Publications of Bastiaan Driehuys    :chronological  alphabetical  combined listing:

%% Papers Published   
@article{fds329556,
   Author = {Robertson, SH and Virgincar, RS and Bier, EA and He, M and Schrank, GM and Smigla, RM and Rackley, C and McAdams, HP and Driehuys,
             B},
   Title = {Uncovering a third dissolved-phase 129 Xe resonance in the
             human lung: Quantifying spectroscopic features in healthy
             subjects and patients with idiopathic pulmonary
             fibrosis.},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance in Medicine},
   Volume = {78},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1306-1315},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrm.26533},
   Abstract = {The purpose of this work was to accurately characterize the
             spectral properties of hyperpolarized 129 Xe in patients
             with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) compared to healthy
             volunteers.Subjects underwent hyperpolarized 129 Xe
             breath-hold spectroscopy, during which 38 dissolved-phase
             free induction decays (FIDs) were acquired after reaching
             steady state (echo time/repetition time = 0.875/50 ms;
             bandwidth = 8.06 kHz; flip angle≈22 °). FIDs were
             averaged and then decomposed into multiple spectral
             components using time-domain curve fitting. The resulting
             amplitudes, frequencies, line widths, and starting phases of
             each component were compared among groups using a
             Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon U test.Three dissolved-phase
             resonances, consisting of red blood cells (RBCs) and two
             barrier compartments, were consistently identified in all
             subjects. In subjects with IPF relative to healthy
             volunteers, the RBC frequency was 0.70 parts per million
             (ppm) more negative (P = 0.05), the chemical shift of
             barrier 2 was 0.6 ppm more negative (P = 0.009), the
             line widths of both barrier peaks were ∼2 ppm narrower
             (P < 0.001), and the starting phase of barrier 1 was
             20.3 ° higher (P =  0.01). Moreover, the ratio
             RBC:barriers was reduced by 52.9% in IPF (P < 0.001).The
             accurate decomposition of 129 Xe spectra not only has merit
             for developing a global metric of pulmonary function, but
             also provides necessary insights to optimize phase-sensitive
             methods for imaging 129 Xe gas transfer. Magn Reson Med
             78:1306-1315, 2017. © 2016 International Society for
             Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.},
   Doi = {10.1002/mrm.26533},
   Key = {fds329556}
}

@article{fds329557,
   Author = {Song, EJ and Kelsey, CR and Driehuys, B and Rankine,
             L},
   Title = {Functional airway obstruction observed with hyperpolarized
             129 Xenon-MRI.},
   Journal = {Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation
             Oncology},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1754-9485.12660},
   Abstract = {Hyperpolarized 129 Xenon-MRI (HP 129 Xe MRI) is an emerging
             imaging modality that allows assessment of both ventilation
             and gas transfer. Most research to date has focused on
             non-malignant pulmonary diseases. However, the capability of
             evaluating the two primary physiological processes of the
             lung (ventilation and gas transfer) makes HP 129 Xe MRI a
             promising imaging modality in the management of patients
             with lung cancer.},
   Doi = {10.1111/1754-9485.12660},
   Key = {fds329557}
}

@article{fds328953,
   Author = {Wang, JM and Robertson, SH and Wang, Z and He, M and Virgincar, RS and Schrank, GM and Smigla, RM and O'Riordan, TG and Sundy, J and Ebner, L and Rackley, CR and McAdams, P and Driehuys, B},
   Title = {Using hyperpolarized (129)Xe MRI to quantify regional gas
             transfer in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.},
   Journal = {Thorax},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/thoraxjnl-2017-210070},
   Abstract = {Assessing functional impairment, therapeutic response and
             disease progression in patients with idiopathic pulmonary
             fibrosis (IPF) continues to be challenging. Hyperpolarized
             (129)Xe MRI can address this gap through its unique
             capability to image gas transfer three-dimensionally from
             airspaces to interstitial barrier tissues to red blood cells
             (RBCs). This must be validated by testing the degree to
             which it correlates with pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and
             CT scores, and its spatial distribution reflects known
             physiology and patterns of disease.13 healthy individuals
             (33.6±15.7 years) and 12 patients with IPF (66.0±6.4
             years) underwent (129)Xe MRI to generate three-dimensional
             quantitative maps depicting the (129)Xe ventilation
             distribution, its uptake in interstitial barrier tissues and
             its transfer to RBCs. For each map, mean values were
             correlated with PFTs and CT fibrosis scores, and their
             patterns were tested for the ability to depict functional
             gravitational gradients in healthy lung and to detect the
             known basal and peripheral predominance of disease in
             IPF.(129)Xe MRI depicted functional impairment in patients
             with IPF, whose mean barrier uptake increased by 188%
             compared with the healthy reference population. (129)Xe MRI
             metrics correlated poorly and insignificantly with CT
             fibrosis scores but strongly with PFTs. Barrier uptake and
             RBC transfer both correlated significantly with diffusing
             capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (r=-0.75,
             p<0.01 and r=0.72, p<0.01), while their ratio
             (RBC/barrier) correlated most strongly (r=0.94, p<0.01). RBC
             transfer exhibited significant anterior-posterior
             gravitational gradients in healthy volunteers, but not in
             IPF, where it was significantly impaired in the basal
             (p=0.02) and subpleural (p<0.01) lung.Hyperpolarized(129)Xe
             MRI is a rapid and well-tolerated exam that provides
             region-specific quantification of interstitial barrier
             thickness and RBC transfer efficiency. With further
             development, it could become a robust tool for measuring
             disease progression and therapeutic response in patients
             with IPF, sensitively and non-invasively.},
   Doi = {10.1136/thoraxjnl-2017-210070},
   Key = {fds328953}
}

@article{fds327669,
   Author = {Flower, C and Freeman, MS and Plue, M and Driehuys,
             B},
   Title = {Electron microscopic observations of Rb particles and
             pitting in 129Xe spin-exchange optical pumping
             cells.},
   Journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
   Volume = {122},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {024902},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4991642},
   Abstract = {High-volume production of hyperpolarized 129Xe by
             spin-exchange optical pumping (SEOP) has historically fallen
             short of theoretical predictions. Recently, this shortfall
             was proposed to be caused by the formation of alkali metal
             clusters during optical pumping. However, this hypothesis
             has yet to be verified experimentally. Here, we seek to
             detect the presence of alkali particles using a combination
             of both transmission (TEM) and scanning (SEM) electron
             microscopy. From TEM studies, we observe the presence of
             particles exhibiting sizes ranging from approximately 0.2 to
             1 μm and present at densities of order 10 s of
             particles per 100 square microns. Particle formation was
             more closely associated with extensive cell usage history
             than short-term ([Formula: see text]1 h) SEOP exposure.
             From the SEM studies, we observe pits on the cell surface.
             These pits are remarkably smooth, were frequently found
             adjacent to Rb particles, and located predominantly on the
             front face of the cells; they range in size from 1 to
             5 μm. Together, these findings suggest that Rb particles
             do form during the SEOP process and at times can impart
             sufficient energy to locally alter the Pyrex
             surface.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.4991642},
   Key = {fds327669}
}

@article{fds326238,
   Author = {Mahmood, K and Ebner, L and He, M and Robertson, SH and Wang, Z and McAdams, HP and Wahidi, MM and Shofer, SL and Huang, YT and Driehuys,
             B},
   Title = {Novel Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Assessment of Bronchial
             Stenosis in Lung Transplant Recipients.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Transplantation},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {1895-1904},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajt.14287},
   Abstract = {Bronchial stenosis in lung transplant recipients is a common
             disorder that adversely affects clinical outcomes. It is
             evaluated by spirometry, CT scanning, and bronchoscopy with
             significant limitations. We hypothesize that MRI using both
             ultrashort echo time (UTE) scans and hyperpolarized (HP) 129
             Xe gas can offer structural and functional assessment of
             bronchial stenosis seen after lung transplantation. Six
             patients with lung transplantation-related bronchial
             stenosis underwent HP 129 Xe MRI and UTE MRI in the same
             session. Three patients subsequently underwent airway stent
             placement and had repeated MRI at 4-week follow-up. HP 129
             Xe MRI depicted decreased ventilation distal to the stenotic
             airway. After airway stent placement, MRI showed that
             low-ventilation regions had decreased (35% vs. 27.6%, p =
             0.006) and normal-ventilation regions had increased (17.9%
             vs. 27.6%, p = 0.04) in the stented lung. Improved gas
             transfer was also seen on 129 Xe MRI. There was a good
             correlation between UTE MRI and independent bronchoscopic
             airway diameter assessment (Pearson correlation coefficient
             = 0.92). This pilot study shows that UTE and HP 129 Xe MRI
             are feasible in patients with bronchial stenosis related to
             lung transplantation and may provide structural and
             functional airway assessment to guide treatment. These
             conclusions need to be confirmed with larger
             studies.},
   Doi = {10.1111/ajt.14287},
   Key = {fds326238}
}

@article{fds326237,
   Author = {Wang, Z and Robertson, SH and Wang, J and He, M and Virgincar, RS and Schrank, GM and Bier, EA and Rajagopal, S and Huang, YC and O'Riordan,
             TG and Rackley, CR and McAdams, HP and Driehuys, B},
   Title = {Quantitative analysis of hyperpolarized 129 Xe gas transfer
             MRI.},
   Journal = {Medical physics},
   Volume = {44},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {2415-2428},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mp.12264},
   Abstract = {Hyperpolarized 129 Xe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using
             Dixon-based decomposition enables single-breath imaging of
             129 Xe in the airspaces, interstitial barrier tissues, and
             red blood cells (RBCs). However, methods to quantitatively
             visualize information from these images of pulmonary gas
             transfer are lacking. Here, we introduce a novel method to
             transform these data into quantitative maps of pulmonary
             ventilation, and 129 Xe gas transfer to barrier and RBC
             compartments.A total of 13 healthy subjects and 12
             idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) subjects underwent
             thoracic 1 H MRI and hyperpolarized 129 Xe MRI with
             one-point Dixon decomposition to obtain images of 129 Xe in
             airspaces, barrier and red blood cells (RBCs). 129 Xe images
             were processed into quantitative binning maps of all three
             compartments using thresholds based on the mean and standard
             deviations of distributions derived from the healthy
             reference cohort. Binning maps were analyzed to derive
             quantitative measures of ventilation, barrier uptake, and
             RBC transfer. This method was also used to illustrate
             different ventilation and gas transfer patterns in a patient
             with emphysema and one with pulmonary arterial hypertension
             (PAH).In the healthy reference cohort, the mean normalized
             signals were 0.51 ± 0.19 for ventilation, 4.9 ± 1.5 x 10-3
             for barrier uptake and 2.6 ± 1.0 × 10-3 for RBC
             (transfer). In IPF patients, ventilation was similarly
             homogenous to healthy subjects, although shifted toward
             slightly lower values (0.43 ± 0.19). However, mean barrier
             uptake in IPF patients was nearly 2× higher than in healthy
             subjects, with 47% of voxels classified as high, compared to
             3% in healthy controls. Moreover, in IPF, RBC transfer was
             reduced, mainly in the basal lung with 41% of voxels
             classified as low. In healthy volunteers, only 15% of RBC
             transfer was classified as low and these voxels were
             typically in the anterior, gravitationally nondependent
             lung.This study demonstrates a straightforward means to
             generate semiquantitative binning maps depicting 129 Xe
             ventilation and gas transfer to barrier and RBC
             compartments. These initial results suggest that the method
             could be valuable for characterizing both normal physiology
             and pathophysiology associated with a wide range of
             pulmonary disorders.},
   Doi = {10.1002/mp.12264},
   Key = {fds326237}
}

@article{fds315007,
   Author = {Virgincar, RS and Robertson, SH and Nouls, J and Degan, S and Schrank,
             GM and He, M and Driehuys, B},
   Title = {Establishing an accurate gas phase reference frequency to
             quantify 129 Xe chemical shifts in vivo.},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance in Medicine},
   Volume = {77},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1438-1445},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0740-3194},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrm.26229},
   Abstract = {129 Xe interacts with biological media to exhibit chemical
             shifts exceeding 200 ppm that report on physiology and
             pathology. Extracting this functional information requires
             shifts to be measured precisely. Historically, shifts have
             been reported relative to the gas-phase resonance
             originating from pulmonary airspaces. However, this
             frequency is not fixed-it is affected by bulk magnetic
             susceptibility, as well as Xe-N2 , Xe-Xe, and Xe-O2
             interactions. In this study, we addressed this by
             introducing a robust method to determine the 0 ppm 129 Xe
             reference from in vivo data.Respiratory-gated hyperpolarized
             129 Xe spectra from the gas- and dissolved-phases were
             acquired in four mice at 2T from multiple axial slices
             within the thoracic cavity. Complex spectra were then fitted
             in the time domain to identify peaks.Gas-phase 129 Xe
             exhibited two distinct resonances corresponding to 129 Xe in
             conducting airways (varying from -0.6 ± 0.2 to
             1.3 ± 0.3 ppm) and alveoli (relatively stable, at
             -2.2 ± 0.1 ppm). Dissolved-phase 129 Xe exhibited five
             reproducible resonances in the thorax at 198.4 ± 0.4,
             195.5 ± 0.4, 193.9 ± 0.2, 191.3 ± 0.2, and
             190.7 ± 0.3 ppm.The alveolar 129 Xe resonance exhibits
             a stable frequency across all mice. Therefore, it can
             provide a reliable in vivo reference frequency by which to
             characterize other spectroscopic shifts. Magn Reson Med
             77:1438-1445, 2017. © 2016 International Society for
             Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.},
   Doi = {10.1002/mrm.26229},
   Key = {fds315007}
}

@article{fds325124,
   Author = {House, JS and Nichols, CE and Li, H and Brandenberger, C and Virgincar,
             RS and DeGraff, LM and Driehuys, B and Zeldin, DC and London,
             SJ},
   Title = {Vagal innervation is required for pulmonary function
             phenotype in Htr4-/- mice.},
   Journal = {American journal of physiology. Lung cellular and molecular
             physiology},
   Volume = {312},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {L520-L530},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajplung.00495.2016},
   Abstract = {Human genome-wide association studies have identified over
             50 loci associated with pulmonary function and related
             phenotypes, yet follow-up studies to determine causal genes
             or variants are rare. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in
             serotonin receptor 4 (HTR4) are associated with human
             pulmonary function in genome-wide association studies and
             follow-up animal work has demonstrated that Htr4 is causally
             associated with pulmonary function in mice, although the
             precise mechanisms were not identified. We sought to
             elucidate the role of neural innervation and pulmonary
             architecture in the lung phenotype of Htr4-/- animals. We
             report here that the Htr4-/- phenotype in mouse is dependent
             on vagal innervation to the lung. Both ex vivo tracheal ring
             reactivity and in vivo flexiVent pulmonary functional
             analyses demonstrate that vagotomy abrogates the Htr4-/-
             airway hyperresponsiveness phenotype. Hyperpolarized 3He gas
             magnetic resonance imaging and stereological assessment of
             wild-type and Htr4-/- mice reveal no observable differences
             in lung volume, inflation characteristics, or pulmonary
             microarchitecture. Finally, control of breathing experiments
             reveal substantive differences in baseline breathing
             characteristics between mice with/without functional HTR4 in
             breathing frequency, relaxation time, flow rate, minute
             volume, time of inspiration and expiration and breathing
             pauses. These results suggest that HTR4's role in pulmonary
             function likely relates to neural innervation and control of
             breathing.},
   Doi = {10.1152/ajplung.00495.2016},
   Key = {fds325124}
}

@article{fds320113,
   Author = {Ebner, L and He, M and Virgincar, RS and Heacock, T and Kaushik, SS and Freemann, MS and McAdams, HP and Kraft, M and Driehuys,
             B},
   Title = {Hyperpolarized 129Xenon Magnetic Resonance Imaging to
             Quantify Regional Ventilation Differences in Mild to
             Moderate Asthma: A Prospective Comparison Between
             Semiautomated Ventilation Defect Percentage Calculation and
             Pulmonary Function Tests.},
   Journal = {Investigative Radiology},
   Volume = {52},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {120-127},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/rli.0000000000000322},
   Abstract = {The aim of this study was to investigate ventilation in mild
             to moderate asthmatic patients and age-matched controls
             using hyperpolarized (HP) Xenon magnetic resonance imaging
             (MRI) and correlate findings with pulmonary function tests
             (PFTs).This single-center, Health Insurance Portability and
             Accountability Act-compliant prospective study was approved
             by our institutional review board. Thirty subjects (10 young
             asthmatic patients, 26 ± 6 years; 3 males, 7 females; 10
             older asthmatic patients, 64 ± 6 years; 3 males, 7 females;
             10 healthy controls) were enrolled. After repeated PFTs 1
             week apart, the subjects underwent 2 MRI scans within 10
             minutes, inhaling 1-L volumes containing 0.5 to 1 L of Xe.
             Xe ventilation signal was quantified by linear binning, from
             which the ventilation defect percentage (VDP) was derived.
             Differences in VDP among subgroups and variability with age
             were evaluated using 1-tailed t tests. Correlation of VDP
             with PFTs was tested using Pearson correlation coefficient.
             Reproducibility of VDP was assessed using Bland-Altman
             plots, linear regression (R), intraclass correlation
             coefficient, and concordance correlation
             coefficient.Ventilation defect percentage was significantly
             higher in young asthmatic patients versus young healthy
             subjects (8.4% ± 3.2% vs 5.6% ± 1.7%, P = 0.031), but not
             in older asthmatic patients versus age-matched controls
             (16.8% ± 10.3% vs 11.6% ± 6.6%, P = 0.13). Ventilation
             defect percentage was found to increase significantly with
             age (healthy, P = 0.05; asthmatic patients, P = 0.033).
             Ventilation defect percentage was highly reproducible (R =
             0.976; intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.977;
             concordance correlation coefficient, 0.976) and
             significantly correlated with FEV1% (r = -0.42, P = 0.025),
             FEF25%-75% (r = -0.45, P = 0.019), FEV1/FVC (r = -0.71, P <
             0.0001), FeNO (r = 0.69, P < 0.0001), and RV/TLC (r = 0.51,
             P = 0.0067). Bland-Altman analysis showed a bias for VDP of
             -0.88 ± 1.52 (FEV1%, -0.33 ± 7.18).Xenon MRI is able to
             depict airway obstructions in mild to moderate asthma and
             significantly correlates with PFTs.},
   Doi = {10.1097/rli.0000000000000322},
   Key = {fds320113}
}

@article{fds320114,
   Author = {Ebner, L and Kammerman, J and Driehuys, B and Schiebler, ML and Cadman,
             RV and Fain, SB},
   Title = {The role of hyperpolarized 129xenon in MR imaging of
             pulmonary function.},
   Journal = {European Journal of Radiology},
   Volume = {86},
   Pages = {343-352},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2016.09.015},
   Abstract = {In the last two decades, functional imaging of the lungs
             using hyperpolarized noble gases has entered the clinical
             stage. Both helium (3He) and xenon (129Xe) gas have been
             thoroughly investigated for their ability to assess both the
             global and regional patterns of lung ventilation. With
             advances in polarizer technology and the current transition
             towards the widely available 129Xe gas, this method is ready
             for translation to the clinic. Currently, hyperpolarized
             (HP) noble gas lung MRI is limited to selected academic
             institutions; yet, the promising results from initial
             clinical trials have drawn the attention of the pulmonary
             medicine community. HP 129Xe MRI provides not only
             3-dimensional ventilation imaging, but also unique
             capabilities for probing regional lung physiology. In this
             review article, we aim to (1) provide a brief overview of
             current ventilation MR imaging techniques, (2) emphasize the
             role of HP 129Xe MRI within the array of different imaging
             strategies, (3) discuss the unique imaging possibilities
             with HP 129Xe MRI, and (4) propose clinical
             applications.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.ejrad.2016.09.015},
   Key = {fds320114}
}

@article{fds321759,
   Author = {Driehuys, B},
   Title = {Crossing the Chasm(s): Demonstrating the Clinical Value of
             Hyperpolarized Gas MRI.},
   Journal = {Academic Radiology},
   Volume = {24},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {1-3},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acra.2016.11.002},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.acra.2016.11.002},
   Key = {fds321759}
}

@article{fds326797,
   Author = {He, M and Zha, W and Fain, SB and Driehuys, B},
   Title = {Comparing Quantitative 129xe Ventilation Analysis Pipelines
             Between Mri Centers},
   Journal = {American journal of respiratory and critical care
             medicine},
   Volume = {195},
   Year = {2017},
   Key = {fds326797}
}

@article{fds326796,
   Author = {Nichols, C and House, J and Li, H and Brandenberger, C and Virgincar, R and Miller, L and Driehuys, B and Zeldin, D and London,
             S},
   Title = {Htr4 Regulates Pulmonary Function Through Neural
             Innervation},
   Journal = {American journal of respiratory and critical care
             medicine},
   Volume = {195},
   Year = {2017},
   Key = {fds326796}
}

@article{fds320111,
   Author = {He, M and Driehuys, B and Que, LG and Huang, Y-CT},
   Title = {Using Hyperpolarized 129Xe MRI to Quantify the Pulmonary
             Ventilation Distribution.},
   Journal = {Academic Radiology},
   Volume = {23},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {1521-1531},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acra.2016.07.014},
   Abstract = {Ventilation heterogeneity is impossible to detect with
             spirometry. Alternatively, pulmonary ventilation can be
             imaged three-dimensionally using inhaled 129Xe magnetic
             resonance imaging (MRI). To date, such images have been
             quantified primarily based on ventilation defects. Here, we
             introduce a robust means to transform 129Xe MRI scans such
             that the underlying ventilation distribution and its
             heterogeneity can be quantified.Quantitative 129Xe
             ventilation MRI was conducted in 12 younger (24.7 ± 5.2
             years) and 10 older (62.2 ± 7.2 years) healthy
             individuals, as well as in 9 younger (25.9 ± 6.4 yrs)
             and 10 older (63.2 ± 6.1 years) asthmatics. The younger
             healthy population was used to establish a reference
             ventilation distribution and thresholds for six intensity
             bins. These bins were used to display and quantify the
             ventilation defect region (VDR), the low ventilation region
             (LVR), and the high ventilation region (HVR).The ventilation
             distribution in young subjects was roughly Gaussian with a
             mean and standard deviation of 0.52 ± 0.18, resulting
             in VDR = 2.1 ± 1.3%, LVR = 15.6 ± 5.4%,
             and HVR = 17.4 ± 3.1%. Older healthy volunteers
             exhibited a significantly right-skewed distribution
             (0.46 ± 0.20, P = 0.034), resulting in
             significantly increased VDR (7.0 ± 4.8%, P = 0.008)
             and LVR (24.5 ± 11.5%, P = 0.025). In the
             asthmatics, VDR and LVR increased in the older population,
             and HVR was significantly reduced (13.5 ± 4.6% vs
             18.9 ± 4.5%, P = 0.009). Quantitative 129Xe MRI
             also revealed altered ventilation heterogeneity in response
             to albuterol in two asthmatics with normal
             spirometry.Quantitative 129Xe MRI provides a robust and
             objective means to display and quantify the pulmonary
             ventilation distribution, even in subjects who have airway
             function impairment not appreciated by spirometry.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.acra.2016.07.014},
   Key = {fds320111}
}

@article{fds320112,
   Author = {Robertson, SH and Virgincar, RS and Bier, EA and He, M and Schrank, GM and Smigla, RM and Rackley, C and McAdams, HP and Driehuys,
             B},
   Title = {Uncovering a third dissolved-phase 129Xe resonance in the
             human lung: Quantifying spectroscopic features in healthy
             subjects and patients with idiopathic pulmonary
             fibrosis.},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance in Medicine},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrm.26533},
   Abstract = {The purpose of this work was to accurately characterize the
             spectral properties of hyperpolarized 129Xe in patients with
             idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) compared to healthy
             volunteers.Subjects underwent hyperpolarized 129Xe
             breath-hold spectroscopy, during which 38 dissolved-phase
             free induction decays (FIDs) were acquired after reaching
             steady state (echo time/repetition time = 0.875/50 ms;
             bandwidth = 8.06 kHz; flip angle≈22 °). FIDs were
             averaged and then decomposed into multiple spectral
             components using time-domain curve fitting. The resulting
             amplitudes, frequencies, line widths, and starting phases of
             each component were compared among groups using a
             Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon U test.Three dissolved-phase
             resonances, consisting of red blood cells (RBCs) and two
             barrier compartments, were consistently identified in all
             subjects. In subjects with IPF relative to healthy
             volunteers, the RBC frequency was 0.70 parts per million
             (ppm) more negative (P = 0.05), the chemical shift of
             barrier 2 was 0.6 ppm more negative (P = 0.009), the
             line widths of both barrier peaks were ∼2 ppm narrower
             (P < 0.001), and the starting phase of barrier 1 was
             20.3 ° higher (P =  0.01). Moreover, the ratio
             RBC:barriers was reduced by 52.9% in IPF (P < 0.001).The
             accurate decomposition of 129Xe spectra not only has merit
             for developing a global metric of pulmonary function, but
             also provides necessary insights to optimize phase-sensitive
             methods for imaging 129Xe gas transfer. Magn Reson Med,
             2016. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance
             in Medicine.},
   Doi = {10.1002/mrm.26533},
   Key = {fds320112}
}

@article{fds323787,
   Author = {Subashi, E and Liu, Y and Robertson, S and Segars, P and Driehuys, B and Yin, F and Cai, J},
   Title = {TH-EF-BRA-10: High Spatiotemporal Resolution Self-Sorted 4D
             MRI.},
   Journal = {Medical physics},
   Volume = {43},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {3899},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1118/1.4958267},
   Abstract = {To describe a novel method for self-sorted 4D-MRI and to
             characterize the output image quality as measured by
             signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), spatiotemporal resolution, and
             level of artifact.A three-dimensional radial sampling
             function with a quasi-random distribution of polar/azimuthal
             k-space angles was implemented in a standard pulse sequence.
             Acquisition time was approximately 2 minutes. The DC
             component of the k-space signal was used to estimate and
             sort the breathing cycle into ten respiratory phases. For a
             given respiratory phase, the k-space data were combined with
             the periphery of the k-space data from all phases and
             reconstructed with the re-gridding algorithm onto a 1283
             matrix. The extent of data sharing was controlled by the
             average breathing curve. The sampling and reconstruction
             technique were tested and validated in simulation, dynamic
             phantom, animal, and human studies with varying breathing
             periods/amplitudes.The signal at the k-space center
             accurately measures respiratory motion over a large range of
             breathing periods (0.5-7.0 seconds) and amplitudes (5-30% of
             FOV). Sharing of high frequency k-space data driven by the
             average breathing curve improves spatial resolution and
             artifact level at a cost of an increase in noise floor.
             Although equal sharing of k-space data improves resolution
             and SNR, phases with large temporal changes accumulate
             considerable distortion artifacts. In the absence of
             view-sharing, no distortion artifacts are observed while
             spatial resolution is degraded.The use of a quasi-random
             sampling function and view-sharing driven by the average
             breathing curve provide a feasible method for self-sorted 4D
             MRI at reduced acquisition times. This approach allows for
             the extent of data sharing to be inversely-proportional to
             the average breathing motion hence improving resolution and
             decreasing artifact levels. NIH-1R21CA165384.},
   Doi = {10.1118/1.4958267},
   Key = {fds323787}
}

@article{fds268614,
   Author = {Kaushik, SS and Robertson, SH and Freeman, MS and He, M and Kelly, KT and Roos, JE and Rackley, CR and Foster, WM and McAdams, HP and Driehuys,
             B},
   Title = {Single-breath clinical imaging of hyperpolarized (129)Xe in
             the airspaces, barrier, and red blood cells using an
             interleaved 3D radial 1-point Dixon acquisition.},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance in Medicine},
   Volume = {75},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1434-1443},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0740-3194},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrm.25675},
   Abstract = {We sought to develop and test a clinically feasible 1-point
             Dixon, three-dimensional (3D) radial acquisition strategy to
             create isotropic 3D MR images of (129)Xe in the airspaces,
             barrier, and red blood cells (RBCs) in a single breath. The
             approach was evaluated in healthy volunteers and subjects
             with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).A calibration scan
             determined the echo time at which (129)Xe in RBCs and
             barrier were 90° out of phase. At this TE, interleaved
             dissolved and gas-phase images were acquired using a 3D
             radial acquisition and were reconstructed separately using
             the NUFFT algorithm. The dissolved-phase image was
             phase-shifted to cast RBC and barrier signal into the real
             and imaginary channels such that the image-derived
             RBC:barrier ratio matched that from spectroscopy. The RBC
             and barrier images were further corrected for regional field
             inhomogeneity using a phase map created from the gas-phase
             (129)Xe image.Healthy volunteers exhibited largely uniform
             (129)Xe-barrier and (129)Xe-RBC images. By contrast,
             (129)Xe-RBC images in IPF subjects exhibited significant
             signal voids. These voids correlated qualitatively with
             regions of fibrosis visible on CT.This study illustrates the
             feasibility of acquiring single-breath, 3D isotropic images
             of (129)Xe in the airspaces, barrier, and RBCs using a
             1-point Dixon 3D radial acquisition.},
   Doi = {10.1002/mrm.25675},
   Key = {fds268614}
}

@article{fds315945,
   Author = {Dahhan, T and Kaushik, SS and He, M and Mammarappallil, JG and Tapson,
             VF and McAdams, HP and Sporn, TA and Driehuys, B and Rajagopal,
             S},
   Title = {Abnormalities in hyperpolarized (129)Xe magnetic resonance
             imaging and spectroscopy in two patients with pulmonary
             vascular disease.},
   Journal = {Pulmonary Circulation},
   Volume = {6},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {126-131},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {2045-8932},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/685110},
   Abstract = {The diagnosis of pulmonary vascular disease (PVD) is usually
             based on hemodynamic and/or clinical criteria. Noninvasive
             imaging of the heart and proximal vasculature can also
             provide useful information. An alternate approach to such
             criteria in the diagnosis of PVD is to image the vascular
             abnormalities in the lungs themselves. Hyperpolarized (HP)
             (129)Xe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a novel
             technique for assessing abnormalities in ventilation and gas
             exchange in the lungs. We applied this technique to two
             patients for whom there was clinical suspicion of PVD. Two
             patients who had significant hypoxemia and dyspnea with no
             significant abnormalities on computed tomography imaging or
             ventilation-perfusion scan and only mild or borderline
             pulmonary arterial hypertension at catheterization were
             evaluated. They underwent HP (129)Xe imaging and
             subsequently had tissue diagnosis obtained from lung
             pathology. In both patients, HP (129)Xe imaging demonstrated
             normal ventilation but markedly decreased gas transfer to
             red blood cells with focal defects on imaging, a pattern
             distinct from those previously described for idiopathic
             pulmonary fibrosis or obstructive lung disease. Pathology on
             both patients later demonstrated severe PVD. These findings
             suggest that HP (129)Xe MRI may be useful in the diagnosis
             of PVD and monitoring response to therapy. Further studies
             are required to determine its sensitivity and specificity in
             these settings.},
   Doi = {10.1086/685110},
   Key = {fds315945}
}

@article{fds323721,
   Author = {He, M and Robertson, SH and Wang, JM and Rackley, CR and McAdams, HP and Driehuys, B},
   Title = {Differentiating Early Stage And Later Stage Ipf Using
             Hyperpolarized 129xe Ventilation Mri},
   Journal = {American journal of respiratory and critical care
             medicine},
   Volume = {193},
   Year = {2016},
   Key = {fds323721}
}

@article{fds323720,
   Author = {Wang, JM and Robertson, SH and He, M and Virgincar, RS and Schrank, GM and Smigla, R and O'Riordan, T and Sundy, J and Ebner, L and Rackley, CR and McAdams, HP and Driehuys, B},
   Title = {Using Hyperpolarized 129xe Imaging To Quantify Apical Vs.
             Basal And Central Vs. Peripheral Gas Exchange Impairment In
             Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis},
   Journal = {American journal of respiratory and critical care
             medicine},
   Volume = {193},
   Year = {2016},
   Key = {fds323720}
}

@article{fds323788,
   Author = {He, M and Robertson, SH and Wang, JM and Que, LG and Mahmood, K and Driehuys, B and Huang, Y-C},
   Title = {Characterizing The Ventilation Distribution In Healthy
             Normal Subjects To Establish Robust Quantitative Analysis Of
             129xe Mri},
   Journal = {American journal of respiratory and critical care
             medicine},
   Volume = {193},
   Year = {2016},
   Key = {fds323788}
}

@article{fds268612,
   Author = {He, M and Robertson, SH and Kaushik, SS and Freeman, MS and Virgincar,
             RS and Davies, J and Stiles, J and Foster, WM and McAdams, HP and Driehuys,
             B},
   Title = {Dose and pulse sequence considerations for hyperpolarized
             (129)Xe ventilation MRI.},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance Imaging},
   Volume = {33},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {877-885},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0730-725X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mri.2015.04.005},
   Abstract = {The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of
             hyperpolarized (129)Xe dose on image signal-to-noise ratio
             (SNR) and ventilation defect conspicuity on both multi-slice
             gradient echo and isotropic 3D-radially acquired ventilation
             MRI.Ten non-smoking older subjects (ages 60.8±7.9years)
             underwent hyperpolarized (HP) (129)Xe ventilation MRI using
             both GRE and 3D-radial acquisitions, each tested using a
             71ml (high) and 24ml (low) dose equivalent (DE) of fully
             polarized, fully enriched (129)Xe. For all images SNR and
             ventilation defect percentage (VDP) were
             calculated.Normalized SNR (SNRn), obtained by dividing SNR
             by voxel volume and dose was higher for high-DE GRE
             acquisitions (SNRn=1.9±0.8ml(-2)) than low-DE GRE scans
             (SNRn=0.8±0.2ml(-2)). Radially acquired images exhibited a
             more consistent, albeit lower SNRn (High-DE:
             SNRn=0.5±0.1ml(-2), low-DE: SNRn=0.5±0.2ml(-2)). VDP was
             indistinguishable across all scans.These results suggest
             that images acquired using the high-DE GRE sequence provided
             the highest SNRn, which was in agreement with previous
             reports in the literature. 3D-radial images had lower SNRn,
             but have advantages for visual display, monitoring
             magnetization dynamics, and visualizing physiological
             gradients. By evaluating normalized SNR in the context of
             dose-equivalent formalism, it should be possible to predict
             (129)Xe dose requirements and quantify the benefits of more
             efficient transmit/receive coils, field strengths, and pulse
             sequences.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.mri.2015.04.005},
   Key = {fds268612}
}

@article{fds300329,
   Author = {Robertson, SH and Virgincar, RS and He, M and Freeman, MS and Kaushik,
             SS and Driehuys, B},
   Title = {Optimizing 3D noncartesian gridding reconstruction for
             hyperpolarized 129 Xe MRI-focus on preclinical
             applications},
   Journal = {Concepts in Magnetic Resonance},
   Volume = {44},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {190-202},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {1546-6086},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cmr.a.21352},
   Abstract = {© 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The goal of this work is to
             characterize and optimize gridding reconstruction of 3D
             radial hyperpolarized (HP) 129Xe MRI. In support of this
             objective, we developed a flexible, open source
             reconstruction software package in MATLAB to optimally
             reconstruct radially acquired, undersampled HP 129Xe MRI.
             Using this framework, we demonstrate the effects of 5 key
             reconstruction parameters: overgridding, gridding kernel
             function, kernel sharpness, kernel extent, and the density
             compensation algorithm. We further demonstrate how each
             parameter can be tuned to optimize a high-resolution 3D
             radially acquired HP 129Xe image of a ventilated mouse.
             Specifically, wrap-around artifact, caused by non-selective
             RF excitation of signal in the trachea, was eliminated by
             overgridding onto a finely spaced k-space grid;
             high-frequency aliasing was reduced using iterative density
             compensation; image SNR and sharpness were optimized by
             tuning kernel sharpness; and computational burden was
             minimized by defining an appropriate kernel extent. Compared
             to our previous reconstruction methods, this optimized
             method extended visualization from the 5th to 6th generation
             of mouse airway, while maintaining comparable SNR. Although
             optimized here for preclinical mouse MRI, this work suggests
             that 3D radial acquisition offers many broader advantages to
             undersampled HP gas MRI. Using the methods presented here,
             we maintained image quality across datasets acquired with
             various degrees of undersampling and differing SNR by
             adjusting only a single parameter. These methods are now
             available to optimize radially acquired hyperpolarized gas
             images in both the clinical and preclinical
             arena.},
   Doi = {10.1002/cmr.a.21352},
   Key = {fds300329}
}

@article{fds268613,
   Author = {Roos, JE and McAdams, HP and Kaushik, SS and Driehuys,
             B},
   Title = {Hyperpolarized Gas MR Imaging: Technique and
             Applications.},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North
             America},
   Volume = {23},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {217-229},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {1064-9689},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mric.2015.01.003},
   Abstract = {Functional imaging offers information more sensitive to
             changes in lung structure and function. Hyperpolarized
             helium ((3)He) and xenon ((129)Xe) MR imaging of the lungs
             provides sensitive contrast mechanisms to probe changes in
             pulmonary ventilation, microstructure, and gas exchange. Gas
             imaging has shifted to the use of (129)Xe. Xenon is
             well-tolerated. (129)Xe is soluble in pulmonary tissue,
             which allows exploring specific lung function
             characteristics involved in gas exchange and alveolar
             oxygenation. Hyperpolarized gases and (129)Xe in particular
             stand to be an excellent probe of pulmonary structure and
             function, and provide sensitive and noninvasive biomarkers
             for pulmonary diseases.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.mric.2015.01.003},
   Key = {fds268613}
}

@article{fds268615,
   Author = {He, M and Kaushik, SS and Robertson, SH and Freeman, MS and Virgincar,
             RS and McAdams, HP and Driehuys, B},
   Title = {Extending semiautomatic ventilation defect analysis for
             hyperpolarized (129)Xe ventilation MRI.},
   Journal = {Academic Radiology},
   Volume = {21},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {1530-1541},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {1076-6332},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acra.2014.07.017},
   Abstract = {Clinical deployment of hyperpolarized (129)Xe magnetic
             resonance imaging requires accurate quantification and
             visualization of the ventilation defect percentage (VDP).
             Here, we improve the robustness of our previous
             semiautomated analysis method to reduce operator dependence,
             correct for B1 inhomogeneity and vascular structures, and
             extend the analysis to display multiple intensity
             clusters.Two segmentation methods were compared-a seeded
             region-growing method, previously validated by expert reader
             scoring, and a new linear-binning method that corrects the
             effects of bias field and vascular structures. The new
             method removes nearly all operator interventions by
             rescaling the (129)Xe magnetic resonance images to the 99th
             percentile of the cumulative distribution and applying fixed
             thresholds to classify (129)Xe voxels into four clusters:
             defect, low, medium, and high intensity. The methods were
             applied to 24 subjects including patients with chronic
             obstructive pulmonary disease (n = 8), age-matched
             controls (n = 8), and healthy normal subjects
             (n = 8).Linear-binning enabled a faster and more
             reproducible workflow and permitted analysis of an
             additional 0.25 ± 0.18 L of lung volume by accounting
             for vasculature. Like region-growing, linear-binning VDP
             correlated strongly with reader scoring (R(2) = 0.93,
             P < .0001), but with less systematic bias. Moreover,
             linear-binning maps clearly depict regions of low and high
             intensity that may prove useful for phenotyping subjects
             with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.Corrected
             linear-binning provides a robust means to quantify (129)Xe
             ventilation images yielding VDP values that are
             indistinguishable from expert reader scores, while
             exploiting the entire dynamic range to depict multiple image
             clusters.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.acra.2014.07.017},
   Key = {fds268615}
}

@article{fds268618,
   Author = {Cleveland, ZI and Virgincar, RS and Qi, Y and Robertson, SH and Degan,
             S and Driehuys, B},
   Title = {3D MRI of impaired hyperpolarized 129Xe uptake in a rat
             model of pulmonary fibrosis.},
   Journal = {Nmr in Biomedicine},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {1502-1514},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0952-3480},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nbm.3127},
   Abstract = {A variety of pulmonary pathologies, in particular
             interstitial lung diseases, are characterized by thickening
             of the pulmonary blood-gas barrier, and this thickening
             results in reduced gas exchange. Such diffusive impairment
             is challenging to quantify spatially, because the
             distributions of the metabolically relevant gases (CO2 and
             O2) cannot be detected directly within the lungs.
             Hyperpolarized (HP) (129)Xe is a promising surrogate for
             these metabolic gases, because MR spectroscopy and imaging
             allow gaseous alveolar (129)Xe to be detected separately
             from (129)Xe dissolved in the red blood cells (RBCs) and the
             adjacent tissues, which comprise blood plasma and lung
             interstitium. Because (129)Xe reaches the RBCs by diffusing
             across the same barrier tissues (blood plasma and
             interstitium) as O2, barrier thickening will delay (129)Xe
             transit and, thus, reduce RBC-specific (129)Xe MR signal.
             Here we have exploited these properties to generate 3D, MR
             images of (129)Xe uptake by the RBCs in two groups of rats.
             In the experimental group, unilateral fibrotic injury was
             generated prior to imaging by instilling bleomycin into one
             lung. In the control group, a unilateral sham instillation
             of saline was performed. Uptake of (129)Xe by the RBCs,
             quantified as the fraction of RBC signal relative to total
             dissolved (129)Xe signal, was significantly reduced
             (P = 0.03) in the injured lungs of bleomycin-treated
             animals. In contrast, no significant difference
             (P = 0.56) was observed between the saline-treated and
             untreated lungs of control animals. Together, these results
             indicate that 3D MRI of HP (129)Xe dissolved in the
             pulmonary tissues can provide useful biomarkers of impaired
             diffusive gas exchange resulting from fibrotic
             thickening.},
   Doi = {10.1002/nbm.3127},
   Key = {fds268618}
}

@article{fds268617,
   Author = {Kaushik, SS and Freeman, MS and Yoon, SW and Liljeroth, MG and Stiles,
             JV and Roos, JE and Foster, WM and Rackley, CR and McAdams, HP and Driehuys, B},
   Title = {Measuring diffusion limitation with a perfusion-limited
             gas--hyperpolarized 129Xe gas-transfer spectroscopy in
             patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.},
   Journal = {Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. :
             1985)},
   Volume = {117},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {577-585},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {8750-7587},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00326.2014},
   Abstract = {Although xenon is classically taught to be a
             "perfusion-limited" gas, (129)Xe in its hyperpolarized (HP)
             form, when detected by magnetic resonance (MR), can probe
             diffusion limitation. Inhaled HP (129)Xe diffuses across the
             pulmonary blood-gas barrier, and, depending on its tissue
             environment, shifts its resonant frequency relative to the
             gas-phase reference (0 ppm) by 198 ppm in tissue/plasma
             barrier and 217 ppm in red blood cells (RBCs). In this work,
             we hypothesized that in patients with idiopathic pulmonary
             fibrosis (IPF), the ratio of (129)Xe spectroscopic signal in
             the RBCs vs. barrier would diminish as diffusion-limitation
             delayed replenishment of (129)Xe magnetization in RBCs. To
             test this hypothesis, (129)Xe spectra were acquired in 6 IPF
             subjects as well as 11 healthy volunteers to establish a
             normal range. The RBC:barrier ratio was 0.55 ± 0.13 in
             healthy volunteers but was 3.3-fold lower in IPF subjects
             (0.16 ± 0.03, P = 0.0002). This was caused by a 52%
             reduction in the RBC signal (P = 0.02) and a 58% increase in
             the barrier signal (P = 0.01). Furthermore, the RBC:barrier
             ratio strongly correlated with lung diffusing capacity for
             carbon monoxide (DLCO) (r = 0.89, P < 0.0001). It exhibited
             a moderate interscan variability (8.25%), and in healthy
             volunteers it decreased with greater lung inflation (r =
             -0.78, P = 0.005). This spectroscopic technique provides a
             noninvasive, global probe of diffusion limitation and
             gas-transfer impairment and forms the basis for developing
             3D MR imaging of gas exchange.},
   Doi = {10.1152/japplphysiol.00326.2014},
   Key = {fds268617}
}

@article{fds268616,
   Author = {Freeman, MS and Emami, K and Driehuys, B},
   Title = {Characterizing and modeling the efficiency limits in
             large-scale production of hyperpolarized
             (129)Xe.},
   Journal = {Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical
             Physics},
   Volume = {90},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {023406},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {1050-2947},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/physreva.90.023406},
   Abstract = {The ability to produce liter volumes of highly
             spin-polarized (129)Xe enables a wide range of
             investigations, most notably in the fields of materials
             science and biomedical MRI. However, for nearly all
             polarizers built to date, both peak (129)Xe polarization and
             the rate at which it is produced fall far below those
             predicted by the standard model of Rb metal vapor,
             spin-exchange optical pumping (SEOP). In this work, we
             comprehensively characterized a high-volume, flow-through
             (129)Xe polarizer using three different SEOP cells with
             internal volumes of 100, 200 and 300 cc and two types of
             optical sources: a broad-spectrum 111-W laser (FWHM = 1.92
             nm) and a line-narrowed 71-W laser (FWHM = 0.39 nm). By
             measuring (129)Xe polarization as a function of gas flow
             rate, we extracted peak polarization and polarization
             production rate across a wide range of laser absorption
             levels. Peak polarization for all cells consistently
             remained a factor of 2-3 times lower than predicted at all
             absorption levels. Moreover, although production rates
             increased with laser absorption, they did so much more
             slowly than predicted by the standard theoretical model and
             basic spin exchange efficiency arguments. Underperformance
             was most notable in the smallest optical cells. We propose
             that all these systematic deviations from theory can be
             explained by invoking the presence of paramagnetic Rb
             clusters within the vapor. Cluster formation within
             saturated alkali vapors is well established and their
             interaction with resonant laser light was recently shown to
             create plasma-like conditions. Such cluster systems cause
             both Rb and (129)Xe depolarization, as well as excess photon
             scattering. These effects were incorporated into the SEOP
             model by assuming that clusters are activated in proportion
             to excited-state Rb number density and by further estimating
             physically reasonable values for the nanocluster-induced,
             velocity-averaged spin-destruction cross-section for Rb
             (<σcluster-Rbv> ≈4×10(-7) cm(3)s(-1)), (129)Xe
             relaxation cross-section (<σcluster-Xev> ≈ 4×10(-13)
             cm(3)s(-1)), and a non-wavelength-specific,
             photon-scattering cross-section (σcluster ≈ 1×10(-12)
             cm(2)). The resulting modified SEOP model now closely
             matches experimental observations.},
   Doi = {10.1103/physreva.90.023406},
   Key = {fds268616}
}

@article{fds323722,
   Author = {He, M and Heacock, T and Kaushik, SS and Robertson, SH and Freeman, MS and McAdams, HP and Beaver, D and Kraft, M and Driehuys,
             B},
   Title = {Hyperpolarized 129xe Mri To Quantify Regional Ventilation
             Differences In Older Versus Younger Asthmatics},
   Journal = {American journal of respiratory and critical care
             medicine},
   Volume = {189},
   Year = {2014},
   Key = {fds323722}
}

@article{fds323723,
   Author = {Kaushik, SS and Heacock, T and Freeman, M and Kelly, KT and Rackley, CR and Stiles, J and Foster, WM and McAdams, HP and Driehuys,
             B},
   Title = {Hyperpolarized 129xe Spectroscopy As A Biomarker For
             Gas-Transfer Impairment In Idiopathic Pulmonary
             Fibrosis},
   Journal = {American journal of respiratory and critical care
             medicine},
   Volume = {189},
   Year = {2014},
   Key = {fds323723}
}

@article{fds268619,
   Author = {Freeman, MS and Cleveland, ZI and Qi, Y and Driehuys,
             B},
   Title = {Enabling hyperpolarized 129Xe MR spectroscopy and
             imaging of pulmonary gas transfer to the red blood cells in
             transgenic mice expressing human hemoglobin},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance in Medicine},
   Volume = {70},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1192-1199},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0740-3194},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrm.24915},
   Abstract = {Purpose Hyperpolarized (HP) 129 Xe gas in the alveoli can be
             detected separately from 129 Xe dissolved in pulmonary
             barrier tissues (blood plasma and parenchyma) and red blood
             cells (RBCs) of humans, allowing this isotope to probe
             impaired gas uptake. Unfortunately, mice, which are favored
             as lung disease models, do not display a unique RBC
             resonance, thus limiting the preclinical utility of 129 Xe
             MR. Here we overcome this limitation using a commercially
             available strain of transgenic mice that exclusively
             expresses human hemoglobin. Methods Dynamic HP 129 Xe MR
             spectroscopy, and three-dimensional radial MRI of gaseous
             and dissolved 129 Xe were performed in both wild-type
             (C57BL/6) and transgenic mice. Results Unlike wild-type
             animals, transgenic mice displayed two dissolved 129 Xe NMR
             peaks at 198 and 217 ppm, corresponding to 129 Xe dissolved
             in barrier tissues and RBCs, respectively. Moreover, signal
             from these resonances could be imaged separately, using a
             1-point variant of the Dixon technique. Conclusion It is now
             possible to examine the dynamics and spatial distribution of
             pulmonary gas uptake by the RBCs of mice using HP 129 Xe MR
             spectroscopy and imaging. When combined with ventilation
             imaging, this ability will enable translational
             "mouse-to-human" studies of impaired gas exchange in a
             variety of pulmonary diseases. Magn Reson Med 70:1192-1199,
             2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Copyright © 2013
             Wiley Periodicals, Inc.},
   Doi = {10.1002/mrm.24915},
   Key = {fds268619}
}

@article{fds268625,
   Author = {Freeman, MS and Cleveland, ZI and Qi, Y and Driehuys,
             B},
   Title = {Enabling hyperpolarized (129) Xe MR spectroscopy and imaging
             of pulmonary gas transfer to the red blood cells in
             transgenic mice expressing human hemoglobin.},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance in Medicine},
   Volume = {70},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1192-1199},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24006177},
   Abstract = {PURPOSE: Hyperpolarized (HP) (129) Xe gas in the alveoli can
             be detected separately from (129) Xe dissolved in pulmonary
             barrier tissues (blood plasma and parenchyma) and red blood
             cells (RBCs) of humans, allowing this isotope to probe
             impaired gas uptake. Unfortunately, mice, which are favored
             as lung disease models, do not display a unique RBC
             resonance, thus limiting the preclinical utility of (129) Xe
             MR. Here we overcome this limitation using a commercially
             available strain of transgenic mice that exclusively
             expresses human hemoglobin. METHODS: Dynamic HP (129) Xe MR
             spectroscopy, and three-dimensional radial MRI of gaseous
             and dissolved (129) Xe were performed in both wild-type
             (C57BL/6) and transgenic mice. RESULTS: Unlike wild-type
             animals, transgenic mice displayed two dissolved (129) Xe
             NMR peaks at 198 and 217 ppm, corresponding to (129) Xe
             dissolved in barrier tissues and RBCs, respectively.
             Moreover, signal from these resonances could be imaged
             separately, using a 1-point variant of the Dixon technique.
             CONCLUSION: It is now possible to examine the dynamics and
             spatial distribution of pulmonary gas uptake by the RBCs of
             mice using HP (129) Xe MR spectroscopy and imaging. When
             combined with ventilation imaging, this ability will enable
             translational "mouse-to-human" studies of impaired gas
             exchange in a variety of pulmonary diseases.},
   Doi = {10.1002/mrm.24915},
   Key = {fds268625}
}

@article{fds268626,
   Author = {Kaushik, SS and Freeman, MS and Cleveland, ZI and Davies, J and Stiles,
             J and Virgincar, RS and Robertson, SH and He, M and Kelly, KT and Foster,
             WM and McAdams, HP and Driehuys, B},
   Title = {Probing the regional distribution of pulmonary gas exchange
             through single-breath gas- and dissolved-phase 129Xe MR
             imaging.},
   Journal = {Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. :
             1985)},
   Volume = {115},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {850-860},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23845983},
   Abstract = {Although some central aspects of pulmonary function
             (ventilation and perfusion) are known to be heterogeneous,
             the distribution of diffusive gas exchange remains poorly
             characterized. A solution is offered by hyperpolarized 129Xe
             magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, because this gas can be
             separately detected in the lung's air spaces and dissolved
             in its tissues. Early dissolved-phase 129Xe images exhibited
             intensity gradients that favored the dependent lung. To
             quantitatively corroborate this finding, we developed an
             interleaved, three-dimensional radial sequence to image the
             gaseous and dissolved 129Xe distributions in the same
             breath. These images were normalized and divided to
             calculate "129Xe gas-transfer" maps. We hypothesized that,
             for healthy volunteers, 129Xe gas-transfer maps would retain
             the previously observed posture-dependent gradients. This
             was tested in nine subjects: when the subjects were supine,
             129Xe gas transfer exhibited a posterior-anterior gradient
             of -2.00 ± 0.74%/cm; when the subjects were prone, the
             gradient reversed to 1.94 ± 1.14%/cm (P < 0.001). The 129Xe
             gas-transfer maps also exhibited significant heterogeneity,
             as measured by the coefficient of variation, that correlated
             with subject total lung capacity (r = 0.77, P = 0.015).
             Gas-transfer intensity varied nonmonotonically with slice
             position and increased in slices proximal to the main
             pulmonary arteries. Despite substantial heterogeneity, the
             mean gas transfer for all subjects was 1.00 ± 0.01 while
             supine and 1.01 ± 0.01 while prone (P = 0.25), indicating
             good "matching" between gas- and dissolved-phase
             distributions. This study demonstrates that single-breath
             gas- and dissolved-phase 129Xe MR imaging yields 129Xe
             gas-transfer maps that are sensitive to altered gas exchange
             caused by differences in lung inflation and
             posture.},
   Doi = {10.1152/japplphysiol.00092.2013},
   Key = {fds268626}
}

@article{fds268648,
   Author = {Virgincar, RS and Cleveland, ZI and Kaushik, SS and Freeman, MS and Nouls, J and Cofer, GP and Martinez-Jimenez, S and He, M and Kraft, M and Wolber, J and McAdams, HP and Driehuys, B},
   Title = {Quantitative analysis of hyperpolarized 129Xe ventilation
             imaging in healthy volunteers and subjects with chronic
             obstructive pulmonary disease.},
   Journal = {Nmr in Biomedicine},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {424-435},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23065808},
   Abstract = {In this study, hyperpolarized (129) Xe MR ventilation and
             (1) H anatomical images were obtained from three subject
             groups: young healthy volunteers (HVs), subjects with
             chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and age-matched
             controls (AMCs). Ventilation images were quantified by two
             methods: an expert reader-based ventilation defect score
             percentage (VDS%) and a semi-automated segmentation-based
             ventilation defect percentage (VDP). Reader-based values
             were assigned by two experienced radiologists and resolved
             by consensus. In the semi-automated analysis, (1) H
             anatomical images and (129) Xe ventilation images were both
             segmented following registration to obtain the thoracic
             cavity volume and ventilated volume, respectively, which
             were then expressed as a ratio to obtain the VDP.
             Ventilation images were also characterized by generating
             signal intensity histograms from voxels within the thoracic
             cavity volume, and heterogeneity was analyzed using the
             coefficient of variation (CV). The reader-based VDS%
             correlated strongly with the semi-automatically generated
             VDP (r = 0.97, p < 0.0001) and with CV (r = 0.82, p <
             0.0001). Both (129) Xe ventilation defect scoring metrics
             readily separated the three groups from one another and
             correlated significantly with the forced expiratory volume
             in 1 s (FEV1 ) (VDS%: r = -0.78, p = 0.0002; VDP: r = -0.79,
             p = 0.0003; CV: r = -0.66, p = 0.0059) and other pulmonary
             function tests. In the healthy subject groups (HVs and
             AMCs), the prevalence of ventilation defects also increased
             with age (VDS%: r = 0.61, p = 0.0002; VDP: r = 0.63, p =
             0.0002). Moreover, ventilation histograms and their
             associated CVs distinguished between subjects with COPD with
             similar ventilation defect scores, but visibly different
             ventilation patterns.},
   Doi = {10.1002/nbm.2880},
   Key = {fds268648}
}

@article{fds325125,
   Author = {Cleveland, ZI and Freeman, M and Qi, Y and Driehuys,
             B},
   Title = {Probing Diffusive Gas Uptake In Mice Using Hyperpolarized
             129xe Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy And
             Imaging},
   Journal = {American journal of respiratory and critical care
             medicine},
   Volume = {187},
   Year = {2013},
   Key = {fds325125}
}

@article{fds325126,
   Author = {Virgincar, RS and Nouls, J and He, M and Kaushik, SS and Potts, E and Foster, WM and Slipetz, DM and Hedlund, L and Driehuys,
             B},
   Title = {Quantitative Analysis Of 3he And 1h Mr Images Of Regional
             Pulmonary Injury In House-Dust-Mite Allergic
             Mice},
   Journal = {American journal of respiratory and critical care
             medicine},
   Volume = {187},
   Year = {2013},
   Key = {fds325126}
}

@article{fds325127,
   Author = {Kaushik, SS and Liljeroth, M and Virgincar, RS and Robertson, SH and Davies, J and Stiles, J and Kelly, KT and Foster, WM and Morrison, L and McAdams, HP and Driehuys, B},
   Title = {Reproducibility Of Hyperpolarized 129xe Mri: Alveolar
             Capillary Gas-Transfer Spectroscopy And Imaging},
   Journal = {American journal of respiratory and critical care
             medicine},
   Volume = {187},
   Year = {2013},
   Key = {fds325127}
}

@article{fds268627,
   Author = {Virgincar, RS and Cleveland, ZI and Kaushik, SS and Freeman, MS and Nouls, J and Cofer, GP and Martinez-Jimenez, S and He, M and Kraft, M and Wolber, J and Mcadams, HP and Driehuys, B},
   Title = {Quantitative analysis of hyperpolarized 129Xe
             ventilation imaging in healthy volunteers and subjects with
             chronic obstructive pulmonary disease},
   Journal = {Nmr in Biomedicine},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {424-435},
   Year = {2013},
   ISSN = {0952-3480},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nbm.2880},
   Abstract = {In this study, hyperpolarized 129Xe MR ventilation and 1H
             anatomical images were obtained from three subject groups:
             young healthy volunteers (HVs), subjects with chronic
             obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and age-matched
             controls (AMCs). Ventilation images were quantified by two
             methods: an expert reader-based ventilation defect score
             percentage (VDS%) and a semi-automated segmentation-based
             ventilation defect percentage (VDP). Reader-based values
             were assigned by two experienced radiologists and resolved
             by consensus. In the semi-automated analysis, 1H anatomical
             images and 129Xe ventilation images were both segmented
             following registration to obtain the thoracic cavity volume
             and ventilated volume, respectively, which were then
             expressed as a ratio to obtain the VDP. Ventilation images
             were also characterized by generating signal intensity
             histograms from voxels within the thoracic cavity volume,
             and heterogeneity was analyzed using the coefficient of
             variation (CV). The reader-based VDS% correlated strongly
             with the semi-automatically generated VDP (r=0.97,
             p&lt;0.0001) and with CV (r=0.82, p&lt;0.0001). Both 129Xe
             ventilation defect scoring metrics readily separated the
             three groups from one another and correlated significantly
             with the forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV1) (VDS%:
             r=-0.78, p=0.0002; VDP: r=-0.79, p=0.0003; CV: r=-0.66,
             p=0.0059) and other pulmonary function tests. In the healthy
             subject groups (HVs and AMCs), the prevalence of ventilation
             defects also increased with age (VDS%: r=0.61, p=0.0002;
             VDP: r=0.63, p=0.0002). Moreover, ventilation histograms and
             their associated CVs distinguished between subjects with
             COPD with similar ventilation defect scores, but visibly
             different ventilation patterns. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley
             &amp; Sons, Ltd.},
   Doi = {10.1002/nbm.2880},
   Key = {fds268627}
}

@article{fds323789,
   Author = {Cleveland, ZI and Qi, Y and Driehuys, B},
   Title = {Detecting Impaired Gas Uptake In A Rat Model Of Pulmonary
             Fibrosis With 3d Hyperpolarized 129xe Mri},
   Journal = {American journal of respiratory and critical care
             medicine},
   Volume = {187},
   Year = {2013},
   Key = {fds323789}
}

@article{fds268654,
   Author = {Driehuys, B and Martinez-Jimenez, S and Cleveland, ZI and Metz, GM and Beaver, DM and Nouls, JC and Kaushik, SS and Firszt, R and Willis, C and Kelly, KT and Wolber, J and Kraft, M and McAdams,
             HP},
   Title = {Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: safety and
             tolerability of hyperpolarized 129Xe MR imaging in healthy
             volunteers and patients.},
   Journal = {Radiology},
   Volume = {262},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {279-289},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1527-1315},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22056683},
   Keywords = {Adult • Analysis of Variance • Case-Control
             Studies • Chi-Square Distribution •
             Electrocardiography • Female • Humans •
             Logistic Models • Magnetic Resonance Imaging •
             Male • Middle Aged • Prospective Studies •
             Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive • Xenon Isotopes
             • diagnosis* • diagnostic use •
             methods*},
   Abstract = {PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety and tolerability of inhaling
             multiple 1-L volumes of undiluted hyperpolarized xenon 129
             ((129)Xe) followed by up to a 16-second breath hold and
             magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This
             study was approved by the institutional review board and was
             HIPAA compliant. Written informed consent was obtained.
             Forty-four subjects (19 men, 25 women; mean age, 46.1 years
             ± 18.8 [standard deviation]) were enrolled, consisting of
             24 healthy volunteers, 10 patients with chronic obstructive
             pulmonary disease (COPD), and 10 age-matched control
             subjects. All subjects received three or four 1-L volumes of
             undiluted hyperpolarized (129)Xe, followed by breath-hold MR
             imaging. Oxygen saturation, heart rate and rhythm, and blood
             pressure were continuously monitored. These parameters,
             along with respiratory rate and subjective symptoms, were
             assessed after each dose. Subjects' serum biochemistry and
             hematology were recorded at screening and at 24-hour
             follow-up. A 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) was obtained at
             these times and also within 2 hours prior to and 1 hour
             after (129)Xe MR imaging. Xenon-related symptoms were
             evaluated for relationship to subject group by using a χ(2)
             test and to subject age by using logistic regression.
             Changes in vital signs were tested for significance across
             subject group and time by using a repeated-measures
             multivariate analysis of variance test. RESULTS: The 44
             subjects tolerated all xenon inhalations, no subjects
             withdrew, and no serious adverse events occurred. No
             significant changes in vital signs (P > .27) were observed,
             and no subjects exhibited changes in laboratory test or ECG
             results at follow-up that were deemed clinically important
             or required intervention. Most subjects (91%) did experience
             transient xenon-related symptoms, most commonly dizziness
             (59%), paresthesia (34%), euphoria (30%), and hypoesthesia
             (30%). All symptoms resolved without clinical intervention
             in 1.6 minutes ± 0.9. CONCLUSION: Inhalation of
             hyperpolarized (129)Xe is well tolerated in healthy subjects
             and in those with mild or moderate COPD. Subjects do
             experience mild, transient, xenon-related symptoms,
             consistent with its known anesthetic properties.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1148/radiol.11102172},
   Key = {fds268654}
}

@article{fds268649,
   Author = {Cleveland, ZI and Möller, HE and Hedlund, LW and Nouls, JC and Freeman,
             MS and Qi, Y and Driehuys, B},
   Title = {In vivo MR imaging of pulmonary perfusion and gas exchange
             in rats via continuous extracorporeal infusion of
             hyperpolarized 129Xe.},
   Journal = {PloS one},
   Volume = {7},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {e31306},
   Year = {2012},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22363613},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Hyperpolarized (HP) (129)Xe magnetic resonance
             imaging (MRI) permits high resolution, regional
             visualization of pulmonary ventilation. Additionally, its
             reasonably high solubility (>10%) and large chemical shift
             range (>200 ppm) in tissues allow HP (129)Xe to serve as a
             regional probe of pulmonary perfusion and gas transport,
             when introduced directly into the vasculature. In earlier
             work, vascular delivery was accomplished in rats by first
             dissolving HP (129)Xe in a biologically compatible carrier
             solution, injecting the solution into the vasculature, and
             then detecting HP (129)Xe as it emerged into the alveolar
             airspaces. Although easily implemented, this approach was
             constrained by the tolerable injection volume and the
             duration of the HP (129)Xe signal. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL
             FINDINGS: Here, we overcome the volume and temporal
             constraints imposed by injection, by using hydrophobic,
             microporous, gas-exchange membranes to directly and
             continuously infuse (129)Xe into the arterial blood of live
             rats with an extracorporeal (EC) circuit. The resulting
             gas-phase (129)Xe signal is sufficient to generate diffusive
             gas exchange- and pulmonary perfusion-dependent, 3D MR
             images with a nominal resolution of 2×2×2 mm(3). We also
             show that the (129)Xe signal dynamics during EC infusion are
             well described by an analytical model that incorporates both
             mass transport into the blood and longitudinal relaxation.
             CONCLUSIONS: Extracorporeal infusion of HP (129)Xe enables
             rapid, 3D MR imaging of rat lungs and, when combined with
             ventilation imaging, will permit spatially resolved studies
             of the ventilation-perfusion ratio in small animals.
             Moreover, EC infusion should allow (129)Xe to be delivered
             elsewhere in the body and make possible functional and
             molecular imaging approaches that are currently not feasible
             using inhaled HP (129)Xe.},
   Doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0031306},
   Key = {fds268649}
}

@article{fds268651,
   Author = {Driehuys, B and Nouls, J and Badea, A and Bucholz, E and Ghaghada, K and Petiet, A and Hedlund, LW},
   Title = {Small animal imaging with magnetic resonance
             microscopy},
   Journal = {ILAR Journal},
   Volume = {53},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {35-53},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {1084-2020},
   Abstract = {Small animal magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) has evolved
             significantly from testing the boundaries of imaging physics
             to its expanding use today as a tool in noninvasive
             biomedical investigations. MRM now increasingly provides
             functional information about living animals, with images of
             the beating heart, breathing lung, and functioning brain.
             Unlike clinical MRI, where the focus is on diagnosis, MRM is
             used to reveal fundamental biology or to noninva-sively
             measure subtle changes in the structure or function of
             organs during disease progression or in response to
             experimental therapies. High-resolution anatomical imaging
             reveals increasingly exquisite detail in healthy animals and
             subtle architectural aberrations that occur in genetically
             altered models. Resolution of 100 μm in all dimensions is
             now routinely attained in living animals, and (10 (μm)3 is
             feasible in fixed specimens. Such images almost rival
             conventional histology while allowing the object to be
             viewed interactively in any plane. In this review we
             describe the state of the art in MRM for scientists who may
             be unfamiliar with this modality but who want to apply its
             capabilities to their research. We include a brief review of
             MR concepts and methods of animal handling and support,
             before covering a range of MRM applications-including the
             heart, lung, and brain-and the emerging field of MR
             histology. The ability of MRM to provide a detailed
             functional and anatomical picture in rats and mice, and to
             track this picture over time, makes it a promising platform
             with broad applications in biomedical research.},
   Key = {fds268651}
}

@article{fds268658,
   Author = {Möller, HE and Cleveland, ZI and Driehuys, B},
   Title = {Relaxation of hyperpolarized 129Xe in a deflating polymer
             bag.},
   Journal = {Journal of Magnetic Resonance},
   Volume = {212},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {109-115},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {1096-0856},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21752680},
   Keywords = {Algorithms • Animals • Electromagnetic Fields
             • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted • Magnetic
             Resonance Imaging • Mice • Polymers •
             Polyvinyls • Radio Waves • Respiratory Mechanics
             • Xenon • Xenon Isotopes • chemistry* •
             methods* • physiology},
   Abstract = {In magnetic resonance imaging with hyperpolarized (HP) noble
             gases, data is often acquired during prolonged gas delivery
             from a storage reservoir. However, little is known about the
             extent to which relaxation within the reservoir will limit
             the useful acquisition time. For quantitative
             characterization, 129Xe relaxation was studied in a bag made
             of polyvinyl fluoride (Tedlar). Particular emphasis was on
             wall relaxation, as this mechanism is expected to dominate.
             The HP 129Xe magnetization dynamics in the deflating bag
             were accurately described by a model assuming dissolution of
             Xe in the polymer matrix and dipolar relaxation with
             neighboring nuclear spins. In particular, the wall
             relaxation rate changed linearly with the surface-to-volume
             ratio and exhibited a relaxivity of κ=0.392±0.008 cm/h,
             which is in reasonable agreement with κ=0.331±0.051 cm/h
             measured in a static Tedlar bag. Estimates for the bulk
             gas-phase 129Xe relaxation yielded T1bulk=2.55±0.22 h,
             which is dominated by intrinsic Xe-Xe relaxation, with small
             additional contributions from magnetic field inhomogeneities
             and oxygen-induced relaxation. Calculations based on these
             findings indicate that relaxation may limit HP 129Xe
             experiments when slow gas delivery rates are employed as,
             for example, in mouse imaging or vascular infusion
             experiments.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jmr.2011.06.017},
   Key = {fds268658}
}

@article{fds268657,
   Author = {Thomas, AC and Nouls, JC and Driehuys, B and Voltz, JW and Fubara, B and Foley, J and Bradbury, JA and Zeldin, DC},
   Title = {Ventilation defects observed with hyperpolarized 3He
             magnetic resonance imaging in a mouse model of acute lung
             injury.},
   Journal = {American journal of respiratory cell and molecular
             biology},
   Volume = {44},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {648-654},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {1535-4989},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20595465},
   Keywords = {Acute Lung Injury • Animals • Chemokine CCL2
             • Chemokine CCL3 • Chemokine CXCL2 •
             Escherichia coli • Helium • Inflammation •
             Interleukin-1beta • Interleukin-6 •
             Lipopolysaccharides • Lung • Lung Diseases •
             Magnetic Resonance Imaging • Mice • Mice, Inbred
             C57BL • Positron-Emission Tomography • Tomography,
             X-Ray Computed • Total Lung Capacity • Tumor
             Necrosis Factor-alpha • diagnostic use •
             immunology • metabolism • metabolism* •
             methods • methods* • pharmacology},
   Abstract = {Regions of diminished ventilation are often evident during
             functional pulmonary imaging studies, including
             hyperpolarized gas magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),
             positron emission tomography, and computed tomography (CT).
             The objective of this study was to characterize the
             hypointense regions observed via (3)He MRI in a murine model
             of acute lung injury. LPS at doses ranging from 15-50 μg
             was intratracheally administered to C57BL/6 mice under
             anesthesia. Four hours after exposure to either LPS or
             saline vehicle, mice were imaged via hyperpolarized (3)He
             MRI. All images were evaluated to identify regions of
             hypointense signals. Lungs were then characterized by
             conventional histology, or used to obtain tissue samples
             from regions of normal and hypointense (3)He signals and
             analyzed for cytokine content. The characterization of (3)He
             MRI images identified three distinct types of hypointense
             patterns: persistent defects, atelectatic defects, and
             dorsal lucencies. Persistent defects were associated with
             the administration of LPS. The number of persistent defects
             depended on the dose of LPS, with a significant increase in
             mean number of defects in 30-50-μg LPS-dosed mice versus
             saline-treated control mice. Atelectatic defects
             predominated in LPS-dosed mice under conditions of
             low-volume ventilation, and could be reversed with deep
             inspiration. Dorsal lucencies were present in nearly all
             mice studied, regardless of the experimental conditions,
             including control animals that did not receive LPS. A
             comparison of (3)He MRI with histopathology did not identify
             tissue abnormalities in regions of low (3)He signal, with
             the exception of a single region of atelectasis in one
             mouse. Furthermore, no statistically significant differences
             were evident in concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, macrophage
             inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, MIP-2, chemokine (C-X-C
             motif) ligand 1 (KC), TNFα, and monocyte chemotactic
             protein (MCP)-1 between hypointense and normally ventilated
             lung regions in LPS-dosed mice. Thus, this study defines the
             anatomic, functional, and biochemical characteristics of
             ventilation defects associated with the administration of
             LPS in a murine model of acute lung injury.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1165/rcmb.2009-0287OC},
   Key = {fds268657}
}

@article{fds268659,
   Author = {Nouls, J and Fanarjian, M and Hedlund, L and Driehuys,
             B},
   Title = {A Constant-Volume Ventilator and Gas Recapture System for
             Hyperpolarized Gas MRI of Mouse and Rat Lungs.},
   Journal = {Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part B},
   Volume = {39B},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {78-88},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {1552-5031},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21625347},
   Language = {ENG},
   Doi = {10.1002/cmr.b.20192},
   Key = {fds268659}
}

@article{fds289610,
   Author = {Kaushik, SS and Cleveland, ZI and Cofer, GP and Metz, G and Beaver, D and Nouls, J and Kraft, M and Auffermann, W and Wolber, J and McAdams, HP and Driehuys, B},
   Title = {Diffusion-weighted hyperpolarized 129Xe MRI in healthy
             volunteers and subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary
             disease.},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance in Medicine},
   Volume = {65},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1154-1165},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21413080},
   Abstract = {Given its greater availability and lower cost, (129) Xe
             apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) MRI offers an
             alternative to (3) He ADC MRI. To demonstrate the
             feasibility of hyperpolarized (129) Xe ADC MRI, we present
             results from healthy volunteers (HV), chronic obstructive
             pulmonary disease (COPD) subjects, and age-matched healthy
             controls (AMC). The mean parenchymal ADC was 0.036 ± 0.003
             cm(2) sec(-1) for HV, 0.043 ± 0.006 cm(2) sec(-1) for AMC,
             and 0.056 ± 0.008 cm(2) sec(-1) for COPD subjects with
             emphysema. In healthy individuals, but not the COPD group,
             ADC decreased significantly in the anterior-posterior
             direction by ∼ 22% (P = 0.006, AMC; 0.0059, HV), likely
             because of gravity-induced tissue compression. The COPD
             group exhibited a significantly larger superior-inferior ADC
             reduction (∼ 28%) than the healthy groups (∼ 24%) (P =
             0.00018, HV; P = 3.45 × 10(-5) , AMC), consistent with
             smoking-related tissue destruction in the superior lung.
             Superior-inferior gradients in healthy subjects may result
             from regional differences in xenon concentration. ADC was
             significantly correlated with pulmonary function tests
             (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec, r = -0.77, P = 0.0002;
             forced expiratory volume in 1 sec/forced vital capacity, r =
             -0.77, P = 0.0002; diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide in
             the lung/alveolar volume (V(A) ), r = -0.77, P = 0.0002). In
             healthy groups, ADC increased with age by 0.0002 cm(2)
             sec(-1) year(-1) (r = 0.56, P = 0.02). This study shows that
             (129) Xe ADC MRI is clinically feasible, sufficiently
             sensitive to distinguish HV from subjects with emphysema,
             and detects age- and posture-dependent changes.},
   Doi = {10.1002/mrm.22697},
   Key = {fds289610}
}

@article{fds268660,
   Author = {Zheng, W and Cleveland, ZI and Möller, HE and Driehuys,
             B},
   Title = {Gradient-induced longitudinal relaxation of hyperpolarized
             noble gases in the fringe fields of superconducting magnets
             used for magnetic resonance.},
   Journal = {Journal of Magnetic Resonance},
   Volume = {208},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {284-290},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {1096-0856},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21134771},
   Keywords = {Algorithms • Electromagnetic Fields • Helium
             • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy • Magnetics
             • Models, Theoretical • Noble Gases •
             chemistry • chemistry* • methods*},
   Abstract = {When hyperpolarized noble gases are brought into the bore of
             a superconducting magnet for magnetic resonance imaging
             (MRI) or spectroscopy studies, the gases must pass through
             substantial field gradients, which can cause rapid
             longitudinal relaxation. In this communication, we present a
             means of calculating this spatially dependent relaxation
             rate in the fringe field of typical magnets. We then compare
             these predictions to experimental measurements of (3)He
             relaxation at various positions near a medium-bore 2-T small
             animal MRI system. The calculated and measured relaxation
             rates on the central axis of the magnet agree well and show
             a maximum (3)He relaxation rate of 3.83×10(-3) s(-1)
             (T(1)=4.4 min) at a distance of 47 cm from the magnet
             isocenter. We also show that if this magnet were
             self-shielded, its minimum T(1) would drop to 1.2 min. In
             contrast, a typical self-shielded 1.5-T clinical MRI scanner
             will induce a minimum on-axis T(1) of 12 min. Additionally,
             we show that the cylindrically symmetric fields of these
             magnets enable gradient-induced relaxation to be calculated
             using only knowledge of the on-axis longitudinal field,
             which can either be measured directly or calculated from a
             simple field model. Thus, while most MRI magnets employ
             complex and proprietary current configurations, we show that
             their fringe fields and the resulting gradient-induced
             relaxation are well approximated by simple solenoid models.
             Finally, our modeling also demonstrates that relaxation
             rates can increase by nearly an order of magnitude at radial
             distances equivalent to the solenoid radius.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jmr.2010.11.006},
   Key = {fds268660}
}

@article{fds200612,
   Author = {SS Kaushik and ZI Cleveland and GP Cofer and G Metz and D Beaver and J
             Nouls, M Kraft and W Auffermann and J Wolber and HP McAdams and B
             Driehuys},
   Title = {Diffusion-weighted hyperpolarized (129)Xe MRI in healthy
             volunteers and subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary
             disease.},
   Journal = {Magnetic resonance in medicine : official journal of the
             Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine / Society of
             Magnetic Resonance in Medicine},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {1522-2594},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrm.22697},
   Abstract = {Given its greater availability and lower cost, (129)Xe
             apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) MRI offers an
             alternative to (3)He ADC MRI. To demonstrate the feasibility
             of hyperpolarized (129)Xe ADC MRI, we present results from
             healthy volunteers (HV), chronic obstructive pulmonary
             disease (COPD) subjects, and age-matched healthy controls
             (AMC). The mean parenchymal ADC was 0.036 ± 0.003 cm(2)
             sec(-1) for HV, 0.043 ± 0.006 cm(2) sec(-1) for AMC, and
             0.056 ± 0.008 cm(2) sec(-1) for COPD subjects with
             emphysema. In healthy individuals, but not the COPD group,
             ADC decreased significantly in the anterior-posterior
             direction by ∼22% (P = 0.006, AMC; 0.0059, HV), likely
             because of gravity-induced tissue compression. The COPD
             group exhibited a significantly larger superior-inferior ADC
             reduction (∼28%) than the healthy groups (∼24%) (P =
             0.00018, HV; P = 3.45 × 10(-5), AMC), consistent with
             smoking-related tissue destruction in the superior lung.
             Superior-inferior gradients in healthy subjects may result
             from regional differences in xenon concentration. ADC was
             significantly correlated with pulmonary function tests
             (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec, r = -0.77, P = 0.0002;
             forced expiratory volume in 1 sec/forced vital capacity, r =
             -0.77, P = 0.0002; diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide in
             the lung/alveolar volume (V(A)), r = -0.77, P = 0.0002). In
             healthy groups, ADC increased with age by 0.0002 cm(2)
             sec(-1) year(-1) (r = 0.56, P = 0.02). This study shows that
             (129)Xe ADC MRI is clinically feasible, sufficiently
             sensitive to distinguish HV from subjects with emphysema,
             and detects age- and posture-dependent changes. Magn Reson
             Med, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.},
   Language = {ENG},
   Doi = {10.1002/mrm.22697},
   Key = {fds200612}
}

@article{fds268656,
   Author = {Kaushik, SS and Cleveland, ZI and Cofer, GP and Metz, G and Beaver, D and Nouls, J and Kraft, M and Auffermann, W and Wolber, J and McAdams, HP and Driehuys, B},
   Title = {Diffusion-weighted hyperpolarized (129)Xe MRI in healthy
             volunteers and subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary
             disease.},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance in Medicine},
   Volume = {65},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1154-65},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {1522-2594},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21166014},
   Keywords = {Administration, Inhalation • Adult • Aged •
             Contrast Media • Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging
             • Female • Humans • Lung • Male •
             Middle Aged • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive
             • Radiopharmaceuticals • Reference Values •
             Reproducibility of Results • Sensitivity and
             Specificity • Xenon Isotopes • administration &
             dosage • diagnosis* • diagnostic use* •
             methods* • pathology},
   Abstract = {Given its greater availability and lower cost, (129)Xe
             apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) MRI offers an
             alternative to (3)He ADC MRI. To demonstrate the feasibility
             of hyperpolarized (129)Xe ADC MRI, we present results from
             healthy volunteers (HV), chronic obstructive pulmonary
             disease (COPD) subjects, and age-matched healthy controls
             (AMC). The mean parenchymal ADC was 0.036 ± 0.003 cm(2)
             sec(-1) for HV, 0.043 ± 0.006 cm(2) sec(-1) for AMC, and
             0.056 ± 0.008 cm(2) sec(-1) for COPD subjects with
             emphysema. In healthy individuals, but not the COPD group,
             ADC decreased significantly in the anterior-posterior
             direction by ∼22% (P = 0.006, AMC; 0.0059, HV), likely
             because of gravity-induced tissue compression. The COPD
             group exhibited a significantly larger superior-inferior ADC
             reduction (∼28%) than the healthy groups (∼24%) (P =
             0.00018, HV; P = 3.45 × 10(-5), AMC), consistent with
             smoking-related tissue destruction in the superior lung.
             Superior-inferior gradients in healthy subjects may result
             from regional differences in xenon concentration. ADC was
             significantly correlated with pulmonary function tests
             (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec, r = -0.77, P = 0.0002;
             forced expiratory volume in 1 sec/forced vital capacity, r =
             -0.77, P = 0.0002; diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide in
             the lung/alveolar volume (V(A)), r = -0.77, P = 0.0002). In
             healthy groups, ADC increased with age by 0.0002 cm(2)
             sec(-1) year(-1) (r = 0.56, P = 0.02). This study shows that
             (129)Xe ADC MRI is clinically feasible, sufficiently
             sensitive to distinguish HV from subjects with emphysema,
             and detects age- and posture-dependent changes. Magn Reson
             Med, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1002/mrm.22697},
   Key = {fds268656}
}

@article{fds268653,
   Author = {Cleveland, ZI and Cofer, GP and Metz, G and Beaver, D and Nouls, J and Kaushik, SS and Kraft, M and Wolber, J and Kelly, KT and McAdams, HP and Driehuys, B},
   Title = {Hyperpolarized Xe MR imaging of alveolar gas uptake in
             humans.},
   Journal = {PloS one},
   Volume = {5},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {e12192},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {1932-6203},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20808950},
   Keywords = {Adult • Artifacts • Blood Volume •
             Feasibility Studies • Humans • Imaging,
             Three-Dimensional • Magnetic Resonance Imaging •
             Middle Aged • Pulmonary Alveoli • Pulmonary Gas
             Exchange* • Respiration • Time Factors •
             Xenon Isotopes • Young Adult • diagnostic use
             • methods* • physiology*},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: One of the central physiological functions of
             the lungs is to transfer inhaled gases from the alveoli to
             pulmonary capillary blood. However, current measures of
             alveolar gas uptake provide only global information and thus
             lack the sensitivity and specificity needed to account for
             regional variations in gas exchange. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL
             FINDINGS: Here we exploit the solubility, high magnetic
             resonance (MR) signal intensity, and large chemical shift of
             hyperpolarized (HP) (129)Xe to probe the regional uptake of
             alveolar gases by directly imaging HP (129)Xe dissolved in
             the gas exchange tissues and pulmonary capillary blood of
             human subjects. The resulting single breath-hold,
             three-dimensional MR images are optimized using millisecond
             repetition times and high flip angle radio-frequency pulses,
             because the dissolved HP (129)Xe magnetization is rapidly
             replenished by diffusive exchange with alveolar (129)Xe. The
             dissolved HP (129)Xe MR images display significant,
             directional heterogeneity, with increased signal intensity
             observed from the gravity-dependent portions of the lungs.
             CONCLUSIONS: The features observed in dissolved-phase
             (129)Xe MR images are consistent with gravity-dependent lung
             deformation, which produces increased ventilation, reduced
             alveolar size (i.e., higher surface-to-volume ratios),
             higher tissue densities, and increased perfusion in the
             dependent portions of the lungs. Thus, these results suggest
             that dissolved HP (129)Xe imaging reports on pulmonary
             function at a fundamental level.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0012192},
   Key = {fds268653}
}

@article{fds268655,
   Author = {Mistry, NN and Thomas, A and Kaushik, SS and Johnson, GA and Driehuys,
             B},
   Title = {Quantitative analysis of hyperpolarized 3He ventilation
             changes in mice challenged with methacholine.},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance in Medicine},
   Volume = {63},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {658-666},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {1522-2594},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20187176},
   Keywords = {Administration, Inhalation • Algorithms* • Animals
             • Asthma • Contrast Media • Helium •
             Image Enhancement • Isotopes • Magnetic Resonance
             Imaging • Methacholine Chloride • Mice •
             Mice, Inbred C57BL • Reproducibility of Results •
             Sensitivity and Specificity • administration & dosage
             • diagnosis* • diagnostic use • diagnostic
             use* • methods*},
   Abstract = {The capability to use high-resolution (3)He MRI to depict
             regional ventilation changes and airway narrowing in mice
             challenged with methacholine (MCh) offers the opportunity to
             gain new insights into the study of asthma. However, to
             fully exploit the value of this novel technique, it is
             important to move beyond visual inspection of the images
             toward automated and quantitative analysis. To address this
             gap, we describe a postprocessing approach to create
             ventilation difference maps to better visualize and quantify
             regional ventilation changes before and after MCh challenge.
             We show that difference maps reveal subtle changes in airway
             caliber, and highlight both focal and diffuse regional
             alterations in ventilation. Ventilation changes include both
             hypoventilation and compensatory areas of hyperventilation.
             The difference maps can be quantified by a histogram plot of
             the ventilation changes, in which the standard deviation
             increases with MCh dose (R(2) = 0.89). This method of
             analysis is shown to be more sensitive than simple
             threshold-based detection of gross ventilation
             defects.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1002/mrm.22311},
   Key = {fds268655}
}

@article{fds268671,
   Author = {Branca, RT and Cleveland, ZI and Fubara, B and Kumar, CSSR and Maronpot,
             RR and Leuschner, C and Warren, WS and Driehuys, B},
   Title = {Molecular MRI for sensitive and specific detection of lung
             metastases.},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of
             USA},
   Volume = {107},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {3693-3697},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {1091-6490},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20142483},
   Keywords = {Adenocarcinoma • Animals • Breast Neoplasms •
             Female • Ferric Compounds • Helium • Humans
             • Isotopes • Lung Neoplasms • Magnetic
             Resonance Imaging • Male • Mice • Mice, Nude
             • Nanoparticles • diagnosis* • diagnostic use
             • methods* • pathology* •
             secondary*},
   Abstract = {Early and specific detection of metastatic cancer cells in
             the lung (the most common organ targeted by metastases)
             could significantly improve cancer treatment outcomes.
             However, the most widespread lung imaging methods use
             ionizing radiation and have low sensitivity and/or low
             specificity for cancer cells. Here we address this problem
             with an imaging method to detect submillimeter-sized
             metastases with molecular specificity. Cancer cells are
             targeted by iron oxide nanoparticles functionalized with
             cancer-binding ligands, then imaged by high-resolution
             hyperpolarized (3)He MRI. We demonstrate in vivo detection
             of pulmonary micrometastates in mice injected with breast
             adenocarcinoma cells. The method not only holds promise for
             cancer imaging but more generally suggests a fundamentally
             unique approach to molecular imaging in the
             lungs.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1073/pnas.1000386107},
   Key = {fds268671}
}

@article{fds268685,
   Author = {Cleveland, ZI and Möller, HE and Hedlund, LW and Driehuys,
             B},
   Title = {Continuously infusing hyperpolarized 129Xe into flowing
             aqueous solutions using hydrophobic gas exchange
             membranes.},
   Journal = {The Journal of Physical Chemistry Part B: Condensed Matter,
             Materials, Surfaces, Interfaces and Biophysical},
   Volume = {113},
   Number = {37},
   Pages = {12489-12499},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {1520-6106},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19702286},
   Keywords = {Animals • Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions
             • Magnetic Resonance Imaging • Magnetic Resonance
             Spectroscopy • Magnetics • Male • Membranes,
             Artificial* • Rats • Solutions • Time Factors
             • Water • Xenon • blood •
             chemistry*},
   Abstract = {Hyperpolarized (HP) (129)Xe yields high signal intensities
             in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and, through its large
             chemical shift range of approximately 300 ppm, provides
             detailed information about the local chemical environment.
             To exploit these properties in aqueous solutions and living
             tissues requires the development of methods for efficiently
             dissolving HP (129)Xe over an extended time period. To this
             end, we have used commercially available gas exchange
             modules to continuously infuse concentrated HP (129)Xe into
             flowing liquids, including rat whole blood, for periods as
             long as one hour and have demonstrated the feasibility of
             dissolved-phase MR imaging with submillimeter resolution
             within minutes. These modules, which exchange gases using
             hydrophobic microporous polymer membranes, are compatible
             with a variety of liquids and are suitable for infusing HP
             (129)Xe into the bloodstream in vivo. Additionally, we have
             developed a detailed mathematical model of the infused HP
             (129)Xe signal dynamics that should be useful in designing
             improved infusion systems that yield even higher dissolved
             HP (129)Xe signal intensities.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1021/jp9049582},
   Key = {fds268685}
}

@article{fds268680,
   Author = {Driehuys, B and Moeller, HE and Cleveland, ZI and Pollaro, J and Hedlund, LW},
   Title = {Pulmonary Perfusion and Xenon Gas Exchange in Rats: MR
             Imaging with Intravenous Injection of Hyperpolarized
             (129)Xe},
   Journal = {Radiology},
   Volume = {252},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {386-393},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0033-8419},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000268875900011&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Abstract = {Purpose: To develop and demonstrate a method for regional
             evaluation of pulmonary perfusion and gas exchange based on
             intravenous injection of hyperpolarized xenon 129 ((129)Xe)
             and subsequent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the
             gas-phase (129)Xe emerging in the alveolar airspaces.
             Materials and Methods: Five Fischer 344 rats that weighed
             200-425 g were prepared for imaging according to an
             institutional animal care and use committee-approved
             protocol. Rats were ventilated, and a 3-F catheter was
             placed in the jugular (n = 1) or a 24-gauge catheter in the
             tail (n = 4) vein. Imaging and spectroscopy of gas-phase
             (129)Xe were performed after injecting 5 mL of half-normal
             saline saturated with (129)Xe hyperpolarized to 12%.
             Corresponding ventilation images were obtained during
             conventional inhalation delivery of hyperpolarized (129)Xe.
             Results: Injections of (129)Xe-saturated saline were well
             tolerated and produced a strong gas-phase (129)Xe signal in
             the airspaces that resulted from (129)Xe transport through
             the pulmonary circulation and diffusion across the blood-gas
             barrier. After a single injection, the emerging (129)Xe gas
             could be detected separately from (129)Xe remaining in the
             blood and was imaged with an in-plane resolution of 1 x 1 mm
             and a signal-to-noise ratio of 25. Images in one rat
             revealed a matched ventilation-perfusion deficit, while
             images in another rat showed that xenon gas exchange was
             temporarily impaired after saline overload, with recovery of
             function 1 hour later. Conclusion: MR imaging of gas-phase
             (129)Xe emerging in the pulmonary airspaces after
             intravenous injection has the potential to become a
             sensitive and minimally invasive new tool for regional
             evaluation of pulmonary perfusion and gas exchange.
             Supplemental material: http://radiology.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/2513081550/DC1
             (c) RSNA, 2009.},
   Language = {ENG},
   Doi = {10.1148/radiol.2513081550},
   Key = {fds268680}
}

@article{fds268692,
   Author = {Driehuys, B and Möller, HE and Cleveland, ZI and Pollaro, J and Hedlund, LW},
   Title = {Pulmonary perfusion and xenon gas exchange in rats: MR
             imaging with intravenous injection of hyperpolarized
             129Xe.},
   Journal = {Radiology},
   Volume = {252},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {386-393},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {1527-1315},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19703880},
   Keywords = {Animals • Contrast Media • Image Interpretation,
             Computer-Assisted • Magnetic Resonance Imaging •
             Physician's Practice Patterns • Pulmonary Alveoli
             • Pulmonary Circulation • Pulmonary Gas Exchange
             • Rats • Rats, Inbred F344 • Science •
             Technology Transfer • Xenon Isotopes •
             administration & dosage • diagnostic use* •
             methods* • pharmacokinetics • pharmacokinetics*
             • physiology* • trends},
   Abstract = {PURPOSE: To develop and demonstrate a method for regional
             evaluation of pulmonary perfusion and gas exchange based on
             intravenous injection of hyperpolarized xenon 129 ((129)Xe)
             and subsequent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the
             gas-phase (129)Xe emerging in the alveolar airspaces.
             MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five Fischer 344 rats that weighed
             200-425 g were prepared for imaging according to an
             institutional animal care and use committee-approved
             protocol. Rats were ventilated, and a 3-F catheter was
             placed in the jugular (n = 1) or a 24-gauge catheter in the
             tail (n = 4) vein. Imaging and spectroscopy of gas-phase
             (129)Xe were performed after injecting 5 mL of half-normal
             saline saturated with (129)Xe hyperpolarized to 12%.
             Corresponding ventilation images were obtained during
             conventional inhalation delivery of hyperpolarized (129)Xe.
             RESULTS: Injections of (129)Xe-saturated saline were well
             tolerated and produced a strong gas-phase (129)Xe signal in
             the airspaces that resulted from (129)Xe transport through
             the pulmonary circulation and diffusion across the blood-gas
             barrier. After a single injection, the emerging (129)Xe gas
             could be detected separately from (129)Xe remaining in the
             blood and was imaged with an in-plane resolution of 1 x 1 mm
             and a signal-to-noise ratio of 25. Images in one rat
             revealed a matched ventilation-perfusion deficit, while
             images in another rat showed that xenon gas exchange was
             temporarily impaired after saline overload, with recovery of
             function 1 hour later. CONCLUSION: MR imaging of gas-phase
             (129)Xe emerging in the pulmonary airspaces after
             intravenous injection has the potential to become a
             sensitive and minimally invasive new tool for regional
             evaluation of pulmonary perfusion and gas exchange.
             SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL: http://radiology.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/2513081550/DC1.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1148/radiol.2513081550},
   Key = {fds268692}
}

@article{fds268674,
   Author = {Thomas, AC and Potts, EN and Chen, BT and Slipetz, DM and Foster, WM and Driehuys, B},
   Title = {A robust protocol for regional evaluation of methacholine
             challenge in mouse models of allergic asthma using
             hyperpolarized 3He MRI.},
   Journal = {Nmr in Biomedicine},
   Volume = {22},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {502-515},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {1099-1492},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19204996},
   Keywords = {Animals • Asthma • Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid
             • Bronchoconstriction • Cell Count • Disease
             Models, Animal • Drug Delivery Systems • Heart
             Rate • Helium • Imaging, Three-Dimensional •
             Infusion Pumps • Lung • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
             • Methacholine Chloride • Mice • Ovalbumin
             • Pulmonary Ventilation • Reproducibility of
             Results • Time Factors • administration & dosage
             • administration & dosage* • chemistry* •
             cytology • drug effects • methods* •
             pathology • pathology* • pharmacology* •
             physiopathology},
   Abstract = {Hyperpolarized (HP) (3)He magnetic resonance imaging has
             been recently used to produce high-resolution images of
             pulmonary ventilation after methacholine (MCh) challenge in
             mouse models of allergic inflammation. This capability
             presents an opportunity to gain new insights about these
             models and to more sensitively evaluate new drug treatments
             in the pre-clinical setting. In the current study, we
             present our initial experience using two-dimensional (2D),
             time-resolved (3)He MRI of MCh challenge-induced airways
             hyperreactivity (AHR) to compare ovalbumin-sensitized and
             challenged (N = 8) mice to controls (N = 8). Imaging
             demonstrated that ovalbumin-sensitized and challenged
             animals exhibited many large ventilation defects even prior
             to MCh challenge (four out of eight) compared to no defects
             in the control animals. Additionally, the
             ovalbumin-sensitized and challenged animals experienced a
             greater number of ventilation defects (4.5 +/- 0.4)
             following MCh infusion than did controls (3.3 +/- 0.6).
             However, due to variability in MCh delivery that was
             specific to the small animal MRI environment, the difference
             in mean defect number was not statistically significant.
             These findings are reviewed in detail and a comprehensive
             solution to the variability problem is presented that has
             greatly enhanced the magnitude and reproducibility of the
             MCh response. This has permitted us to develop a new imaging
             protocol consisting of a baseline 3D image, a time-resolved
             2D series during MCh challenge, and a post-MCh 3D image that
             reveals persistent ventilation defects.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1002/nbm.1362},
   Key = {fds268674}
}

@article{fds268687,
   Author = {Brown, RH and Irvin, CG and Allen, GB and Shapiro, SD and Martin, WJ and Kolb, MRJ and Hyde, DM and Nieman, GF and Cody, DD and Ishii, M and Kadlecek, SJ and Driehuys, B and Rizi, RR and Wu, AM and Weber, WA and Stout, DB and ATS Small Animal Imaging Subcommittee},
   Title = {An official ATS conference proceedings: advances in
             small-animal imaging application to lung
             pathophysiology.},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society},
   Volume = {5},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {591-600},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {1546-3222},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18625751},
   Keywords = {Animals • Congresses as Topic* • Diagnostic
             Imaging • Disease Models, Animal • Lung Diseases
             • Reproducibility of Results • Respiration* •
             diagnosis* • methods* • physiopathology*},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1513/pats.200708-116ST},
   Key = {fds268687}
}

@article{fds268666,
   Author = {Driehuys, B and Pollaro, J and Cofer, GP},
   Title = {In vivo MRI using real-time production of hyperpolarized
             129Xe.},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance in Medicine},
   Volume = {60},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {14-20},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0740-3194},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18581406},
   Keywords = {Animals • Computer Systems • Magnetic Resonance
             Imaging* • Rats • Rats, Inbred F344 •
             Spectrum Analysis • Xenon Isotopes* • diagnostic
             use},
   Abstract = {MR imaging of hyperpolarized (HP) nuclei is challenging
             because they are typically delivered in a single dose of
             nonrenewable magnetization, from which the entire image must
             be derived. This problem can be overcome with HP (129)Xe,
             which can be produced sufficiently rapidly to deliver in
             dilute form (1%) continuously and on-demand. We demonstrate
             a real-time in vivo delivery of HP (129)Xe mixture to rats,
             a capability we now routinely use for setting frequency,
             transmitter gain, shimming, testing pulse sequences, scout
             imaging, and spectroscopy. Compared to images acquired using
             conventional fully concentrated (129)Xe, real-time (129)Xe
             images have 26-fold less signal, but clearly depict
             ventilation abnormalities. Real-time (129)Xe MRI could be
             useful for time-course studies involving acute injury or
             response to treatment. Ultimately, real-time (129)Xe MRI
             could be done with more highly concentrated (129)Xe, which
             could increase the signal-to-noise ratio by 100 relative to
             these results to enable a new class of gas imaging
             applications.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1002/mrm.21651},
   Key = {fds268666}
}

@article{fds268647,
   Author = {Couture, AH and Clegg, TB and Driehuys, B},
   Title = {Pressure shifts and broadening of the Cs D1 and D2 lines by
             He, N2, and Xe at densities used for optical pumping and
             spin exchange polarization},
   Journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
   Volume = {104},
   Number = {9},
   Year = {2008},
   ISSN = {0021-8979},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3018181},
   Abstract = {The production of hyperpolarized gases by spin-exchange
             optical pumping (SEOP) requires exact knowledge of the
             alkali metal's D1 absorption profile and the degree to which
             it is broadened and shifted by varying buffer gas
             composition and pressure. We have measured these parameters
             for cesium (Cs) in the presence of Xe, N2, and H4 e
             perturber gases at densities up to 10 amagats. The effects
             of these gases are important as Cs is attracting increasing
             interest for SEOP applications. Our measurements were made
             using simple white-light illumination of the Cs vapor while
             characterizing the D1 (6 S1/2 to 6 P1/2) and D2 (6 S1/2 to 6
             P3/2) resonances using a high-resolution optical
             spectrometer. For the Cs D1 resonance at T=120 °C, we
             report shifts from the 894.59 nm vacuum wavelength caused by
             H3 e, H4 e, N2, and Xe of -0.017±0.003, -0.013±0.002,
             0.026±0.002, and 0.029±0.002 nm/amagat. We also report the
             shifts for the D2 resonance as well as pressure broadening
             coefficients for both resonances. © 2008 American Institute
             of Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.3018181},
   Key = {fds268647}
}

@article{fds268684,
   Author = {Driehuys, B and Nouls, J and Badea, A and Bucholz, E and Ghaghada, K and Petiet, A and Hedlund, LW},
   Title = {Small animal imaging with magnetic resonance
             microscopy.},
   Journal = {ILAR Journal},
   Volume = {49},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {35-53},
   Year = {2008},
   ISSN = {1084-2020},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18172332},
   Keywords = {Animals • Disease Models, Animal • Magnetic
             Resonance Imaging • Mice • Microscopy • Rats
             • instrumentation • methods*},
   Abstract = {Small animal magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) has evolved
             significantly from testing the boundaries of imaging physics
             to its expanding use today as a tool in noninvasive
             biomedical investigations. MRM now increasingly provides
             functional information about living animals, with images of
             the beating heart, breathing lung, and functioning brain.
             Unlike clinical MRI, where the focus is on diagnosis, MRM is
             used to reveal fundamental biology or to noninvasively
             measure subtle changes in the structure or function of
             organs during disease progression or in response to
             experimental therapies. High-resolution anatomical imaging
             reveals increasingly exquisite detail in healthy animals and
             subtle architectural aberrations that occur in genetically
             altered models. Resolution of 100 mum in all dimensions is
             now routinely attained in living animals, and (10 mum)(3) is
             feasible in fixed specimens. Such images almost rival
             conventional histology while allowing the object to be
             viewed interactively in any plane. In this review we
             describe the state of the art in MRM for scientists who may
             be unfamiliar with this modality but who want to apply its
             capabilities to their research. We include a brief review of
             MR concepts and methods of animal handling and support,
             before covering a range of MRM applications-including the
             heart, lung, and brain-and the emerging field of MR
             histology. The ability of MRM to provide a detailed
             functional and anatomical picture in rats and mice, and to
             track this picture over time, makes it a promising platform
             with broad applications in biomedical research.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1093/ilar.49.1.35},
   Key = {fds268684}
}

@article{fds268667,
   Author = {Driehuys, B and Walker, J and Pollaro, J and Cofer, GP and Mistry, N and Schwartz, D and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {3He MRI in mouse models of asthma.},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance in Medicine},
   Volume = {58},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {893-900},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0740-3194},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17969115},
   Keywords = {Animals • Asthma • Disease Models, Animal* •
             Helium • Magnetic Resonance Imaging • Mice •
             Mice, Inbred BALB C • Mice, Inbred C57BL •
             methods* • pathology*},
   Abstract = {In the study of asthma, a vital role is played by mouse
             models, because knockout or transgenic methods can be used
             to alter disease pathways and identify therapeutic targets
             that affect lung function. Assessment of lung function in
             rodents by available methods is insensitive because these
             techniques lack regional specificity. A more sensitive
             method for evaluating lung function in human asthma patients
             uses hyperpolarized (HP) (3)He MRI before and after
             bronchoconstriction induced by methacholine (MCh). We now
             report the ability to perform such (3)He imaging of MCh
             response in mice, where voxels must be approximately 3000
             times smaller than in humans and (3)He diffusion becomes an
             impediment to resolving the airways. We show
             three-dimensional (3D) images that reveal airway structure
             down to the fifth branching and visualize ventilation at a
             resolution of 125 x 125 x 1000 microm(3). Images of
             ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mice acquired after MCh show both
             airway closure and ventilation loss. To also observe the MCh
             response in naive mice, we developed a non-slice-selective
             2D protocol with 187 x 187 microm(2) resolution that was
             fast enough to record the MCh response and recovery with
             12-s temporal resolution. The extension of (3)He MRI to
             mouse models should make it a valuable translational tool in
             asthma research.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1002/mrm.21306},
   Key = {fds268667}
}

@article{fds268676,
   Author = {Driehuys, B and Hedlund, LW},
   Title = {Imaging techniques for small animal models of pulmonary
             disease: MR microscopy.},
   Journal = {Toxicologic Pathology (Sage)},
   Volume = {35},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {49-58},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0192-6233},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17325972},
   Keywords = {Animals • Disease Models, Animal* • Helium •
             Isotopes • Lung • Lung Diseases • Magnetic
             Resonance Imaging • Mice • Microscopy* • Rats
             • Respiratory Function Tests • Xenon Isotopes
             • diagnosis* • diagnostic use •
             instrumentation • methods • methods* •
             pathology* • physiopathology},
   Abstract = {In vivo magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) of the small
             animal lung has become a valuable research tool, especially
             for preclinical studies. MRM offers a noninvasive and
             nondestructive tool for imaging small animals longitudinally
             and at high spatial resolution. We summarize some of the
             technical and biologic problems and solutions associated
             with imaging the small animal lung and describe several
             important pulmonary disease applications. A major advantage
             of MR is direct imaging of the gas spaces of the lung using
             breathable gases such as helium and xenon. When polarized,
             these gases become rich MR signal sources. In animals
             breathing hyperpolarized helium, the dynamics of gas
             distribution can be followed and airway constrictions and
             obstructions can be detected. Diffusion coefficients of
             helium can be calculated from diffusion-sensitive images,
             which can reveal micro-structural changes in the lungs
             associated with pathologies such as emphysema and fibrosis.
             Unlike helium, xenon in the lung is absorbed by blood and
             exhibits different frequencies in gas, tissue, or
             erythrocytes. Thus, with MR imaging, the movement of xenon
             gas can be tracked through pulmonary compartments to detect
             defects of gas transfer. MRM has become a valuable tool for
             studying morphologic and functional changes in small animal
             models of lung diseases.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1080/01926230601132048},
   Key = {fds268676}
}

@article{fds268661,
   Author = {Driehuys, B and Cofer, GP and Pollaro, J and Mackel, JB and Hedlund, LW and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Imaging alveolar-capillary gas transfer using hyperpolarized
             129Xe MRI.},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of
             USA},
   Volume = {103},
   Number = {48},
   Pages = {18278-18283},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0027-8424},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17101964},
   Keywords = {Animals • Erythrocytes • Magnetic Resonance
             Imaging • Microcirculation • Oxygen • Rats
             • Rats, Inbred F344 • Respiration* • Xenon
             Isotopes • metabolism • metabolism* •
             methods*},
   Abstract = {Effective pulmonary gas exchange relies on the free
             diffusion of gases across the thin tissue barrier separating
             airspace from the capillary red blood cells (RBCs).
             Pulmonary pathologies, such as inflammation, fibrosis, and
             edema, which cause an increased blood-gas barrier thickness,
             impair the efficiency of this exchange. However, definitive
             assessment of such gas-exchange abnormalities is
             challenging, because no methods currently exist to directly
             image the gas transfer process. Here we exploit the
             solubility and chemical shift of (129)Xe, the magnetic
             resonance signal of which has been enhanced by 10(5) with
             hyperpolarization, to differentially image its transfer from
             the airspaces into the tissue barrier spaces and RBCs in the
             gas exchange regions of the lung. Based on a simple
             diffusion model, we estimate that this MR imaging method for
             measuring (129)Xe alveolar-capillary transfer is sensitive
             to changes in blood-gas barrier thickness of approximately 5
             microm. We validate the successful separation of tissue
             barrier and RBC images and show the utility of this method
             in a rat model of pulmonary fibrosis where (129)Xe
             replenishment of the RBCs is severely impaired in regions of
             lung injury.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1073/pnas.0608458103},
   Key = {fds268661}
}

@article{fds268683,
   Author = {Driehuys, B},
   Title = {Chemistry: Toward molecular imaging with xenon
             MRI},
   Journal = {Science},
   Volume = {314},
   Number = {5798},
   Pages = {432-433},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0036-8075},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17053138},
   Keywords = {Animals • Atherosclerosis • Biosensing Techniques*
             • Humans • Lung • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
             • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy • Rats •
             Sensitivity and Specificity • Xenon Isotopes* •
             anatomy & histology • diagnosis • methods* •
             physiopathology},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1126/science/1134532},
   Key = {fds268683}
}

@article{fds268673,
   Author = {Spector, ZZ and Emami, K and Fischer, MC and Zhu, J and Ishii, M and Vahdat, V and Yu, J and Kadlecek, S and Driehuys, B and Lipson, DA and Gefter, W and Shrager, J and Rizi, RR},
   Title = {Quantitative assessment of emphysema using hyperpolarized
             3He magnetic resonance imaging.},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance in Medicine},
   Volume = {53},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1341-1346},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0740-3194},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15906306},
   Keywords = {Animals • Disease Models, Animal • Helium •
             Image Processing, Computer-Assisted • Isotopes •
             Magnetic Resonance Imaging • Male • Pancreatic
             Elastase • Pulmonary Emphysema • Pulmonary
             Ventilation • Rats • Rats, Sprague-Dawley •
             diagnostic use • diagnostic use* • methods* •
             physiopathology*},
   Abstract = {In this experiment, Sprague-Dawley rats with
             elastase-induced emphysema were imaged using hyperpolarized
             (3)He MRI. Regional fractional ventilation r, the fraction
             of gas replaced with a single tidal breath, was calculated
             from a series of images in a wash-in study of hyperpolarized
             gas. We compared the regional fractional ventilation in
             these emphysematous rats to the regional fractional
             ventilations we calculated from a previous baseline study in
             healthy Sprague-Dawley rats. We found that there were
             differences in the maps of fractional ventilation and its
             associated frequency distribution between the healthy and
             emphysematous rat lungs. Fractional ventilation tended to be
             much lower in emphysematous rats than in normal rats. With
             this information, we can use data on fractional ventilation
             to regionally distinguish between healthy and emphysematous
             portions of the lung. The successful implementation of such
             a technique on a rat model could lead to work toward the
             future implementation of this technique in human
             patients.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1002/mrm.20514},
   Key = {fds268673}
}

@article{fds268635,
   Author = {Driehuys, B and Raidy, T and Pollaro, J and Johnson, A and Dewhirst, M and Marks, L and Vujaskovic, Z},
   Title = {Hyperpolarized 129Xe MRI for functional assessment of
             radiation-induced lung injury},
   Journal = {International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology,
             Physics},
   Volume = {63},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {S460-S461},
   Year = {2005},
   ISSN = {0360-3016},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000232083301298&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.ijrobp.2005.07.784},
   Key = {fds268635}
}

@article{fds268675,
   Author = {Spector, ZZ and Emami, K and Fischer, MC and Zhu, J and Ishii, M and Yu, J and Kadlecek, S and Driehuys, B and Panettieri, RA and Lipson, DA and Gefter, W and Shrager, J and Rizi, RR},
   Title = {A small animal model of regional alveolar ventilation using
             HP 3He MRI1.},
   Journal = {Academic Radiology},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {1171-1179},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {1076-6332},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15530811},
   Keywords = {Animals • Helium • Isotopes • Magnetic
             Resonance Imaging • Male • Models, Animal •
             Pulmonary Alveoli • Pulmonary Ventilation • Rats
             • Rats, Sprague-Dawley • anatomy & histology*
             • diagnostic use • diagnostic use* • methods*
             • physiology},
   Abstract = {RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to
             establish a standardized procedure for the measurement of
             regional fractional ventilation in a healthy rat model as a
             baseline for further studies of pulmonary disorder models.
             MATERIALS AND METHODS: The lungs of five healthy male
             Sprague-Dawley rats were imaged using hyperpolarized
             helium-3 magnetic resonance imaging. From these images,
             regional fractional ventilation was calculated and maps
             generated detailing the distribution of fractional
             ventilation in the lung. The 1.56 mm x 1.56 mm x 4 mm
             regions of interest were assigned on 5 cm x 5 cm field of
             view lung maps. Histograms were also generated showing the
             frequency distribution of fractional ventilation values. To
             compare fractional ventilation values between animals, the
             ventilation procedure was standardized to results from
             individual pulmonary function tests. Each animal's
             spontaneous tidal volume, respiratory rate, and inspiration
             percentage (percent of total respiratory cycle in
             inspiration) were used in their mechanical ventilation
             settings. RESULTS: Results were similar among all five
             healthy rats based on examination of ventilation
             distribution maps and frequency distribution histograms.
             Mean (0.13) and standard deviation (0.07) were calculated
             for fractional ventilation in each animal. However, these
             values were determined to be influenced by slice selection,
             and therefore the maps and histograms were favored in
             analysis of results. CONCLUSION: This study shows consistent
             results in healthy rat lungs and will serve as a baseline
             study for future measurements in emphysematous rat
             lungs.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.acra.2004.08.001},
   Key = {fds268675}
}

@article{fds268686,
   Author = {Månsson, S and Wolber, J and Driehuys, B and Wollmer, P and Golman,
             K},
   Title = {Characterization of diffusing capacity and perfusion of the
             rat lung in a lipopolysaccaride disease model using
             hyperpolarized 129Xe.},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance in Medicine},
   Volume = {50},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1170-1179},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0740-3194},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14648564},
   Keywords = {Animals • Capillary Permeability •
             Lipopolysaccharides • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy*
             • Male • Pulmonary Alveoli • Pulmonary
             Circulation* • Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity* •
             Rats • Rats, Wistar • Respiratory Distress
             Syndrome, Adult • Xenon Isotopes • chemically
             induced • diagnosis • diagnostic use* •
             physiopathology • physiopathology*},
   Abstract = {The ability to quantify pulmonary diffusing capacity and
             perfusion using dynamic hyperpolarized (129)Xe NMR
             spectroscopy is demonstrated. A model of alveolar gas
             exchange was developed, which, in conjunction with (129)Xe
             NMR, enables quantification of average alveolar wall
             thickness, pulmonary perfusion, capillary diffusion length,
             and mean transit time. The technique was employed to compare
             a group of naïve rats (n = 10) with a group of rats with
             acute inflammatory lung injury (n = 10), caused by
             instillation of lipopolysaccaride (LPS). The measured
             structural and perfusion-related parameters were in
             agreement with reported values from studies using non-NMR
             methods. Significant differences between the groups were
             found in total diffusion length (control 8.5 +/- 0.5 microm,
             LPS 9.9 +/- 0.6 microm, P < 0.001), in capillary diffusion
             length (control 2.9 +/- 0.4 microm, LPS 3.9 +/- 1.0 microm,
             P < 0.05), and in pulmonary hematocrit (control 0.55 +/-
             0.06, LPS 0.43 +/- 0.08, P < 0.01), whereas no differences
             were observed in alveolar wall thickness, pulmonary
             perfusion, and mean transit time. These results demonstrate
             the ability of the method to distinguish two main aspects of
             lung function, namely, diffusing capacity and pulmonary
             perfusion.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1002/mrm.10649},
   Key = {fds268686}
}

@article{fds268690,
   Author = {Babcock, E and Nelson, I and Kadlecek, S and Driehuys, B and Anderson,
             LW and Hersman, FW and Walker, TG},
   Title = {Hybrid spin-exchange optical pumping of 3He.},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {91},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {123003},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0031-9007},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14525358},
   Abstract = {We demonstrate spin-exchange optical pumping of 3He using a
             "hybrid" K-Rb vapor mixture. The Rb atoms absorb light from
             a standard laser at 795 nm, then collisionally polarize the
             potassium atoms. Spin-exchange collisions of K and 3He atoms
             then transfer the angular momentum to the 3He with much
             greater efficiency than Rb-3He. For a K-rich vapor, the
             efficiency of the hybrid spin-exchange collisions approaches
             1/4, an order of magnitude greater than achieved by pure Rb
             pumping. We present the first measurements of actual photon
             efficiencies (polarized nuclei produced per absorbed
             photon), and show that a new parasitic absorption process
             limits the total efficiencies for both hybrid and pure Rb
             pumping.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.91.123003},
   Key = {fds268690}
}

@article{fds268645,
   Author = {Jacob, RE and Driehuys, B and Saam, B},
   Title = {Fundamental mechanisms of 3He relaxation on
             glass},
   Journal = {Chemical Physics Letters},
   Volume = {370},
   Number = {1-2},
   Pages = {261-267},
   Year = {2003},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0009-2614(03)00110-6},
   Abstract = {We present a model of 3He relaxation on the surface of
             borosilicate glass which accurately predicts observed
             relaxation rates and their temperature dependence. Above
             room temperature 3He dissolves into Pyrex, where
             interactions with Fe3+ ions result in a relaxation time of
             ≈1 ms. Gas exchange across the glass surface of an
             enclosed vessel leads to T1-1 = A/V (3.9 ± 1.4) × 10-2
             cm/h at room temperature, where A/V is the surface-to-volume
             ratio. The activation energy for relaxation is 13.7 ± 0.7
             kJ/mol and is dominated by the activation energy of 3He
             diffusion in glass. This is the first successful
             confirmation of predicted 3He relaxation rates in glass
             vessels. © 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights
             reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0009-2614(03)00110-6},
   Key = {fds268645}
}

@article{fds311297,
   Author = {Chann, B and Nelson, IA and Anderson, LW and Driehuys, B and Walker,
             TG},
   Title = {Xe-129-Xe molecular spin relaxation},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {88},
   Number = {11},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0031-9007},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000174541700011&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.88.113201},
   Key = {fds311297}
}

@article{fds268689,
   Author = {Ruppert, K and Brookeman, JR and Hagspiel, KD and Driehuys, B and Mugler, JP},
   Title = {NMR of hyperpolarized (129)Xe in the canine chest: spectral
             dynamics during a breath-hold.},
   Journal = {Nmr in Biomedicine},
   Volume = {13},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {220-228},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0952-3480},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10867700},
   Keywords = {Animals • Dogs • Female • Lung •
             Magnetic Resonance Imaging • Magnetic Resonance
             Spectroscopy • Male • Respiratory Function Tests
             • Respiratory Mechanics* • Time Factors •
             Xenon Radioisotopes* • methods •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {One of the major goals of hyperpolarized-gas MR imaging has
             been to obtain (129)Xe dissolved-phase images in humans.
             Since the dissolved-phase signal is much weaker than the
             gas-phase signal, highly optimized MR pulse sequences are
             required to obtain adequate images during a single
             breath-hold. In particular, a solid understanding of the
             temporal dynamics of xenon as it passes from the lung gas
             spaces into the parenchyma, the blood and other downstream
             compartments is absolutely essential. Spectroscopy
             experiments were performed in the canine chest to elucidate
             the behavior of xenon exchange in the lung. The experiments
             covered a time range from 1 ms to 9 s and therefore
             considerably extend the data currently available in the
             literature. It was found that the integrals of the
             dissolved-phase resonances approached plateau values within
             approximately 200 ms, and then increased again after
             approximately 1 s. This behavior suggests an early
             saturation of the parenchyma before xenon reaches downstream
             compartments. Mono-exponential recovery curves with time
             constants on the order of 100 ms were fit to the data. These
             results potentially provide information on several
             underlying physiological parameters of the lung, including
             the parenchymal and blood volumes as well as the diffusion
             properties of lung tissue.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds268689}
}

@article{fds268682,
   Author = {Chen, XJ and Möller, HE and Chawla, MS and Cofer, GP and Driehuys, B and Hedlund, LW and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Spatially resolved measurements of hyperpolarized gas
             properties in the lung in vivo. Part I: diffusion
             coefficient.},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance in Medicine},
   Volume = {42},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {721-728},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0740-3194},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10502761},
   Keywords = {Animals • Guinea Pigs • Helium • Isotopes
             • Lung • Magnetic Resonance Imaging •
             Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity • Xenon Isotopes •
             anatomy & histology* • diagnostic use •
             methods*},
   Abstract = {In imaging of hyperpolarized noble gases, a knowledge of the
             diffusion coefficient (D) is important both as a contrast
             mechanism and in the design of pulse sequences. We have made
             diffusion coefficient maps of both hyperpolarized (3)He and
             (129)Xe in guinea pig lungs. Along the length of the
             trachea, (3)He D values were on average 2.4 cm(2)/sec,
             closely reproducing calculated values for free gas (2.05
             cm(2)/sec). The (3)He D values measured perpendicular to the
             length of the trachea were approximately a factor of two
             less, indicating restriction to diffusion. Further evidence
             of restricted diffusion was seen in the distal pulmonary
             airspaces as the average (3)He D was 0.16 cm(2)/sec. An
             additional cause for the smaller (3)He D in the lung was due
             to the presence of air, which is composed of heavier and
             larger gases. The (129)Xe results show similar trends, with
             the trachea D averaging 0.068 cm(2)/sec and the lung D
             averaging 0.021 cm(2)/sec. Magn Reson Med 42:721-728,
             1999.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds268682}
}

@article{fds268691,
   Author = {Chen, XJ and Möller, HE and Chawla, MS and Cofer, GP and Driehuys, B and Hedlund, LW and MacFall, JR and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Spatially resolved measurements of hyperpolarized gas
             properties in the lung in vivo. Part II: T
             *(2).},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance in Medicine},
   Volume = {42},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {729-737},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0740-3194},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10502762},
   Keywords = {Animals • Guinea Pigs • Helium • Humans
             • Isotopes • Lung • Magnetic Resonance
             Imaging • Male • Middle Aged • Pulmonary
             Diffusing Capacity • Trachea • Xenon Isotopes
             • anatomy & histology • anatomy & histology*
             • diagnostic use • methods*},
   Abstract = {The transverse relaxation time, T *(2), of hyperpolarized
             (HP) gas in the lung in vivo is an important parameter for
             pulse sequence optimization and image contrast. We obtained
             T *(2) maps of HP (3)He and (129)Xe in guinea pig lungs (n =
             17) and in human lungs. Eight different sets of (3)He guinea
             pig studies were acquired, with variation of slice
             selection, tidal volume, and oxygen level. For example, for
             a (3)He tidal volume of 3 cm(3) and no slice selection, the
             average T *(2) in the trachea was 14.7 ms and 8.0 ms in the
             intrapulmonary airspaces. The equivalent (129)Xe experiment
             yielded an average T *(2) of 40.8 ms in the trachea and 18.5
             ms in the intrapulmonary airspaces. The average (3)He T *(2)
             in the human intrapulmonary airspaces was 9.4 ms. The
             relaxation behavior was predicted by treating the lung as a
             porous medium, resulting in good agreement between estimated
             and measured T *(2) values in the intrapulmonary airspaces.
             Magn Reson Med 42:729-737, 1999.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds268691}
}

@article{fds268664,
   Author = {Stith, A and Hitchens, TK and Hinton, DP and Berr, SS and Driehuys, B and Brookeman, JR and Bryant, RG},
   Title = {Consequences of (129)Xe-(1)H cross relaxation in aqueous
             solutions.},
   Journal = {Journal of Magnetic Resonance},
   Volume = {139},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {225-231},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {1090-7807},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10423359},
   Keywords = {Apoproteins • Cyclodextrins • Magnetic Resonance
             Spectroscopy* • Myoglobin • Protons •
             Solutions • Tyrosine • Water • Xenon Isotopes
             • analysis* • chemistry •
             methods},
   Abstract = {We have investigated the transfer of polarization from
             (129)Xe to solute protons in aqueous solutions to determine
             the feasibility of using hyperpolarized xenon to enhance
             (1)H sensitivity in aqueous systems at or near room
             temperatures. Several solutes, each of different molecular
             weight, were dissolved in deuterium oxide and although large
             xenon polarizations were created, no significant proton
             signal enhancement was detected in l-tyrosine,
             alpha-cyclodextrin, beta-cyclodextrin, apomyoglobin, or
             myoglobin. Solute-induced enhancement of the (129)Xe
             spin-lattice relaxation rate was observed and depended on
             the size and structure of the solute molecule. The
             significant increase of the apparent spin-lattice relaxation
             rate of the solution phase (129)Xe by alpha-cyclodextrin and
             apomyoglobin indicates efficient cross relaxation. The slow
             relaxation of xenon in beta-cyclodextrin and l-tyrosine
             indicates weak coupling and inefficient cross relaxation.
             Despite the apparent cross-relaxation effects, all attempts
             to detect the proton enhancement directly were unsuccessful.
             Spin-lattice relaxation rates were also measured for
             Boltzmann (129)Xe in myoglobin. The cross-relaxation rates
             were determined from changes in (129)Xe relaxation rates in
             the alpha-cyclodextrin and myoglobin solutions. These
             cross-relaxation rates were then used to model (1)H signal
             gains for a range of (129)Xe to (1)H spin population ratios.
             These models suggest that in spite of very large (129)Xe
             polarizations, the (1)H gains will be less than 10% and
             often substantially smaller. In particular, dramatic (1)H
             signal enhancements in lung tissue signals are
             unlikely.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1006/jmre.1999.1781},
   Key = {fds268664}
}

@article{fds268668,
   Author = {Möller, HE and Chawla, MS and Chen, XJ and Driehuys, B and Hedlund, LW and Wheeler, CT and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Magnetic resonance angiography with hyperpolarized 129Xe
             dissolved in a lipid emulsion.},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance in Medicine},
   Volume = {41},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1058-1064},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0740-3194},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10332890},
   Keywords = {Abdomen • Animals • Artifacts • Blood Flow
             Velocity • Blood Volume • Contrast Media* •
             Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy • Fat Emulsions,
             Intravenous • Iliac Vein • Injections, Intravenous
             • Lasers • Magnetic Resonance Angiography •
             Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy • Male • Pelvis
             • Rats • Renal Veins • Signal Processing,
             Computer-Assisted • Veins • Vena Cava, Inferior
             • Xenon Isotopes* • administration & dosage •
             anatomy & histology • blood supply • diagnostic
             use* • methods*},
   Abstract = {Hyperpolarized (HP) 129Xe can be dissolved in biologically
             compatible lipid emulsions while maintaining sufficient
             polarization for in vivo vascular imaging. For xenon in
             Intralipid 30%, in vitro spectroscopy at 2 T yielded a
             chemical shift of 197 +/- 1 ppm with reference to xenon gas,
             a spin-lattice relaxation time T1 = 25.3 +/- 2.1 sec, and a
             T2* time constant of 37 +/- 5 msec. Angiograms of the
             abdominal and pelvic veins in the rat obtained with 129Xe
             MRI after intravenous injection of HP 129Xe/Intralipid 30%
             into the tail demonstrated signal-to-noise ratios between 8
             and 29. An analysis of the inflow effect on time-of-flight
             images of two segments of the inferior vena cava yielded
             additional information. The mean blood flow velocity was
             34.7 +/- 1.0 mm/sec between the junction of the caudal veins
             and the kidneys and 13.3 +/- 0.8 mm/sec at the position of
             the diaphragm. The mean volume flow rates in these segments
             were 7.2 +/- 3.4 ml/min and 11.0 +/- 2.8 ml/min,
             respectively. Intravenous delivery of HP 129Xe dissolved in
             a carrier may lead to novel biomedical applications of
             laser-polarized gases.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds268668}
}

@article{fds268663,
   Author = {Möller, HE and Chen, XJ and Chawla, MS and Cofer, GP and Driehuys, B and Hedlund, LW and Suddarth, SA and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Sensitivity and resolution in 3D NMR microscopy of the lung
             with hyperpolarized noble gases.},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance in Medicine},
   Volume = {41},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {800-808},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0740-3194},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10332857},
   Keywords = {Animals • Guinea Pigs • Lung • Magnetic
             Resonance Imaging • Microscopy • Models,
             Theoretical • Noble Gases • Sensitivity and
             Specificity • cytology* • diagnostic use* •
             methods*},
   Abstract = {Three-dimensional magnetic resonance images of the guinea
             pig lung were acquired in vivo using hyperpolarized (HP)
             noble gases and radial projection encoding (PE). Results
             obtained with 3He (voxel size 17 microl) demonstrated high
             image quality showing airway structure down to the 5th or
             6th generations. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of 129Xe
             images (voxel size 40 microl) were lower by about 1 order of
             magnitude as a consequence of the smaller gyromagnetic
             ratio, a more rapid relaxation in the gas reservoir, and
             lower polarization and isotope abundance. Comparison between
             experimentally obtained SNRs and results from calculations
             based on a model that accounts for the three-dimensional PE
             acquisition scheme and the non-equilibrium situation in HP
             gas imaging yielded excellent agreement for small flip
             angles. A theoretical examination of the potential
             resolution in HP gas MR microscopy of the lungs suggests
             that in vivo visualization of alveolar clusters distal to
             respiratory bronchioles may be possible.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds268663}
}

@article{fds268669,
   Author = {Möller, HE and Chen, XJ and Chawla, MS and Driehuys, B and Hedlund, LW and Johnson, GA},
   Title = {Signal dynamics in magnetic resonance imaging of the lung
             with hyperpolarized noble gases.},
   Journal = {Journal of Magnetic Resonance},
   Volume = {135},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {133-143},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {1090-7807},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9799687},
   Keywords = {Animals • Guinea Pigs • Image Enhancement* •
             Lung • Magnetic Resonance Imaging* • Magnetics
             • Models, Theoretical • Noble Gases •
             Reproducibility of Results • anatomy & histology*
             • diagnostic use* • methods},
   Abstract = {The nonequilibrium bulk magnetic moment of hyperpolarized
             (HP) noble gases generated by optical pumping has unique
             characteristics. Based on the Bloch equations, a model was
             developed describing the signal dynamics of HP gases used in
             magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lung with special
             consideration to the breathing cycle. Experimental
             verification included extensive investigations with HP 3He
             and 129Xe during both inspiration and held breath in live
             guinea pigs. Radial acquisition was used to investigate the
             view variations with a temporal resolution of 5 ms.
             Agreement between theoretical predictions and in vivo
             results was excellent. Additionally, information about
             effects from noble gas diffusion and spin-lattice relaxation
             was obtained. In vivo results for T1 were 28.8 +/- 1.8 s for
             3He and 31.3 +/- 1.8 s for 129Xe. Comparison with in vitro
             data indicated that relaxation in the pulmonary gas space is
             dominated by dipolar coupling with molecular oxygen. The
             results provide a quantitative basis for optimizing pulse
             sequence design in HP gas MRI of the lung.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1006/jmre.1998.1563},
   Key = {fds268669}
}

@article{fds268679,
   Author = {Johnson, GA and Cates, G and Chen, XJ and Cofer, GP and Driehuys, B and Happer, W and Hedlund, LW and Saam, B and Shattuck, MD and Swartz,
             J},
   Title = {Dynamics of magnetization in hyperpolarized gas MRI of the
             lung.},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance in Medicine},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {66-71},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0740-3194},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9211381},
   Keywords = {Animals • Guinea Pigs • Helium • Isotopes
             • Lung • Magnetic Resonance Imaging • Male
             • Respiration • anatomy & histology* •
             diagnostic use* • methods*},
   Abstract = {The magnetization in hyperpolarized gas (HP) MRI is
             generated by laser polarization that is independent of the
             magnet and imaging process. As a consequence, there is no
             equilibrium magnetization during the image acquisition. The
             competing processes of gas inflow and depolarization of the
             spins lead to large changes in signal as one samples
             k-space. A model is developed of dynamic changes in
             polarization of hyperpolarized 3He during infusion and in
             vivo imaging of the lung and verified experimentally in a
             live guinea pig. Projection encoding is used to measure the
             view-to-view variation with temporal resolution < 4 ms.
             Large excitation angles effectively sample the magnetization
             in the early stages of inflow, highlighting larger airways,
             while smaller excitation angles produce images of the more
             distal spaces. The work provides a basis for pulse sequences
             designed to effectively exploit HP MRI in the
             lung.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds268679}
}

@article{fds268681,
   Author = {Mugler, JP and Driehuys, B and Brookeman, JR and Cates, GD and Berr, SS and Bryant, RG and Daniel, TM and de Lange, EE and Downs, JH and Erickson,
             CJ and Happer, W and Hinton, DP and Kassel, NF and Maier, T and Phillips,
             CD and Saam, BT and Sauer, KL and Wagshul, ME},
   Title = {MR imaging and spectroscopy using hyperpolarized 129Xe gas:
             preliminary human results.},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance in Medicine},
   Volume = {37},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {809-815},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0740-3194},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9178229},
   Keywords = {Adult • Brain • Female • Humans • Lung
             • Magnetic Resonance Imaging • Magnetic Resonance
             Spectroscopy • Male • Xenon Isotopes* •
             anatomy & histology • methods*},
   Abstract = {Using a new method of xenon laser-polarization that permits
             the generation of liter quantities of hyperpolarized 129Xe
             gas, the first 129Xe imaging results from the human chest
             and the first 129Xe spectroscopy results from the human
             chest and head have been obtained. With polarization levels
             of approximately 2%, cross-sectional images of the lung
             gas-spaces with a voxel volume of 0.9 cm3 (signal-to-noise
             ratio (SNR), 28) were acquired and three dissolved-phase
             resonances in spectra from the chest were detected. In
             spectra from the head, one prominent dissolved-phase
             resonance, presumably from brain parenchyma, was detected.
             With anticipated improvements in the 129Xe polarization
             system, pulse sequences, RF coils, and breathing maneuvers,
             these results suggest the possibility for 129Xe gas-phase
             imaging of the lungs with a resolution approaching that of
             current conventional thoracic proton imaging. Moreover, the
             results suggest the feasibility of dissolved-phase imaging
             of both the chest and brain with a resolution similar to
             that obtained with the gas-phase images.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds268681}
}

@article{fds268677,
   Author = {MacFall, JR and Charles, HC and Black, RD and Middleton, H and Swartz,
             JC and Saam, B and Driehuys, B and Erickson, C and Happer, W and Cates, GD and Johnson, GA and Ravin, CE},
   Title = {Human lung air spaces: potential for MR imaging with
             hyperpolarized He-3.},
   Journal = {Radiology},
   Volume = {200},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {553-558},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0033-8419},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8685356},
   Keywords = {Adult • Helium • Humans • Image Enhancement
             • Isotopes • Lung • Magnetic Resonance
             Imaging • Male • Middle Aged • anatomy &
             histology* • diagnostic use* • instrumentation
             • methods • methods*},
   Abstract = {Two healthy volunteers who had inhaled approximately 0.75 L
             of laser-polarized helium-3 gas underwent magnetic resonance
             imaging at 1.5 T with fast gradient-echo pulse sequences and
             small flip angles ( < 10 degrees). Thick-section (20 mm)
             coronal images, time-course data (30 images collected every
             1.8 seconds), and thin-section (6 mm) images were acquired.
             Subjects were able to breathe the gas (12% polarization)
             without difficulty. Thick-section images were of good
             quality and had a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 32:1 near
             the surface coil and 16:1 farther away. The time images
             showed regional differences, which indicated potential value
             for quantitation. High-resolution images showed greater
             detail and a S/N of approximately 6:1.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1148/radiology.200.2.8685356},
   Key = {fds268677}
}

@article{fds268662,
   Author = {Black, RD and Middleton, HL and Cates, GD and Cofer, GP and Driehuys, B and Happer, W and Hedlund, LW and Johnson, GA and Shattuck, MD and Swartz,
             JC},
   Title = {In vivo He-3 MR images of guinea pig lungs.},
   Journal = {Radiology},
   Volume = {199},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {867-870},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0033-8419},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8638019},
   Keywords = {Animals • Guinea Pigs • Helium • Lung •
             Magnetic Resonance Imaging • Male • Radioisotopes
             • anatomy & histology* • instrumentation •
             methods* • statistics & numerical data},
   Abstract = {The authors imaged the lungs of live guinea pigs with
             hyperpolarized (HP) helium-3 as a magnetic resonance (MR)
             signal source. HP He-3 gas produced through spin exchange
             with rubidium metal vapor was delivered through an
             MR-compatible, small-animal ventilator. Two- and
             three-dimensional lung images acquired with
             ventilation-gated, radial k-space sampling showed complete
             ventilation of both lungs. All images were of high quality,
             demonstrating that HP He-3 allows high-signal-intensity MR
             imaging in living systems.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1148/radiology.199.3.8638019},
   Key = {fds268662}
}

@article{fds268643,
   Author = {Driehuys, B and Cates, GD and Miron, E and Sauer, K and Walter, DK and Happer, W},
   Title = {High-volume production of laser-polarized
             129Xe},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {69},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {1668-1670},
   Year = {1996},
   Abstract = {A method is described for producing several liters of
             nuclear spin polarized 129Xe gas via spin exchange with an
             optically pumped Rb vapor. We use a 140 W AlGaAs laser diode
             array whose broad spectral output is efficiently absorbed by
             employing ∼ 10 atm of 4He to pressure broaden the Rb D1
             absorption profile. 129Xe is polarized in a continuous gas
             flow and is then cryogenically accumulated and stored.
             Extensions of this technique should enable the production of
             tens of liters of 129Xe with a nuclear spin polarization of
             order 50%. Production of laser-polarized 129Xe in liter
             quantities is important for the continued development of
             magnetic resonance imaging using spin-polarized 129Xe. ©
             1996 American Institute of Physics.},
   Key = {fds268643}
}

@article{fds268670,
   Author = {Driehuys, B and Cates, GD and Happer, W},
   Title = {Surface relaxation mechanisms of laser-polarized
             129Xe.},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {74},
   Number = {24},
   Pages = {4943-4946},
   Year = {1995},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {1079-7114},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10058638},
   Language = {ENG},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.74.4943},
   Key = {fds268670}
}

@article{fds268642,
   Author = {Johnson, JR and Thompson, AK and Chupp, TE and Smith, TB and Cates, GD and Driehuys, B and Middleton, H and Newbury, NR and Hughes, EW and Meyer,
             W},
   Title = {The SLAC high-density gaseous polarized 3He
             target},
   Journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section
             A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated
             Equipment},
   Volume = {356},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {148-152},
   Year = {1995},
   ISSN = {0168-9002},
   Abstract = {A large-scale high-pressure gaseous 3He polarized target has
             been developed for use with a high-intensity polarized
             electron beam at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.
             This target was used successfully in an experiment to study
             the spin structure of the neutron. The target provided an
             areal density of about 7 × 1021 nuclei/cm2 and operated at
             3He polarizations between about 30% and 40% for the six-week
             duration of the experiment. © 1995.},
   Key = {fds268642}
}

@article{fds268665,
   Author = {Albert, MS and Cates, GD and Driehuys, B and Happer, W and Saam, B and Springer, CS and Wishnia, A},
   Title = {Biological magnetic resonance imaging using laser-polarized
             129Xe.},
   Journal = {Nature},
   Volume = {370},
   Number = {6486},
   Pages = {199-201},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0028-0836},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8028666},
   Keywords = {Animals • Lasers • Lung • Magnetic Resonance
             Imaging • Mice • Water • Xenon Isotopes*
             • anatomy & histology • methods*},
   Abstract = {As currently implemented, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
             relies on the protons of water molecules in tissue to
             provide the NMR signal. Protons are, however, notoriously
             difficult to image in some biological environments of
             interest, notably the lungs and lipid bilayer membranes such
             as those in the brain. Here we show that 129Xe gas can be
             used for high-resolution MRI when the nuclear-spin
             polarization of the atoms is increased by laser optical
             pumping and spin exchange. This process produces
             hyperpolarized 129Xe, in which the magnetization is enhanced
             by a factor of about 10(5). By introducing hyperpolarized
             129Xe into mouse lungs we have obtained images of the lung
             gas space with a speed and a resolution better than those
             available from proton MRI or emission tomography. As xenon
             (a safe general anaesthetic) is rapidly and safely
             transferred from the lungs to blood and thence to other
             tissues, where it is concentrated in lipid and protein
             components, images of the circulatory system, the brain and
             other vital organs can also be obtained. Because the
             magnetic behaviour of 129Xe is very sensitive to its
             environment, and is different from that of 1H2O, MRI using
             hyperpolarized 129Xe should involve distinct and sensitive
             mechanisms for tissue contrast.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1038/370199a0},
   Key = {fds268665}
}

@article{fds268688,
   Author = {Barton, AS and Newbury, NR and Cates, GD and Driehuys, B and Middleton,
             H and Saam, B},
   Title = {Self-calibrating measurement of polarization-dependent
             frequency shifts from Rb-3He collisions.},
   Journal = {Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical
             Physics},
   Volume = {49},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {2766-2770},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {1050-2947},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9910557},
   Language = {ENG},
   Key = {fds268688}
}

@article{fds268678,
   Author = {Gatzke, M and Cates, GD and Driehuys, B and Fox, D and Happer, W and Saam,
             B},
   Title = {Extraordinarily slow nuclear spin relaxation in frozen
             laser-polarized 129Xe.},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {70},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {690-693},
   Year = {1993},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {1079-7114},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10054178},
   Language = {ENG},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.70.690},
   Key = {fds268678}
}

@article{fds268641,
   Author = {Driehuys, B and Cates, GD and Happer, W and Mabuchi, H and Saam, B and Albert, MS and Wishnia, A},
   Title = {Spin transfer between laser-polarized 129Xe
             nuclei and surface protons},
   Journal = {Physics Letters A},
   Volume = {184},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {88-92},
   Year = {1993},
   ISSN = {0375-9601},
   Abstract = {We have demonstrated a large polarization transfer from
             highly polarized gaseous 129Xe to protons in a silicone
             surface coating. The proton polarization enhancement of ∼
             104-105 over the thermal equilibrium polarization at 0.2 T
             makes possible the detection of the previously unobservable
             resonance. We expect that this technique may allow
             high-resolution NMR to become a viable tool in the study of
             surfaces. © 1993.},
   Key = {fds268641}
}

@article{fds268629,
   Author = {KAMPWIRTH, RT and GRACE, JM and MILLER, DJ and MCDONALD, DB and GRAY,
             KE and ANDERSEN, PH and DRIEHUYS, B and REITEN, M and ASCOLESE,
             M},
   Title = {INSITU GROWTH OF SUPERCONDUCTING FILMS OF BI SR CA CU O
             USING MAGNETRON SPUTTERING},
   Journal = {SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OF THIN FILM SUPERCONDUCTORS
             2},
   Pages = {39-46},
   Year = {1990},
   ISBN = {0-306-43803-8},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1990BT68M00005&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds268629}
}

@article{fds268634,
   Author = {MILLER, DJ and GRACE, JM and MCDONALD, DB and GRAY, KE and KAMPWIRTH,
             RT and DRIEHUYS, B},
   Title = {MICROSTRUCTURE OF SPUTTERED SUPERCONDUCTING FILMS OF
             BI2SR2CACU2OX MADE BY LOW-TEMPERATURE, INSITU
             GROWTH},
   Journal = {HIGH TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTING COMPOUNDS
             II},
   Pages = {329-339},
   Year = {1990},
   ISBN = {0-87339-153-5},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1990BS29Q00025&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds268634}
}

@article{fds171982,
   Title = {SELECTED PEER-REVIEWED PUBLICATIONS:

1. B Driehuys, GP Cofer, J Pollaro, et al., Imaging alveolar-capillary gas transfer using hyperpolarized 129Xe MRI, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103(48): 18278-18283, 2006.
2. JP Mugler, B Driehuys, JR Brookeman et al., MR imaging and spectroscopy using hyperpolarized 129Xe gas: Preliminary human results, Magn. Reson. Med. 37, 809-815, 1997.
3. Driehuys B, Moller HE, Cleveland ZI, Pollaro J, Hedlund LW. Pulmonary perfusion and xenon gas exchange in rats: MR imaging with intravenous injection of hyperpolarized Xe-129. Radiology 252(2):386-393, 2009.
4. S. Mansson, J Wolber, B Driehuys et al., Characterization of diffusing capacity and perfusion of the rat lung in a lipopolysaccaride disease model using hyperpolarized 129Xe, Magn. Reson. Med. 50 (6), 1170-1179, 2003.
5. B Driehuys, GD Cates, E Miron et al., High-volume production of laser-polarized 129Xe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69 (12), 1668-1670, 1996.

Most Recent:

1. B Driehuys, J Pollaro, GP Cofer. In vivo MRI using real-time production of hyperpolarized Xe-129. Magn. Reson. Med. 60:14-20, 2008. PMCID2548276
2. AC Thomas, EN Potts, BT Chen, DM Slipetz, WM Foster, B Driehuys. A robust protocol for regional evaluation of methacholine challenge in mouse models of allergic asthma using hyperpolarized He-3 MRI. NMR Biomed. 22(5):502-515, 2009. PMCID114021
3. Cleveland ZI, Moeller HE, Hedlund L, Driehuys B. Continuously infusing hyperpolarized 129xe into flowing aqueous solutions using hydrophobic gas exchange membranes. Journal of Physical Chemistry B 2009;113(37):12489-12499. PMCID2747043
4. Branca T, Cleveland ZI, Leuschner C, Kumar C, Fubara B, Maronpot RR, Warren W, Driehuys B. Hyperpolarized 3He MRI to detect lung metastases targeted by magnetic nanoparticles. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. in press.
5. Mistry N, Thomas A, Kaushik SS, Driehuys B. Quantitative analysis of hyperpolarized 3He ventilation changes in mice challenged with methacholine, Magn Reson Med, in press.

Best:
1. MS Albert, GD Cates, B Driehuys et al., Biological magnetic-resonance imaging using laser polarized 129Xe, Nature 370 (6486), 199-201, 1994.
2. B Driehuys, J Nouls, A Badea, et al., Small-animal imaging with magnetic resonance microscopy, invited paper, ILAR journal, 28(1): 35-53, 2008.
3. B Driehuys, J Walker, J Pollaro, et al., Hyperpolarized 3He MR imaging of methacholine challenge in a mouse model of asthma, Magn. Reson. Med., 58(5), 893-900, 2007. PMC2746053
4. JR MacFall, HC Charles, RD Black, B Driehuys et al., Human lung air spaces: Potential for MR imaging with hyperpolarized He-3, Radiology 200 (2), 553-558, 1996.
5. XJ Chen, HE Moller, MS Chawla, B Driehuys, et al, Spatially resolved measurements of hyperpolarized gas properties in the lung in vivo: Diffusion coefficient, Magn. Reson. Med. 42 (4), 721-728, 1999.

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