenomena in
heavy ion scattering},
Journal = {Journal of the Physics B: Atomic and Molecular
Physics},
Volume = {8},
Number = {1},
Pages = {75-101},
Year = {1975},
ISSN = {0022-3700},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0022-3700/8/1/013},
Abstract = {A general formulation of the collision between two heavy
ions is presented. While this formalism may also be applied
to nuclear structure problems, the emphasis is placed upon
the electronic structure. Molecular and relativistic effects
on the electronic motion are incorporated into the formalism
through the two-centre-many-body-Dirac equation. The various
couplings of the electronic system to the nuclear system are
illustrated in two cases. First the relative nuclear motion
is treated quantum mechanically and then the semiclassical
description of this motion is presented. The formalism is
applied to inner shell vacancy production, molecular X-ray
transitions and both induced and autoionized positron
spectra of the quantum electrodynamics of strong fields.
Also induced and spontaneous and induced radiationless
transitions are discussed.},
Doi = {10.1088/0022-3700/8/1/013},
Key = {art13}
}

@article{art09,
Author = {Müller, B and Kent-Smith, R and Greiner, W},
Title = {Induced radiative transitions of intermediate molecules in
heavy ion collisions},
Journal = {Physics Letters B},
Volume = {49},
Number = {3},
Pages = {219-223},
Year = {1974},
ISSN = {0370-2693},
Abstract = {Three types of transitions exists in intermediate molecules
occuring in heavy ion scattering: spontaneous radiative,
latter ones yield an asymmetric angular distribution for
molecular X-rays with respect to the ion-beam axis. The
experimental verification of this effect would furnish an
experimentum crucis for both, the existence of molecular
1974.},
Key = {art09}
}

@article{art08,
Author = {uuml, M and ller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {The change of the vacuum in superheavy quasimolecules},
Journal = {Phys. Scripta},
Volume = {10A},
Pages = {170-174},
Year = {1974},
Key = {art08}
}

@article{art07,
Author = {Rafelski, J and Müller, B and Soff, G and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Critical discussion of the vacuum polarization measurements
in muonic atoms},
Journal = {Annals of Physics},
Volume = {88},
Number = {2},
Pages = {419-453},
Year = {1974},
ISSN = {0003-4916},
Abstract = {Recent disagreement between theoretical and experimental
values of transition energies for outer states in muonic
atoms is discussed in the range of 150-440 keV. A brief
review of the present status of calculation of the
theoretical contributions is given. A rigorous theoretical
framework for the electron-muon system is considered. A set
of self-consistent equations is derived. Several mechanisms
for the explanation of the discrepancy are discussed. No
explanation within the frame of standard quantum
Key = {art07}
}

@article{art06,
Author = {Smith, K and Peitz, H and Müller, B and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Induced decay of the neutral vaccum in overcritical fields
occurring in heavy-ion collisions},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {32},
Number = {10},
Pages = {554-556},
Year = {1974},
ISSN = {0031-9007},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.32.554},
Abstract = {In critical or nearly critical heavy-ion collisions, induced
as well as spontaneous energyless e-e+ pair creation result
in the decay of the neutral vacuum. Induced transitions from
the negative-energy continuum into a vacant molecular 1s
level can occur even in the absence of diving and produce a
substantial enhancement and broadening of the previously
considered spontaneous positron spectrum. Total cross
sections of 5 b have been calculated for U-U collisions. ©
1974 The American Physical Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.32.554},
Key = {art06}
}

@article{Rafelski:1974rh,
Author = {Rafelski, J and Müller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {The charged vacuum in over-critical fields},
Journal = {Nuclear Physics B},
Volume = {68},
Number = {2},
Pages = {585-604},
Year = {1974},
ISSN = {0550-3213},
Abstract = {The concept of over-critical fields, i.e. fields in which
spontaneous, energy-less electron-position pair creation may
occur, is discussed. It is shown that only a charged vacuum
can be a stable ground state of the overcritical field. The
time-dependent treatment confirms previous results for the
cross sections for the auto-ionizing positrons. The
questions in connection with the classical Dirac wave
functions in over-critical fields are extensively discussed
in the frame of the self-consistent formulation of QED
including the effects of vacuum polarization and
Key = {Rafelski:1974rh}
}

@article{Soff:1974sp,
Author = {Soff, G and uuml, M and ller, B and Rafelski, J},
Title = {Precise values for critical fields in quantum
electrodynamics},
Journal = {Z. Naturforsch.},
Volume = {29A},
Pages = {1267-1275},
Year = {1974},
Key = {Soff:1974sp}
}

@article{art11,
Author = {Müller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {Theory of induced molecular-orbital K X rays in heavy-ion
collisions},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {33},
Number = {8},
Pages = {469-473},
Year = {1974},
ISSN = {0031-9007},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.33.469},
Abstract = {The mechanisms of spontaneous and induced emission of
radiation are derived from the Dirac equation in a rotating
coordinate system. The molecular-orbital x-ray spectra
exhibit a strong asymmetry with respect to the beam axis.
The asymmetry peaks for the high-energy transitions, which
can be used for spectroscopy of two-center orbitals. © 1974
The American Physical Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.33.469},
Key = {art11}
}

@article{art10,
Author = {Soff, G and Müller, B},
Title = {Transition energies in the ionized Br+Br
quasi-molecule},
Journal = {Lettere al Nuovo Cimento Series 2},
Volume = {9},
Number = {14},
Pages = {557-560},
Year = {1974},
ISSN = {0375-930X},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02759371},
Doi = {10.1007/BF02759371},
Key = {art10}
}

@article{fds318460,
Author = {Rafelski, J and Mueller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {The charged vacuum in overcritical fields},
Journal = {NUKLEONIKA},
Volume = {19},
Number = {7-8},
Pages = {747-765},
Year = {1974},
Key = {fds318460}
}

@article{Muller:1973ya,
Author = {Müller, B and Rafelski, J and Greiner, W},
Title = {Solution of the Dirac equation with two Coulomb
centres},
Journal = {Physics Letters B},
Volume = {47},
Number = {1},
Pages = {5-7},
Year = {1973},
ISSN = {0370-2693},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0370-2693(73)90554-6},
Abstract = {The Dirac equation for a relativistic particle (electron) in
the field of two Coulomb centres Z1 and Z2 - pointlike as
well as extended charges - has been solved. The systems
BrBr, IAu, UU are shown as examples. © 1973.},
Doi = {10.1016/0370-2693(73)90554-6},
Key = {Muller:1973ya}
}

@article{art05,
Author = {Müller, B and Rafelski, J and Greiner, W},
Title = {Electron wave functions in over-critical electrostatic
potentials},
Journal = {Il Nuovo Cimento A Series 10},
Volume = {18},
Number = {3},
Pages = {551-573},
Year = {1973},
ISSN = {0369-3546},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02722798},
Abstract = {The mathematical properties of the solutions of the Dirac
equation in over-critical external potentials are
investigated. The 1/r Coulomb potential is treated as the
limit R → 0 of cut-off Coulomb potentials (R is the
cut-off parameter). The results are interpreted in terms of
quantum electrodynamics. A number of new physical phenomena
occur in quantum electrodynamics of strong fields. One of
the most interesting ones is the autoionization of positrons
(energyless creation of electron-positron pairs) in
over-critical external fields. © 1973 Società Italiana di
Fisica.},
Doi = {10.1007/BF02722798},
Key = {art05}
}

@article{art04,
Author = {Soff, G and uuml, M and ller, B and Rafelski, J and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Solution of the Dirac equation for scalar potentials and its
implications in atomic physics},
Journal = {Z. Naturforsch.},
Volume = {28a},
Pages = {1389-1396},
Year = {1973},
Key = {art04}
}

@article{art03,
Author = {Peitz, H and Müller, B and Rafelski, J and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Autoionization spectra of positrons in heavy-ion
collisions},
Journal = {Lettere al Nuovo Cimento Series 2},
Volume = {8},
Number = {1},
Pages = {37-42},
Year = {1973},
ISSN = {0375-930X},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02727627},
Doi = {10.1007/BF02727627},
Key = {art03}
}

@article{art02,
Author = {Müller, B and Rafelski, J and Greiner, W},
Title = {Auto-ionization of positrons in heavy ion
collisions},
Journal = {The European Physical Journal A},
Volume = {257},
Number = {3},
Pages = {183-211},
Year = {1972},
ISSN = {1434-6001},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01401203},
Abstract = {Autoionization of positrons occurs as a fundamentally new
process of quantum electrodynamics, if empty 1 s- or 2 p1/2-
etc. electronic shells obtain binding energies larger than 2
mec2. This effect should be experimentally observable in the
scattering of very heavy ions (Z≧80) on each other since
in such collisions superheavy electronic molecules are
formed (superheavy quasi-molecules). The scattering
mechanism and the distribution of autoionization positrons
are discussed. The adiabaticity of the heavy ion collision
is studied and the electron-positron pair production
background to the ionization problem is estimated. Analytic
solutions are obtained for 1/r-potentials for the case
Zα≧1. The phase shifts of negative energy solutions in
the case of cutoff Coulomb potentials reveal the accuracy of
the autoionization formalism. © 1972 Springer-Verlag.},
Doi = {10.1007/BF01401203},
Key = {art02}
}

@article{art01,
Author = {Rafelski, J and Müller, B and Greiner, W},
Title = {Superheavy electronic molecules},
Journal = {Lettere al Nuovo Cimento Series 2},
Volume = {4},
Number = {11},
Pages = {469-474},
Year = {1972},
ISSN = {0375-930X},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02757147},
Doi = {10.1007/BF02757147},
Key = {art01}
}

@article{Peitz:1972zz,
Author = {Müller, B and Peitz, H and Rafelski, J and Greiner,
W},
Title = {Solution of the dirac equation for strong external
fields},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Volume = {28},
Number = {19},
Pages = {1235-1238},
Year = {1972},
ISSN = {0031-9007},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.28.1235},
Abstract = {The 1s bound state of superheavy atoms and molecules reaches
a binding energy of -2mc2 at 169. It is shown that the K
shell is still localized in r space even beyond this
critical proton number and that it has a width Γ (several
keV large) which is a positron escape width for ionized K
shells. The suggestion is made that this effect can be
observed in the collision of very heavy ions (superheavy
molecules) during the collision. © 1972 The American
Physical Society.},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.28.1235},
Key = {Peitz:1972zz}
}

@article{Muller:1972ab,
Author = {uuml, M and ller, B and Rafelski, J and Greiner, W},
Title = {Electron shells in strong external fields},
Journal = {Z. Phys. A},
Volume = {257},
Number = {1},
Pages = {62-77},
Year = {1972},
ISSN = {1434-6001},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01398198},
Abstract = {When the charge of a nucleus exceeds Z=Zcrâ‰ˆ 164-172
the energy of the 1 s-electron level is lowered beyond the
critical value of -mec2. Then this bound level is
degenerated with negative energy continuum solutions of the
Dirac equation and becomes a resonance, whose shape varies
and is approximately of Breit-Wigner type for Z-Zcrâ‰³5.
The physical meaning of this resonance can be understood
most easily if the 1 s-level is unoccupied (K-hole). In this
case a positron may escape if Z&gt;Zcr, a process, that can
be interpreted as auto-ionization of the positron. This
fundamentally new process of quantum electrodynamics of
strong fields can be tested experimentally by scattering
very heavy ions (Zâ‰§80) on each other since in such
collisions superheavy electronic molecules occur (superheavy
Doi = {10.1007/BF01398198},
Key = {Muller:1972ab}
}

@article{fds304599,
Author = {Müller, B and Rafelski, J and Greiner, W},
Title = {Electron shells in over-critical external
fields},
Journal = {The European Physical Journal A},
Volume = {257},
Number = {1},
Pages = {62-77},
Year = {1972},
ISSN = {1434-6001},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01398198},
Abstract = {When the charge of a nucleus exceeds Z=Zcr≈ 164-172 the
energy of the 1 s-electron level is lowered beyond the
critical value of -mec2. Then this bound level is
degenerated with negative energy continuum solutions of the
Dirac equation and becomes a resonance, whose shape varies
and is approximately of Breit-Wigner type for Z-Zcr≳5. The
physical meaning of this resonance can be understood most
easily if the 1 s-level is unoccupied (K-hole). In this case
a positron may escape if Z&gt;Zcr, a process, that can be
interpreted as auto-ionization of the positron. This
fundamentally new process of quantum electrodynamics of
strong fields can be tested experimentally by scattering
very heavy ions (Z≧80) on each other since in such
collisions superheavy electronic molecules occur (superheavy
Doi = {10.1007/BF01398198},
Key = {fds304599}
}

%% Papers Submitted
@article{fds226030,
Author = {Müller, B.},
Title = { A New Phase of Matter: Quark-Gluon Plasma Beyond the
Hagedorn Critical Temperature},
Booktitle = {Melting Hadrons, Boiling Quarks},
Publisher = {Springer},
Editor = {Rolf Hagedorn and Johann Rafelski},
Year = {2015},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1501.06077},
Abstract = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1501.06077},
Key = {fds226030}
}

@article{fds225720,
Author = {Monnai, A. and Müller, B.},
Title = {Collinear parton splitting in early thermalization and
chemical equilibration},
Year = {2014},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1403.7310.pdf},
Abstract = {http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1403.7310},
Key = {fds225720}
}

@article{fds211280,
Author = {Coleman-Smith, C.E. and Müller, B.},
Title = {Constituent mass dependence of transport coefficients in
a quark-gluon plasma},
Year = {2012},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1209.3328},
Abstract = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1209.3328},
Key = {fds211280}
}

%% Preprints
@article{fds201480,
Author = {Foster, J.G. and Müller, B},
Title = {Physics with two time dimensions},
Year = {2010},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1001.2485},
Abstract = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1001.2485},
Key = {fds201480}
}

@article{fds21287,
Author = {Biro, T.S. and Müller, B.},
Title = {Chaotic quantization of four-dimensional U(1) lattice gauge
theory},
Year = {2003},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-lat/0307028},
Abstract = {http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-lat/0307028},
Key = {fds21287}
}

@article{fds21288,
Author = {Müller, B. and Schäfer, A.},
Title = {Entropy production in high energy processes},
Year = {2003},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/0306309},
Abstract = {http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/0306309},
Key = {fds21288}
}

%% Other
@misc{fds138723,
Author = {Jacobs, P. and Kharzeev, D. and Müller, B. and Nagle, J. and Rajagopal, K. and Vigdor, S.},
Title = {Phases of QCD: Summary of the Rutgers long range plan
town meeting, January 12-14, 2007},
Year = {2007},
Month = {January},
url = {http://arXiv.org/pdf/0705.1930},
Abstract = {http://arXiv.org/abs/0705.1930},
Key = {fds138723}
}

@misc{fds14816,
Author = {Carlson, J. and Holstein, B. and Ji, X.D. and McLaughlin, G. and Müller, B. and Nazarewicz, W. and Rajagopal, K. and Roberts, W. and Wang, X.N.},
Title = {A vision for nuclear theory},
Year = {2003},
Month = {November},
url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/nucl-th/0311056},
Abstract = {This is the report of the NSAC Subcommittee on Nuclear
Theory in response to a charge by the funding agencies to
review and evaluate current NSF and DOE supported efforts in
nuclear theory and identify strategic plans to ensure a
strong U.S. nuclear theory program under various funding
scenarios.},
Key = {fds14816}
}

`