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Linguistics : Publications since January 2017

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%% Baran, Dominika M   
   Author = {Baran, DM},
   Title = {Narratives of migration on Facebook: Belonging and identity
             among former fellow refugees},
   Journal = {Language in Society},
   Volume = {47},
   Number = {02},
   Pages = {245-268},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {April},
   url = {},
   Doi = {10.1017/S0047404518000027},
   Key = {fds335450}

   Author = {Baran, D},
   Title = {Language in immigrant America},
   Pages = {1-357},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9781107415713},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {© Dominika Baran 2017. Exploring the complex relationship
             between language and immigration in the United States, this
             timely book challenges mainstream, historically established
             assumptions about American citizenship and identity. Set
             within both a historical and a current political context,
             this book covers hotly debated topics such as language and
             ethnicity, the relationship between non-native English and
             American identity, perceptions and stereotypes related to
             foreign accents, code-switching, hybrid language forms such
             as Spanglish, language and the family, and the future of
             language in America. Work from the fields of linguistics,
             education policy, history, sociology, and politics are
             brought together to provide an accessible overview of the
             key issues. Through specific examples and case studies,
             immigrant America is presented as a diverse, multilingual,
             and multidimensional space in which identities are often
             hybridized and always multifaceted.},
   Doi = {10.1017/9781107415713},
   Key = {fds335451}

%% Bergelson, Elika   
   Author = {Bergelson, E and Swingley, D},
   Title = {Young Infants' Word Comprehension Given An Unfamiliar Talker
             or Altered Pronunciations.},
   Journal = {Child Development},
   Volume = {89},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1567-1576},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {September},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {To understand spoken words, listeners must appropriately
             interpret co-occurring talker characteristics and speech
             sound content. This ability was tested in 6- to
             14-months-olds by measuring their looking to named food and
             body part images. In the new talker condition (n = 90),
             pictures were named by an unfamiliar voice; in the
             mispronunciation condition (n = 98), infants' mothers
             "mispronounced" the words (e.g., nazz for nose). Six- to
             7-month-olds fixated target images above chance across
             conditions, understanding novel talkers, and mothers'
             phonologically deviant speech equally. Eleven- to
             14-months-olds also understood new talkers, but performed
             poorly with mispronounced speech, indicating sensitivity to
             phonological deviation. Between these ages, performance was
             mixed. These findings highlight the changing roles of
             acoustic and phonetic variability in early word
             comprehension, as infants learn which variations alter
   Doi = {10.1111/cdev.12888},
   Key = {fds327239}

   Author = {Bergelson, E and Amatuni, A and Dailey, S and Koorathota, S and Tor,
   Title = {Day by day, hour by hour: Naturalistic language input to
   Journal = {Developmental Science},
   Pages = {e12715},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {August},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Measurements of infants' quotidian experiences provide
             critical information about early development. However, the
             role of sampling methods in providing these measurements is
             rarely examined. Here we directly compare language input
             from hour-long video-recordings and daylong audio-recordings
             within the same group of 44 infants at 6 and 7 months. We
             compared 12 measures of language quantity and lexical
             diversity, talker variability, utterance-type, and object
             presence, finding moderate correlations across
             recording-types. However, video-recordings generally
             featured far denser noun input across these measures
             compared to the daylong audio-recordings, more akin to
             'peak' audio hours (though not as high in talkers and
             word-types). Although audio-recordings captured ~10 times
             more awake-time than videos, the noun input in them was only
             2-4 times greater. Notably, whether we compared videos to
             daylong audio-recordings or peak audio times, videos
             featured relatively fewer declaratives and more questions;
             furthermore, the most common video-recorded nouns were less
             consistent across families than the top audio-recording
             nouns were. Thus, hour-long videos and daylong
             audio-recordings revealed fairly divergent pictures of the
             language infants hear and learn from in their daily lives.
             We suggest that short video-recordings provide a dense and
             somewhat different sample of infants' language experiences,
             rather than a typical one, and should be used cautiously for
             extrapolation about common words, talkers, utterance-types,
             and contexts at larger timescales. If theories of language
             development are to be held accountable to 'facts on the
             ground' from observational data, greater care is needed to
             unpack the ramifications of sampling methods of early
             language input.},
   Doi = {10.1111/desc.12715},
   Key = {fds337129}

   Author = {Laing, C and Bergelson, E},
   Title = {Mothers’ Work Status and 17-Month-Olds’ Productive
   Journal = {Infancy},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {© International Congress of Infant Studies (ICIS)
             Literature examining the effects of mothers’ work status
             on infant language development is mixed, with little focus
             on varying work schedules and early vocabulary. We use
             naturalistic data to analyze the productive vocabulary of 44
             17-month-olds in relation to mothers’ work status (full
             time, part time, stay at home) at 6 and 18 months. Infants
             who experienced a combination of care from mothers and other
             caretakers had larger productive vocabularies than infants
             in solely full-time maternal or solely other-caretaker care.
             Our results draw from naturalistic data to suggest that this
             care combination may be particularly beneficial for early
             lexical development.},
   Doi = {10.1111/infa.12265},
   Key = {fds338532}

   Author = {Amatuni, A and He, E and Bergelson, E},
   Title = {Preserved Structure Across Vector Space Representations.},
   Journal = {CoRR},
   Volume = {abs/1802.00840},
   Year = {2018},
   Key = {fds333673}

   Author = {Bergelson, E and Aslin, RN},
   Title = {Nature and origins of the lexicon in 6-mo-olds.},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the
             United States of America},
   Volume = {114},
   Number = {49},
   Pages = {12916-12921},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {December},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Recent research reported the surprising finding that even
             6-mo-olds understand common nouns [Bergelson E, Swingley D
             (2012) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109:3253-3258]. However, is
             their early lexicon structured and acquired like older
             learners? We test 6-mo-olds for a hallmark of the mature
             lexicon: cross-word relations. We also examine whether
             properties of the home environment that have been linked
             with lexical knowledge in older children are detectable in
             the initial stage of comprehension. We use a new dataset,
             which includes in-lab comprehension and home measures from
             the same infants. We find evidence for cross-word structure:
             On seeing two images of common nouns, infants looked
             significantly more at named target images when the
             competitor images were semantically unrelated (e.g., milk
             and foot) than when they were related (e.g., milk and
             juice), just as older learners do. We further find initial
             evidence for home-lab links: common noun "copresence" (i.e.,
             whether words' referents were present and attended to in
             home recordings) correlated with in-lab comprehension. These
             findings suggest that, even in neophyte word learners,
             cross-word relations are formed early and the home learning
             environment measurably helps shape the lexicon from the
   Doi = {10.1073/pnas.1712966114},
   Key = {fds330846}

   Author = {Frank, MC and Bergelson, E and Bergmann, C and Cristia, A and Floccia,
             C and Gervain, J and Hamlin, JK and Hannon, EE and Kline, M and Levelt, C and Lew-Williams, C and Nazzi, T and Panneton, R and Rabagliati, H and Soderstrom, M and Sullivan, J and Waxman, S and Yurovsky,
   Title = {A Collaborative Approach to Infant Research: Promoting
             Reproducibility, Best Practices, and Theory-Building},
   Journal = {Infancy},
   Volume = {22},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {421-435},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {July},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {© 2017 International Congress of Infant Studies (ICIS).The
             ideal of scientific progress is that we accumulate
             measurements and integrate these into theory, but recent
             discussion of replicability issues has cast doubt on whether
             psychological research conforms to this model. Developmental
             research-especially with infant participants-also has
             discipline-specific replicability challenges, including
             small samples and limited measurement methods. Inspired by
             collaborative replication efforts in cognitive and social
             psychology, we describe a proposal for assessing and
             promoting replicability in infancy research: large-scale,
             multi-laboratory replication efforts aiming for a more
             precise understanding of key developmental phenomena. The
             ManyBabies project, our instantiation of this proposal, will
             not only help us estimate how robust and replicable these
             phenomena are, but also gain new theoretical insights into
             how they vary across ages, linguistic communities, and
             measurement methods. This project has the potential for a
             variety of positive outcomes, including less-biased
             estimates of theoretically important effects, estimates of
             variability that can be used for later study planning, and a
             series of best-practices blueprints for future infancy
   Doi = {10.1111/infa.12182},
   Key = {fds325486}

   Author = {Bergelson, E and Aslin, R},
   Title = {Semantic Specificity in One-Year-Olds' Word
   Journal = {Language Learning and Development},
   Volume = {13},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {481-501},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {January},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {The present study investigated infants' knowledge about
             familiar nouns. Infants (n = 46, 12-20-month-olds) saw
             two-image displays of familiar objects, or one familiar and
             one novel object. Infants heard either a matching word (e.g.
             "foot' when seeing foot and juice), a related word (e.g.
             "sock" when seeing foot and juice) or a nonce word (e.g.
             "fep" when seeing a novel object and dog). Across the whole
             sample, infants reliably fixated the referent on matching
             and nonce trials. On the critical related trials we found
             increasingly less looking to the incorrect (but related)
             image with age. These results suggest that one-year-olds
             look at familiar objects both when they hear them labeled
             and when they hear related labels, to similar degrees, but
             over the second year increasingly rely on semantic fit. We
             suggest that infants' initial semantic representations are
             imprecise, and continue to sharpen over the second postnatal
   Doi = {10.1080/15475441.2017.1324308},
   Key = {fds327381}

%% Flanagan, Owen   
   Author = {Flanagan, O and Zhao, W},
   Title = {The self and its good vary cross-culturally: A dozen
             self-variations and Chinese familial selves},
   Pages = {287-301},
   Booktitle = {Self, Culture and Consciousness: Interdisciplinary
             Convergences on Knowing and Being},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {February},
   ISBN = {9789811057779},
   url = {},
   Doi = {10.1007/978-981-10-5777-9_17},
   Key = {fds335564}

   Author = {Caruso, G and Flanagan, O},
   Title = {Neuroexistentialism: Meaning, morals, and purpose in the age
             of neuroscience},
   Pages = {1-374},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9780190460723},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {© Oxford University Press 2018. Existentialism is a concern
             about the foundation of meaning, morals, and purpose.
             Existentialisms arise when some foundation for these
             elements of being is under assault. In the past, first-wave
             existentialism concerned the increasingly apparent inability
             of religion and religious tradition to provide such a
             foundation, as typified in the writings of Kierkegaard,
             Dostoevsky, and Nietzsche. Second-wave existentialism,
             personified philosophically by Sartre, Camus, and de
             Beauvoir, developed in response to the inability of an
             overly optimistic Enlightenment vision of reason and the
             common good to provide such a foundation. There is a
             third-wave existentialism, a new existentialism, developing
             in response to advances in the neurosciences that threaten
             the last vestiges of an immaterial soul or self. With the
             increasing explanatory and therapeutic power of
             neuroscience, the mind no longer stands apart from the world
             to serve as a foundation of meaning. This produces
             foundational anxiety. This collection of new essays explores
             the anxiety caused by this third-wave existentialism and
             some responses to it. It brings together some of the
             world℉s leading philosophers, neuroscientists, cognitive
             scientists, and legal scholars to tackle our
             neuroexistentialist predicament and explore what the mind
             sciences can tell us about morality, love, emotion,
             autonomy, consciousness, selfhood, free will, moral
             responsibility, law, the nature of criminal punishment,
             meaning in life, and purpose.},
   Doi = {10.1093/oso/9780190460723.001.0001},
   Key = {fds335566}

   Author = {Flanagan, O and Caruso, G},
   Title = {Neuroexistentialism: Third-wave existentialism},
   Pages = {1-22},
   Booktitle = {Neuroexistentialism: Meaning, Morals, and Purpose in the Age
             of Neuroscience},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9780190460723},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {© Oxford University Press 2018. Neuroexistentialism is a
             recent expression of existential anxiety over the nature of
             persons. Unlike previous existentialisms,
             neuroexistentialism is not caused by a problem with
             ecclesiastical authority, as was the existentialism
             represented by Kierkegaard, Dostoevsky, and Nietzsche, nor
             by the shock of coming face to face with the moral horror of
             nation state actors and their citizens, as in the
             mid-century existentialism of Sartre and Camus. Rather,
             neuroexistentialism is caused by the rise of the scientific
             authority of the human sciences and a resultant clash
             between the scientific and the humanistic image of persons.
             Flanagan and Caruso explain what neuroexistentialism is and
             how it is related to two earlier existentialisms and they
             spell out how neuroexistentialism makes particularly vivid
             the clash between the humanistic and the scientific image of
             persons. They conclude by providing a brief summary of the
             chapters to follow.},
   Doi = {10.1093/oso/9780190460723.003.0001},
   Key = {fds335565}

   Author = {Gyal, P and Flanagan, O},
   Title = {The role of pain in buddhism: The conquest of
   Pages = {288-296},
   Booktitle = {The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Pain},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {June},
   ISBN = {9781315742205},
   url = {},
   Doi = {10.4324/9781315742205},
   Key = {fds329381}

   Author = {Flanagan, O},
   Title = {Addiction Doesn’t Exist, But it is Bad for
   Journal = {Neuroethics},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {91-98},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {April},
   url = {},
   Doi = {10.1007/s12152-016-9298-z},
   Key = {fds327006}

%% Mazuka, Reiko   
   Author = {Guevara-Rukoz, A and Cristia, A and Ludusan, B and Thiollière, R and Martin, A and Mazuka, R and Dupoux, E},
   Title = {Are Words Easier to Learn From Infant- Than Adult-Directed
             Speech? A Quantitative Corpus-Based Investigation.},
   Journal = {Cognitive Science},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {May},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {We investigate whether infant-directed speech (IDS) could
             facilitate word form learning when compared to
             adult-directed speech (ADS). To study this, we examine the
             distribution of word forms at two levels, acoustic and
             phonological, using a large database of spontaneous speech
             in Japanese. At the acoustic level we show that, as has been
             documented before for phonemes, the realizations of words
             are more variable and less discriminable in IDS than in ADS.
             At the phonological level, we find an effect in the opposite
             direction: The IDS lexicon contains more distinctive words
             (such as onomatopoeias) than the ADS counterpart. Combining
             the acoustic and phonological metrics together in a global
             discriminability score reveals that the bigger separation of
             lexical categories in the phonological space does not
             compensate for the opposite effect observed at the acoustic
             level. As a result, IDS word forms are still globally less
             discriminable than ADS word forms, even though the effect is
             numerically small. We discuss the implication of these
             findings for the view that the functional role of IDS is to
             improve language learnability.},
   Doi = {10.1111/cogs.12616},
   Key = {fds335695}

   Author = {Shin, M and Choi, Y and Mazuka, R},
   Title = {Development of fricative sound perception in Korean infants:
             The role of language experience and infants' initial
   Journal = {Plos One},
   Volume = {13},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {e0199045},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {In this paper, we report data on the development of Korean
             infants' perception of a rare fricative phoneme distinction.
             Korean fricative consonants have received much interest in
             the linguistic community due to the language's distinct
             categorization of sounds. Unlike many fricative contrasts
             utilized in most of the world's languages, Korean fricatives
             (/s*/-/s/) are all voiceless. Moreover, compared with other
             sound categories, fricatives have received very little
             attention in the speech perception development field and no
             studies thus far have examined Korean infants' development
             of native phonology in this domain. Using a visual
             habituation paradigm, we tested 4‒6-month-old and
             7‒9-month-old Korean infants on their abilities to
             discriminate the Korean fricative pair in the [a] vowel
             context, /s*a/-/sa/, which can be distinguished based on
             acoustic cues, such as the durations of aspiration and
             frication noise. Korean infants older than 7 months were
             able to reliably discriminate the fricative pair but younger
             infants did not show clear signs of such discrimination.
             These results add to the growing evidence that there are
             native sound contrasts infants cannot discriminate early on
             without a certain amount of language exposure, providing
             further data to help delineate the specific nature of early
             perceptual capacity.},
   Doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0199045},
   Key = {fds335696}

   Author = {Akimoto, Y and Takahashi, H and Gunji, A and Kaneko, Y and Asano, M and Matsuo, J and Ota, M and Kunugi, H and Hanakawa, T and Mazuka, R and Kamio,
   Title = {Alpha band event-related desynchronization underlying social
             situational context processing during irony comprehension: A
             magnetoencephalography source localization
   Journal = {Brain and Language},
   Volume = {175},
   Pages = {42-46},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {December},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Irony comprehension requires integration of social
             contextual information. Previous studies have investigated
             temporal aspects of irony processing and its neural
             substrates using psychological/electroencephalogram or
             functional magnetic resonance imaging methods, but have not
             clarified the temporospatial neural mechanisms of irony
             comprehension. Therefore, we used magnetoencephalography to
             investigate the neural generators of alpha-band (8-13Hz)
             event-related desynchronization (ERD) occurring from 600 to
             900ms following the onset of a critical sentence at which
             social situational contexts activated ironic representation.
             We found that the right anterior temporal lobe, which is
             involved in processing social knowledge and evaluating
             others' intentions, exhibited stronger alpha ERD following
             an ironic statement than following a literal statement. We
             also found that alpha power in the left anterior temporal
             lobe correlated with the participants' communication
             abilities. These results elucidate the temporospatial neural
             mechanisms of language comprehension in social contexts,
             including non-literal processing.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.bandl.2017.09.002},
   Key = {fds329036}

   Author = {Hirose, Y and Mazuka, R},
   Title = {Exploiting Pitch Accent Information in Compound Processing:
             A Comparison between Adults and 6- to 7-Year-Old
   Journal = {Language Learning and Development},
   Volume = {13},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {375-394},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {October},
   url = {},
   Doi = {10.1080/15475441.2017.1292141},
   Key = {fds325710}

   Author = {Miyazawa, K and Shinya, T and Martin, A and Kikuchi, H and Mazuka,
   Title = {Vowels in infant-directed speech: More breathy and more
             variable, but not clearer.},
   Journal = {Cognition},
   Volume = {166},
   Pages = {84-93},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {September},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Infant-directed speech (IDS) is known to differ from
             adult-directed speech (ADS) in a number of ways, and it has
             often been argued that some of these IDS properties
             facilitate infants' acquisition of language. An influential
             study in support of this view is Kuhl et al. (1997), which
             found that vowels in IDS are produced with expanded first
             and second formants (F1/F2) on average, indicating that the
             vowels are acoustically further apart in IDS than in ADS.
             These results have been interpreted to mean that the way
             vowels are produced in IDS makes infants' task of learning
             vowel categories easier. The present paper revisits this
             interpretation by means of a thorough analysis of IDS vowels
             using a large-scale corpus of Japanese natural utterances.
             We will show that the expansion of F1/F2 values does occur
             in spontaneous IDS even when the vowels' prosodic position,
             lexical pitch accent, and lexical bias are accounted for.
             When IDS vowels are compared to carefully read speech (CS)
             by the same mothers, however, larger variability among IDS
             vowel tokens means that the acoustic distances among vowels
             are farther apart only in CS, but not in IDS when compared
             to ADS. Finally, we will show that IDS vowels are
             significantly more breathy than ADS or CS vowels. Taken
             together, our results demonstrate that even though expansion
             of formant values occurs in spontaneous IDS, this expansion
             cannot be interpreted as an indication that the acoustic
             distances among vowels are farther apart, as is the case in
             CS. Instead, we found that IDS vowels are characterized by
             breathy voice, which has been associated with the
             communication of emotional affect.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.cognition.2017.05.003},
   Key = {fds326609}

   Author = {Mazuka, R and Bernard, M and Cristia, A and Dupoux, E and Ludusan,
   Title = {The role of prosody and speech register in word
             segmentation: A computational modelling perspective},
   Journal = {ACL 2017 - 55th Annual Meeting of the Association for
             Computational Linguistics, Proceedings of the Conference
             (Long Papers)},
   Volume = {2},
   Pages = {178-183},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9781945626760},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {© 2017 Association for Computational Linguistics. This
             study explores the role of speech register and prosody for
             the task of word segmentation. Since these two factors are
             thought to play an important role in early language
             acquisition, we aim to quantify their contribution for this
             task. We study a Japanese corpus containing both infant- and
             adult-directed speech and we apply four different word
             segmentation models, with and without knowledge of prosodic
             boundaries. The results showed that the difference between
             registers is smaller than previously reported and that
             prosodic boundary information helps more adult- than
             infant-directed speech.},
   Doi = {10.18653/v1/P17-2028},
   Key = {fds332175}

   Author = {Ota, M and Yamane, N and Mazuka, R},
   Title = {The Effects of Lexical Pitch Accent on Infant Word
             Recognition in Japanese.},
   Journal = {Frontiers in Psychology},
   Volume = {8},
   Pages = {2354},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {January},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Learners of lexical tone languages (e.g., Mandarin) develop
             sensitivity to tonal contrasts and recognize pitch-matched,
             but not pitch-mismatched, familiar words by 11 months.
             Learners of non-tone languages (e.g., English) also show a
             tendency to treat pitch patterns as lexically contrastive up
             to about 18 months. In this study, we examined if this
             early-developing capacity to lexically encode pitch
             variations enables infants to acquire a pitch accent system,
             in which pitch-based lexical contrasts are obscured by the
             interaction of lexical and non-lexical (i.e., intonational)
             features. Eighteen 17-month-olds learning Tokyo Japanese
             were tested on their recognition of familiar words with the
             expected pitch or the lexically opposite pitch pattern. In
             early trials, infants were faster in shifting their eyegaze
             from the distractor object to the target object than in
             shifting from the target to distractor in the pitch-matched
             condition. In later trials, however, infants showed faster
             distractor-to-target than target-to-distractor shifts in
             both the pitch-matched and pitch-mismatched conditions. We
             interpret these results to mean that, in a pitch-accent
             system, the ability to use pitch variations to recognize
             words is still in a nascent state at 17 months.},
   Doi = {10.3389/fpsyg.2017.02354},
   Key = {fds332177}

   Author = {Hayashi, A and Mazuka, R},
   Title = {Emergence of Japanese infants' prosodic preferences in
             infant-directed vocabulary.},
   Journal = {Developmental Psychology},
   Volume = {53},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {28-37},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {January},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {The article examines the role of infant-directed vocabulary
             (IDV) in infants language acquisition, specifically
             addressing the question of whether IDV forms that are not
             prominent in adult language may nonetheless be useful to the
             process of acquisition. Japanese IDV offers a good test
             case, as IDV characteristically takes a bisyllabic
             H(eavy)-L(ight) form that is rare in adult speech. In 5
             experiments using the Headturn Preference Procedure (HPP),
             8- to 10-month-old Japanese infants, but not 4- to
             6-month-olds, were found to show a preference for bisyllabic
             H-L words over other types of words. These results
             demonstrate (a) that infants may develop a preference for a
             dominant prosodic form based on infant-directed speech, even
             when it is not a prominent characteristic of adult language;
             and perhaps more importantly, and (b) that infant-directed
             speech may provide a boost for a feature that could be
             useful for infants' acquisition of language even when it not
             prominent in adult language. (PsycINFO Database
   Doi = {10.1037/dev0000259},
   Key = {fds321661}

   Author = {Sugiura, L and Toyota, T and Matsuba-Kurita, H and Iwayama, Y and Mazuka, R and Yoshikawa, T and Hagiwara, H},
   Title = {Age-Dependent Effects of Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT)
             Gene Val158Met Polymorphism on Language Function in
             Developing Children.},
   Journal = {Cerebral Cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {104-116},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {January},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {The genetic basis controlling language development remains
             elusive. Previous studies of the catechol-O-methyltransferase
             (COMT) Val158Met genotype and cognition have focused on
             prefrontally guided executive functions involving dopamine.
             However, COMT may further influence posterior cortical
             regions implicated in language perception. We investigated
             whether COMT influences language ability and cortical
             language processing involving the posterior language regions
             in 246 children aged 6-10 years. We assessed language
             ability using a language test and cortical responses
             recorded during language processing using a word repetition
             task and functional near-infrared spectroscopy. The COMT
             genotype had significant effects on language performance and
             processing. Importantly, Met carriers outperformed Val
             homozygotes in language ability during the early elementary
             school years (6-8 years), whereas Val homozygotes exhibited
             significant language development during the later elementary
             school years. Both genotype groups exhibited equal language
             performance at approximately 10 years of age. Val
             homozygotes exhibited significantly less cortical activation
             compared with Met carriers during word processing,
             particularly at older ages. These findings regarding
             dopamine transmission efficacy may be explained by a
             hypothetical inverted U-shaped curve. Our findings indicate
             that the effects of the COMT genotype on language ability
             and cortical language processing may change in a narrow age
             window of 6-10 years.},
   Doi = {10.1093/cercor/bhw371},
   Key = {fds332176}

%% Neander, Karen   
   Author = {Neander, K},
   Title = {Functional analysis and the species design},
   Journal = {Synthese},
   Volume = {194},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1147-1168},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {April},
   url = {},
   Doi = {10.1007/s11229-015-0940-9},
   Key = {fds326195}

   Author = {Neander, K},
   Title = {Does biology need teleology?},
   Pages = {64-76},
   Booktitle = {The Routledge Handbook of Evolution and Philosophy},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9781317655572},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {© 2018 Taylor & Francis. To ask the function of short-term
             memory one might ask, “What is short-term memory for?" 1
             Or, to ascribe a function to eyelashes one might say,
             “Eyelashes divert airflow to protect the eye.” 2 If a
             function of x is to z, it is for z-ing or is there to z.
             This manner of speaking has a teleological flavor, but do
             biologists really use a teleological notion of function in
             contemporary biology, and, if so, what (if any) scientific
             purpose is it serving?.},
   Doi = {10.4324/9781315764863},
   Key = {fds336416}

   Author = {Neander, K},
   Title = {A mark of the mental: In defense of informational
   Pages = {1-327},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {0262339862},
   Abstract = {© 2017 Massachusetts Institute of Technology. A Mark of the
             Mental, Karen Neander considers the representational power
             of mental states -- described by the cognitive scientist
             Zenon Pylyshyn as the “second hardest puzzle” of
             philosophy of mind (the first being consciousness). The
             puzzle at the heart of the book is sometimes called “the
             problem of mental content," “Brentano’s problem," or
             “the problem of intentionality." Its motivating mystery is
             how neurobiological states can have semantic properties such
             as meaning or reference. Neander proposes a naturalistic
             account for sensory-perceptual (nonconceptual)
             representations. Neander draws on insights from state-space
             semantics (which appeals to relations of second-order
             similarity between representing and represented domains),
             causal theories of reference (which claim the reference
             relation is a causal one), and teleosemantic theories (which
             claim that semantic norms, at their simplest, depend on
             functional norms). She proposes and defends an intuitive,
             theoretically well-motivated but highly controversial
             thesis: sensory-perceptual systems have the function to
             produce inner state changes that are the analogs of as well
             as caused by their referents. Neander shows that the three
             main elements -- functions, causal-information relations,
             and relations of second-order similarity -- complement
             rather than conflict with each other. After developing an
             argument for teleosemantics by examining the nature of
             explanation in the mind and brain sciences, she develops a
             theory of mental content and defends it against six main
             content-determinacy challenges to a naturalized
   Key = {fds331100}

   Author = {K.L. Neander},
   Title = {"Toward an Informational Teleosemantics"},
   Booktitle = {Millikan and Her Critics},
   Editor = {Justine Kingsbury},
   Keywords = {Teleolosemantics, functions, information, representation,
             content, distal content, Millikan, Papineau.},
   Abstract = {This paper argues that there are response functions. Systems
             can have the function to produce one thing in response to
             another. This has consequences for the kind of
             teleosemantics that can be offered. Contrary to claims made
             by Millikan and Papineau, sensory representations can have
             contents that are determined by the functions of sensory
             systems to respond to stimuli in certain ways. This paper
             further explores these implications and offers a
             teleosemantic and yet informational theory for sensory
             representations. It further offers a solution to the problem
             of distal content.},
   Key = {fds219963}

%% Rosenberg, Alexander   
   Author = {Rosenberg, A},
   Title = {Can we make sense of subjective experience in metabolically
             situated cognitive processes?},
   Journal = {Biology & Philosophy},
   Volume = {33},
   Number = {1-2},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {April},
   url = {},
   Doi = {10.1007/s10539-018-9624-4},
   Key = {fds336418}

   Author = {Rosenberg, A},
   Title = {Philosophy of social science, fifth edition},
   Pages = {1-347},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9780429963391},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {© 2016 by Taylor & Francis. All rights reserved. Philosophy
             of Social Science provides a tightly argued yet accessible
             introduction to the philosophical foundations of the human
             sciences, including economics, anthropology, sociology,
             political science, psychology, history, and the disciplines
             emerging at the intersections of these subjects with
             biology. Philosophy is unavoidable for social scientists
             because the choices they make in answering questions in
             their disciplines force them to take sides on philosophical
             matters. Conversely, the philosophy of social science is
             equally necessary for philosophers since the social and
             behavior sciences must inform their understanding of human
             action, norms, and social institutions. The fifth edition
             retains from previous editions an illuminating
             interpretation of the enduring relations between the social
             sciences and philosophy, and reflects on developments in
             social research over the past two decades that have informed
             and renewed debate in the philosophy of social science. An
             expanded discussion of philosophical anthropology and modern
             and postmodern critical theory is new for this
   Doi = {10.4324/9780429494840},
   Key = {fds336419}

   Author = {Rosenberg, A},
   Title = {Making mechanism interesting},
   Journal = {Synthese},
   Volume = {195},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {11-33},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   url = {},
   Doi = {10.1007/s11229-015-0713-5},
   Key = {fds332348}

   Author = {Rosenberg, A},
   Title = {Why Social Science is Biological Science},
   Journal = {Journal for General Philosophy of Science},
   Volume = {48},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {341-369},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {September},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {© 2017 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht The social
             sciences need to take seriously their status as divisions of
             biology. As such they need to recognize the central role of
             Darwinian processes in all the phenomena they seek to
             explain. An argument for this claim is formulated in terms
             of a small number of relatively precise premises that focus
             on the nature of the kinds and taxonomies of all the social
             sciences. The analytical taxonomies of all the social
             sciences are shown to require a Darwinian approach to human
             affairs, though not a nativist or genetically driven theory
             by any means. Non-genetic Darwinian processes have the
             fundamental role on all human affairs. I expound a general
             account of how Darwinian processes operate in human affairs
             by selecting for strategies and sets of strategies
             individuals and groups employ. I conclude by showing how a
             great deal of social science can be organized in accordance
             with Tinbergen’s approach to biological inquiry, an
             approach required by the fact that the social sciences are
             all divisions of biology, and in particular the studies of
             one particular biological species.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s10838-017-9365-0},
   Key = {fds327007}

%% Rubin, David C.   
   Author = {Gehrt, TB and Berntsen, D and Hoyle, RH and Rubin,
   Title = {Psychological and clinical correlates of the Centrality of
             Event Scale: A systematic review.},
   Journal = {Clinical Psychology Review},
   Volume = {65},
   Pages = {57-80},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {November},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {The Centrality of Event Scale (CES) was introduced to
             examine the extent to which a traumatic or stressful event
             is perceived as central to an individual's identity and life
             story, and how this relates to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
             (PTSD) symptoms. In addition, the CES has been examined in
             relation to a range of other conditions and dispositions. We
             present a systematic review of the correlates of the CES.
             Results from 92 publications resulted in 25 measurement
             categories in the six theoretical domains of trauma,
             negative affect and distress, autobiographical memory,
             personality, positive affect, and gender. The mean weighted
             correlations of the 25 measurement categories ranged from
             -.17 to .55, with standard errors from .01 to .02, allowing
             us to distinguish empirically among effects. Consistent with
             the theoretical motivation for the CES and predictions
             predating the review, the CES correlated positively with a
             range of measures, correlating most highly with measures
             related to trauma, PTSD, grief, and autobiographical memory.
             The findings show that the CES probes aspects of
             autobiographical memory of broad relevance to clinical
             disorders, and with specific implications for theories of
   Doi = {10.1016/j.cpr.2018.07.006},
   Key = {fds337343}

   Author = {Rubin, DC and Berntsen, D and Deffler, SA and Brodar,
   Title = {Self-narrative focus in autobiographical events: The effect
             of time, emotion, and individual differences.},
   Journal = {Memory & Cognition},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {August},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Individuals may take a self-narrative focus on the meaning
             of personal events in their life story, rather than viewing
             the events in isolation. Using the Centrality of Event Scale
             (CES; Berntsen & Rubin in Behaviour Research and Therapy,
             44, 219-231, 2006) as our measure, we investigated
             self-narrative focus as an individual differences variable
             in addition to its established role as a measure of
             individual events. Three studies, with 169, 182, and 190
             participants had 11, 10, and 11 different events varied
             across the dimensions of remembered past versus imagined
             future, distance from the present, and valence. Imagined
             future events, events more distant from the present, and
             positive events all had increased self-narrative focus, in
             agreement with published theories and findings. Nonetheless,
             CES ratings for individual events correlated positively with
             each other within individuals (r ~ .30) and supported a
             single factor solution. These results are consistent with a
             stable individual differences tendency toward self-narrative
             focus that transcends single events. Thus, self-narrative
             focus is both a response whereby people relate individual
             events to their life story and identity and an individual
             differences variable that is stable over a range of events.
             The findings are discussed in relation to narrative measures
             of autobiographical reasoning.},
   Doi = {10.3758/s13421-018-0850-4},
   Key = {fds337418}

   Author = {Hall, SA and Brodar, KE and LaBar, KS and Berntsen, D and Rubin,
   Title = {Neural responses to emotional involuntary memories in
             posttraumatic stress disorder: Differences in timing and
   Journal = {Neuroimage. Clinical},
   Volume = {19},
   Pages = {793-804},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Involuntary memories are a hallmark symptom of posttraumatic
             stress disorder (PTSD), but studies of the neural basis of
             involuntary memory retrieval in posttraumatic stress
             disorder (PTSD) are sparse. The study of the neural
             correlates of involuntary memories of stressful events in
             PTSD focuses on the voluntary retrieval of memories that are
             sometimes recalled as intrusive involuntary memories, not on
             involuntary retrieval while being scanned. Involuntary
             memory retrieval in controls has been shown to elicit
             activity in the parahippocampal gyrus, precuneus, inferior
             parietal cortex, and posterior midline regions. However, it
             is unknown whether involuntary memories are supported by the
             same mechanisms in PTSD. Because previous work has shown
             that both behavioral and neural responsivity is slowed in
             PTSD, we examined the spatiotemporal dynamics of the neural
             activity underlying negative and neutral involuntary memory
             retrieval.Twenty-one individuals with PTSD and 21 non-PTSD,
             trauma-exposed controls performed an involuntary memory
             task, while undergoing a functional magnetic resonance
             imaging scan. Environmental sounds served as cues for
             well-associated pictures of negative and neutral scenes. We
             used a finite impulse response model to analyze temporal
             differences between groups in neural responses.Compared with
             controls, participants with PTSD reported more involuntary
             memories, which were more emotional and more vivid, but
             which activated a similar network of regions. However,
             compared to controls, individuals with PTSD showed delayed
             neural responsivity in this network and increased vmPFC/ACC
             activity for negative > neutral stimuli.The similarity
             between PTSD and controls in neural substrates underlying
             involuntary memories suggests that, unlike voluntary
             memories, involuntary memories elicit similar activity in
             regions critical for memory retrieval. Further, the delayed
             neural responsivity for involuntary memories in PTSD
             suggests that factors affecting cognition in PTSD, like
             increased fatigue, or avoidance behaviors could do so by
             delaying activity in regions necessary for cognitive
             processing. Finally, compared to neutral memories, negative
             involuntary memories elicit hyperactivity in the vmPFC,
             whereas the vmPFC is typically shown to be hypoactive in
             PTSD during voluntary memory retrieval. These patterns
             suggest that considering both the temporal dynamics of
             cognitive processes as well as involuntary cognitive
             processes would improve existing neurobiological models of
   Doi = {10.1016/j.nicl.2018.05.009},
   Key = {fds335706}

   Author = {Rubin, DC},
   Title = {What psychology and cognitive neuroscience know about the
             communicative function of memory.},
   Journal = {Behavioral and Brain Sciences},
   Volume = {41},
   Pages = {e30},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Mahr & Csibra (M&C) include interesting ideas about the
             nature of memory from outside of the field of cognitive
             psychology and cognitive neuroscience. However, the target
             article's inaccurate claims about those fields limit its
             usefulness. I briefly review the most serious omissions and
             distortions of the literature by the target article,
             including its misrepresentation of event memory, and offer
             suggestions for forwarding the goal of understanding the
             communicative function of memory.},
   Doi = {10.1017/s0140525x1700156x},
   Key = {fds332086}

   Author = {Rubin, DC and Li, D and Hall, SA and Kragel, PA and Berntsen,
   Title = {Taking tests in the magnet: Brain mapping standardized
   Journal = {Human Brain Mapping},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {5706-5725},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {November},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Standardized psychometric tests are sophisticated,
             well-developed, and consequential instruments; test outcomes
             are taken as facts about people that impact their lives in
             important ways. As part of an initial demonstration that
             human brain mapping techniques can add converging
             neural-level evidence to understanding standardized tests,
             our participants completed items from standardized tests
             during an fMRI scan. We compared tests for diagnosing
             posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the correlated
             measures of Neuroticism, Attachment, and Centrality of Event
             to a general-knowledge baseline test. Twenty-three
             trauma-exposed participants answered 20 items for each of
             our five tests in each of the three runs for a total of 60
             items per test. The tests engaged different neural
             processes; which test a participant was taking was
             accurately predicted from other participants' brain
             activity. The novelty of the application precluded specific
             anatomical predictions; however, the interpretation of
             activated regions using meta-analyses produced encouraging
             results. For instance, items on the Attachment test engaged
             regions shown to be more active for tasks involving
             judgments of others than judgments of the self. The results
             are an initial demonstration of a theoretically and
             practically important test-taking neuroimaging paradigm and
             suggest specific neural processes in answering PTSD-related
             tests. Hum Brain Mapp 38:5706-5725, 2017. © 2017 Wiley
             Periodicals, Inc.},
   Doi = {10.1002/hbm.23761},
   Key = {fds328627}

   Author = {Ogle, CM and Siegler, IC and Beckham, JC and Rubin,
   Title = {Neuroticism Increases PTSD Symptom Severity by Amplifying
             the Emotionality, Rehearsal, and Centrality of Trauma
   Journal = {Journal of Personality},
   Volume = {85},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {702-715},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {October},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {<label>OBJECTIVE</label>Although it is well established that
             neuroticism increases the risk of posttraumatic stress
             disorder (PTSD), little is known about the mechanisms that
             promote PTSD in individuals with elevated levels of
             neuroticism. Across two studies, we examined the
             cognitive-affective processes through which neuroticism
             leads to greater PTSD symptom severity.<label>METHOD</label>Community-dwelling
             adults with trauma histories varying widely in severity
             (Study 1) and clinically diagnosed individuals exposed to
             DSM-IV-TR A1 criterion traumas (Study 2) completed measures
             of neuroticism, negative affectivity, trauma memory
             characteristics, and PTSD symptom severity.<label>RESULTS</label>Longitudinal
             data in Study 1 showed that individuals with higher scores
             on two measures of neuroticism assessed approximately three
             decades apart in young adulthood and midlife reported trauma
             memories accompanied by more intense physiological
             reactions, more frequent involuntary rehearsal, and greater
             perceived centrality to identity in older adulthood. These
             properties of trauma memories were in turn associated with
             more severe PTSD symptoms. Study 2 replicated these findings
             using cross-sectional data from individuals with severe
             trauma histories and three additional measures of
             neuroticism.<label>CONCLUSIONS</label>Results suggest that
             neuroticism leads to PTSD symptoms by magnifying the
             emotionality, availability, and centrality of trauma
             memories as proposed in mnemonic models of
   Doi = {10.1111/jopy.12278},
   Key = {fds318745}

   Author = {Ogle, CM and Rubin, DC and Siegler, IC},
   Title = {Commentary-Pre- and Posttrauma Predictors of Posttraumatic
             Stress Disorder Symptom Severity: Reply to van der Velden
             and van der Knaap (2017).},
   Journal = {Clinical Psychological Science : a Journal of the
             Association for Psychological Science},
   Volume = {5},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {146-149},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {January},
   url = {},
   Doi = {10.1177/2167702616661057},
   Key = {fds330889}

%% Tomasello, Michael   
   Author = {Kachel, U and Svetlova, M and Tomasello, M},
   Title = {Three-Year-Olds' Reactions to a Partner's Failure to Perform
             Her Role in a Joint Commitment.},
   Journal = {Child Development},
   Volume = {89},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1691-1703},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {September},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {When children make a joint commitment to collaborate,
             obligations are created. Pairs of 3-year-old children
             (N = 144) made a joint commitment to play a game. In three
             different conditions the game was interrupted in the middle
             either because: (a) the partner child intentionally
             defected, (b) the partner child was ignorant about how to
             play, or (c) the apparatus broke. The subject child reacted
             differently in the three cases, protesting normatively
             against defection (with emotional arousal and later
             tattling), teaching when the partner seemed to be ignorant,
             or simply blaming the apparatus when it broke. These results
             suggest that 3-year-old children are competent in making
             appropriate normative evaluations of intentions and
             obligations of collaborative partners.},
   Doi = {10.1111/cdev.12816},
   Key = {fds326700}

   Author = {Kachel, G and Moore, R and Tomasello, M},
   Title = {Two-year-olds use adults' but not peers'
   Journal = {Developmental Science},
   Volume = {21},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {e12660},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {September},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {In the current study, 24- to 27-month-old children (N = 37)
             used pointing gestures in a cooperative object choice task
             with either peer or adult partners. When indicating the
             location of a hidden toy, children pointed equally
             accurately for adult and peer partners but more often for
             adult partners. When choosing from one of three hiding
             places, children used adults' pointing to find a hidden toy
             significantly more often than they used peers'. In
             interaction with peers, children's choice behavior was at
             chance level. These results suggest that toddlers ascribe
             informative value to adults' but not peers' pointing
             gestures, and highlight the role of children's social
             expectations in their communicative development.},
   Doi = {10.1111/desc.12660},
   Key = {fds333648}

   Author = {Tomasello, M},
   Title = {How children come to understand false beliefs: A shared
             intentionality account.},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the
             United States of America},
   Volume = {115},
   Number = {34},
   Pages = {8491-8498},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {August},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {To predict and explain the behavior of others, one must
             understand that their actions are determined not by reality
             but by their beliefs about reality. Classically, children
             come to understand beliefs, including false beliefs, at
             about 4-5 y of age, but recent studies using different
             response measures suggest that even infants (and apes!) have
             some skills as well. Resolving this discrepancy is not
             possible with current theories based on individual
             cognition. Instead, what is needed is an account recognizing
             that the key processes in constructing an understanding of
             belief are social and mental coordination with other persons
             and their (sometimes conflicting) perspectives. Engaging in
             such social and mental coordination involves species-unique
             skills and motivations of shared intentionality, especially
             as they are manifest in joint attention and linguistic
             communication, as well as sophisticated skills of executive
             function to coordinate the different perspectives involved.
             This shared intentionality account accords well with
             documented differences in the cognitive capacities of great
             apes and human children, and it explains why infants and
             apes pass some versions of false-belief tasks whereas only
             older children pass others.},
   Doi = {10.1073/pnas.1804761115},
   Key = {fds337395}

   Author = {Bohn, M and Zimmermann, L and Call, J and Tomasello,
   Title = {The social-cognitive basis of infants' reference to absent
   Journal = {Cognition},
   Volume = {177},
   Pages = {41-48},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {August},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Recent evidence suggests that infants as young as 12 month
             of age use pointing to communicate about absent entities.
             The tacit assumption underlying these studies is that
             infants do so based on tracking what their interlocutor
             experienced in a previous shared interaction. The present
             study addresses this assumption empirically. In three
             experiments, 12-month-old infants could request additional
             desired objects by pointing to the location in which these
             objects were previously located. We systematically varied
             whether the adult from whom infants were requesting had
             previously experienced the former content of the location
             with the infant. Infants systematically adjusted their
             pointing to the now empty location to what they experienced
             with the adult previously. These results suggest that
             infants' ability to communicate about absent referents is
             based on an incipient form of common ground.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.cognition.2018.03.024},
   Key = {fds335757}

   Author = {House, BR and Tomasello, M},
   Title = {Modeling social norms increasingly influences costly sharing
             in middle childhood.},
   Journal = {Journal of Experimental Child Psychology},
   Volume = {171},
   Pages = {84-98},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {July},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Prosocial and normative behavior emerges in early childhood,
             but substantial changes in prosocial behavior in middle
             childhood may be due to it becoming integrated with
             children's understanding of what is normative. Here we show
             that information about what is normative begins influencing
             children's costly sharing in middle childhood in a sample of
             6- to 11-year-old German children. Information about what is
             normative was most influential when indicating what was
             "right" (i.e., "The right thing is to choose this"). It was
             less influential when indicating what was prescribed by a
             rule (i.e., "There is a rule that says to choose this") or
             when it indicated what the majority of people do (i.e.,
             "Most people choose this"). These findings support the idea
             that middle childhood is when social norms begin to shape
             children's costly sharing and provide insight into the
             psychological foundations of the relationship between norms
             and prosocial behavior.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jecp.2017.12.014},
   Key = {fds333647}

   Author = {Domberg, A and Köymen, B and Tomasello, M},
   Title = {Children's reasoning with peers in cooperative and
             competitive contexts.},
   Journal = {British Journal of Developmental Psychology},
   Volume = {36},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {64-77},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {March},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {We report two studies that demonstrate how five- and
             seven-year-olds adapt their production of arguments to
             either a cooperative or a competitive context. Two games
             elicited agreements from peer dyads about placing animals on
             either of two halves of a playing field owned by either
             child. Children had to produce arguments to justify these
             decisions. Played in a competitive context that encouraged
             placing animals on one's own half, children's arguments
             showed a bias that was the result of withholding known
             arguments. In a cooperative context, children produced not
             only more arguments, but also more 'two-sided' arguments.
             Also, seven-year-olds demonstrated a more frequent and
             strategic use of arguments that specifically refuted
             decisions that would favour their peers. The results suggest
             that cooperative contexts provide a more motivating context
             for children to produce arguments. Statement of contribution
             What is already known on this subject? Reasoning is a social
             skill that allows people to reach joint decisions.
             Preschoolers give reasons for their proposals in their peer
             conversations. By adolescence, children use sophisticated
             arguments (e.g., refutations and rebuttals). What the
             present study adds? Cooperation offers a more motivating
             context for children's argument production. Seven-year-olds
             are more strategic than five-year-olds in their reasoning
             with peers. Children's reasoning with others becomes more
             sophisticated after preschool years.},
   Doi = {10.1111/bjdp.12213},
   Key = {fds329386}

   Author = {Vaish, A and Hepach, R and Tomasello, M},
   Title = {The specificity of reciprocity: Young children reciprocate
             more generously to those who intentionally benefit
   Journal = {Journal of Experimental Child Psychology},
   Volume = {167},
   Pages = {336-353},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {March},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {© 2017 Elsevier Inc. Young children engage in direct
             reciprocity, but the mechanisms underlying such reciprocity
             remain unclear. In particular, prior work leaves unclear
             whether children's reciprocity is simply a response to
             receiving benefits (regardless of whether the benefits were
             intended) or driven by a mechanism of rewarding or
             preferring all benefactors (regardless of whom they
             benefited). Alternatively, perhaps children engage in
             genuine reciprocity such that they are particularly
             prosocial toward benefactors who intentionally provided them
             with benefits. Our findings support this third, richer
             possibility; the 3-year-olds who received benefits through
             the good intentions of a benefactor were subsequently more
             generous toward the benefactor than children who either (a)
             received the same benefits from the benefactor
             unintentionally or (b) observed the benefactor bestow the
             same benefits on another individual. Thus, young children
             are especially motivated to benefit those who have
             demonstrated goodwill toward them, suggesting, as one
             possible mechanism, an early sense of gratitude.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jecp.2017.11.005},
   Key = {fds331567}

   Author = {Tomasello, M and Call, J},
   Title = {Thirty years of great ape gestures.},
   Journal = {Animal Cognition},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {February},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {We and our colleagues have been doing studies of great ape
             gestural communication for more than 30 years. Here we
             attempt to spell out what we have learned. Some aspects of
             the process have been reliably established by multiple
             researchers, for example, its intentional structure and its
             sensitivity to the attentional state of the recipient. Other
             aspects are more controversial. We argue here that it is a
             mistake to assimilate great ape gestures to the
             species-typical displays of other mammals by claiming that
             they are fixed action patterns, as there are many
             differences, including the use of attention-getters. It is
             also a mistake, we argue, to assimilate great ape gestures
             to human gestures by claiming that they are used
             referentially and declaratively in a human-like manner, as
             apes' "pointing" gesture has many limitations and they do
             not gesture iconically. Great ape gestures constitute a
             unique form of primate communication with their own unique
   Doi = {10.1007/s10071-018-1167-1},
   Key = {fds332984}

   Author = {Köymen, B and Tomasello, M},
   Title = {Children's meta-talk in their collaborative decision making
             with peers.},
   Journal = {Journal of Experimental Child Psychology},
   Volume = {166},
   Pages = {549-566},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {February},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {In collaborative decision making, children must evaluate the
             evidence behind their respective claims and the rationality
             of their respective proposals with their partners. In the
             main study, 5- and 7-year-old peer dyads (N = 196) were
             presented with a novel animal. In the key condition,
             children in a dyad individually received conflicting
             information about what the animal needs (e.g., rocks vs.
             sand for food) from sources that differ in reliability (with
             first-hand vs. indirect evidence). Dyads in both age groups
             were able to reliably settle on the option with the best
             supporting evidence. Moreover, in making their decision,
             children, especially 7-year-olds, engaged in various kinds
             of meta-talk about the evidence and its validity. In a
             modified version of the key condition in Study 2, 3- and
             5-year-olds (N = 120) interacted with a puppet who tried
             to convince children to change their minds by producing
             meta-talk. When the puppet insisted and produced meta-talk,
             5-year-olds, but not 3-year-olds, were more likely to change
             their minds if their information was unreliable. These
             results suggest that even preschoolers can engage in
             collaborative reasoning successfully, but the ability to
             reflect on the process by stepping back to jointly examine
             the evidence emerges only during the early school
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jecp.2017.09.018},
   Key = {fds330413}

   Author = {Mammen, M and Köymen, B and Tomasello, M},
   Title = {The reasons young children give to peers when explaining
             their judgments of moral and conventional
   Journal = {Developmental Psychology},
   Volume = {54},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {254-262},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {February},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Moral justifications work, when they do, by invoking values
             that are shared in the common ground of the interlocutors.
             We asked 3- and 5-year-old peer dyads (N = 144) to identify
             and punish norm transgressors. In the moral condition, the
             transgressor violated a moral norm (e.g., by stealing); in
             the social rules condition, she/he violated a
             context-specific rule (e.g., by placing a yellow toy in a
             green box, instead of a yellow box). Children in both age
             groups justified their punishment in the social rules
             condition mostly by referring to the rule (e.g., "He must
             put yellow toys in the yellow box"). In contrast, in the
             moral condition they mostly justified their punishment by
             simply referring to the observed fact (e.g., "He stole"),
             seeing no need to state the norm involved (e.g., "He must
             not steal"), presumably because they assumed this as part of
             their moral common ground with their partner. These results
             suggest that preschoolers assume certain common ground moral
             values with their peers and use these in formulating
             explicit moral judgments and justifications. (PsycINFO
             Database Record},
   Doi = {10.1037/dev0000424},
   Key = {fds332050}

   Author = {Grocke, P and Rossano, F and Tomasello, M},
   Title = {Young children are more willing to accept group decisions in
             which they have had a voice.},
   Journal = {Journal of Experimental Child Psychology},
   Volume = {166},
   Pages = {67-78},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {February},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {People accept an unequal distribution of resources if they
             judge that the decision-making process was fair. In this
             study, 3- and 5-year-old children played an allocation game
             with two puppets. The puppets decided against a fair
             distribution in all conditions, but they allowed children to
             have various degrees of participation in the decision-making
             process. Children of both ages protested less when they were
             first asked to agree with the puppets' decision compared
             with when there was no agreement. When ignored, the younger
             children protested less than the older children-perhaps
             because they did not expect to have a say in the
             process-whereas they protested more when they were given an
             opportunity to voice their opinion-perhaps because their
             stated opinion was ignored. These results suggest that
             during the preschool years, children begin to expect to be
             asked for their opinion in a decision, and they accept
             disadvantageous decisions if they feel that they have had a
             voice in the decision-making process.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jecp.2017.08.003},
   Key = {fds329017}

   Author = {Halina, M and Liebal, K and Tomasello, M},
   Title = {The goal of ape pointing.},
   Journal = {Plos One},
   Volume = {13},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {e0195182},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Captive great apes regularly use pointing gestures in their
             interactions with humans. However, the precise function of
             this gesture is unknown. One possibility is that apes use
             pointing primarily to direct attention (as in "please look
             at that"); another is that they point mainly as an action
             request (such as "can you give that to me?"). We
             investigated these two possibilities here by examining how
             the looking behavior of recipients affects pointing in
             chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus).
             Upon pointing to food, subjects were faced with a recipient
             who either looked at the indicated object (successful-look)
             or failed to look at the indicated object (failed-look). We
             predicted that, if apes point primarily to direct attention,
             subjects would spend more time pointing in the failed-look
             condition because the goal of their gesture had not been
             met. Alternatively, we expected that, if apes point
             primarily to request an object, subjects would not differ in
             their pointing behavior between the successful-look and
             failed-look conditions because these conditions differed
             only in the looking behavior of the recipient. We found that
             subjects did differ in their pointing behavior across the
             successful-look and failed-look conditions, but contrary to
             our prediction subjects spent more time pointing in the
             successful-look condition. These results suggest that apes
             are sensitive to the attentional states of gestural
             recipients, but their adjustments are aimed at multiple
             goals. We also found a greater number of individuals with a
             strong right-hand than left-hand preference for
   Doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0195182},
   Key = {fds335758}

   Author = {Tomasello, M},
   Title = {Great Apes and Human Development: A Personal
   Journal = {Child Development Perspectives},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {© 2018 The Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
             In this article, I recount my history of research with great
             apes. From the beginning, the idea was to compare apes to
             human children, with an eye to discovering facts relevant to
             describing and explaining processes of human development.
             The research went through three more or less distinct
             stages, focusing on communication and social learning,
             social cognition and theory of mind, and cooperation and
             shared intentionality. I conclude by identifying problems
             and prospects for comparative research in developmental
   Doi = {10.1111/cdep.12281},
   Key = {fds332985}

   Author = {Schmidt, MFH and Gonzalez-Cabrera, I and Tomasello,
   Title = {Children's developing metaethical judgments.},
   Journal = {Journal of Experimental Child Psychology},
   Volume = {164},
   Pages = {163-177},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {December},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Human adults incline toward moral objectivism but may
             approach things more relativistically if different cultures
             are involved. In this study, 4-, 6-, and 9-year-old children
             (N=136) witnessed two parties who disagreed about moral
             matters: a normative judge (e.g., judging that it is wrong
             to do X) and an antinormative judge (e.g., judging that it
             is okay to do X). We assessed children's metaethical
             judgment, that is, whether they judged that only one party
             (objectivism) or both parties (relativism) could be right.
             We found that 9-year-olds, but not younger children, were
             more likely to judge that both parties could be right when a
             normative ingroup judge disagreed with an antinormative
             extraterrestrial judge (with different preferences and
             background) than when the antinormative judge was another
             ingroup individual. This effect was not found in a
             comparison case where parties disagreed about the
             possibility of different physical laws. These findings
             suggest that although young children often exhibit moral
             objectivism, by early school age they begin to temper their
             objectivism with culturally relative metaethical
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jecp.2017.07.008},
   Key = {fds328848}

   Author = {Engelmann, JM and Herrmann, E and Tomasello, M},
   Title = {Concern for Group Reputation Increases Prosociality in Young
   Journal = {Psychological Science},
   Pages = {956797617733830},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {November},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {The motivation to build and maintain a positive personal
             reputation promotes prosocial behavior. But individuals also
             identify with their groups, and so it is possible that the
             desire to maintain or enhance group reputation may have
             similar effects. Here, we show that 5-year-old children
             actively invest in the reputation of their group by acting
             more generously when their group's reputation is at stake.
             Children shared significantly more resources with fictitious
             other children not only when their individual donations were
             public rather than private but also when their group's
             donations (effacing individual donations) were public rather
             than private. These results provide the first experimental
             evidence that concern for group reputation can lead to
             higher levels of prosociality.},
   Doi = {10.1177/0956797617733830},
   Key = {fds330414}

   Author = {Hepach, R and Vaish, A and Müller, K and Tomasello,
   Title = {The relation between young children's physiological arousal
             and their motivation to help others.},
   Journal = {Neuropsychologia},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {October},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Children are motivated to help others from an early age.
             However, little is known about the internal biological
             mechanisms underlying their motivation to help. Here, we
             compiled data from five separate studies in which children,
             ranging in age from 18 months to 5.5 years, witnessed an
             adult needing help. In all studies, we assessed both (1)
             children's internal physiological arousal via changes in
             their pupil dilation, and (2) the latency and likelihood of
             them providing help. The results showed that the greater the
             baseline-corrected change in children's internal arousal in
             response to witnessing the need situation, the faster and
             more likely children were to help the adult. This was not
             the case for the baseline measure of children's tonic
             arousal state. Together, these results suggest that
             children's propensity to help is systematically related to
             their physiological arousal after they witness others
             needing help. This sheds new light on the biological
             mechanisms underlying not only young children's social
             perception but also their prosocial motivation more
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2017.10.010},
   Key = {fds329385}

   Author = {Tomasello, M and Gonzalez-Cabrera, I},
   Title = {The Role of Ontogeny in the Evolution of Human
   Journal = {Human Nature (Hawthorne, N.Y.)},
   Volume = {28},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {274-288},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {September},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {To explain the evolutionary emergence of uniquely human
             skills and motivations for cooperation, Tomasello et al.
             (2012, in Current Anthropology 53(6):673-92) proposed the
             interdependence hypothesis. The key adaptive context in this
             account was the obligate collaborative foraging of early
             human adults. Hawkes (2014, in Human Nature 25(1):28-48),
             following Hrdy (Mothers and Others, Harvard University
             Press, 2009), provided an alternative account for the
             emergence of uniquely human cooperative skills in which the
             key was early human infants' attempts to solicit care and
             attention from adults in a cooperative breeding context.
             Here we attempt to reconcile these two accounts. Our
             composite account accepts Hrdy's and Hawkes's contention
             that the extremely early emergence of human infants'
             cooperative skills suggests an important role for
             cooperative breeding as adaptive context, perhaps in early
             Homo. But our account also insists that human cooperation
             goes well beyond these nascent skills to include such things
             as the communicative and cultural conventions, norms, and
             institutions created by later Homo and early modern humans
             to deal with adult problems of social coordination. As part
             of this account we hypothesize how each of the main stages
             of human ontogeny (infancy, childhood, adolescence) was
             transformed during evolution both by infants' cooperative
             skills "migrating up" in age and by adults' cooperative
             skills "migrating down" in age.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s12110-017-9291-1},
   Key = {fds326493}

   Author = {Hepach, R and Kante, N and Tomasello, M},
   Title = {Toddlers Help a Peer.},
   Journal = {Child Development},
   Volume = {88},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1642-1652},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {September},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Toddlers are remarkably prosocial toward adults, yet little
             is known about their helping behavior toward peers. In the
             present study with 18- and 30-month-old toddlers (n = 192,
             48 dyads per age group), one child needed help reaching an
             object to continue a task that was engaging for both
             children. The object was within reach of the second child
             who helped significantly more often compared to a no-need
             control condition. The helper also fulfilled the peer's need
             when the task was engaging only for the child needing help.
             These findings suggest that toddlers' skills and motivations
             of helping do not depend on having a competent and helpful
             recipient, such as an adult, but rather they are much more
             flexible and general.},
   Doi = {10.1111/cdev.12686},
   Key = {fds320781}

   Author = {Kano, F and Krupenye, C and Hirata, S and Call, J and Tomasello,
   Title = {Submentalizing Cannot Explain Belief-Based Action
             Anticipation in Apes.},
   Journal = {Trends in Cognitive Sciences},
   Volume = {21},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {633-634},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {September},
   url = {},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.tics.2017.06.011},
   Key = {fds327646}

   Author = {Grueneisen, S and Duguid, S and Saur, H and Tomasello,
   Title = {Children, chimpanzees, and bonobos adjust the visibility of
             their actions for cooperators and competitors.},
   Journal = {Scientific Reports},
   Volume = {7},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {8504},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {August},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Chimpanzees and bonobos are highly capable of tracking
             other's mental states. It has been proposed, however, that
             in contrast to humans, chimpanzees are only able to do this
             in competitive interactions but this has rarely been
             directly tested. Here, pairs of chimpanzees or bonobos
             (Study 1) and 4-year-old children (Study 2) were presented
             with two almost identical tasks differing only regarding the
             social context. In the cooperation condition, players'
             interests were matched: they had to make corresponding
             choices to be mutually rewarded. To facilitate coordination,
             subjects should thus make their actions visible to their
             partner whose view was partially occluded. In the
             competition condition, players' interests were directly
             opposed: the partner tried to match the subject's choice but
             subjects were only rewarded if they chose differently, so
             that they benefited from hiding their actions. The apes
             successfully adapted their decisions to the social context
             and their performance was markedly better in the cooperation
             condition. Children also distinguished between the two
             contexts, but somewhat surprisingly, performed better in the
             competitive condition. These findings demonstrate
             experimentally that chimpanzees and bonobos can take into
             account what others can see in cooperative interactions.
             Their social-cognitive skills are thus more flexible than
             previously assumed.},
   Doi = {10.1038/s41598-017-08435-7},
   Key = {fds328849}

   Author = {Haux, L and Engelmann, JM and Herrmann, E and Tomasello,
   Title = {Do young children preferentially trust gossip or firsthand
             observation in choosing a collaborative partner?},
   Journal = {Social Development (Oxford, England)},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {466-474},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {August},
   url = {},
   Doi = {10.1111/sode.12225},
   Key = {fds326494}

   Author = {Engelmann, JM and Clift, JB and Herrmann, E and Tomasello,
   Title = {Social disappointment explains chimpanzees' behaviour in the
             inequity aversion task.},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological
   Volume = {284},
   Number = {1861},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {August},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Chimpanzees' refusal of less-preferred food when an
             experimenter has previously provided preferred food to a
             conspecific has been taken as evidence for a sense of
             fairness. Here, we present a novel hypothesis-the social
             disappointment hypothesis-according to which food refusals
             express chimpanzees' disappointment in the human
             experimenter for not rewarding them as well as they could
             have. We tested this hypothesis using a two-by-two design in
             which food was either distributed by an experimenter or a
             machine and with a partner present or absent. We found that
             chimpanzees were more likely to reject food when it was
             distributed by an experimenter rather than by a machine and
             that they were not more likely to do so when a partner was
             present. These results suggest that chimpanzees' refusal of
             less-preferred food stems from social disappointment in the
             experimenter and not from a sense of fairness.},
   Doi = {10.1098/rspb.2017.1502},
   Key = {fds328850}

   Author = {Hepach, R and Vaish, A and Tomasello, M},
   Title = {Children's Intrinsic Motivation to Provide Help Themselves
             After Accidentally Harming Others.},
   Journal = {Child Development},
   Volume = {88},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1251-1264},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {July},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Little is known about the flexibility of children's
             prosocial motivation. Here, 2- and 3-year-old children's
             (n = 128) internal arousal, as measured via changes in
             pupil dilation, was increased after they accidentally harmed
             a victim but were unable to repair the harm. If they were
             able to repair (or if they themselves did not cause the harm
             and the help was provided by someone else) their arousal
             subsided. This suggests that children are especially
             motivated to help those whom they have harmed, perhaps out
             of a sense of guilt and a desire to reconcile with them.
             Young children care not only about the well-being of others
             but also about the relationship they have with those who
             depend on their help.},
   Doi = {10.1111/cdev.12646},
   Key = {fds320785}

   Author = {Kanngiesser, P and Köymen, B and Tomasello, M},
   Title = {Young children mostly keep, and expect others to keep, their
   Journal = {Journal of Experimental Child Psychology},
   Volume = {159},
   Pages = {140-158},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {July},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Promises are speech acts that create an obligation to do the
             promised action. In three studies, we investigated whether
             3- and 5-year-olds (N=278) understand the normative
             implications of promising in prosocial interactions. In
             Study 1, children helped a partner who promised to share
             stickers. When the partner failed to uphold the promise, 3-
             and 5-year-olds protested and referred to promise norms. In
             Study 2, when children in this same age range were asked to
             promise to continue a cleaning task-and they agreed-they
             persisted longer on the task and mentioned their obligation
             more frequently than without such a promise. They also
             persisted longer after a promise than after a cleaning
             reminder (Study 3). In prosocial interactions, thus, young
             children feel a normative obligation to keep their promises
             and expect others to keep their promises as
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jecp.2017.02.004},
   Key = {fds325488}

   Author = {Schmelz, M and Grueneisen, S and Kabalak, A and Jost, J and Tomasello,
   Title = {Chimpanzees return favors at a personal cost.},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the
             United States of America},
   Volume = {114},
   Number = {28},
   Pages = {7462-7467},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {July},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Humans regularly provide others with resources at a personal
             cost to themselves. Chimpanzees engage in some cooperative
             behaviors in the wild as well, but their motivational
             underpinnings are unclear. In three experiments, chimpanzees
             (Pan troglodytes) always chose between an option delivering
             food both to themselves and a partner and one delivering
             food only to themselves. In one condition, a conspecific
             partner had just previously taken a personal risk to make
             this choice available. In another condition, no assistance
             from the partner preceded the subject's decision.
             Chimpanzees made significantly more prosocial choices after
             receiving their partner's assistance than when no assistance
             was given (experiment 1) and, crucially, this was the case
             even when choosing the prosocial option was materially
             costly for the subject (experiment 2). Moreover, subjects
             appeared sensitive to the risk of their partner's assistance
             and chose prosocially more often when their partner risked
             losing food by helping (experiment 3). These findings
             demonstrate experimentally that chimpanzees are willing to
             incur a material cost to deliver rewards to a conspecific,
             but only if that conspecific previously assisted them, and
             particularly when this assistance was risky. Some key
             motivations involved in human cooperation thus may have
             deeper phylogenetic roots than previously
   Doi = {10.1073/pnas.1700351114},
   Key = {fds327020}

   Author = {Hardecker, S and Tomasello, M},
   Title = {From imitation to implementation: How two- and
             three-year-old children learn to enforce social
   Journal = {British Journal of Developmental Psychology},
   Volume = {35},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {237-248},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {June},
   url = {},
   Doi = {10.1111/bjdp.12159},
   Key = {fds326491}

   Author = {Rapp, DJ and Engelmann, JM and Herrmann, E and Tomasello,
   Title = {The impact of choice on young children’s prosocial
   Journal = {Journal of Experimental Child Psychology},
   Volume = {158},
   Pages = {112-121},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {June},
   url = {},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jecp.2017.01.004},
   Key = {fds326492}

   Author = {Sánchez-Amaro, A and Duguid, S and Call, J and Tomasello,
   Title = {Chimpanzees, bonobos and children successfully coordinate in
             conflict situations.},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological
   Volume = {284},
   Number = {1856},
   Publisher = {Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {June},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Social animals need to coordinate with others to reap the
             benefits of group-living even when individuals' interests
             are misaligned. We compare how chimpanzees, bonobos and
             children coordinate their actions with a conspecific in a
             Snowdrift game, which provides a model for understanding how
             organisms coordinate and make decisions under conflict. In
             study 1, we presented pairs of chimpanzees, bonobos and
             children with an unequal reward distribution. In the
             critical condition, the preferred reward could only be
             obtained by waiting for the partner to act, with the risk
             that if no one acted, both would lose the rewards. Apes and
             children successfully coordinated to obtain the rewards.
             Children used a 'both-partner-pull' strategy and
             communicated during the task, while some apes relied on an
             'only-one-partner-pulls' strategy to solve the task,
             although there were also signs of strategic behaviour as
             they waited for their partner to pull when that strategy led
             to the preferred reward. In study 2, we presented pairs of
             chimpanzees and bonobos with the same set-up as in study 1
             with the addition of a non-social option that provided them
             with a secure reward. In this situation, apes had to
             actively decide between the unequal distribution and the
             alternative. In this set-up, apes maximized their rewards by
             taking their partners' potential actions into account. In
             conclusion, children and apes showed clear instances of
             strategic decision-making to maximize their own rewards
             while maintaining successful coordination.},
   Doi = {10.1098/rspb.2017.0259},
   Key = {fds326490}

   Author = {Hardecker, S and Schmidt, MFH and Tomasello, M},
   Title = {Children’s Developing Understanding of the Conventionality
             of Rules},
   Journal = {Journal of Cognition and Development},
   Volume = {18},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {163-188},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {March},
   url = {},
   Doi = {10.1080/15248372.2016.1255624},
   Key = {fds320783}

   Author = {Ulber, J and Hamann, K and Tomasello, M},
   Title = {Young children, but not chimpanzees, are averse to
             disadvantageous and advantageous inequities.},
   Journal = {Journal of Experimental Child Psychology},
   Volume = {155},
   Pages = {48-66},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {March},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {The age at which young children show an aversion to
             inequitable resource distributions, especially those
             favoring themselves, is unclear. It is also unclear whether
             great apes, as humans' nearest evolutionary relatives, have
             an aversion to inequitable resource distributions at all.
             Using a common methodology across species and child ages,
             the current two studies found that 3- and 4-year-old
             children (N=64) not only objected when they received less
             than a collaborative partner but also sacrificed to equalize
             when they received more. They did neither of these things in
             a nonsocial situation, demonstrating the fundamental role of
             social comparison. In contrast, chimpanzees (N=9) showed no
             aversion to inequitable distributions, only a concern for
             maximizing their own resources, with no differences between
             social and nonsocial conditions. These results underscore
             the unique importance for humans, even early in ontogeny,
             for treating others fairly, presumably as a way of becoming
             a cooperative member of one's cultural group.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jecp.2016.10.013},
   Key = {fds320782}

   Author = {Grueneisen, S and Tomasello, M},
   Title = {Children coordinate in a recurrent social dilemma by taking
             turns and along dominance asymmetries.},
   Journal = {Developmental Psychology},
   Volume = {53},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {265-273},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {February},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Humans constantly have to coordinate their decisions with
             others even when their interests are conflicting (e.g., when
             2 drivers have to decide who yields at an intersection). So
             far, however, little is known about the development of these
             abilities. Here, we present dyads of 5-year-olds (N = 40)
             with a repeated chicken game using a novel methodology: Two
             children each steered an automated toy train carrying a
             reward. The trains simultaneously moved toward each other so
             that in order to avoid a crash-which left both children
             empty-handed-1 train had to swerve. By swerving, however,
             the trains lost a portion of the rewards so that it was in
             each child's interest to go straight. Children coordinated
             their decisions successfully over multiple rounds, and they
             mostly did so by taking turns at swerving. In dyads in which
             turn-taking was rare, dominant children obtained
             significantly higher payoffs than their partners. Moreover,
             the coordination process was more efficient in turn-taking
             dyads as indicated by a significant reduction in conflicts
             and verbal protest. These findings indicate that already by
             the late preschool years children can independently
             coordinate decisions with peers in recurrent conflicts of
             interest. (PsycINFO Database Record},
   Doi = {10.1037/dev0000236},
   Key = {fds325489}

   Author = {Krupenye, C and Kano, F and Hirata, S and Call, J and Tomasello,
   Title = {A test of the submentalizing hypothesis: Apes' performance
             in a false belief task inanimate control.},
   Journal = {Communicative & Integrative Biology},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {e1343771},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {January},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Much debate concerns whether any nonhuman animals share with
             humans the ability to infer others' mental states, such as
             desires and beliefs. In a recent eye-tracking false-belief
             task, we showed that great apes correctly anticipated that a
             human actor would search for a goal object where he had last
             seen it, even though the apes themselves knew that it was no
             longer there. In response, Heyes proposed that apes' looking
             behavior was guided not by social cognitive mechanisms but
             rather domain-general cueing effects, and suggested the use
             of inanimate controls to test this alternative
             submentalizing hypothesis. In the present study, we
             implemented the suggested inanimate control of our previous
             false-belief task. Apes attended well to key events but
             showed markedly fewer anticipatory looks and no significant
             tendency to look to the correct location. We thus found no
             evidence that submentalizing was responsible for apes'
             anticipatory looks in our false-belief task.},
   Doi = {10.1080/19420889.2017.1343771},
   Key = {fds329018}

   Author = {Hepach, R and Vaish, A and Tomasello, M},
   Title = {The fulfillment of others' needs elevates children's body
   Journal = {Developmental Psychology},
   Volume = {53},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {100-113},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {January},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Much is known about young children's helping behavior, but
             little is known about the underlying motivations and
             emotions involved. In 2 studies we found that 2-year-old
             children showed positive emotions of similar magnitude-as
             measured by changes in their postural elevation using depth
             sensor imaging technology-after they achieved a goal for
             themselves and after they helped another person achieve her
             goal. Conversely, children's posture decreased in elevation
             when their actions did not result in a positive outcome.
             These results suggest that for young children, working for
             themselves and helping others are similarly rewarding.
             (PsycINFO Database Record},
   Doi = {10.1037/dev0000173},
   Key = {fds322245}

   Author = {Buttelmann, D and Buttelmann, F and Carpenter, M and Call, J and Tomasello, M},
   Title = {Great apes distinguish true from false beliefs in an
             interactive helping task.},
   Journal = {Plos One},
   Volume = {12},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {e0173793},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {January},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Understanding the behavior of others in a wide variety of
             circumstances requires an understanding of their
             psychological states. Humans' nearest primate relatives, the
             great apes, understand many psychological states of others,
             for example, perceptions, goals, and desires. However, so
             far there is little evidence that they possess the key
             marker of advanced human social cognition: an understanding
             of false beliefs. Here we demonstrate that in a nonverbal
             (implicit) false-belief test which is passed by human
             1-year-old infants, great apes as a group, including
             chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), bonobos (Pan paniscus), and
             orangutans (Pongo abelii), distinguish between true and
             false beliefs in their helping behavior. Great apes thus may
             possess at least some basic understanding that an agent's
             actions are based on her beliefs about reality. Hence, such
             understanding might not be the exclusive province of the
             human species.},
   Doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0173793},
   Key = {fds326212}

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