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Publications of Herman Pontzer    :chronological  alphabetical  combined listing:

%% Journal Articles   
@article{fds342247,
   Author = {Gurven, M and Trumble, B and Stieglitz, J and Cummings, D and Kaplan, H and Blackwell, AD and Yetish, G and Pontzer, H},
   Title = {Methodological differences cannot explain associations
             between health, anthropometrics, and excess resting
             metabolic rate.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {169},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {197-198},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23811},
   Doi = {10.1002/ajpa.23811},
   Key = {fds342247}
}

@article{fds342246,
   Author = {Rosinger, AY and Pontzer, H and Raichlen, DA and Wood, BM and Tanner,
             SN and Sands, JM},
   Title = {Age-related decline in urine concentration may not be
             universal: Comparative study from the U.S. and two
             small-scale societies.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {168},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {705-716},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23788},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVES:Evidence from industrialized populations suggests
             that urine concentrating ability declines with age. However,
             lifestyle factors including episodic protein intake and low
             hypertension may help explain differences between
             populations. Whether this age-related decline occurs among
             small-scale populations with active lifestyles and
             non-Western diets is unknown. We test the universality of
             age-related urine concentration decline. MATERIALS AND
             METHODS:We used urine specific gravity (Usg) and urine
             osmolality (Uosm) data from 15,055 U.S. nonpregnant adults
             without kidney failure aged 18-80 in 2007-2012 participating
             in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
             (NHANES). We tested the relationship of age on urine
             concentration biomarkers with multiple linear regressions
             using survey commands. We compared results to longitudinal
             data on Usg from 116 Tsimane' forager-horticulturalists (266
             observations) adults aged 18-83 in 2013-2014 from Lowland
             Bolivia, and to 38 Hadza hunter-gatherers (156 observations)
             aged 18-75 in 2010-2015 from Tanzania using random-effects
             panel linear regressions. RESULTS:Among U.S. adults, age was
             significantly negatively associated with Usg (Adjusted beta
             [B] = -0.0009 g/mL/10 years; SE = 0.0001;
             p < 0.001) and Uosm (B = -28.1 mOsm/kg/10 yr;
             SE = 2.4; p < 0.001). In contrast, among Tsimane'
             (B = 0.0003 g/mL/10 yr; SE = 0.0002; p = 0.16)
             and Hadza (B = -0.0004 g/mL/10 yr; SE = 0.0004;
             p = 0.29) age was not associated with Usg. Older
             Tsimane' and Hadza exhibited similar within-individual
             variability in Usg equivalent to younger adults.
             DISCUSSION:While U.S. adults exhibited age-related declines
             in urine concentration, Tsimane' and Hadza adults did not
             exhibit the same statistical decline in Usg. Mismatches
             between evolved physiology and modern environments in
             lifestyle may affect kidney physiology and disease
             risk.},
   Doi = {10.1002/ajpa.23788},
   Key = {fds342246}
}

@article{fds342881,
   Author = {Christopher, L and Madimenos, FC and Bribiescas, RG and Urlacher, SS and Snodgrass, JJ and Sugiyama, LS and Pontzer, H},
   Title = {High energy requirements and water throughput of adult Shuar
             forager-horticulturalists of Amazonian Ecuador.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Human Biology : the Official Journal of
             the Human Biology Council},
   Pages = {e23223},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23223},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVES:We measured total energy expenditure (TEE;
             kcal/d) and water throughput (L/d) among Shuar
             forager-horticulturalists from Amazonian Ecuador to compare
             their daily energy and water demands to adults in other
             small-scale and industrialized populations. METHODS:TEE and
             water throughput were measured using the doubly labeled
             water method among 15 Shuar adults (eight women, seven men;
             age range 18-60 years) living in a relatively remote
             village. We used multiple regression to assess the effects
             of anthropometric variables (body size, fat free mass, age,
             and sex) on TEE and water throughput. We also compared Shuar
             TEE and water throughput to those of other small-scale and
             industrialized societies. RESULTS:TEE among Shuar adults
             (men: 4141 ± 645 kcal/d, women: 2536 ±
             281 kcal/d) was most strongly correlated with fat free
             mass. Estimated physical activity levels (PAL) calculated as
             (TEE/estimated BMR), were greater for men (2.34 ± 0.29)
             than women (1.83 ± 0.14, P < 0.001). Water
             throughput was also greater among Shuar men
             (9.37 ± 2.34 L/d) than women (4.76 ± 0.36 L/d,
             P < 0.001). Shuar TEE and water throughput were elevated
             compared to adults in industrialized populations.
             DISCUSSION:TEE and PAL of Shuar men are among the highest
             recorded during normal daily life, and likely reflect both
             high levels of physical activity and cultural dietary
             practices. Drinking large amounts of chicha, a traditional
             carbohydrate-rich drink made from manioc, likely contributes
             to the high levels of water throughput among Shuar men, and
             may contribute to elevated TEE.},
   Doi = {10.1002/ajhb.23223},
   Key = {fds342881}
}

@article{fds342257,
   Author = {Pontzer, H and Wood, BM and Raichlen, DA},
   Title = {Hunter-gatherers as models in public health.},
   Journal = {Obesity Reviews : an Official Journal of the International
             Association for the Study of Obesity},
   Volume = {19 Suppl 1},
   Pages = {24-35},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.12785},
   Abstract = {Hunter-gatherer populations are remarkable for their
             excellent metabolic and cardiovascular health and thus are
             often used as models in public health, in an effort to
             understand the root, evolutionary causes of non-communicable
             diseases. Here, we review recent work on health, activity,
             energetics and diet among hunter-gatherers and other
             small-scale societies (e.g. subsistence farmers,
             horticulturalists and pastoralists), as well as recent
             fossil and archaeological discoveries, to provide a more
             comprehensive perspective on lifestyle and health in these
             populations. We supplement these analyses with new data from
             the Hadza, a hunter-gatherer population in northern
             Tanzania. Longevity among small-scale populations approaches
             that of industrialized populations, and metabolic and
             cardiovascular disease are rare. Obesity prevalence is very
             low (<5%), and mean body fat percentage is modest (women:
             24-28%, men: 9-18%). Activity levels are high, exceeding
             100 min d-1 of moderate and vigorous physical activity,
             but daily energy expenditures are similar to industrialized
             populations. Diets in hunter-gatherer and other small-scale
             societies tend to be less energy dense and richer in fibre
             and micronutrients than modern diets but are not invariably
             low carbohydrate as sometimes argued. A more integrative
             understanding of hunter-gatherer health and lifestyle,
             including elements beyond diet and activity, will improve
             public health efforts in industrialized populations.},
   Doi = {10.1111/obr.12785},
   Key = {fds342257}
}

@article{fds342258,
   Author = {Pontzer, H},
   Title = {Method and rationale for recalculating dilution spaces to a
             single, common time point in doubly labeled water
             studies.},
   Journal = {European Journal of Clinical Nutrition},
   Volume = {72},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {1620-1624},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41430-018-0361-1},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND:The doubly labeled water (DLW) method has become
             widely used in studies of energy expenditure and body
             composition. Researchers differ in the analytical methods
             used to calculate the dilution spaces for deuterium and
             oxygen-18. Some determine dilution spaces using isotope
             enrichments extrapolated to the instant of dosing with DLW
             (slope-intercept method), but others use measured
             enrichments from body water samples obtained 3-10 h after
             dosing (plateau method). These differences limit the
             comparability of analyses across labs. METHODS:I derive a
             simple mathematical approach for recalculating reported
             dilution spaces to any time point post dosing, using
             reported dilution spaces and rates of isotope depletion.
             Simulated data are used to examine the effects of different
             dilution space protocols. RESULTS:Recalculating dilution
             spaces enables researchers to determine outcome variables of
             interest (e.g., total body water, energy expenditure, and
             water throughput) from different labs under a unified
             protocol for determining dilution spaces, and improves
             comparisons among studies. CONCLUSIONS:Differences between
             dilution space protocols can lead to substantial differences
             in outcome variables of interest in DLW studies. When
             comparing results of DLW studies that employ different
             dilution space protocols, dilution spaces should be
             recalculated for a common time point, and outcome variables
             recalculated as needed, prior to comparison across
             studies.},
   Doi = {10.1038/s41430-018-0361-1},
   Key = {fds342258}
}

@article{fds339328,
   Author = {Pontzer, H},
   Title = {Energy Constraint as a Novel Mechanism Linking Exercise and
             Health.},
   Journal = {Physiology (Bethesda, Md.)},
   Volume = {33},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {384-393},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiol.00027.2018},
   Abstract = {Humans and other species adapt dynamically to changes in
             daily physical activity, maintaining total energy
             expenditure within a narrow range. Chronic exercise thus
             suppresses other physiological activity, including immunity,
             reproduction, and stress response. This exercise-induced
             downregulation improves health at moderate levels of
             physical activity but can be detrimental at extreme
             workloads.},
   Doi = {10.1152/physiol.00027.2018},
   Key = {fds339328}
}

@article{fds337752,
   Author = {Pontzer, H},
   Title = {Alternative Energy Physiological evolution in the human
             lineage},
   Journal = {Natural History},
   Volume = {126},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {37-39},
   Publisher = {NATURAL HISTORY MAGAZINE},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {September},
   Key = {fds337752}
}

@article{fds337753,
   Author = {Gagnon, CM and Steiper, ME and Pontzer, H},
   Title = {Elite swimmers do not exhibit a body mass index trade-off
             across a wide range of event distances.},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological
             Sciences},
   Volume = {285},
   Number = {1882},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2018.0684},
   Abstract = {There is a trade-off reflected in the contrasting phenotypes
             of elite long-distance runners, who are typically leaner,
             and elite sprinters, who are usually more heavily muscled.
             It is unclear, however, whether and how swimmers' bodies
             vary across event distances from the 50 m swim, which is
             about a 20-30 s event, to the 10 000 m marathon swim, which
             is about a 2 h event. We examined data from the 2012
             Olympics to test whether swimmers' phenotypes differed
             across event distances. We show that across all swimming
             event distances, from the 50 m sprint to the 10 000 m
             marathon, swimmers converge on a single optimal body mass
             index (BMI) in men's and women's events, in marked contrast
             with the strong inverse relationship between BMI and event
             distance found in runners. The absence of a speed-endurance
             trade-off in the body proportions of swimmers indicates a
             fundamental difference in design pressures and performance
             capability in terrestrial versus aquatic
             environments.},
   Doi = {10.1098/rspb.2018.0684},
   Key = {fds337753}
}

@article{fds337754,
   Author = {Finestone, EM and Brown, MH and Ross, SR and Pontzer,
             H},
   Title = {Great ape walking kinematics: Implications for hominoid
             evolution.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {166},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {43-55},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23397},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVES:Great apes provide a point of reference for
             understanding the evolution of locomotion in hominoids and
             early hominins. We assessed (1) the extent to which great
             apes use diagonal sequence, diagonal couplet gaits, like
             other primates, (2) the extent to which gait and posture
             vary across great apes, and (3) the role of body mass and
             limb proportions on ape quadrupedal kinematics.
             METHODS:High-speed digital video of zoo-housed bonobos (Pan
             paniscus, N = 8), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes,
             N = 13), lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla, N = 13),
             and orangutans (Pongo spp. N = 6) walking over-ground at
             self-selected speeds were used to determine the timing of
             limb touch-down, take-off, and to measure joint and segment
             angles at touch-down, midstance, and take-off. RESULTS:The
             great apes in our study showed broad kinematic and
             spatiotemporal similarity in quadrupedal walking.
             Size-adjusted walking speed was the strongest predictor of
             gait variables. Body mass had a negligible effect on
             variation in joint and segment angles, but stride frequency
             did trend higher among larger apes in analyses including
             size-adjusted speed. In contrast to most other primates,
             great apes did not favor diagonal sequence footfall
             patterns, but exhibited variable gait patterns that
             frequently shifted between diagonal and lateral sequences.
             CONCLUSION:Similarities in the terrestrial walking
             kinematics of extant great apes likely reflect their similar
             post-cranial anatomy and proportions. Our results suggest
             that the walking kinematics of orthograde, suspensory
             Miocene ape species were likely similar to living great
             apes, and highlight the utility of videographic and
             behavioral data in interpreting primate skeletal
             morphology.},
   Doi = {10.1002/ajpa.23397},
   Key = {fds337754}
}

@article{fds337755,
   Author = {Urlacher, SS and Ellison, PT and Sugiyama, LS and Pontzer, H and Eick,
             G and Liebert, MA and Cepon-Robins, TJ and Gildner, TE and Snodgrass,
             JJ},
   Title = {Tradeoffs between immune function and childhood growth among
             Amazonian forager-horticulturalists.},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the
             United States of America},
   Volume = {115},
   Number = {17},
   Pages = {E3914-E3921},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1717522115},
   Abstract = {Immune function is an energetically costly physiological
             activity that potentially diverts calories away from less
             immediately essential life tasks. Among developing
             organisms, the allocation of energy toward immune function
             may lead to tradeoffs with physical growth, particularly in
             high-pathogen, low-resource environments. The present study
             tests this hypothesis across diverse timeframes, branches of
             immunity, and conditions of energy availability among
             humans. Using a prospective mixed-longitudinal design, we
             collected anthropometric and blood immune biomarker data
             from 261 Amazonian forager-horticulturalist Shuar children
             (age 4-11 y old). This strategy provided baseline measures
             of participant stature, s.c. body fat, and humoral and
             cell-mediated immune activity as well as subsample
             longitudinal measures of linear growth (1 wk, 3 mo, 20 mo)
             and acute inflammation. Multilevel analyses demonstrate
             consistent negative effects of immune function on growth,
             with children experiencing up to 49% growth reduction during
             periods of mildly elevated immune activity. The direct
             energetic nature of these relationships is indicated by (i)
             the manifestation of biomarker-specific negative immune
             effects only when examining growth over timeframes capturing
             active competition for energetic resources, (ii) the
             exaggerated impact of particularly costly inflammation on
             growth, and (iii) the ability of children with greater
             levels of body fat (i.e., energy reserves) to completely
             avoid the growth-inhibiting effects of acute inflammation.
             These findings provide evidence for immunologically and
             temporally diverse body fat-dependent tradeoffs between
             immune function and growth during childhood. We discuss the
             implications of this work for understanding human
             developmental energetics and the biological mechanisms
             regulating variation in human ontogeny, life history, and
             health.},
   Doi = {10.1073/pnas.1717522115},
   Key = {fds337755}
}

@article{fds337756,
   Author = {Kozma, EE and Webb, NM and Harcourt-Smith, WEH and Raichlen, DA and D'Août, K and Brown, MH and Finestone, EM and Ross, SR and Aerts, P and Pontzer, H},
   Title = {Hip extensor mechanics and the evolution of walking and
             climbing capabilities in humans, apes, and fossil
             hominins.},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the
             United States of America},
   Volume = {115},
   Number = {16},
   Pages = {4134-4139},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1715120115},
   Abstract = {The evolutionary emergence of humans' remarkably economical
             walking gait remains a focus of research and debate, but
             experimentally validated approaches linking locomotor
             capability to postcranial anatomy are limited. In this
             study, we integrated 3D morphometrics of hominoid pelvic
             shape with experimental measurements of hip kinematics and
             kinetics during walking and climbing, hamstring activity,
             and passive range of hip extension in humans, apes, and
             other primates to assess arboreal-terrestrial trade-offs in
             ischium morphology among living taxa. We show that
             hamstring-powered hip extension during habitual walking and
             climbing in living apes and humans is strongly predicted,
             and likely constrained, by the relative length and
             orientation of the ischium. Ape pelves permit greater
             extensor moments at the hip, enhancing climbing capability,
             but limit their range of hip extension, resulting in a
             crouched gait. Human pelves reduce hip extensor moments but
             permit a greater degree of hip extension, which greatly
             improves walking economy (i.e., distance traveled/energy
             consumed). Applying these results to fossil pelves suggests
             that early hominins differed from both humans and extant
             apes in having an economical walking gait without
             sacrificing climbing capability. Ardipithecus was capable of
             nearly human-like hip extension during bipedal walking, but
             retained the capacity for powerful, ape-like hip extension
             during vertical climbing. Hip extension capability was
             essentially human-like in Australopithecus afarensis and
             Australopithecus africanus, suggesting an economical walking
             gait but reduced mechanical advantage for powered hip
             extension during climbing.},
   Doi = {10.1073/pnas.1715120115},
   Key = {fds337756}
}

@article{fds337762,
   Author = {Pontzer, H and Raichlen, DA and Basdeo, T and Harris, JA and Mabulla,
             AZP and Wood, BM},
   Title = {Mechanics of archery among Hadza hunter-gatherers},
   Journal = {Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports},
   Volume = {16},
   Pages = {57-64},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jasrep.2017.09.025},
   Abstract = {© 2017 The development of the bow and arrow was an
             important milestone in the evolution of foraging technology.
             Experimental approaches to interpreting lithics and other
             archeological evidence for early archery have led to
             important insights into their manufacture and use, but these
             studies are limited by a lack of data on the mechanics of
             traditional archery among living hunter-gatherers. Here, we
             investigated archery mechanics among the Hadza, a population
             of traditional hunter-gatherers living in Tanzania, who
             build and use their own bows and arrows to hunt wild game
             for food. Ten Hadza men participated in an archery
             competition with targets set at 15, 30, and 50 m, similar to
             the range of target distances during hunting. We used a
             spring scale to calibrate the draw force for each bow, and a
             high-speed digital video to record shooting mechanics and
             arrow velocity for each shot. Arrow velocity (45.1 ± 7.0
             m/s− 1) and estimated kinetic energy (36.9 ± 13.4 J) were
             greater than typically employed in experimental archeology
             studies. Draw forces (311 ± 98 N) were also greater,
             equivalent to ~ 70% of men's body weight. Approximately 70%
             of the strain energy from the drawn bow was converted to
             arrow kinetic energy upon release, similar to published
             efficiencies for modern recurve bows. Arrow kinetic energy
             and draw force were similar for 15 m and 30 m targets, but
             increased marginally for the 50 m target, suggesting that
             Hadza men adjust arrow trajectory for targets at short and
             middle distances, but may increase draw force and hence
             arrow energy for distant targets.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jasrep.2017.09.025},
   Key = {fds337762}
}

@article{fds337763,
   Author = {Pontzer, H},
   Title = {DEMOGRAPHY AND EVOLUTIONARY ECOLOGY OF HADZA
             HUNTER-GATHERERS By Nicholas Blurton Jones 508 pp. (2016).
             Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. $130.00
             (paperback)},
   Journal = {American Journal of Human Biology : the Official Journal of
             the Human Biology Council},
   Volume = {29},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {e23053-e23053},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23053},
   Doi = {10.1002/ajhb.23053},
   Key = {fds337763}
}

@article{fds337764,
   Author = {Horiuchi, M and Fukuoka, Y and Handa, Y and Abe, D and Pontzer,
             H},
   Title = {Measuring the Energy of Ventilation and Circulation during
             Human Walking using Induced Hypoxia.},
   Journal = {Scientific Reports},
   Volume = {7},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {4938},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-05068-8},
   Abstract = {Energy expenditure (EE) during walking includes energy costs
             to move and support the body and for respiration and
             circulation. We measured EE during walking under three
             different oxygen concentrations. Eleven healthy, young, male
             lowlanders walked on a treadmill at seven gait speeds
             (0.67-1.83 m s-1) on a level gradient under normobaric
             normoxia (room air, 21% O2), moderate hypoxia (15% O2), and
             severe hypoxia (11% O2). By comparing the hypoxia-induced
             elevation in heart rate (HR [bpm]), ventilation (VE [L
             min-1]) with the change in energy expenditure (EE [W]) at
             each speed, we were able to determine circulatory and
             respiratory costs. In a multivariate model combining HR and
             VE, respiratory costs were 0.44 ± 0.15 W per each L
             min-1 increase in VE, and circulatory costs were
             0.24 ± 0.05 W per each bpm increase in HR (model
             adjusted r2 = 0.97, p < 0.001). These VE costs were
             substantially lower than previous studies that ignored the
             contribution of HR to cardiopulmonary work. Estimated HR
             costs were consistent with, although somewhat higher than,
             measures derived from catheterization studies.
             Cardiopulmonary costs accounted for 23% of resting EE, but
             less than 5% of net walking costs (i.e., with resting EE
             subtracted).},
   Doi = {10.1038/s41598-017-05068-8},
   Key = {fds337764}
}

@article{fds337765,
   Author = {Pontzer, H},
   Title = {Economy and Endurance in Human Evolution.},
   Journal = {Current Biology : Cb},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {R613-R621},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2017.05.031},
   Abstract = {The evolutionary pressures shaping humans' unique bipedal
             locomotion have been a focus of research since Darwin, but
             the origins of humans' economical walking gait and endurance
             running capabilities remain unclear. Here, I review the
             anatomical and physiological determinants of locomotor
             economy (e.g., limb length and posture) and endurance (e.g.,
             muscle volume and fiber type) and investigate their
             development in the hominin fossil record. The earliest
             hominins were bipedal but retained ape-like features in the
             hind limb that would have limited their walking economy
             compared to living humans. Moreover, the evolution of
             bipedalism and the loss of the forelimbs in weight support
             and propulsion would have reduced locomotor endurance in
             the earliest hominins and likely restricted ranging.
             Australopithecus evinced longer hind limbs, extended limb
             posture, and a stiff midfoot, suggesting improved,
             human-like economy, but were likely still limited in their
             endurance compared to modern humans. The appearance of
             skeletal traits related to endurance (e.g., larger limb
             joints, spring-like plantar arch) in Homo was somewhat
             mosaic, with the full endurance suite apparent only ∼1
             million years ago. The development of endurance capabilities
             in Homo appears to parallel the evolutionary increase in
             brain size, cognitive sophistication, and metabolic
             rate.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.cub.2017.05.031},
   Key = {fds337765}
}

@article{fds337766,
   Author = {Edwards, W and Lonsdorf, EV and Pontzer, H},
   Title = {Total energy expenditure in captive capuchins (Sapajus
             apella).},
   Journal = {American Journal of Primatology},
   Volume = {79},
   Number = {5},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.22638},
   Abstract = {Primates have markedly lower total energy expenditure (TEE;
             kcal/day) than other placental mammals, expending
             approximately 50% less energy for their mass than
             non-primate eutherians. However, little is known regarding
             interspecific variation of energy expenditure within
             platyrrhine primates. We investigated TEE in captive tufted
             capuchins (Sapajus apella, n = 8, ages 7-36), a
             frugivorous platyrrhine, to compare TEE with other placental
             mammals and primates. We tested the hypothesis that
             large-brained capuchins would exhibit greater TEE than other
             platyrrhines that are less encephalized. We used the doubly
             labeled water (DLW) method to measure TEE over 7-11 days,
             during which physical activity data were recorded via focal
             observation. TEE was strongly correlated with fat free mass,
             but sex, age, and rates of walking and climbing were not
             correlated with variation in TEE in multivariate analyses
             controlling for fat free mass. We found evidence that daily
             physical activity was negatively correlated with body fat
             percentage. Capuchin TEE was similar (P = 0.67) to
             other, less encephalized platyrrhines (Callithrix and
             Alouatta) and 54% lower than other placental mammals, in
             analyses controlling for body mass. These results suggest
             that brain size and physical activity do not necessarily
             influence variation in daily energy expenditure across
             primate species.},
   Doi = {10.1002/ajp.22638},
   Key = {fds337766}
}

@article{fds337778,
   Author = {Raichlen, DA and Pontzer, H and Harris, JA and Mabulla, AZP and Marlowe,
             FW and Josh Snodgrass and J and Eick, G and Colette Berbesque and J and Sancilio, A and Wood, BM},
   Title = {Physical activity patterns and biomarkers of cardiovascular
             disease risk in hunter-gatherers.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Human Biology : the Official Journal of
             the Human Biology Council},
   Volume = {29},
   Number = {2},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.22919},
   Abstract = {Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)
             is a strong predictor of cardiovascular health, yet few
             humans living in industrialized societies meet current
             recommendations (150 min/week). Researchers have long
             suggested that human physiological requirements for aerobic
             exercise reflect an evolutionary shift to a hunting and
             gathering foraging strategy, and a recent transition to more
             sedentary lifestyles likely represents a mismatch with our
             past in terms of physical activity. The goal of this study
             is to explore this mismatch by characterizing MVPA and
             cardiovascular health in the Hadza, a modern hunting and
             gathering population living in Northern Tanzania.We measured
             MVPA using continuous heart rate monitoring in 46
             participants recruited from two Hadza camps. As part of a
             larger survey of health in the Hadza, we measured blood
             pressure (n = 198) and biomarkers of cardiovascular
             health (n = 23) including C-reactive protein,
             cholesterol (Total, HDL, and LDL), and triglycerides.We show
             that Hadza participants spend large amounts of time in MVPA
             (134.92 ± 8.6 min/day), and maintain these activity
             levels across the lifespan. In fact, the Hadza engage in
             over 14 times as much MVPA as subjects participating in
             large epidemiological studies in the United States. We found
             no evidence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in
             this population (low prevalence of hypertension across the
             lifespan, optimal levels for biomarkers of cardiovascular
             health).Our results provide evidence that the hunting and
             gathering foraging strategy involves high levels of MVPA,
             supporting the evolutionary medicine model for the
             relationship between MVPA and cardiovascular
             health.},
   Doi = {10.1002/ajhb.22919},
   Key = {fds337778}
}

@article{fds337779,
   Author = {Pontzer, H},
   Title = {The crown joules: energetics, ecology, and evolution in
             humans and other primates.},
   Journal = {Evolutionary Anthropology},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {12-24},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/evan.21513},
   Abstract = {Biological diversity is metabolic diversity: Differences in
             anatomy, physiology, life history, and activity reflect
             differences in energy allocation and expenditure among
             traits and tasks. Traditional frameworks in primatology,
             human ecology, public health, and paleoanthropology view
             daily energy expenditure as being more variable within than
             between species, changing with activity level but
             essentially fixed for a given body size. Growing evidence
             turns this view on its head. Total energy expenditure
             (kcal/d), varies relatively little within species, despite
             variation in physical activity; it varies considerably among
             species even after controlling for the effect of body size.
             Embracing this emerging paradigm requires rethinking
             potential trade-offs in energy allocation within and between
             species, assessing evidence of metabolic acceleration within
             lineages, and abandoning activity-based estimates of total
             energy expenditure. Difficult and exciting work lies ahead
             in the effort to untangle the ecological and evolutionary
             pressures shaping primate metabolic diversity.},
   Doi = {10.1002/evan.21513},
   Key = {fds337779}
}

@article{fds337780,
   Author = {Sparrow, LM and Pellatt, E and Yu, SS and Raichlen, DA and Pontzer, H and Rolian, C},
   Title = {Gait changes in a line of mice artificially selected for
             longer limbs.},
   Journal = {Peerj},
   Volume = {5},
   Pages = {e3008},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.3008},
   Abstract = {In legged terrestrial locomotion, the duration of stance
             phase, i.e., when limbs are in contact with the substrate,
             is positively correlated with limb length, and negatively
             correlated with the metabolic cost of transport. These
             relationships are well documented at the interspecific
             level, across a broad range of body sizes and travel speeds.
             However, such relationships are harder to evaluate within
             species (i.e., where natural selection operates), largely
             for practical reasons, including low population variance in
             limb length, and the presence of confounding factors such as
             body mass, or training. Here, we compared spatiotemporal
             kinematics of gait in Longshanks, a long-legged mouse line
             created through artificial selection, and in random-bred,
             mass-matched Control mice raised under identical conditions.
             We used a gait treadmill to test the hypothesis that
             Longshanks have longer stance phases and stride lengths, and
             decreased stride frequencies in both fore- and hind limbs,
             compared with Controls. Our results indicate that gait
             differs significantly between the two groups. Specifically,
             and as hypothesized, stance duration and stride length are
             8-10% greater in Longshanks, while stride frequency is 8%
             lower than in Controls. However, there was no difference in
             the touch-down timing and sequence of the paws between the
             two lines. Taken together, these data suggest that, for a
             given speed, Longshanks mice take significantly fewer,
             longer steps to cover the same distance or running time
             compared to Controls, with important implications for other
             measures of variation among individuals in whole-organism
             performance, such as the metabolic cost of
             transport.},
   Doi = {10.7717/peerj.3008},
   Key = {fds337780}
}

@article{fds337781,
   Author = {Hora, M and Soumar, L and Pontzer, H and Sládek,
             V},
   Title = {Body size and lower limb posture during walking in
             humans.},
   Journal = {Plos One},
   Volume = {12},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {e0172112},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0172112},
   Abstract = {We test whether locomotor posture is associated with body
             mass and lower limb length in humans and explore how body
             size and posture affect net joint moments during walking. We
             acquired gait data for 24 females and 25 males using a
             three-dimensional motion capture system and
             pressure-measuring insoles. We employed the general linear
             model and commonality analysis to assess the independent
             effect of body mass and lower limb length on flexion angles
             at the hip, knee, and ankle while controlling for sex and
             velocity. In addition, we used inverse dynamics to model the
             effect of size and posture on net joint moments. At early
             stance, body mass has a negative effect on knee flexion (p <
             0.01), whereas lower limb length has a negative effect on
             hip flexion (p < 0.05). Body mass uniquely explains 15.8% of
             the variance in knee flexion, whereas lower limb length
             uniquely explains 5.4% of the variance in hip flexion. Both
             of the detected relationships between body size and posture
             are consistent with the moment moderating postural
             adjustments predicted by our model. At late stance, no
             significant relationship between body size and posture was
             detected. Humans of greater body size reduce the flexion of
             the hip and knee at early stance, which results in the
             moderation of net moments at these joints.},
   Doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0172112},
   Key = {fds337781}
}

@article{fds337782,
   Author = {Pontzer, H},
   Title = {The Exercise Paradox.},
   Journal = {Scientific American},
   Volume = {316},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {26-31},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0217-26},
   Doi = {10.1038/scientificamerican0217-26},
   Key = {fds337782}
}

@article{fds337783,
   Author = {Gurven, MD and Trumble, BC and Stieglitz, J and Yetish, G and Cummings,
             D and Blackwell, AD and Beheim, B and Kaplan, HS and Pontzer,
             H},
   Title = {High resting metabolic rate among Amazonian
             forager-horticulturalists experiencing high pathogen
             burden.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {161},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {414-425},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23040},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVES:Resting metabolic rate (RMR) reflects energetic
             costs of homeostasis and accounts for 60 to 75% of total
             energy expenditure (TEE). Lean mass and physical activity
             account for much RMR variability, but the impact of
             prolonged immune activation from infection on human RMR is
             unclear in naturalistic settings. We evaluate the effects of
             infection on mass-corrected RMR among Bolivian
             forager-horticulturalists, and assess whether RMR declines
             more slowly with age than in hygienic sedentary populations,
             as might be expected if older adults experience high
             pathogen burden. MATERIALS AND METHODS:RMR was measured by
             indirect calorimetry (Fitmate MED, Cosmed) in 1,300 adults
             aged 20 to 90 and TEE was measured using doubly labeled
             water (n = 40). Immune biomarkers, clinical diagnoses,
             and anthropometrics were collected by the Tsimane Health and
             Life History Project. RESULTS:Tsimane have higher RMR and
             TEE than people in sedentary industrialized populations.
             Tsimane RMR is 18 to 47% (women) and 22 to 40% (men) higher
             than expected using six standard prediction equations.
             Tsimane mass-corrected TEE is similarly elevated compared to
             Westerners. Elevated leukocytes and helminths are associated
             with excess RMR in multivariate regressions, and jointly
             result in a predicted excess RMR of 10 to 15%. After age 40,
             RMR declines by 69 kcal/decade (p < .0001). Controlling
             for lean mass and height accounts for 71% of age-related RMR
             decline, and adding indicators of infection minimally
             affects the age slope. The residual level of age-related
             decline from age 40 is 1.2% per decade. CONCLUSION:High
             pathogen burden may lead to higher metabolic costs, which
             may be offset by smaller body mass or other energy-sparing
             mechanisms.},
   Doi = {10.1002/ajpa.23040},
   Key = {fds337783}
}

@article{fds337784,
   Author = {Pontzer, H},
   Title = {Behavior: Knowing When to Walk Away, Knowing When to
             Run.},
   Journal = {Current Biology : Cb},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {15},
   Pages = {R717-R718},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2016.06.048},
   Abstract = {A new model has been proposed indicating that humans and
             other animals weigh the metabolic cost of pursuit in
             deciding how fast to move toward a given reward, providing a
             powerful framework for understanding behavior.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.cub.2016.06.048},
   Key = {fds337784}
}

@article{fds337785,
   Author = {Pontzer, H and Brown, MH and Raichlen, DA and Dunsworth, H and Hare, B and Walker, K and Luke, A and Dugas, LR and Durazo-Arvizu, R and Schoeller,
             D and Plange-Rhule, J and Bovet, P and Forrester, TE and Lambert, EV and Thompson, ME and Shumaker, RW and Ross, SR},
   Title = {Metabolic acceleration and the evolution of human brain size
             and life history.},
   Journal = {Nature},
   Volume = {533},
   Number = {7603},
   Pages = {390-392},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature17654},
   Abstract = {Humans are distinguished from the other living apes in
             having larger brains and an unusual life history that
             combines high reproductive output with slow childhood growth
             and exceptional longevity. This suite of derived traits
             suggests major changes in energy expenditure and allocation
             in the human lineage, but direct measures of human and ape
             metabolism are needed to compare evolved energy strategies
             among hominoids. Here we used doubly labelled water
             measurements of total energy expenditure (TEE; kcal day(-1))
             in humans, chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas and orangutans to
             test the hypothesis that the human lineage has experienced
             an acceleration in metabolic rate, providing energy for
             larger brains and faster reproduction without sacrificing
             maintenance and longevity. In multivariate regressions
             including body size and physical activity, human TEE
             exceeded that of chimpanzees and bonobos, gorillas and
             orangutans by approximately 400, 635 and 820 kcal day(-1),
             respectively, readily accommodating the cost of humans'
             greater brain size and reproductive output. Much of the
             increase in TEE is attributable to humans' greater basal
             metabolic rate (kcal day(-1)), indicating increased organ
             metabolic activity. Humans also had the greatest body fat
             percentage. An increased metabolic rate, along with changes
             in energy allocation, was crucial in the evolution of human
             brain size and life history.},
   Doi = {10.1038/nature17654},
   Key = {fds337785}
}

@article{fds337786,
   Author = {Yetish, G and Kaplan, H and Gurven, M and Wood, B and Pontzer, H and Manger, PR and Wilson, C and McGregor, R and Siegel,
             JM},
   Title = {Response to de la Iglesia et al.},
   Journal = {Current Biology : Cb},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {R273-R274},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2016.02.057},
   Abstract = {We wish to respond to the commentary of de la Iglesia et al.
             [1]. Studies comparing sleep in different communities have
             different goals. One frequent goal has been to determine how
             sleep is affected by manipulating specific 'modern'
             conditions. Many studies have investigated the effect of
             artificial light and electronic entertainment. Such studies
             have clearly shown that light, particularly blue light,
             delays sleep onset [2]. Studying the effect of artificial
             light on sleep was not a goal of our study.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.cub.2016.02.057},
   Key = {fds337786}
}

@article{fds337787,
   Author = {Laird, MF and Vogel, ER and Pontzer, H},
   Title = {Chewing efficiency and occlusal functional morphology in
             modern humans.},
   Journal = {Journal of Human Evolution},
   Volume = {93},
   Pages = {1-11},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2015.11.005},
   Abstract = {The reduction of occlusal dimensions in early Homo is often
             proposed to be a functional adaptation to diet. With their
             smaller occlusal surfaces, species of early Homo are
             suggested to have reduced food-processing abilities,
             particularly for foods with high material properties (e.g.,
             increased toughness). Here, we employ chewing efficiency as
             a measure of masticatory performance to test the
             relationships between masticatory function and food
             properties. We predicted that humans are more efficient when
             processing foods of lower toughness and Young's modulus
             values, and that subjects with larger occlusal surfaces will
             be less efficient when processing foods with higher
             toughness and Young's modulus, as the greater area spreads
             out the overall bite force applied to food particles.
             Chewing efficiency was measured in 26 adults using
             high-speed motion capture and surface electromyography. The
             dentition of each subject was cast and the occlusal surface
             was quantified using dental topographic analysis. Toughness
             and displacement-limited index were negatively correlated
             with chewing efficiency, but Young's modulus was not.
             Increased occlusal two-dimensional area and surface area
             were positively correlated with chewing efficiency for all
             foods. Thus, larger occlusal surface areas were more
             efficient when processing foods of greater toughness. These
             results suggest that the reduction in occlusal area in early
             Homo was associated with a reduction in chewing efficiency,
             particularly for foods with greater toughness. Further, the
             larger occlusal surfaces of earlier hominins such as
             Australopithecus would have likely increased chewing
             efficiency and increased the probability of fracture when
             processing tough foods.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jhevol.2015.11.005},
   Key = {fds337787}
}

@article{fds337797,
   Author = {Pontzer, H and Durazo-Arvizu, R and Dugas, LR and Plange-Rhule, J and Bovet, P and Forrester, TE and Lambert, EV and Cooper, RS and Schoeller,
             DA and Luke, A},
   Title = {Constrained Total Energy Expenditure and Metabolic
             Adaptation to Physical Activity in Adult
             Humans.},
   Journal = {Current Biology : Cb},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {410-417},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2015.12.046},
   Abstract = {Current obesity prevention strategies recommend increasing
             daily physical activity, assuming that increased activity
             will lead to corresponding increases in total energy
             expenditure and prevent or reverse energy imbalance and
             weight gain [1-3]. Such Additive total energy expenditure
             models are supported by exercise intervention and
             accelerometry studies reporting positive correlations
             between physical activity and total energy expenditure [4]
             but are challenged by ecological studies in humans and other
             species showing that more active populations do not have
             higher total energy expenditure [5-8]. Here we tested a
             Constrained total energy expenditure model, in which total
             energy expenditure increases with physical activity at low
             activity levels but plateaus at higher activity levels as
             the body adapts to maintain total energy expenditure within
             a narrow range. We compared total energy expenditure,
             measured using doubly labeled water, against physical
             activity, measured using accelerometry, for a large (n =
             332) sample of adults living in five populations [9]. After
             adjusting for body size and composition, total energy
             expenditure was positively correlated with physical
             activity, but the relationship was markedly stronger over
             the lower range of physical activity. For subjects in the
             upper range of physical activity, total energy expenditure
             plateaued, supporting a Constrained total energy expenditure
             model. Body fat percentage and activity intensity appear to
             modulate the metabolic response to physical activity. Models
             of energy balance employed in public health [1-3] should be
             revised to better reflect the constrained nature of total
             energy expenditure and the complex effects of physical
             activity on metabolic physiology.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.cub.2015.12.046},
   Key = {fds337797}
}

@article{fds337798,
   Author = {Pontzer, H},
   Title = {A unified theory for the energy cost of legged
             locomotion.},
   Journal = {Biology Letters},
   Volume = {12},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {20150935},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2015.0935},
   Abstract = {Small animals are remarkably efficient climbers but
             comparatively poor runners, a well-established phenomenon in
             locomotor energetics that drives size-related differences in
             locomotor ecology yet remains poorly understood. Here, I
             derive the energy cost of legged locomotion from two
             complementary components of muscle metabolism,
             Activation-Relaxation and Cross-bridge cycling. A
             mathematical model incorporating these costs explains
             observed patterns of locomotor cost both within and between
             species, across a broad range of animals (insects to
             ungulates), for a wide range of substrate slopes including
             level running and vertical climbing. This ARC model unifies
             work- and force-based models for locomotor cost and
             integrates whole-organism locomotor cost with cellular
             muscle physiology, creating a predictive framework for
             investigating evolutionary and ecological pressures shaping
             limb design and ranging behaviour.},
   Doi = {10.1098/rsbl.2015.0935},
   Key = {fds337798}
}

@article{fds337799,
   Author = {Yetish, G and Kaplan, H and Gurven, M and Wood, B and Pontzer, H and Manger, PR and Wilson, C and McGregor, R and Siegel,
             JM},
   Title = {Natural sleep and its seasonal variations in three
             pre-industrial societies.},
   Journal = {Current Biology : Cb},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {21},
   Pages = {2862-2868},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2015.09.046},
   Abstract = {How did humans sleep before the modern era? Because the
             tools to measure sleep under natural conditions were
             developed long after the invention of the electric devices
             suspected of delaying and reducing sleep, we investigated
             sleep in three preindustrial societies [1-3]. We find that
             all three show similar sleep organization, suggesting that
             they express core human sleep patterns, most likely
             characteristic of pre-modern era Homo sapiens. Sleep
             periods, the times from onset to offset, averaged
             6.9-8.5 hr, with sleep durations of 5.7-7.1 hr, amounts
             near the low end of those industrial societies [4-7]. There
             was a difference of nearly 1 hr between summer and winter
             sleep. Daily variation in sleep duration was strongly linked
             to time of onset, rather than offset. None of these groups
             began sleep near sunset, onset occurring, on average,
             3.3 hr after sunset. Awakening was usually before sunrise.
             The sleep period consistently occurred during the nighttime
             period of falling environmental temperature, was not
             interrupted by extended periods of waking, and terminated,
             with vasoconstriction, near the nadir of daily ambient
             temperature. The daily cycle of temperature change, largely
             eliminated from modern sleep environments, may be a potent
             natural regulator of sleep. Light exposure was maximal in
             the morning and greatly decreased at noon, indicating that
             all three groups seek shade at midday and that light
             activation of the suprachiasmatic nucleus is maximal in the
             morning. Napping occurred on <7% of days in winter and <22%
             of days in summer. Mimicking aspects of the natural
             environment might be effective in treating certain modern
             sleep disorders.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.cub.2015.09.046},
   Key = {fds337799}
}

@article{fds337801,
   Author = {Pontzer, H and Raichlen, DA and Wood, BM and Emery Thompson and M and Racette, SB and Mabulla, AZP and Marlowe, FW},
   Title = {Energy expenditure and activity among Hadza
             hunter-gatherers.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Human Biology : the Official Journal of
             the Human Biology Council},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {628-637},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.22711},
   Abstract = {Studies of total energy expenditure, (TEE; kcal/day) among
             traditional populations have challenged current models
             relating habitual physical activity to daily energy
             requirements. Here, we examine the relationship between
             physical activity and TEE among traditional Hadza
             hunter-gatherers living in northern Tanzania.Hadza adults
             were studied at two camps, with minimal intervention so as
             to monitor energy expenditure and activity during normal
             daily life. We measured daily walking distance and walking
             speed using wearable GPS units for 41 adults. For a subset
             of 30 adults, we measured TEE using doubly labeled water,
             three indices of work load (foraging return rate, maternal
             status, and number of dependent children), and urinary
             biomarkers of metabolic activity and stress
             (8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, cortisol, and testosterone).Fat-free
             mass was the single strongest predictor of TEE among Hadza
             adults (r(2)  = 0.66, P < 0.001). Hadza men used
             greater daily walking distances and faster walking speeds
             compared with that of Hadza women, but neither sex nor any
             measure of physical activity or work load were correlated
             with TEE in analyses controlling for fat-free mass. Compared
             with developed, industrial populations, Hadza adults had
             similar TEE but elevated levels of metabolic stress as
             measured by 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine.Our results indicate
             that daily physical activity may not predict TEE within
             traditional hunter-gatherer populations like the Hadza.
             Instead, adults with high levels of habitual physical
             activity may adapt by reducing energy allocation to other
             physiological activity.},
   Doi = {10.1002/ajhb.22711},
   Key = {fds337801}
}

@article{fds337802,
   Author = {Pontzer, H},
   Title = {Constrained Total Energy Expenditure and the Evolutionary
             Biology of Energy Balance.},
   Journal = {Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews},
   Volume = {43},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {110-116},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/jes.0000000000000048},
   Abstract = {The human body adapts dynamically to maintain total energy
             expenditure (TEE) within a narrow physiological range.
             Rather than increasing with physical activity in a
             dose-dependent manner, experimental and ecological evidence
             suggests the hypothesis that TEE is a relatively constrained
             product of our evolved physiology.},
   Doi = {10.1249/jes.0000000000000048},
   Key = {fds337802}
}

@article{fds337800,
   Author = {Pontzer, H},
   Title = {Energy Expenditure in Humans and Other Primates: A New
             Synthesis},
   Journal = {Annual Review of Anthropology},
   Volume = {44},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {169-187},
   Publisher = {ANNUAL REVIEWS},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-anthro-102214-013925},
   Abstract = {Copyright ©2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
             This review examines the proximate, ecological, and
             evolutionary determinants of energy expenditure in humans
             and primates, with an emphasis on empirical measurements of
             total energy expenditure (TEE). Body size is the main
             proximate determinant of TEE, both within and between
             species; physical activity, genetic variation, and endocrine
             regulation explain substantially less of the variation in
             TEE. Basal metabolism is the single largest component of
             TEE, far exceeding the cost of physical activity, digestion,
             growth and reproduction, and thermoregulation in most
             instances. Notably, differences in physical activity do not
             generally result in corresponding differences in TEE,
             undermining the utility of activity-based factorial
             estimates of TEE. Instead, empirical measurements of energy
             expenditure in humans and other primates suggest that the
             body adapts dynamically to long-term changes in physical
             activity, maintaining TEE within an evolved, and relatively
             narrow, physiological range. ©},
   Doi = {10.1146/annurev-anthro-102214-013925},
   Key = {fds337800}
}

@article{fds337808,
   Author = {Warrener, AG and Lewton, KL and Pontzer, H and Lieberman,
             DE},
   Title = {A wider pelvis does not increase locomotor cost in humans,
             with implications for the evolution of childbirth.},
   Journal = {Plos One},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {e0118903},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118903},
   Abstract = {The shape of the human female pelvis is thought to reflect
             an evolutionary trade-off between two competing demands: a
             pelvis wide enough to permit the birth of large-brained
             infants, and narrow enough for efficient bipedal locomotion.
             This trade-off, known as the obstetrical dilemma, is invoked
             to explain the relative difficulty of human childbirth and
             differences in locomotor performance between men and women.
             The basis for the obstetrical dilemma is a standard static
             biomechanical model that predicts wider pelves in females
             increase the metabolic cost of locomotion by decreasing the
             effective mechanical advantage of the hip abductor muscles
             for pelvic stabilization during the single-leg support phase
             of walking and running, requiring these muscles to produce
             more force. Here we experimentally test this model against a
             more accurate dynamic model of hip abductor mechanics in men
             and women. The results show that pelvic width does not
             predict hip abductor mechanics or locomotor cost in either
             women or men, and that women and men are equally efficient
             at both walking and running. Since a wider birth canal does
             not increase a woman's locomotor cost, and because selection
             for successful birthing must be strong, other factors
             affecting maternal pelvic and fetal size should be
             investigated in order to help explain the prevalence of
             birth complications caused by a neonate too large to fit
             through the birth canal.},
   Doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0118903},
   Key = {fds337808}
}

@article{fds337811,
   Author = {Raubenheimer, D and Rothman, JM and Pontzer, H and Simpson,
             SJ},
   Title = {Macronutrient contributions of insects to the diets of
             hunter-gatherers: a geometric analysis.},
   Journal = {Journal of Human Evolution},
   Volume = {71},
   Pages = {70-76},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2014.02.007},
   Abstract = {We present a geometric model for examining the macronutrient
             contributions of insects in the diets of pre-agricultural
             humans, and relate the findings to some contemporary
             societies that regularly eat insects. The model integrates
             published data on the macronutrient composition of insects
             and other foods in the diets of humans, recommended human
             macronutrient intakes, and estimated macronutrient intakes
             to examine the assumption that insects provided to
             pre-agricultural humans an invertebrate equivalent of
             vertebrate-derived meats, serving primarily as a source of
             protein. Our analysis suggests that insects vary more widely
             in their macronutrient content than is likely to be the case
             for most wild vertebrate meats, spanning a broad range of
             protein, fat and carbohydrate concentrations. Potentially,
             therefore, in terms of their proportional macronutrient
             composition, insects could serve as equivalents not only of
             wild meat, but of a range of other foods including some
             shellfish, nuts, pulses, vegetables and even fruits.
             Furthermore, humans might systematically manipulate the
             composition of edible insects to meet specific needs through
             pre-ingestive processing, such as cooking and selective
             removal of body parts. We present data suggesting that in
             modern societies for which protein is the more limiting
             macronutrient, pre-ingestive processing of edible insects
             might serve to concentrate protein. It is likely, however,
             that the dietary significance of insects was different for
             Paleolithic hunter-gatherers who were more limited in
             non-protein energy. Our conclusions are constrained by
             available data, but highlight the need for further studies,
             and suggest that our model provides an integrative framework
             for conceiving these studies.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jhevol.2014.02.007},
   Key = {fds337811}
}

@article{fds337817,
   Author = {Pontzer, H and Raichlen, DA and Gordon, AD and Schroepfer-Walker, KK and Hare, B and O'Neill, MC and Muldoon, KM and Dunsworth, HM and Wood, BM and Isler, K and Burkart, J and Irwin, M and Shumaker, RW and Lonsdorf, EV and Ross, SR},
   Title = {Primate energy expenditure and life history.},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the
             United States of America},
   Volume = {111},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1433-1437},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1316940111},
   Abstract = {Humans and other primates are distinct among placental
             mammals in having exceptionally slow rates of growth,
             reproduction, and aging. Primates' slow life history
             schedules are generally thought to reflect an evolved
             strategy of allocating energy away from growth and
             reproduction and toward somatic investment, particularly to
             the development and maintenance of large brains. Here we
             examine an alternative explanation: that primates' slow life
             histories reflect low total energy expenditure (TEE)
             (kilocalories per day) relative to other placental mammals.
             We compared doubly labeled water measurements of TEE among
             17 primate species with similar measures for other placental
             mammals. We found that primates use remarkably little energy
             each day, expending on average only 50% of the energy
             expected for a placental mammal of similar mass. Such large
             differences in TEE are not easily explained by differences
             in physical activity, and instead appear to reflect systemic
             metabolic adaptation for low energy expenditures in
             primates. Indeed, comparisons of wild and captive primate
             populations indicate similar levels of energy expenditure.
             Broad interspecific comparisons of growth, reproduction, and
             maximum life span indicate that primates' slow metabolic
             rates contribute to their characteristically slow life
             histories.},
   Doi = {10.1073/pnas.1316940111},
   Key = {fds337817}
}

@article{fds337818,
   Author = {Pontzer, H},
   Title = {Early hominin paleoecology. Edited by MattSponheimer, Julia
             A.Lee-Thorp, Kaye E.Reed, and PeterUngar. 368 pp. Boulder,
             CO: University Press of Colorado. 2013. $70.00 (cloth),
             $56.00 (e-book).},
   Journal = {American Journal of Human Biology : the Official Journal of
             the Human Biology Council},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {103-103},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.22486},
   Doi = {10.1002/ajhb.22486},
   Key = {fds337818}
}

@article{fds337819,
   Author = {Pontzer, H and Raichlen, DA and Rodman, PS},
   Title = {Bipedal and quadrupedal locomotion in chimpanzees.},
   Journal = {Journal of Human Evolution},
   Volume = {66},
   Pages = {64-82},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2013.10.002},
   Abstract = {Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) habitually walk both bipedally
             and quadrupedally, and have been a common point of reference
             for understanding the evolution of bipedal locomotion in
             early ape-like hominins. Here we compare the kinematics,
             kinetics, and energetics of bipedal and quadrupedal walking
             and running in a sample of five captive chimpanzees.
             Kinematics were recorded using sagittal-plane digital
             high-speed video of treadmill trials. Kinetics were recorded
             via a forceplate. Metabolic energy cost was measured via
             steady-state oxygen consumption during treadmill trials.
             Consistent with previous work on chimpanzees and other
             hominoids, we found that the spatiotemporal characteristics,
             joint angles, ground reaction forces, and metabolic cost of
             bipedal and quadrupedal locomotion are similar in
             chimpanzees. Notable differences include hip and trunk
             angles, which reflected a more orthograde trunk posture
             during bipedalism, and mediolateral ground reaction forces,
             which were larger during bipedal walking. Stride frequencies
             were also higher (and step lengths shorter) during bipedal
             trials. Bipedal and quadrupedal walking among chimpanzees
             was similar to that reported for bonobos, gibbons, and other
             primates. The similarity in cost between bipedal and
             quadrupedal trials suggests that the adoption of bipedal
             walking would have had no effect on walking costs for early
             ape-like hominins. However, habitual bipedalism may have
             favored modifications of the hip to allow a more orthograde
             posture, and of the hind limb abductor mechanisms to
             efficiently exert mediolateral ground forces.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jhevol.2013.10.002},
   Key = {fds337819}
}

@article{fds337820,
   Author = {Raichlen, DA and Wood, BM and Gordon, AD and Mabulla, AZP and Marlowe,
             FW and Pontzer, H},
   Title = {Evidence of Levy walk foraging patterns in human
             hunter-gatherers.},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the
             United States of America},
   Volume = {111},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {728-733},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1318616111},
   Abstract = {When searching for food, many organisms adopt a
             superdiffusive, scale-free movement pattern called a Lévy
             walk, which is considered optimal when foraging for
             heterogeneously located resources with little prior
             knowledge of distribution patterns [Viswanathan GM, da Luz
             MGE, Raposo EP, Stanley HE (2011) The Physics of Foraging:
             An Introduction to Random Searches and Biological
             Encounters]. Although memory of food locations and higher
             cognition may limit the benefits of random walk strategies,
             no studies to date have fully explored search patterns in
             human foraging. Here, we show that human hunter-gatherers,
             the Hadza of northern Tanzania, perform Lévy walks in
             nearly one-half of all foraging bouts. Lévy walks occur
             when searching for a wide variety of foods from animal prey
             to underground tubers, suggesting that, even in the most
             cognitively complex forager on Earth, such patterns are
             essential to understanding elementary foraging mechanisms.
             This movement pattern may be fundamental to how humans
             experience and interact with the world across a wide range
             of ecological contexts, and it may be adaptive to food
             distribution patterns on the landscape, which previous
             studies suggested for organisms with more limited cognition.
             Additionally, Lévy walks may have become common early in
             our genus when hunting and gathering arose as a major
             foraging strategy, playing an important role in the
             evolution of human mobility.},
   Doi = {10.1073/pnas.1318616111},
   Key = {fds337820}
}

@article{fds337809,
   Author = {Wood, BM and Pontzer, H and Raichlen, DA and Marlowe,
             FW},
   Title = {Mutualism and manipulation in Hadza-honeyguide
             interactions},
   Journal = {Evolution and Human Behavior},
   Volume = {35},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {540-546},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2014.07.007},
   Abstract = {© 2014 Elsevier Inc. We investigated the ecology and
             evolution of interspecific cooperation between the Greater
             Honeyguide bird, Indicator indicator, and human
             hunter-gatherers, the Hadza of northern Tanzania. We found
             that honeyguides increased the Hadza's rate of finding bee
             nests by 560%, and that the birds led men to significantly
             higher yielding nests than those found without honeyguides.
             We estimate that 8-10% of the Hadza's total diet was
             acquired with the help of honeyguides. Contrary to most
             depictions of the human-honeyguide relationship, the Hadza
             did not actively repay honeyguides, but instead, hid,
             buried, and burned honeycomb, with the intent of keeping the
             bird hungry and thus more likely to guide again. Such
             manipulative behavior attests to the importance of social
             intelligence in hunter-gatherer foraging strategies. We
             present an evolutionary model for human-honeyguide
             interactions guided by the behavioral ecology of bees,
             non-human primates, and hunter-gatherers.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2014.07.007},
   Key = {fds337809}
}

@article{fds337810,
   Author = {Pontzer, H and Suchman, K and Raichlen, DA and Wood, BM and Mabulla,
             AZP and Marlowe, FW},
   Title = {Foot strike patterns and hind limb joint angles during
             running in Hadza hunter-gatherers},
   Journal = {Journal of Sport and Health Science},
   Volume = {3},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {95-101},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jshs.2014.03.010},
   Abstract = {Background: Investigations of running gait among barefoot
             and populations have revealed a diversity of foot strike
             behaviors, with some preferentially employing a rearfoot
             strike (RFS) as the foot touches down while others employ a
             midfoot strike (MFS) or forefoot strike (FFS). Here, we
             report foot strike behavior and joint angles among
             traditional Hadza hunter-gatherers living in Northern
             Tanzania. Methods: Hadza adults ( n=26) and juveniles (
             n=14) ran at a range of speeds (adults: mean 3.4±0.7m/s,
             juveniles: mean 3.2±0.5 m/s) over an outdoor trackway while
             being recorded via high-speed digital video. Foot strike
             type (RFS, MFS, or FFS) and hind limb segment angles at foot
             strike were recorded. Results: Hadza men preferentially
             employed MFS (86.7% of men), while Hadza women and juveniles
             preferentially employed RFS (90.9% and 85.7% of women and
             juveniles, respectively). No FFS was recorded. Speed, the
             presence of footwear (sandals vs. barefoot), and trial
             duration had no effect on foot strike type. Conclusion:
             Unlike other habitually barefoot populations which prefer
             FFS while running, Hadza men preferred MFS, and Hadza women
             and juveniles preferred RFS. Sex and age differences in foot
             strike behavior among Hadza adults may reflect differences
             in running experience, with men learning to prefer MFS as
             they accumulate more running experience. © 2014 Shanghai
             University of Sport.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jshs.2014.03.010},
   Key = {fds337810}
}

@article{fds337821,
   Author = {Foster, AD and Raichlen, DA and Pontzer, H},
   Title = {Muscle force production during bent-knee, bent-hip walking
             in humans.},
   Journal = {Journal of Human Evolution},
   Volume = {65},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {294-302},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2013.06.012},
   Abstract = {Researchers have long debated the locomotor posture used by
             the earliest bipeds. While many agree that by 3-4 Ma
             (millions of years ago), hominins walked with an
             extended-limb human style of bipedalism, researchers are
             still divided over whether the earliest bipeds walked like
             modern humans, or walked with a more bent-knee, bent-hip
             (BKBH) ape-like form of locomotion. Since more flexed
             postures are associated with higher energy costs,
             reconstructing early bipedal mechanics has implications for
             the selection pressures that led to upright walking. The
             purpose of this study is to determine how modern human
             anatomy functions in BKBH walking to clarify the links
             between morphology and energy costs in different mechanical
             regimes. Using inverse dynamics, we calculated muscle force
             production at the major limb joints in humans walking in two
             modes, both with extended limbs and BKBH. We found that in
             BKBH walking, humans must produce large muscle forces at the
             knee to support body weight, leading to higher estimated
             energy costs. However, muscle forces at the hip remained
             similar in BKBH and extended limb walking, suggesting that
             anatomical adaptations for hip extension in humans do not
             necessarily diminish the effective mechanical advantage at
             the hip in more flexed postures. We conclude that the key
             adaptations for economical walking, regardless of joint
             posture, seem to center on maintaining low muscle forces at
             the hip, primarily by keeping low external moments at the
             hip. We explore the implications of these results for
             interpreting locomotor energetics in early hominins,
             including australopithecines and Ardipithecus
             ramidus.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jhevol.2013.06.012},
   Key = {fds337821}
}

@article{fds337828,
   Author = {Barak, MM and Lieberman, DE and Raichlen, D and Pontzer, H and Warrener,
             AG and Hublin, J-J},
   Title = {Trabecular evidence for a human-like gait in
             Australopithecus africanus.},
   Journal = {Plos One},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {e77687},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077687},
   Abstract = {Although the earliest known hominins were apparently upright
             bipeds, there has been mixed evidence whether particular
             species of hominins including those in the genus
             Australopithecus walked with relatively extended hips, knees
             and ankles like modern humans, or with more flexed lower
             limb joints like apes when bipedal. Here we demonstrate in
             chimpanzees and humans a highly predictable and sensitive
             relationship between the orientation of the ankle joint
             during loading and the principal orientation of trabecular
             bone struts in the distal tibia that function to withstand
             compressive forces within the joint. Analyses of the
             orientation of these struts using microCT scans in a sample
             of fossil tibiae from the site of Sterkfontein, of which two
             are assigned to Australopithecus africanus, indicate that
             these hominins primarily loaded their ankles in a relatively
             extended posture like modern humans and unlike chimpanzees.
             In other respects, however, trabecular properties in Au
             africanus are distinctive, with values that mostly fall
             between those of chimpanzees and humans. These results
             indicate that Au. africanus, like Homo, walked with an
             efficient, extended lower limb.},
   Doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0077687},
   Key = {fds337828}
}

@article{fds337829,
   Author = {Raichlen, DA and Pontzer, H and Shapiro, LJ},
   Title = {A new look at the Dynamic Similarity Hypothesis: the
             importance of swing phase.},
   Journal = {Biology Open},
   Volume = {2},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {1032-1036},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.20135165},
   Abstract = {The Dynamic Similarity Hypothesis (DSH) suggests that when
             animals of different size walk at similar Froude numbers
             (equal ratios of inertial and gravitational forces) they
             will use similar size-corrected gaits. This application of
             similarity theory to animal biomechanics has contributed to
             fundamental insights in the mechanics and evolution of a
             diverse set of locomotor systems. However, despite its
             popularity, many mammals fail to walk with dynamically
             similar stride lengths, a key element of gait that
             determines spontaneous speed and energy costs. Here, we show
             that the applicability of the DSH is dependent on the
             inertial forces examined. In general, the inertial forces
             are thought to be the centripetal force of the inverted
             pendulum model of stance phase, determined by the length of
             the limb. If instead we model inertial forces as the
             centripetal force of the limb acting as a suspended pendulum
             during swing phase (determined by limb center of mass
             position), the DSH for stride length variation is fully
             supported. Thus, the DSH shows that inter-specific
             differences in spatial kinematics are tied to the evolution
             of limb mass distribution patterns. Selection may act on
             morphology to produce a given stride length, or
             alternatively, stride length may be a "spandrel" of
             selection acting on limb mass distribution.},
   Doi = {10.1242/bio.20135165},
   Key = {fds337829}
}

@article{fds337830,
   Author = {Pontzer, H},
   Title = {Ecological energetics in early Homo},
   Journal = {Current Anthropology},
   Volume = {53},
   Number = {SUPPL. 6},
   Pages = {S346-S358},
   Publisher = {University of Chicago Press},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/667402},
   Abstract = {Models for the origin of the genus Homo propose that
             increased quality of diet led to changes in ranging ecology
             and selection for greater locomotor economy, speed, and
             endurance. Here, I examine the fossil evidence for
             postcranial change in early Homo and draw on comparative
             data from living mammals to assess whether increased diet
             quality has led to selection for improved locomotor
             performance in other lineages. Body mass estimates indicate
             early Homo, both males and females, were approximately 33%
             larger than australopiths, consistent with archeological
             evidence indicating an ecological change with the origins of
             our genus. However, many of the postcranial features thought
             to be derived in Homo, including longer hind limbs, are
             present in Australopithecus, challenging the hypothesis that
             early Homo is marked by significant change in walking and
             running performance. Analysis of energy budgets across
             mammals suggests that the larger body mass and increased
             diet quality in early Homo may reflect an increase in the
             hominin energy budget. Expanding the energy budget would
             enable greater investment in reproduction without decreasing
             energy available for larger brains or increased activity.
             Food sharing and increased adiposity, which decrease
             variance in food energy availability, may have been integral
             to this metabolic strategy. © 2012 by The Wenner-Gren
             Foundation for Anthropological Research.All rights
             reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1086/667402},
   Key = {fds337830}
}

@article{fds337831,
   Author = {Dunsworth, HM and Warrener, AG and Deacon, T and Ellison, PT and Pontzer, H},
   Title = {Metabolic hypothesis for human altriciality.},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the
             United States of America},
   Volume = {109},
   Number = {38},
   Pages = {15212-15216},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1205282109},
   Abstract = {The classic anthropological hypothesis known as the
             "obstetrical dilemma" is a well-known explanation for human
             altriciality, a condition that has significant implications
             for human social and behavioral evolution. The hypothesis
             holds that antagonistic selection for a large neonatal brain
             and a narrow, bipedal-adapted birth canal poses a problem
             for childbirth; the hominin "solution" is to truncate
             gestation, resulting in an altricial neonate. This
             explanation for human altriciality based on pelvic
             constraints persists despite data linking human life history
             to that of other species. Here, we present evidence that
             challenges the importance of pelvic morphology and mechanics
             in the evolution of human gestation and altriciality.
             Instead, our analyses suggest that limits to maternal
             metabolism are the primary constraints on human gestation
             length and fetal growth. Although pelvic remodeling and
             encephalization during hominin evolution contributed to the
             present parturitional difficulty, there is little evidence
             that pelvic constraints have altered the timing of
             birth.},
   Doi = {10.1073/pnas.1205282109},
   Key = {fds337831}
}

@article{fds337832,
   Author = {Pontzer, H},
   Title = {Relating ranging ecology, limb length, and locomotor economy
             in terrestrial animals.},
   Journal = {Journal of Theoretical Biology},
   Volume = {296},
   Pages = {6-12},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2011.11.018},
   Abstract = {Ecomorphological analyses have identified a number of
             important evolutionary trends in vertebrate limb design, but
             the relationships between daily travel distance, locomotor
             ecology, and limb length in terrestrial animals remain
             poorly understood. In this paper I model the net rate of
             energy intake as a function of foraging efficiency, and thus
             of locomotor economy; improved economy leads to greater net
             energy intake. However, the relationship between locomotor
             economy and net intake is highly dependent on foraging
             efficiency; only species with low foraging efficiencies
             experience strong selection pressure for improved locomotor
             economy and increased limb length. Examining 237 terrestrial
             species, I find that nearly all taxa obtain sufficiently
             high foraging efficiencies that selection for further
             increases in economy is weak. Thus selection pressures for
             increased economy and limb length among living terrestrial
             animals may be relatively weak and similar in magnitude
             across ecologically diverse species. The Economy Selection
             Pressure model for locomotor economy may be useful in
             investigating the evolution of limb design in early
             terrestrial taxa and the coevolution of foraging ecology and
             locomotor anatomy in lineages with low foraging
             efficiencies.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jtbi.2011.11.018},
   Key = {fds337832}
}

@article{fds337837,
   Author = {Pontzer, H and Raichlen, DA and Wood, BM and Mabulla, AZP and Racette,
             SB and Marlowe, FW},
   Title = {Hunter-gatherer energetics and human obesity.},
   Journal = {Plos One},
   Volume = {7},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {e40503},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040503},
   Abstract = {Western lifestyles differ markedly from those of our
             hunter-gatherer ancestors, and these differences in diet and
             activity level are often implicated in the global obesity
             pandemic. However, few physiological data for
             hunter-gatherer populations are available to test these
             models of obesity. In this study, we used the doubly-labeled
             water method to measure total daily energy expenditure
             (kCal/day) in Hadza hunter-gatherers to test whether
             foragers expend more energy each day than their Western
             counterparts. As expected, physical activity level, PAL, was
             greater among Hadza foragers than among Westerners.
             Nonetheless, average daily energy expenditure of traditional
             Hadza foragers was no different than that of Westerners
             after controlling for body size. The metabolic cost of
             walking (kcal kg(-1) m(-1)) and resting (kcal kg(-1) s(-1))
             were also similar among Hadza and Western groups. The
             similarity in metabolic rates across a broad range of
             cultures challenges current models of obesity suggesting
             that Western lifestyles lead to decreased energy
             expenditure. We hypothesize that human daily energy
             expenditure may be an evolved physiological trait largely
             independent of cultural differences.},
   Doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0040503},
   Key = {fds337837}
}

@article{fds337838,
   Author = {Pontzer, H and Scott, JR and Lordkipanidze, D and Ungar,
             PS},
   Title = {Dental microwear texture analysis and diet in the Dmanisi
             hominins.},
   Journal = {Journal of Human Evolution},
   Volume = {61},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {683-687},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2011.08.006},
   Abstract = {Reconstructions of foraging behavior and diet are central to
             our understanding of fossil hominin ecology and evolution.
             Current hypotheses for the evolution of the genus Homo
             invoke a change in foraging behavior to include higher
             quality foods. Recent microwear texture analyses of fossil
             hominin teeth have suggested that the evolution of Homo
             erectus may have been marked by a transition to a more
             variable diet. In this study, we used microwear texture
             analysis to examine the occlusal surface of 2 molars from
             Dmanisi, a 1.8 million year old fossil hominin site in the
             Republic of Georgia. The Dmanisi molars were characterized
             by a moderate degree of surface complexity (Asfc), low
             textural fill volume (Tfv), and a relatively low scale of
             maximum complexity (Smc), similar to specimens of early
             African H. erectus. While caution must be used in drawing
             conclusions from this small sample (n = 2), these results
             are consistent with continuity in diet as H. erectus
             expanded into Eurasia.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jhevol.2011.08.006},
   Key = {fds337838}
}

@article{fds337839,
   Author = {Orkin, JD and Pontzer, H},
   Title = {The Narrow Niche hypothesis: gray squirrels shed new light
             on primate origins.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {144},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {617-624},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.21450},
   Abstract = {Current hypotheses for primate origins propose that nails
             and primate-like grasping hands and feet were important
             early adaptations for feeding in fine branches. Comparative
             research in this area has focused on instances of
             convergence in extant animals, showing that species with
             primate-like morphology feed predominantly from terminal
             branches. Little has been done to test whether animals
             without primate-like morphology engage in similar behavior.
             We tested the fine-branch niche hypothesis for primate
             origins by observing branch use in Eastern gray squirrels,
             Sciurus carolinensis, a species lacking primate grasping
             adaptations that has been understudied in the context of
             primate origins. We hypothesized that because gray squirrels
             lack primate-like grasping adaptations, they would avoid
             feeding and foraging in terminal branches. Instantaneous
             focal animal sampling was used to examine the locomotor and
             postural behaviors used while feeding and foraging. Our
             results demonstrate habitual and effective usage of terminal
             branches by gray squirrels while feeding and foraging,
             primarily on tree seeds (e.g., oak, maple, and elm).
             Discriminant function analysis indicates that gray squirrels
             feed and forage like primates, unlike some other tree
             squirrel species. Given the absence of primate-like features
             in gray squirrels, we suggest that although selection for
             fine-branch foraging may be a necessary condition for
             primate origins, it is not sufficient. We propose an
             alternative model of primate origins. The Narrow Niche
             hypothesis suggests that the primate morphological suite
             evolved not only from selection pressure for fine branch
             use, but also from a lack of engagement in other
             activities.},
   Doi = {10.1002/ajpa.21450},
   Key = {fds337839}
}

@article{fds337848,
   Author = {Cowgill, LW and Warrener, A and Pontzer, H and Ocobock,
             C},
   Title = {Waddling and toddling: the biomechanical effects of an
             immature gait.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {143},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {52-61},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.21289},
   Abstract = {Femoral shape changes during the course of human growth,
             transitioning from a subcircular tube to a teardrop-shaped
             diaphysis with a posterior pilaster. Differences between
             immature and mature bipedalism and body shape may generate
             different loads, which, in turn, may influence femoral
             modeling and remodeling during the course of the human
             lifespan. This study uses two different approaches to
             evaluate the hypotheses that differences in gait between
             young and mature walkers result in differences in ground
             reaction forces (GRFs) and that the differences in loading
             regimes between young children and adults will be reflected
             in the geometric structure of the midshaft femur. The
             results of this analysis indicate that GRFs differ between
             young walkers and adults in that normalized mediolateral
             (ML) forces are significantly higher in younger age groups.
             In addition, these differences between children and adults
             in the relative level of ML bending force are reflected in
             changes in femoral geometry during growth. During the
             earlier stages of human development, immature femoral
             diaphyses are heavily reinforced in approximately ML plane.
             The differences in gait between mature and immature walkers,
             and hence the differences in femoral shape, are likely
             partially a product of a minimal bicondylar angle and
             relatively broad body in young children.},
   Doi = {10.1002/ajpa.21289},
   Key = {fds337848}
}

@article{fds337849,
   Author = {Pontzer, H and Raichlen, DA and Shumaker, RW and Ocobock, C and Wich,
             SA},
   Title = {Metabolic adaptation for low energy throughput in
             orangutans.},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the
             United States of America},
   Volume = {107},
   Number = {32},
   Pages = {14048-14052},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1001031107},
   Abstract = {Energy is the fundamental currency of life--needed for
             growth, repair, and reproduction--but little is known about
             the metabolic physiology and evolved energy use strategies
             of the great apes, our closest evolutionary relatives. Here
             we report daily energy use in free-living orangutans (Pongo
             spp.) and test whether observed differences in energy
             expenditure among orangutans, humans, and other mammals
             reflect known differences in life history. Using the doubly
             labeled water method, we measured daily energy expenditure
             (kCal/d) in orangutans living in a large indoor/outdoor
             habitat at the Great Ape Trust. Despite activity levels
             similar to orangutans in the wild, Great Ape Trust
             orangutans used less energy, relative to body mass, than
             nearly any eutherian mammal ever measured, including
             sedentary humans. Such an extremely low rate of energy use
             has not been observed previously in primates, but is
             consistent with the slow growth and low rate of reproduction
             in orangutans, and may be an evolutionary response to severe
             food shortages in their native Southeast Asian rainforests.
             These results hold important implications for the management
             of orangutan populations in captivity and in the wild, and
             underscore the flexibility and interdependence of
             physiological, behavioral, and life history strategies in
             the evolution of apes and humans.},
   Doi = {10.1073/pnas.1001031107},
   Key = {fds337849}
}

@article{fds337850,
   Author = {Pontzer, H and Rolian, C and Rightmire, GP and Jashashvili, T and Ponce
             de León, MS and Lordkipanidze, D and Zollikofer,
             CPE},
   Title = {Locomotor anatomy and biomechanics of the Dmanisi
             hominins.},
   Journal = {Journal of Human Evolution},
   Volume = {58},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {492-504},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2010.03.006},
   Abstract = {The Dmanisi hominins inhabited a northern temperate habitat
             in the southern Caucasus, approximately 1.8 million years
             ago. This is the oldest population of hominins known outside
             of Africa. Understanding the set of anatomical and
             behavioral traits that equipped this population to exploit
             their seasonal habitat successfully may shed light on the
             selection pressures shaping early members of the genus Homo
             and the ecological strategies that permitted the expansion
             of their range outside of the African subtropics. The
             abundant stone tools at the site, as well as taphonomic
             evidence for butchery, suggest that the Dmanisi hominins
             were active hunters or scavengers. In this study, we examine
             the locomotor mechanics of the Dmanisi hind limb to test the
             hypothesis that the inclusion of meat in the diet is
             associated with an increase in walking and running economy
             and endurance. Using comparative data from modern humans,
             chimpanzees, and gorillas, as well as other fossil hominins,
             we show that the Dmanisi hind limb was functionally similar
             to modern humans, with a longitudinal plantar arch,
             increased limb length, and human-like ankle morphology.
             Other aspects of the foot, specifically metatarsal
             morphology and tibial torsion, are less derived and similar
             to earlier hominins. These results are consistent with
             hypotheses linking hunting and scavenging to improved
             walking and running performance in early Homo. Primitive
             retentions in the Dmanisi foot suggest that locomotor
             evolution continued through the early Pleistocene.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jhevol.2010.03.006},
   Key = {fds337850}
}

@article{fds337854,
   Author = {Raichlen, DA and Pontzer, H and Shapiro, LJ and Sockol,
             MD},
   Title = {Understanding hind limb weight support in chimpanzees with
             implications for the evolution of primate
             locomotion.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {138},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {395-402},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.20952},
   Abstract = {Most quadrupedal mammals support a larger amount of body
             weight on their forelimbs compared with their hind limbs
             during locomotion, whereas most primates support more of
             their body weight on their hind limbs. Increased hind limb
             weight support is generally interpreted as an adaptation
             that reduces stress on primates' highly mobile forelimb
             joints. Thus, increased hind limb weight support was likely
             vital for the evolution of primate arboreality. Despite its
             evolutionary importance, the mechanism used by primates to
             achieve this important kinetic pattern remains unclear.
             Here, we examine weight support patterns in a sample of
             chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) to test the hypothesis that
             limb position, combined with whole body center of mass
             position (COM), explains increased hind limb weight support
             in this taxon. Chimpanzees have a COM midway between their
             shoulders and hips and walk with a relatively protracted
             hind limb and a relatively vertical forelimb, averaged over
             a step. Thus, the limb kinematics of chimpanzees brings
             their feet closer to the COM than their hands, generating
             greater hind limb weight support. Comparative data suggest
             that these same factors likely explain weight support
             patterns for a broader sample of primates. It remains
             unclear whether primates use these limb kinematics to
             increase hind limb weight support, or whether they are
             byproducts of other gait characteristics. The latter
             hypothesis raises the intriguing possibility that primate
             weight support patterns actually evolved as byproducts of
             other traits, or spandrels, rather than as adaptations to
             increase forelimb mobility.},
   Doi = {10.1002/ajpa.20952},
   Key = {fds337854}
}

@article{fds337855,
   Author = {Pontzer, H and Holloway IV and JH and Raichlen, DA and Lieberman,
             DE},
   Title = {Control and function of arm swing in human walking and
             running (Journal of Experimental Biology 212
             (523-534))},
   Journal = {The Journal of Experimental Biology},
   Volume = {212},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {894},
   Publisher = {The Company of Biologists},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jeb.030478},
   Doi = {10.1242/jeb.030478},
   Key = {fds337855}
}

@article{fds337858,
   Author = {Pontzer, H and Holloway, JH and Raichlen, DA and Lieberman,
             DE},
   Title = {Control and function of arm swing in human walking and
             running.},
   Journal = {The Journal of Experimental Biology},
   Volume = {212},
   Number = {Pt 4},
   Pages = {523-534},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jeb.024927},
   Abstract = {We investigated the control and function of arm swing in
             human walking and running to test the hypothesis that the
             arms act as passive mass dampers powered by movement of the
             lower body, rather than being actively driven by the
             shoulder muscles. We measured locomotor cost, deltoid muscle
             activity and kinematics in 10 healthy adult subjects while
             walking and running on a treadmill in three experimental
             conditions: control; no arms (arms folded across the chest);
             and arm weights (weights worn at the elbow). Decreasing and
             increasing the moment of inertia of the upper body in no
             arms and arm weights conditions, respectively, had
             corresponding effects on head yaw and on the phase
             differences between shoulder and pelvis rotation, consistent
             with the view of arms as mass dampers. Angular acceleration
             of the shoulders and arm increased with torsion of the trunk
             and shoulder, respectively, but angular acceleration of the
             shoulders was not inversely related to angular acceleration
             of the pelvis or arm. Restricting arm swing in no arms
             trials had no effect on locomotor cost. Anterior and
             posterior portions of the deltoid contracted simultaneously
             rather than firing alternately to drive the arm. These
             results support a passive arm swing hypothesis for upper
             body movement during human walking and running, in which the
             trunk and shoulders act primarily as elastic linkages
             between the pelvis, shoulder girdle and arms, the arms act
             as passive mass dampers which reduce torso and head
             rotation, and upper body movement is primarily powered by
             lower body movement.},
   Doi = {10.1242/jeb.024927},
   Key = {fds337858}
}

@article{fds337864,
   Author = {Pontzer, H and Allen, V and Hutchinson, JR},
   Title = {Biomechanics of running indicates endothermy in bipedal
             dinosaurs.},
   Journal = {Plos One},
   Volume = {4},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {e7783},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007783},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: One of the great unresolved controversies in
             paleobiology is whether extinct dinosaurs were endothermic,
             ectothermic, or some combination thereof, and when
             endothermy first evolved in the lineage leading to birds.
             Although it is well established that high, sustained growth
             rates and, presumably, high activity levels are ancestral
             for dinosaurs and pterosaurs (clade Ornithodira), other
             independent lines of evidence for high metabolic rates,
             locomotor costs, or endothermy are needed. For example, some
             studies have suggested that, because large dinosaurs may
             have been homeothermic due to their size alone and could
             have had heat loss problems, ectothermy would be a more
             plausible metabolic strategy for such animals.
             METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe two new
             biomechanical approaches for reconstructing the metabolic
             rate of 14 extinct bipedal dinosauriforms during walking and
             running. These methods, well validated for extant animals,
             indicate that during walking and slow running the metabolic
             rate of at least the larger extinct dinosaurs exceeded the
             maximum aerobic capabilities of modern ectotherms, falling
             instead within the range of modern birds and mammals.
             Estimated metabolic rates for smaller dinosaurs are more
             ambiguous, but generally approach or exceed the ectotherm
             boundary. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results support the
             hypothesis that endothermy was widespread in at least larger
             non-avian dinosaurs. It was plausibly ancestral for all
             dinosauriforms (perhaps Ornithodira), but this is perhaps
             more strongly indicated by high growth rates than by
             locomotor costs. The polarity of the evolution of endothermy
             indicates that rapid growth, insulation, erect postures, and
             perhaps aerobic power predated advanced "avian" lung
             structure and high locomotor costs.},
   Doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0007783},
   Key = {fds337864}
}

@article{fds337865,
   Author = {Pontzer, H and Raichlen, DA and Sockol, MD},
   Title = {The metabolic cost of walking in humans, chimpanzees, and
             early hominins.},
   Journal = {Journal of Human Evolution},
   Volume = {56},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {43-54},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2008.09.001},
   Abstract = {Bipedalism is a defining feature of the hominin lineage, but
             the nature and efficiency of early hominin walking remains
             the focus of much debate. Here, we investigate walking cost
             in early hominins using experimental data from humans and
             chimpanzees. We use gait and energetics data from humans,
             and from chimpanzees walking bipedally and quadrupedally, to
             test a new model linking locomotor anatomy and posture to
             walking cost. We then use this model to reconstruct
             locomotor cost for early, ape-like hominins and for the A.L.
             288 Australopithecus afarensis specimen. Results of the
             model indicate that hind limb length, posture (effective
             mechanical advantage), and muscle fascicle length contribute
             nearly equally to differences in walking cost between humans
             and chimpanzees. Further, relatively small changes in these
             variables would decrease the cost of bipedalism in an early
             chimpanzee-like biped below that of quadrupedal apes.
             Estimates of walking cost in A.L. 288, over a range of
             hypothetical postures from crouched to fully extended, are
             below those of quadrupedal apes, but above those of modern
             humans. These results indicate that walking cost in early
             hominins was likely similar to or below that of their
             quadrupedal ape-like forebears, and that by the
             mid-Pliocene, hominin walking was less costly than that of
             other apes. This supports the hypothesis that locomotor
             energy economy was an important evolutionary pressure on
             hominin bipedalism.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jhevol.2008.09.001},
   Key = {fds337865}
}

@article{fds337866,
   Author = {Pontzer, H and Kamilar, JM},
   Title = {Great ranging associated with greater reproductive
             investment in mammals.},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the
             United States of America},
   Volume = {106},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {192-196},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0806105106},
   Abstract = {Most animals must travel to find food, incurring an
             unavoidable energy and time cost. Economic theory predicts,
             and experimental work confirms, that within species,
             increasing the distance traveled each day to find food has
             negative fitness consequences, decreasing the amount of
             energy invested in maintenance, repair, and reproduction.
             Here, we show that this relationship between daily distance
             traveled and reproductive success is fundamentally different
             between species and over evolutionary time in many lineages.
             Phylogenetically controlled analyses of 161 eutherian
             mammals indicate that, after controlling for body mass,
             evolutionary increases in the daily distance traveled are
             associated with corresponding increases in both total
             fertility (number of offspring per lifetime) and total
             offspring mass (grams of offspring per lifetime). This
             suggests that over evolutionary time, increasing travel
             distance is often part of a strategy for procuring more food
             energy and not necessarily a response to decreased food
             availability. These results have important implications for
             ecological comparisons among species, including assessments
             of habitat quality based on locomotor behavior.},
   Doi = {10.1073/pnas.0806105106},
   Key = {fds337866}
}

@article{fds337868,
   Author = {Carter, ML and Pontzer, H and Wrangham, RW and Peterhans,
             JK},
   Title = {Skeletal pathology in Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii in
             Kibale National Park, Uganda.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {135},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {389-403},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.20758},
   Abstract = {The ecological pressures shaping chimpanzee anatomy and
             behavior are the subject of much discussion in primatology
             and paleoanthropology, yet empirical data on fundamental
             parameters including body size, morbidity, and mortality are
             rare for wild chimpanzees. Here, we present skeletal
             pathology and body size data for 20 (19 crania, 12
             postcrania) chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii)
             from Kibale National Park, Uganda. We compare these data
             with other East African populations, especially Gombe
             National Park. Estimated body size for Kibale chimpanzees
             was similar to other East African populations and
             significantly larger than Gombe chimpanzees. The high rates
             of trauma and other skeletal pathology evident in the Kibale
             chimpanzee skeletons were similar to those in the Gombe
             skeletal sample. Much of the major skeletal trauma in the
             Kibale skeletons was attributable to falls, although other
             pathologies were noted as well, including apparent injuries
             from snares, degenerative arthritis, and minor congenital
             abnormalities.},
   Doi = {10.1002/ajpa.20758},
   Key = {fds337868}
}

@article{fds337874,
   Author = {Raichlen, DA and Pontzer, H and Sockol, MD},
   Title = {The Laetoli footprints and early hominin locomotor
             kinematics.},
   Journal = {Journal of Human Evolution},
   Volume = {54},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {112-117},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2007.07.005},
   Abstract = {A critical question in human evolution is whether the
             earliest bipeds walked with a bent-hip, bent-knee gait or on
             more extended hindlimbs. The differences between these gaits
             are not trivial, because the adoption of either has
             important implications for the evolution of bipedalism. In
             this study, we re-examined the Laetoli footprints to
             determine whether they can provide information on the
             locomotor posture of early hominins. Previous researchers
             have suggested that the stride lengths of Laetoli hominins
             fall within the range of modern human stride lengths and
             therefore, Laetoli hominins walked with modern-human-like
             kinematics. Using a dynamic-similarity analysis, we compared
             Laetoli hominin stride lengths with those of both modern
             humans and chimpanzees. Our results indicate that Laetoli
             hominins could have used either a bent-hip, bent-knee gait,
             similar to a chimpanzee, or an extended-hindlimb gait,
             similar to a human. In fact, our data suggest that the
             Laetoli hominins could have walked near their preferred
             speeds using either limb posture. This result contrasts with
             most previous studies, which suggest relatively slow walking
             speeds for these early bipeds. Despite the many attempts to
             discern limb-joint kinematics from Laetoli stride lengths,
             our study concludes that stride lengths alone do not resolve
             the debate over early hominin locomotor postures.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jhevol.2007.07.005},
   Key = {fds337874}
}

@article{fds337876,
   Author = {Lordkipanidze, D and Jashashvili, T and Vekua, A and Ponce de León,
             MS and Zollikofer, CPE and Rightmire, GP and Pontzer, H and Ferring, R and Oms, O and Tappen, M and Bukhsianidze, M and Agusti, J and Kahlke, R and Kiladze, G and Martinez-Navarro, B and Mouskhelishvili, A and Nioradze, M and Rook, L},
   Title = {Postcranial evidence from early Homo from Dmanisi,
             Georgia.},
   Journal = {Nature},
   Volume = {449},
   Number = {7160},
   Pages = {305-310},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature06134},
   Abstract = {The Plio-Pleistocene site of Dmanisi, Georgia, has yielded a
             rich fossil and archaeological record documenting an early
             presence of the genus Homo outside Africa. Although the
             craniomandibular morphology of early Homo is well known as a
             result of finds from Dmanisi and African localities, data
             about its postcranial morphology are still relatively
             scarce. Here we describe newly excavated postcranial
             material from Dmanisi comprising a partial skeleton of an
             adolescent individual, associated with skull D2700/D2735,
             and the remains from three adult individuals. This material
             shows that the postcranial anatomy of the Dmanisi hominins
             has a surprising mosaic of primitive and derived features.
             The primitive features include a small body size, a low
             encephalization quotient and absence of humeral torsion; the
             derived features include modern-human-like body proportions
             and lower limb morphology indicative of the capability for
             long-distance travel. Thus, the earliest known hominins to
             have lived outside of Africa in the temperate zones of
             Eurasia did not yet display the full set of derived skeletal
             features.},
   Doi = {10.1038/nature06134},
   Key = {fds337876}
}

@article{fds337877,
   Author = {Sockol, MD and Raichlen, DA and Pontzer, H},
   Title = {Chimpanzee locomotor energetics and the origin of human
             bipedalism.},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the
             United States of America},
   Volume = {104},
   Number = {30},
   Pages = {12265-12269},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0703267104},
   Abstract = {Bipedal walking is evident in the earliest hominins
             [Zollikofer CPE, Ponce de Leon MS, Lieberman DE, Guy F,
             Pilbeam D, et al. (2005) Nature 434:755-759], but why our
             unique two-legged gait evolved remains unknown. Here, we
             analyze walking energetics and biomechanics for adult
             chimpanzees and humans to investigate the long-standing
             hypothesis that bipedalism reduced the energy cost of
             walking compared with our ape-like ancestors [Rodman PS,
             McHenry HM (1980) Am J Phys Anthropol 52:103-106].
             Consistent with previous work on juvenile chimpanzees
             [Taylor CR, Rowntree VJ (1973) Science 179:186-187], we find
             that bipedal and quadrupedal walking costs are not
             significantly different in our sample of adult chimpanzees.
             However, a more detailed analysis reveals significant
             differences in bipedal and quadrupedal cost in most
             individuals, which are masked when subjects are examined as
             a group. Furthermore, human walking is approximately 75%
             less costly than both quadrupedal and bipedal walking in
             chimpanzees. Variation in cost between bipedal and
             quadrupedal walking, as well as between chimpanzees and
             humans, is well explained by biomechanical differences in
             anatomy and gait, with the decreased cost of human walking
             attributable to our more extended hip and a longer hindlimb.
             Analyses of these features in early fossil hominins, coupled
             with analyses of bipedal walking in chimpanzees, indicate
             that bipedalism in early, ape-like hominins could indeed
             have been less costly than quadrupedal knucklewalking.},
   Doi = {10.1073/pnas.0703267104},
   Key = {fds337877}
}

@article{fds337878,
   Author = {Pontzer, H},
   Title = {Effective limb length and the scaling of locomotor cost in
             terrestrial animals.},
   Journal = {The Journal of Experimental Biology},
   Volume = {210},
   Number = {Pt 10},
   Pages = {1752-1761},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jeb.002246},
   Abstract = {Relative to body size, smaller animals use more energy to
             travel a given distance than larger animals, but the
             anatomical variable driving this negative allometry remains
             the subject of debate. Here, I report a simple inverse
             relationship between effective limb length (i.e. hip height)
             and the energy cost of transport (COT; J kg(-1) m(-1)) for
             terrestrial animals. Using published data for a diverse set
             of terrestrial species including birds, mammals, reptiles
             and arthropods, I show that between-species differences in
             locomotor cost are driven by differences in limb length.
             Notably, there is no independent effect of body mass on
             cost. Remarkably, effective limb length explains 98% of the
             observed variance in locomotor cost across a wide range of
             terrestrial species including mammals, birds, reptiles and
             arthropods. Variation about the limb-length/COT scaling
             relationship is attributable to taxonomic differences in
             limb design, with birds and arthropods exhibiting greater
             residuals than mammals. Differences in COT between
             semi-aquatic, generalist and cursorial species also
             corresponds to differences in leg length between these
             groups. These results are discussed in light of previous
             investigations of the limb length and locomotor
             cost.},
   Doi = {10.1242/jeb.002246},
   Key = {fds337878}
}

@article{fds337879,
   Author = {Pontzer, H},
   Title = {Predicting the energy cost of terrestrial locomotion: a test
             of the LiMb model in humans and quadrupeds.},
   Journal = {The Journal of Experimental Biology},
   Volume = {210},
   Number = {Pt 3},
   Pages = {484-494},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jeb.02662},
   Abstract = {The energy cost of terrestrial locomotion has been linked to
             the muscle forces generated to support body weight and swing
             the limbs. The LiMb model predicts these forces, and hence
             locomotor cost, as a function of limb length and basic
             kinematic variables. Here, I test this model in humans,
             goats and dogs in order to assess the performance of the
             LiMb model in predicting locomotor cost for bipeds and
             quadrupeds. Model predictions were compared to observed
             locomotor cost, measured via oxygen consumption, during
             treadmill trials performed over a range of speeds for both
             walking and running gaits. The LiMb model explained more of
             the variation in locomotor cost than other predictors,
             including contact time, Froude number and body mass. The
             LiMb model also accurately predicted the magnitude of
             vertical ground forces. Results suggest the LiMb model
             reliably links locomotor anatomy to force production and
             locomotor cost. Further, these data support the idea that
             limb length may underlie the scaling of locomotor cost for
             terrestrial animals.},
   Doi = {10.1242/jeb.02662},
   Key = {fds337879}
}

@article{fds337885,
   Author = {Lieberman, DE and Raichlen, DA and Pontzer, H and Bramble, DM and Cutright-Smith, E},
   Title = {The human gluteus maximus and its role in
             running.},
   Journal = {The Journal of Experimental Biology},
   Volume = {209},
   Number = {Pt 11},
   Pages = {2143-2155},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jeb.02255},
   Abstract = {The human gluteus maximus is a distinctive muscle in terms
             of size, anatomy and function compared to apes and other
             non-human primates. Here we employ electromyographic and
             kinematic analyses of human subjects to test the hypothesis
             that the human gluteus maximus plays a more important role
             in running than walking. The results indicate that the
             gluteus maximus is mostly quiescent with low levels of
             activity during level and uphill walking, but increases
             substantially in activity and alters its timing with respect
             to speed during running. The major functions of the gluteus
             maximus during running are to control flexion of the trunk
             on the stance-side and to decelerate the swing leg;
             contractions of the stance-side gluteus maximus may also
             help to control flexion of the hip and to extend the thigh.
             Evidence for when the gluteus maximus became enlarged in
             human evolution is equivocal, but the muscle's minimal
             functional role during walking supports the hypothesis that
             enlargement of the gluteus maximus was likely important in
             the evolution of hominid running capabilities.},
   Doi = {10.1242/jeb.02255},
   Key = {fds337885}
}

@article{fds337886,
   Author = {Pontzer, H and Wrangham, RW},
   Title = {Ontogeny of ranging in wild chimpanzees},
   Journal = {International Journal of Primatology},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {295-309},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10764-005-9011-2},
   Abstract = {We examined the relationship between juvenile age and
             distance traveled per day, or day range, in Kanyawara
             chimpanzees. Because the energy cost of locomotion is
             greater for small-bodied animals, we predict that day range
             is constrained by body size, i.e., younger individuals tend
             to have shorter day ranges. To test this hypothesis, we
             measured day range for 200 day-ranges of groups in which we
             recorded the age of the youngest juvenile present. As
             predicted, day range correlated positively with age for
             juveniles. Comparisons of day range vs. estimated stature
             support the hypothesis that the increase in day range with
             age was a consequence of body size. To assess other sources
             of variation in day range, we also measured the effects of
             group size and the presence of a carried infant. While day
             range correlated significantly with group size, the presence
             of a carried infant had no effect on adult female day range.
             Our results suggest the size of a juvenile may constrain
             ranging for mothers and their offspring. © 2006 Springer
             Science+Business Media, Inc.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s10764-005-9011-2},
   Key = {fds337886}
}

@article{fds337889,
   Author = {Pontzer, H and Lieberman, DE and Momin, E and Devlin, MJ and Polk, JD and Hallgrímsson, B and Cooper, DM},
   Title = {Trabecular bone in the bird knee responds with high
             sensitivity to changes in load orientation.},
   Journal = {The Journal of Experimental Biology},
   Volume = {209},
   Number = {Pt 1},
   Pages = {57-65},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jeb.01971},
   Abstract = {Wolff's law of trajectorial orientation proposes that
             trabecular struts align with the orientation of dominant
             compressive loads within a joint. Although widely considered
             in skeletal biology, Wolff's law has never been
             experimentally tested while controlling for ontogenetic
             stage, activity level, and species differences, all factors
             that may affect trabecular bone growth. Here we report an
             experimental test of Wolff's law using a within-species
             design in age-matched subjects experiencing physiologically
             normal levels of bone strain. Two age-matched groups of
             juvenile guinea fowl Numida meleagris ran on a treadmill set
             at either 0 degrees (Level group) or 20 degrees (Incline
             group), for 10 min per day over a 45-day treatment period.
             Birds running on the 20 degrees inclined treadmill used
             more-flexed knees than those in the Level group at midstance
             (the point of peak ground reaction force). This difference
             in joint posture enabled us to test the sensitivity of
             trabecular alignment to altered load orientation in the
             knee. Using a new radon transform-based method for measuring
             trabecular orientation, our analysis shows that the fine
             trabecular bone in the distal femur has a high degree of
             correspondence between changes in joint angle and trabecular
             orientation. The sensitivity of this response supports the
             prediction that trabecular bone adapts dynamically to the
             orientation of peak compressive forces.},
   Doi = {10.1242/jeb.01971},
   Key = {fds337889}
}

@article{fds337891,
   Author = {Pontzer, H},
   Title = {A new model predicting locomotor cost from limb length via
             force production.},
   Journal = {The Journal of Experimental Biology},
   Volume = {208},
   Number = {Pt 8},
   Pages = {1513-1524},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jeb.01549},
   Abstract = {Notably absent from the existing literature is an explicit
             biomechanical model linking limb design to the energy cost
             of locomotion, COL. Here, I present a simple model that
             predicts the rate of force production necessary to support
             the body and swing the limb during walking and running as a
             function of speed, limb length, limb proportion, excursion
             angle and stride frequency. The estimated rate of force
             production is then used to predict COL via this model
             following previous studies that have linked COL to force
             production. To test this model, oxygen consumption and
             kinematics were measured in nine human subjects while
             walking and running on a treadmill at range of speeds.
             Following the model, limb length, speed, excursion angle and
             stride frequency were used to predict the rate of force
             production both to support the body's center of mass and to
             swing the limb. Model-predicted COL was significantly
             correlated with observed COL, performing as well or better
             than contact time and Froude number as a predictor of COL
             for running and walking, respectively. Furthermore, the
             model presented here predicts relationships between COL,
             kinematic variables and body size that are supported by
             published reduced-gravity experiments and scaling studies.
             Results suggest the model is useful for predicting COL from
             anatomical and kinematic variables, and may be useful in
             intra- and inter-specific studies of locomotor anatomy and
             performance.},
   Doi = {10.1242/jeb.01549},
   Key = {fds337891}
}

@article{fds337896,
   Author = {Pontzer, H and Wrangham, RW},
   Title = {Climbing and the daily energy cost of locomotion in wild
             chimpanzees: implications for hominoid locomotor
             evolution.},
   Journal = {Journal of Human Evolution},
   Volume = {46},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {317-335},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2003.12.006},
   Abstract = {As noted by previous researchers, the chimpanzee postcranial
             anatomy reflects a compromise between the competing demands
             of arboreal and terrestrial locomotion. In this study, we
             measured the distance climbed and walked per day in a
             population of wild chimpanzees and used published equations
             to calculate the relative daily energy costs. Results were
             used to test hypotheses regarding the arboreal-terrestrial
             tradeoff in chimpanzee anatomy, specifically whether
             arboreal adaptations serve to minimize daily locomotor
             energy costs by decreasing the energy spent climbing. Our
             results show that chimpanzees spend approximately ten-times
             more energy per day on terrestrial travel than on vertical
             climbing, a figure inconsistent with minimizing energy costs
             in our model. This suggests non-energetic factors, such as
             avoiding falls from the canopy, may be the primary forces
             maintaining energetically costly climbing adaptations. These
             analyses are relevant to anatomical comparisons with living
             and extinct hominoids.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jhevol.2003.12.006},
   Key = {fds337896}
}


%% Papers Presented/Symposia/Abstracts   
@article{fds337776,
   Author = {Ocobock, C and Overbeck, A and Carlson, C and Royer, C and Mervenne, A and Thurber, C and Dugas, LR and Carlson, B and Pontzer,
             H},
   Title = {Sustained high levels of physical activity lead to improved
             performance among "Race Across the USA" athletes.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {168},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {789-794},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23781},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE:To investigate physiological and performance
             adaptations associated with extremely high daily sustained
             physical activity levels, we followed six runners
             participating in the 2015 Race Across the USA. Participants
             completed over 42.2 km a day for 140 days, covering nearly
             5,000 km. This analysis examines the improvement in
             running speed and potential adaptation in mean submaximal
             heart rate (SHR) throughout the race. METHODS:Data were
             collected during three 1-week long periods corresponding to
             the race beginning, middle, and end and included heart rates
             (HRs), body mass, running distances and speeds. HR data were
             collected using ActiTrainer HR monitors. Running speeds and
             distances were also recorded throughout the entire race.
             RESULTS:Athletes ran significantly faster as the race
             progressed (p < .001), reducing their mean marathon time
             by over 63 min. Observed mean SHR during the middle of the
             race was significantly lower than at the beginning
             (p = .003); however, there was no significant difference
             between mean SHR at the middle and end of the race
             (p = .998). CONCLUSION:These results indicate an early
             training effect in SHR during the first half of the race,
             which suggests that other physiological and biomechanical
             mechanisms were responsible for the continued improvement in
             running speed and adaptation to the high levels of sustained
             physical activity.},
   Doi = {10.1002/ajpa.23781},
   Key = {fds337776}
}

@article{fds342248,
   Author = {Hora, M and Pontzer, H and Sladek, V},
   Title = {Persistence hunting in Levant: Both Neandertals and modern
             humans could run down a horse},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {168},
   Pages = {107-107},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds342248}
}

@article{fds342249,
   Author = {Kozma, EE and Pontzer, H and Sanz, C and Morgan, D},
   Title = {Arboreal Positional Behavior in Humans, Chimpanzees, and
             Gorillas},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {168},
   Pages = {131-131},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds342249}
}

@article{fds342250,
   Author = {Swanson, ZS and Pontzer, H and Luke, A and Dugas, LR and Steiper,
             ME},
   Title = {The effect of the alpha-actinin 3 (ACTN3) R577X polymorphism
             and mtDNA on energy expenditure in modern
             humans},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {168},
   Pages = {242-243},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds342250}
}

@article{fds342251,
   Author = {Sayre, MK and Pontzer, H and Wood, BA and Alexander, GA and Raichlen,
             DA},
   Title = {Influence of physical activity on aging and frailty in human
             foragers},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {168},
   Pages = {217-217},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds342251}
}

@article{fds342252,
   Author = {Wood, BM and Harris, JA and Vashro, L and Sayre, MK and Raichlen, DA and Pontzer, H and Sancilio, A and Berbesque, JC and Crittenden, AN and Mabulla, AZP and Jones, JH and Cashdan, E},
   Title = {Hadza Hunter-Gatherers Exhibit Gender Differences in Space
             Use and Spatial Cognition Consistent with the Ecology of
             Male and Female Targeted Foods},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {168},
   Pages = {273-274},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds342252}
}

@article{fds342253,
   Author = {Pontzer, H and Brown, MH and Raichlen, DA and Wood, BM and Luke, A and Dugas, LR and Ross, SR},
   Title = {Water throughput in humans and apes},
   Journal = {American Journal of Human Biology : the Official Journal of
             the Human Biology Council},
   Volume = {31},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {1 pages},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds342253}
}

@article{fds342254,
   Author = {Urlacher, SS and Snodgrass, JJ and Dugas, LR and Madimenos, FC and Sugiyama, LS and Pontzer, H},
   Title = {The energetic ecology of childhood: Tradeoffs in energy
             allocation and the impact of market integration on ontogeny
             and health},
   Journal = {American Journal of Human Biology : the Official Journal of
             the Human Biology Council},
   Volume = {31},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {1 pages},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds342254}
}

@article{fds342255,
   Author = {Levy, SB and Sancilio, A and Christopher, L and Madimenos, FC and Urlacher, SS and Snodgrass, JJ and Sugiyama, LS and Pontzer, H and Bribiescas, RG},
   Title = {An assessment of urinary triiodothyronine (T3) levels as a
             biomarker of thyroid hormone action: preliminary data from
             the Shuar Health and Life History Project},
   Journal = {American Journal of Human Biology : the Official Journal of
             the Human Biology Council},
   Volume = {31},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {1 pages},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds342255}
}

@article{fds342256,
   Author = {Machanda, Z and Brazeau, N and Castillo, E and Otarola-Castillo, E and Pontzer, H and Emery Thompson and M and Muller, M and Wrangham,
             R},
   Title = {MUSCULOSKELETAL GROWTH IN WILD CHIMPANZEES WITH IMPLICATIONS
             FOR SOCIAL BEHAVIOR},
   Journal = {American Journal of Primatology},
   Volume = {80},
   Pages = {1 pages},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {December},
   Key = {fds342256}
}

@article{fds342259,
   Author = {Willis, EA and Saint-Maurice, PF and Pontzer, H and Matthews,
             CE},
   Title = {Is More Physical Activity Always Better? Constrained vs
             Additive Total Energy Expenditure Models.},
   Journal = {Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise},
   Volume = {50},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {841-841},
   Publisher = {LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {May},
   Key = {fds342259}
}

@article{fds337759,
   Author = {Eyre, J and Pontzer, H},
   Title = {The Effect of bi-iliac breadth on thermoregulation during
             running},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {165},
   Pages = {80-81},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds337759}
}

@article{fds337757,
   Author = {Castillo, ER and Pontzer, H},
   Title = {Locomotor-respiratory dynamics and gait frequency tuning in
             humans},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {165},
   Pages = {43-44},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds337757}
}

@article{fds337758,
   Author = {Urlacher, SS and Snodgrass, JJ and Dugas, LR and Sugiyama, LS and Pontzer, H},
   Title = {Direct measures of total and resting energy expenditure
             among Shuar forager-horticulturalist children: Evolutionary
             and epidemiological implications},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {165},
   Pages = {281-281},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds337758}
}

@article{fds337760,
   Author = {Swanson, ZS and Pontzer, H and Luke, A and Dugas, LR and Steiper,
             ME},
   Title = {The effect of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) I/D
             polymorphism on energy expenditure in modern
             humans},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {165},
   Pages = {268-268},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds337760}
}

@article{fds337761,
   Author = {Raichlen, DA and Hamilton, MT and Harris, JA and Hsu, C-H and Keadle,
             SK and Klimentidis, YC and Marx, TJ and Matthews, CE and Pontzer, H and Sayre, MK and Wood, BM and Zderic, TW and Alexander,
             GE},
   Title = {Fractal patterns of physical activity in hunter-gatherers
             suggest universal scaling of daily movement in
             humans},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {165},
   Pages = {218-219},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds337761}
}

@article{fds337767,
   Author = {Urlacher, SS and Snodgrass, JJ and Kramer, KL and Konecna, M and Pontzer, H and Sugiyama, LS},
   Title = {Objectively Measured Childhood Physical Activity among
             Small-scale Populations},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {162},
   Pages = {389-389},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds337767}
}

@article{fds337768,
   Author = {Schneider, AL and Burghardt, NS and Pontzer, H},
   Title = {Reduced Immune Investment with Energy Stress: Evidence from
             a Mouse Model},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {162},
   Pages = {349-349},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds337768}
}

@article{fds337769,
   Author = {Otarola-Castillo, ER and Castillo, ER and Hora, M and Torquato, MG and Warrener, AG and Pontzer, H},
   Title = {walkR: A Software Package to Analyze the Biomechanics of
             Human Locomotion},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {162},
   Pages = {306-306},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds337769}
}

@article{fds337770,
   Author = {Ramirez, KR and Pontzer, H},
   Title = {Intrinsic Manual Proportions affect the Biomechanics of
             Suspension},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {162},
   Pages = {326-326},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds337770}
}

@article{fds337771,
   Author = {Kozma, EE and Webb, NM and Harcourt-Smith, WEH and Raichlen, DA and D'Aout, K and Brown, MH and Finestone, E and Ross, SR and Aerts, P and Pontzer, H},
   Title = {Mechanics of Hip Extension Characterize Arboreal-Terrestrial
             Trade-offs in Hominin Evolution},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {162},
   Pages = {251-251},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds337771}
}

@article{fds337772,
   Author = {Swanson, ZS and Webb, NM and Pontzer, H and Desilva, JM and Harcourt-Smith, WEH},
   Title = {Finite Element Modeling of Talar Loading in Modern Humans
             with Application to the Hominin Fossil Record},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {162},
   Pages = {374-375},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds337772}
}

@article{fds337773,
   Author = {Pontzer, H},
   Title = {How Much Food do Animals Need to Walk, Run, and Climb? This
             Much},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {162},
   Pages = {320-320},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds337773}
}

@article{fds337774,
   Author = {Raichlen, DA and Pontzer, H and Harris, JA and Zderic, TW and Hamilton,
             MT and Wood, BM},
   Title = {Objectively measured physical activity in a hunting and
             gathering population},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {162},
   Pages = {326-326},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds337774}
}

@article{fds337775,
   Author = {Lieberman, DE and Barak, MM and Rolian, CP and Raichlen, DA and Pontzer,
             H},
   Title = {Testing hypotheses about hominin locomotor evolution using
             models not analogies},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {162},
   Pages = {262-263},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds337775}
}

@article{fds337777,
   Author = {Gagnon, C and Steiper, M and Pontzer, H},
   Title = {Body mass index varies with event distances among elite
             runners but not swimmers},
   Journal = {American Journal of Human Biology : the Official Journal of
             the Human Biology Council},
   Volume = {29},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {2 pages},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds337777}
}

@article{fds337791,
   Author = {Edwards, W and Pontzer, H and Lonsdorf, E},
   Title = {Energy expenditure and physical activity levels in captive
             tufted capuchins (Cebus apella)},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {159},
   Pages = {136-136},
   Publisher = {WILEY-BLACKWELL},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds337791}
}

@article{fds337792,
   Author = {Kozma, EE and Raichlen, DA and Wood, BM and Pontzer,
             H},
   Title = {Determinants of Energetic Costs of Climbing in
             Humans},
   Journal = {Integrative and Comparative Biology},
   Volume = {56},
   Pages = {E116-E116},
   Publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds337792}
}

@article{fds337793,
   Author = {Kozma, EE and Raichlen, DA and Wood, BM and Pontzer,
             H},
   Title = {Energetics and Muscle Use of Human Climbing},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {159},
   Pages = {196-196},
   Publisher = {WILEY-BLACKWELL},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds337793}
}

@article{fds337794,
   Author = {Pontzer, H and Raichlen, DA and Harris, JA and Wood,
             BM},
   Title = {Energetics and Economics of Foraging in Humans and other
             Apes},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {159},
   Pages = {255-255},
   Publisher = {WILEY-BLACKWELL},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds337794}
}

@article{fds337795,
   Author = {Thurber, C and Carlson, B and Ocobock, C and Dugas, L and Pontzer,
             H},
   Title = {Metabolic Limits and Adaptation in Humans: Daily Energy
             Expenditure in Race Across the USA Athletes},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {159},
   Pages = {314-315},
   Publisher = {WILEY-BLACKWELL},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds337795}
}

@article{fds337796,
   Author = {Finestone, EM and Brown, MH and Ross, SR and Pontzer,
             H},
   Title = {Videographic analysis of kinematics in great apes: To what
             extent are gait and posture conserved?},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {159},
   Pages = {143-143},
   Publisher = {WILEY-BLACKWELL},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds337796}
}

@article{fds337788,
   Author = {Thurber, C and Carlson, B and Ocobock, C and Dugas, L and Pontzer,
             H},
   Title = {Metabolic limits and adaptation in humans: Daily energy
             expenditure in Race Across the USA athletes.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Human Biology : the Official Journal of
             the Human Biology Council},
   Volume = {28},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {298-298},
   Publisher = {WILEY-BLACKWELL},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds337788}
}

@article{fds337789,
   Author = {Laird, MF and Pontzer, H},
   Title = {Gape cycle kinematic variance and occlusal topography in
             modern humans},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {159},
   Pages = {200-200},
   Publisher = {WILEY-BLACKWELL},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds337789}
}

@article{fds337790,
   Author = {Raichlen, DA and Pontzer, H and Harris, JA and Zderic, TW and Hamilton,
             MT and Wood, BM},
   Title = {Sitting, squatting, and the evolution of human
             inactivity},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {159},
   Pages = {261-262},
   Publisher = {WILEY-BLACKWELL},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds337790}
}

@article{fds337803,
   Author = {Pontzer, H and Brown, MH and Dunsworth, HM and Ross,
             SR},
   Title = {Humans, the high-energy ape: hominoid energetics and life
             history evolution},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {156},
   Pages = {255-255},
   Publisher = {WILEY-BLACKWELL},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds337803}
}

@article{fds337804,
   Author = {Trumble, BC and Cummings, D and Beheim, B and Stieglitz, J and Yetish,
             G and Pontzer, H and Kaplan, H and Gurven, M},
   Title = {Energetic costs of testosterone: higher testosterone is
             associated with greater lean muscle mass and total energetic
             expenditure among Tsimane forager-horticulturalists},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {156},
   Pages = {307-308},
   Publisher = {WILEY-BLACKWELL},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds337804}
}

@article{fds337805,
   Author = {Ramirez, KR and Pontzer, H},
   Title = {Estimates of fossil hominin quadriceps physiological cross
             sectional area from patellar dimensions},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {156},
   Pages = {261-261},
   Publisher = {WILEY-BLACKWELL},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds337805}
}

@article{fds337806,
   Author = {Machanda, Z and Brazeau, NF and Castillo, E and Otarola-Castillo, E and Pontzer, H and Thompson, ME and Muller, M and Wrangham,
             RW},
   Title = {Musculoskeletal growth patterns in wild chimpanzees (Pan
             troglodytes)},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {156},
   Pages = {209-209},
   Publisher = {WILEY-BLACKWELL},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds337806}
}

@article{fds337807,
   Author = {Laird, MF and Pontzer, H and Vogel, ER},
   Title = {Chewing efficiency variation with food material properties
             and masticatory morphology in humans},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {156},
   Pages = {197-197},
   Publisher = {WILEY-BLACKWELL},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds337807}
}

@article{fds337813,
   Author = {Kozma, EE and Pontzer, H and Webb, N and Harcourt-Smith,
             W},
   Title = {Hamstrings, moment arms, and gait mechanics in early
             hominins},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {153},
   Pages = {160-160},
   Publisher = {WILEY-BLACKWELL},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds337813}
}

@article{fds337814,
   Author = {Glasgow, AM and Pontzer, H},
   Title = {Effects of honey consumption and latitude on hunter-gatherer
             nutritional profiles},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {153},
   Pages = {125-125},
   Publisher = {WILEY-BLACKWELL},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds337814}
}

@article{fds337815,
   Author = {Thomas, OO and Harcourt-Smith, WEH and Pontzer,
             H},
   Title = {Exploring the relationship between anthropoid cuboid
             morphology and expressed locomotor behavior},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {153},
   Pages = {253-253},
   Publisher = {WILEY-BLACKWELL},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds337815}
}

@article{fds337816,
   Author = {Darr, MR and Pontzer, H and Raichlen, DA},
   Title = {A comparison of mediolateral ground forces in humans and
             chimpanzees},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {153},
   Pages = {102-102},
   Publisher = {WILEY-BLACKWELL},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds337816}
}

@article{fds337812,
   Author = {Pontzer, H and Raichlen, DA and Wood, BM and Racette, SB and Delany, JP and Mabulla, AZP and Marlowe, FW and Isler, K and Dunsworth, HM and Schroepfer-Walker, KK and Hare, B and Shumaker, RW and Lonsdorf, EV and Ross, SR},
   Title = {Daily water turn over in humans, apes, and fossil
             hominins},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {153},
   Pages = {210-210},
   Publisher = {WILEY-BLACKWELL},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds337812}
}

@article{fds337822,
   Author = {Ocobock, C and Pontzer, H and Gookin, J},
   Title = {Measuring and predicting daily energy expenditure of highly
             active humans in natural environments.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {150},
   Pages = {210-210},
   Publisher = {WILEY-BLACKWELL},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds337822}
}

@article{fds337823,
   Author = {Webb, NM and Harcourt-Smith, WEH and Pontzer, H},
   Title = {An analysis of the Ardipithecus ramidus pelvis
             reconstruction using 3D geometric morphometric
             techniques.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {150},
   Pages = {287-287},
   Publisher = {WILEY-BLACKWELL},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds337823}
}

@article{fds337824,
   Author = {Laird, MF and Pontzer, H},
   Title = {Occlusal surfaces and chewing efficiency in modern
             humans.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {150},
   Pages = {176-177},
   Publisher = {WILEY-BLACKWELL},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds337824}
}

@article{fds337825,
   Author = {Darr, MR and Pontzer, H and Warrener, A},
   Title = {The bicondylar angle in modern humans and its relationship
             to joint stresses and locomotor economy},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {150},
   Pages = {108-108},
   Publisher = {WILEY-BLACKWELL},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds337825}
}

@article{fds337826,
   Author = {Green, SA and Pontzer, H},
   Title = {Comparing forelimb skeletal anatomy in gray squirrels and
             primates},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {150},
   Pages = {136-136},
   Publisher = {WILEY-BLACKWELL},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds337826}
}

@article{fds337827,
   Author = {Pontzer, H and Raichlen, DA and Gordon, AD and Schroepfer, KK and Hare,
             B and Dunsworth, HM and Wood, BM and Irwin, MT and Shumaker, RW and Lonsdorf, EV and Ross, SR},
   Title = {Primate energy expenditure and life history.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {150},
   Pages = {223-223},
   Publisher = {WILEY-BLACKWELL},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds337827}
}

@article{fds337833,
   Author = {Raichlen, DA and Pontzer, H and Wood, BM and Mabulla, AZP and Marlowe,
             FW},
   Title = {Aerobic activity in the Hadza hunter-foragers of
             Tanzania},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {147},
   Pages = {243-243},
   Publisher = {WILEY-BLACKWELL},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds337833}
}

@article{fds337834,
   Author = {Pontzer, H},
   Title = {Relating foraging ecology to locomotor economy and limb
             length in living apes and fossil hominins},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {147},
   Pages = {239-239},
   Publisher = {WILEY-BLACKWELL},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds337834}
}

@article{fds337835,
   Author = {Laird, MF and Pontzer, H},
   Title = {Biomechanical relationships between chewing efficiency and
             dental morphology in modern humans.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {147},
   Pages = {188-188},
   Publisher = {WILEY-BLACKWELL},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds337835}
}

@article{fds337836,
   Author = {Schroepfer, KK and Hare, B and Pontzer, H},
   Title = {Energy expenditure in semi free-ranging chimpanzees measured
             using doubly labeled water.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {147},
   Pages = {263-263},
   Publisher = {WILEY-BLACKWELL},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds337836}
}

@article{fds337840,
   Author = {Maki, JM and Pontzer, H},
   Title = {The relative contributions of the body and the throwing arm
             to throwing velocity in softball and baseball
             players},
   Journal = {Integrative and Comparative Biology},
   Volume = {51},
   Pages = {E223-E223},
   Publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds337840}
}

@article{fds337841,
   Author = {Ocobock, C and Pontzer, H and Gookin, J and Baynes,
             S},
   Title = {A new multivariate model for predicting daily energy
             expenditure in active human populations},
   Journal = {Integrative and Comparative Biology},
   Volume = {51},
   Pages = {E102-E102},
   Publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds337841}
}

@article{fds337842,
   Author = {Dunsworth, H and Warrener, A and Pontzer, H},
   Title = {LIFE HISTORY JUST ISN'T HIP: HUMAN EVOLUTION WITHOUT AN
             'OBSTETRIC DILEMMA'},
   Journal = {Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology},
   Volume = {31},
   Pages = {102-102},
   Publisher = {SOC VERTEBRATE PALEONTOLOGY},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds337842}
}

@article{fds337843,
   Author = {Wood, BM and Raichlen, DA and Pontzer, H and Jones, JH and Mabulla, AZP and Marlowe, FW},
   Title = {Keeping their friends close? Contrasting models of social
             association in Hadza hunter-gatherers},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {144},
   Pages = {314-314},
   Publisher = {WILEY-BLACKWELL},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds337843}
}

@article{fds337844,
   Author = {Ocobock, C and Pontzer, H and Gookin, J and Baynes,
             S},
   Title = {Daily energy expenditure in highly active humans in a
             natural temperate environment.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {144},
   Pages = {227-227},
   Publisher = {WILEY-BLACKWELL},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds337844}
}

@article{fds337845,
   Author = {Raichlen, DA and Wood, BM and Pontzer, H and Mabulla, AZP and Marlowe,
             FW},
   Title = {Levy walks in hunter-gatherers: when are random walks an
             optimal search strategy?},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {144},
   Pages = {246-247},
   Publisher = {WILEY-BLACKWELL},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds337845}
}

@article{fds337846,
   Author = {Dunsworth, H and Pontzer, H and Deacon, T},
   Title = {Energetics-not pelvic constraints-determine human gestation
             length and altriciality},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {144},
   Pages = {129-129},
   Publisher = {WILEY-BLACKWELL},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds337846}
}

@article{fds337847,
   Author = {Pontzer, H and Raichlen, DA and Wood, BM and Mabulla, AZP and Marlowe,
             FW},
   Title = {Hadza forager energetics and the evolution of the human
             metabolic strategy.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {144},
   Pages = {242-242},
   Publisher = {WILEY-BLACKWELL},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds337847}
}

@article{fds337851,
   Author = {Joganic, JL and Pontzer, H and Verrelli, BC},
   Title = {The hungry brain: An assessment of liver size correlation
             with brain size as it relates to energy storage trade-offs
             across primate evolution.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Pages = {135-135},
   Publisher = {WILEY-LISS},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds337851}
}

@article{fds337852,
   Author = {Pontzer, H and Raichlen, DA and Wood, BM},
   Title = {Hominoid daily energy expenditure and the Human
             Paradox.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Pages = {191-191},
   Publisher = {WILEY-LISS},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds337852}
}

@article{fds337853,
   Author = {Ocobock, C and Pontzer, H and Erez, T and Maki, J},
   Title = {Climatic and physiological constraints on human body size
             and shape.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Pages = {180-180},
   Publisher = {WILEY-LISS},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds337853}
}

@article{fds337856,
   Author = {Ocobock, CJ and Pontzer, H and Maki, J},
   Title = {Modification of limb inertial properties leads to persistent
             changes in neural control of walking in humans},
   Journal = {Integrative and Comparative Biology},
   Volume = {49},
   Pages = {E283-E283},
   Publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {February},
   Key = {fds337856}
}

@article{fds337857,
   Author = {Pontzer, H and Kamilar, J},
   Title = {Greater Ranging Associated with Greater Reproductive
             Investment in Mammals: A New Perspective on Foraging
             Economics},
   Journal = {Integrative and Comparative Biology},
   Volume = {49},
   Pages = {E137-E137},
   Publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {February},
   Key = {fds337857}
}

@article{fds337859,
   Author = {Pontzer, H and Ocobock, C and Shumaker, RW and Raichlen,
             DA},
   Title = {Daily energy expenditure in orangutans measured using doubly
             labeled water},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Pages = {213-213},
   Publisher = {WILEY-LISS},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds337859}
}

@article{fds337860,
   Author = {Erez, T and Smart, WD and Pontzer, H},
   Title = {A new computational method for simulation and optimization
             of hominin gait},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Pages = {125-125},
   Publisher = {WILEY-LISS},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds337860}
}

@article{fds337861,
   Author = {Foster, AD and Raichlen, DA and Pontzer, H and Sockol,
             MD},
   Title = {Muscle force production during bent-knee, bent-hip walking
             in humans.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Pages = {129-129},
   Publisher = {WILEY-LISS},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds337861}
}

@article{fds337862,
   Author = {Ocobock, T and Pontzer, H and Atkinson, E and Shumaker, RW and Wittman,
             AB},
   Title = {Locomotor developmental timing in humans and other
             apes},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Pages = {201-201},
   Publisher = {WILEY-LISS},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds337862}
}

@article{fds337863,
   Author = {Wittman, AB and Cowgill, LW and Pontzer, H and Ocobock,
             C},
   Title = {Waddling and toddling: biomechanical effects of an immature
             gait.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Pages = {93-93},
   Publisher = {WILEY-LISS},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds337863}
}

@article{fds337867,
   Author = {Raichlen, D and Pontzer, H and Sockol, M},
   Title = {Are Two Legs Better than Four? Comparative Biomechanics &
             the Evolution of Human Walking & Running},
   Journal = {Faseb Journal},
   Volume = {22},
   Pages = {1 pages},
   Publisher = {FEDERATION AMER SOC EXP BIOL},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds337867}
}

@article{fds337869,
   Author = {Wittman, AB and Pontzer, H},
   Title = {The effect of pelvic dimorphism on locomotor cost: are women
             less efficient than men?},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Pages = {69-69},
   Publisher = {WILEY-LISS},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds337869}
}

@article{fds337870,
   Author = {Pontzer, H and Raichlen, DA and Sockol, MD},
   Title = {Endurance versus efficiency in humans and chimpanzees: a new
             look at the old problem of becoming bipedal},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Pages = {173-173},
   Publisher = {WILEY-LISS},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds337870}
}

@article{fds337871,
   Author = {Maki, J and Pontzer, H},
   Title = {A predictive model for hominid lower limb length based on
             mean annual temperature, day range and body
             mass.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Pages = {147-147},
   Publisher = {WILEY-LISS},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds337871}
}

@article{fds337872,
   Author = {Orkin, JD and Pontzer, H},
   Title = {Is primate-like grasping needed for fine branch feeding?
             Terminal branch use in eastern gray squirrels, Sciurus
             carolinensis.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Pages = {166-166},
   Publisher = {WILEY-LISS},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds337872}
}

@article{fds337873,
   Author = {Watsa, M and Pontzer, HD},
   Title = {Does increased ranging effort lead to fewer wasted menstrual
             cycles?},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Pages = {218-218},
   Publisher = {WILEY-LISS},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds337873}
}

@article{fds337875,
   Author = {Pontzer, H and Raichlen, DA and Sockol, MD},
   Title = {Locomotor energetics in chimpanzees, humans, and extinct
             hominins: Contributions of muscular and skeletal
             anatomy},
   Journal = {Journal of Morphology},
   Volume = {268},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {1118-1118},
   Publisher = {WILEY-LISS},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {December},
   Key = {fds337875}
}

@article{fds337880,
   Author = {Raichlen, DA and Pontzer, H and Sockol, MD},
   Title = {Joint kinetics in chimpanzees and other mammals: Are large
             bodied primates unique?},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Pages = {194-194},
   Publisher = {WILEY-LISS},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds337880}
}

@article{fds337881,
   Author = {Pontzer, H and Raichlen, DA and Sockol, MD},
   Title = {Contributions of muscular and skeletal morphology to
             locomotor performance: How much can bones tell us about
             locomotion?},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Pages = {191-191},
   Publisher = {WILEY-LISS},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds337881}
}

@article{fds337882,
   Author = {Pontzer, H and Raichlen, DA and Sockol, MD},
   Title = {Niche expansion of a cryptic primate, Callimico goeldii,
             during polyspecific associations.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Pages = {191-191},
   Publisher = {WILEY-LISS},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds337882}
}

@article{fds337883,
   Author = {Raichlen, DA and Pontzer, H and Sockol, MD},
   Title = {The energetics of quadrupedal and bipedal locomotion in
             chimpanzees},
   Journal = {Integrative and Comparative Biology},
   Volume = {46},
   Pages = {E114-E114},
   Publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {December},
   Key = {fds337883}
}

@article{fds337884,
   Author = {Pontzer, H and Raichlen, DA and Lieberman, DE},
   Title = {Is arm swing active or passive during human walking and
             running?},
   Journal = {Integrative and Comparative Biology},
   Volume = {46},
   Pages = {E112-E112},
   Publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {December},
   Key = {fds337884}
}

@article{fds337887,
   Author = {Pontzer, H},
   Title = {Locomotor energetics and ranging ecology of fossil
             hominids.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Pages = {148-148},
   Publisher = {WILEY-LISS},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds337887}
}

@article{fds337888,
   Author = {Raichlen, DA and Pontzer, H and Sockol, MD},
   Title = {Energetics of chimpanzee locomotion: Force production during
             bipedal and quadrupedal walking.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Pages = {150-150},
   Publisher = {WILEY-LISS},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds337888}
}

@article{fds337890,
   Author = {Pontzer, H},
   Title = {Linking locomotor energetics to limb design in terrestrial
             animals},
   Journal = {Integrative and Comparative Biology},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1057-1057},
   Publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {December},
   Key = {fds337890}
}

@article{fds337892,
   Author = {Pontzer, H and Lieberman, DE and Momin, EN and Devlin, MJ and Polk, JD and Hallgrimsson, B and Cooper, DML},
   Title = {The effect of a "bent-knee" gait on trabecular orientation:
             an experiment test of Wolff's Law},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Pages = {167-167},
   Publisher = {WILEY-LISS},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds337892}
}

@article{fds337893,
   Author = {Lieberman, DE and Pontzer, H and Cutright-Smith, E and Raichlen,
             D},
   Title = {Why is the human gluteus so maximus?},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Pages = {138-138},
   Publisher = {WILEY-LISS},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds337893}
}

@article{fds337894,
   Author = {Pontzer, H},
   Title = {The effect of limb length on locomotor performance},
   Journal = {Integrative and Comparative Biology},
   Volume = {44},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {623-623},
   Publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {December},
   Key = {fds337894}
}

@article{fds337895,
   Author = {Lieberman, DE and Pontzer, H and Momin, E and Devlin, M and Polk, J and Hallgrimsson, B and Cooper, D},
   Title = {An experimental test of Wolffs law in the
             knee},
   Journal = {Integrative and Comparative Biology},
   Volume = {44},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {592-592},
   Publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {December},
   Key = {fds337895}
}

@article{fds337897,
   Author = {Pontzer, H},
   Title = {The effect of leg length on human locomotor
             performance},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Pages = {161-162},
   Publisher = {WILEY-BLACKWELL},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds337897}
}

@article{fds337898,
   Author = {Wrangham, RW and Pontzer, H},
   Title = {Chimpanzee juveniles constrain their mothers'
             gregariousness},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Pages = {211-212},
   Publisher = {WILEY-BLACKWELL},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds337898}
}

@article{fds337899,
   Author = {Devlin, MJ and Pontzer, H and Lieberman, DE and Polk,
             JP},
   Title = {Trabecular bone orientation in flexed versus extended
             postures in guinea fowl: A test of Wolffs
             Law.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Pages = {88-89},
   Publisher = {WILEY-LISS},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds337899}
}

@article{fds337900,
   Author = {Pontzer, H},
   Title = {Climbing behavior and locomotor energetics in wild
             chimpanzees: Implications for hominin locomotor
             evolution.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Pages = {170-170},
   Publisher = {WILEY-LISS},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds337900}
}


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