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Publications of Jeffrey R. Vincent    :chronological  alphabetical  combined listing:

%% Papers Published   
   Author = {Pattanayak, SK and Kramer, RA and Vincent, JR},
   Title = {Ecosystem change and human health: implementation economics
             and policy.},
   Journal = {Philosophical Transactions B},
   Volume = {372},
   Number = {1722},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {June},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Several recent initiatives such as Planetary Health,
             EcoHealth and One Health claim that human health depends on
             flourishing natural ecosystems. However, little has been
             said about the operational and implementation challenges of
             health-oriented conservation actions on the ground. We
             contend that ecological-epidemiological research must be
             complemented by a form of implementation science that
             examines: (i) the links between specific conservation
             actions and the resulting ecological changes, and (ii) how
             this ecological change impacts human health and well-being,
             when human behaviours are considered. Drawing on the policy
             evaluation tradition in public economics, first, we present
             three examples of recent social science research on
             conservation interventions that affect human health. These
             examples are from low- and middle-income countries in the
             tropics and subtropics. Second, drawing on these examples,
             we present three propositions related to impact evaluation
             and non-market valuation that can help guide future
             multidisciplinary research on conservation and human health.
             Research guided by these propositions will allow
             stakeholders to determine how ecosystem-mediated strategies
             for health promotion compare with more conventional
             biomedical prevention and treatment strategies for
             safeguarding health.This article is part of the themed issue
             'Conservation, biodiversity and infectious disease:
             scientific evidence and policy implications'.},
   Doi = {10.1098/rstb.2016.0130},
   Key = {fds326615}

   Author = {Young, HS and Wood, CL and Kilpatrick, AM and Lafferty, KD and Nunn, CL and Vincent, JR},
   Title = {Conservation, biodiversity and infectious disease:
             scientific evidence and policy implications.},
   Journal = {Philosophical Transactions B},
   Volume = {372},
   Number = {1722},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {June},
   url = {},
   Doi = {10.1098/rstb.2016.0124},
   Key = {fds326616}

   Author = {Strand, J and Carson, RT and Navrud, S and Ortiz-Bobea, A and Vincent,
   Title = {Using the Delphi method to value protection of the Amazon
   Journal = {Ecological Economics},
   Volume = {131},
   Pages = {475-484},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {January},
   url = {},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.ecolecon.2016.09.028},
   Key = {fds322055}

   Author = {GlobalSurg Collaborative},
   Title = {Mortality of emergency abdominal surgery in high-, middle-
             and low-income countries.},
   Journal = {British Journal of Surgery},
   Volume = {103},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {971-988},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {July},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Surgical mortality data are collected routinely in
             high-income countries, yet virtually no low- or
             middle-income countries have outcome surveillance in place.
             The aim was prospectively to collect worldwide mortality
             data following emergency abdominal surgery, comparing
             findings across countries with a low, middle or high Human
             Development Index (HDI).This was a prospective, multicentre,
             cohort study. Self-selected hospitals performing emergency
             surgery submitted prespecified data for consecutive patients
             from at least one 2-week interval during July to December
             2014. Postoperative mortality was analysed by hierarchical
             multivariable logistic regression.Data were obtained for
             10 745 patients from 357 centres in 58 countries; 6538
             were from high-, 2889 from middle- and 1318 from low-HDI
             settings. The overall mortality rate was 1·6 per cent at
             24 h (high 1·1 per cent, middle 1·9 per cent, low 3·4
             per cent; P < 0·001), increasing to 5·4 per cent by 30
             days (high 4·5 per cent, middle 6·0 per cent, low 8·6 per
             cent; P < 0·001). Of the 578 patients who died, 404 (69·9
             per cent) did so between 24 h and 30 days following
             surgery (high 74·2 per cent, middle 68·8 per cent, low
             60·5 per cent). After adjustment, 30-day mortality remained
             higher in middle-income (odds ratio (OR) 2·78, 95 per cent
             c.i. 1·84 to 4·20) and low-income (OR 2·97, 1·84 to
             4·81) countries. Surgical safety checklist use was less
             frequent in low- and middle-income countries, but when used
             was associated with reduced mortality at 30 days.Mortality
             is three times higher in low- compared with high-HDI
             countries even when adjusted for prognostic factors. Patient
             safety factors may have an important role.NCT02179112
   Doi = {10.1002/bjs.10151},
   Key = {fds332184}

   Author = {Vincent, JR and Ahmad, I and Adnan, N and Burwell, WB and Pattanayak,
             SK and Tan-Soo, J-S and Thomas, K},
   Title = {Valuing Water Purification by Forests: An Analysis of
             Malaysian Panel Data},
   Journal = {Environmental and Resource Economics},
   Volume = {64},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {59-80},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0924-6460},
   url = {},
   Doi = {10.1007/s10640-015-9934-9},
   Key = {fds315061}

   Author = {Vincent, JR},
   Title = {Erratum to: Impact Evaluation of Forest Conservation
             Programs: Benefit-Cost Analysis, Without the
   Journal = {Environmental and Resource Economics},
   Volume = {63},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {409-409},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {February},
   url = {},
   Doi = {10.1007/s10640-015-9909-x},
   Key = {fds322056}

   Author = {Vincent, JR},
   Title = {Impact Evaluation of Forest Conservation Programs:
             Benefit-Cost Analysis, Without the Economics},
   Journal = {Environmental and Resource Economics},
   Volume = {63},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {395-408},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0924-6460},
   url = {},
   Doi = {10.1007/s10640-015-9896-y},
   Key = {fds311126}

   Author = {Vincent, JR},
   Title = {Avoided deforestation: Not a good measure of conservation
   Journal = {Journal of Tropical Forest Science},
   Volume = {28},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {1-3},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds322057}

   Author = {Tan-Soo, J-S and Adnan, N and Ahmad, I and Pattanayak, SK and Vincent,
   Title = {Econometric Evidence on Forest Ecosystem Services:
             Deforestation and Flooding in Malaysia},
   Journal = {Environmental and Resource Economics},
   Volume = {63},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {25-44},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0924-6460},
   url = {},
   Doi = {10.1007/s10640-014-9834-4},
   Key = {fds311127}

   Author = {Carson, RT and DeShazo, J and Schwabe, KA and Vincent, JR and Ahmad,
   Title = {Incorporating local visitor valuation information into the
             design of new recreation sites in tropical
   Journal = {Ecological Economics},
   Volume = {120},
   Pages = {338-349},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {December},
   url = {},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.ecolecon.2015.10.009},
   Key = {fds322058}

   Author = {Mock, CN and Donkor, P and Gawande, A and Jamison, DT and Kruk, ME and Debas, HT and DCP3 Essential Surgery Author
   Title = {Essential surgery: key messages from Disease Control
             Priorities, 3rd edition.},
   Journal = {The Lancet},
   Volume = {385},
   Number = {9983},
   Pages = {2209-2219},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {May},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {The World Bank will publish the nine volumes of Disease
             Control Priorities, 3rd edition, in 2015-16. Volume
             1--Essential Surgery--identifies 44 surgical procedures as
             essential on the basis that they address substantial needs,
             are cost effective, and are feasible to implement. This
             report summarises and critically assesses the volume's five
             key findings. First, provision of essential surgical
             procedures would avert about 1·5 million deaths a year, or
             6-7% of all avertable deaths in low-income and middle-income
             countries. Second, essential surgical procedures rank among
             the most cost effective of all health interventions. The
             surgical platform of the first-level hospital delivers 28 of
             the 44 essential procedures, making investment in this
             platform also highly cost effective. Third, measures to
             expand access to surgery, such as task sharing, have been
             shown to be safe and effective while countries make
             long-term investments in building surgical and anaesthesia
             workforces. Because emergency procedures constitute 23 of
             the 28 procedures provided at first-level hospitals,
             expansion of access requires that such facilities be widely
             geographically diffused. Fourth, substantial disparities
             remain in the safety of surgical care, driven by high
             perioperative mortality rates including anaesthesia-related
             deaths in low-income and middle-income countries. Feasible
             measures, such as WHO's Surgical Safety Checklist, have led
             to improvements in safety and quality. Fifth, the large
             burden of surgical disorders, cost-effectiveness of
             essential surgery, and strong public demand for surgical
             services suggest that universal coverage of essential
             surgery should be financed early on the path to universal
             health coverage. We point to estimates that full coverage of
             the component of universal coverage of essential surgery
             applicable to first-level hospitals would require just over
             US$3 billion annually of additional spending and yield a
             benefit-cost ratio of more than 10:1. It would efficiently
             and equitably provide health benefits, financial protection,
             and contributions to stronger health systems.},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0140-6736(15)60091-5},
   Key = {fds322059}

   Author = {Alkire, BC and Shrime, MG and Dare, AJ and Vincent, JR and Meara,
   Title = {Global economic consequences of selected surgical diseases:
             a modelling study.},
   Journal = {The Lancet Global Health},
   Volume = {3 Suppl 2},
   Pages = {S21-S27},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {April},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {The surgical burden of disease is substantial, but little is
             known about the associated economic consequences. We
             estimate the global macroeconomic impact of the surgical
             burden of disease due to injury, neoplasm, digestive
             diseases, and maternal and neonatal disorders from two
             distinct economic perspectives.We obtained mortality rate
             estimates for each disease for the years 2000 and 2010 from
             the Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation Global Burden
             of Disease 2010 study, and estimates of the proportion of
             the burden of the selected diseases that is surgical from a
             paper by Shrime and colleagues. We first used the value of
             lost output (VLO) approach, based on the WHO's Projecting
             the Economic Cost of Ill-Health (EPIC) model, to project
             annual market economy losses due to these surgical diseases
             during 2015-30. EPIC attempts to model how disease affects a
             country's projected labour force and capital stock, which in
             turn are related to losses in economic output, or gross
             domestic product (GDP). We then used the value of lost
             welfare (VLW) approach, which is conceptually based on the
             value of a statistical life and is inclusive of non-market
             losses, to estimate the present value of long-run welfare
             losses resulting from mortality and short-run welfare losses
             resulting from morbidity incurred during 2010. Sensitivity
             analyses were performed for both approaches.During 2015-30,
             the VLO approach projected that surgical conditions would
             result in losses of 1·25% of potential GDP, or $20·7
             trillion (2010 US$, purchasing power parity) in the 128
             countries with data available. When expressed as a
             proportion of potential GDP, annual GDP losses were greatest
             in low-income and middle-income countries, with up to a
             2·5% loss in output by 2030. When total welfare losses are
             assessed (VLW), the present value of economic losses is
             estimated to be equivalent to 17% of 2010 GDP, or $14·5
             trillion in the 175 countries assessed with this approach.
             Neoplasm and injury account for greater than 95% of total
             economic losses with each approach, but maternal, digestive,
             and neonatal disorders, which represent only 4% of losses in
             high-income countries with the VLW approach, contribute to
             26% of losses in low-income countries.The macroeconomic
             impact of surgical disease is substantial and inequitably
             distributed. When paired with the growing number of
             favourable cost-effectiveness analyses of surgical
             interventions in low-income and middle-income countries, our
             results suggest that building surgical capacity should be a
             global health priority.US National Institutes of
             Health/National Cancer Institute.},
   Doi = {10.1016/s2214-109x(15)70088-4},
   Key = {fds301899}

   Author = {Schwabe, KA and Carson, RT and DeShazo, JR and Potts, MD and Reese, AN and Vincent, JR},
   Title = {Creation of Malaysia’s Royal Belum State Park: A Case
             Study of Conservation in a Developing Country},
   Journal = {Journal of Environment & Development},
   Volume = {24},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {54-81},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {1070-4965},
   url = {},
   Doi = {10.1177/1070496514551173},
   Key = {fds301900}

   Author = {Austin, KG and Kasibhatla, PS and Urban, DL and Stolle, F and Vincent,
   Title = {Reconciling oil palm expansion and climate change mitigation
             in Kalimantan, Indonesia.},
   Journal = {PloS one},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {e0127963},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {January},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Our society faces the pressing challenge of increasing
             agricultural production while minimizing negative
             consequences on ecosystems and the global climate.
             Indonesia, which has pledged to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG)
             emissions from deforestation while doubling production of
             several major agricultural commodities, exemplifies this
             challenge. Here we focus on palm oil, the world's most
             abundant vegetable oil and a commodity that has contributed
             significantly to Indonesia's economy. Most oil palm
             expansion in the country has occurred at the expense of
             forests, resulting in significant GHG emissions. We examine
             the extent to which land management policies can resolve the
             apparently conflicting goals of oil palm expansion and GHG
             mitigation in Kalimantan, a major oil palm growing region of
             Indonesia. Using a logistic regression model to predict the
             locations of new oil palm between 2010 and 2020 we evaluate
             the impacts of six alternative policy scenarios on future
             emissions. We estimate net emissions of 128.4-211.4 MtCO2
             yr(-1) under business as usual expansion of oil palm
             plantations. The impact of diverting new plantations to low
             carbon stock land depends on the design of the policy. We
             estimate that emissions can be reduced by 9-10% by extending
             the current moratorium on new concessions in primary forests
             and peat lands, 35% by limiting expansion on all peat and
             forestlands, 46% by limiting expansion to areas with
             moderate carbon stocks, and 55-60% by limiting expansion to
             areas with low carbon stocks. Our results suggest that these
             policies would reduce oil palm profits only moderately but
             would vary greatly in terms of cost-effectiveness of
             emissions reductions. We conclude that a carefully designed
             and implemented oil palm expansion plan can contribute
             significantly towards Indonesia's national emissions
             mitigation goal, while allowing oil palm area to
   Doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0127963},
   Key = {fds301897}

   Author = {DeShazo, JR and Carson, RT and Schwabe, KA and Vincent, JR and Ismariah,
             A and Chong, SK and Chang, YT},
   Title = {Designing and implementing surveys to value tropical
   Journal = {Journal of Tropical Forest Science},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {92-114},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0128-1283},
   Abstract = {© Forest Research Institute Malaysia This paper describes a
             household survey that was used to collect data for valuing
             protection and recreational use of tropical rainforests in
             Peninsular Malaysia. The survey was developed and
             implemented from 2007 till 2010 and was the largest
             environmental valuation survey ever conducted in Malaysia.
             It included modules related to both stated-preference
             valuation (discrete choice experiments; DCEs) and
             revealed-preference valuation methods (recreation demand
             models). The first part of this paper covers three issues:
             development of the survey instrument, design of the DCEs and
             structure of the instrument. The second part provides
             details on the survey itself (sample design, survey
             administration), presents preliminary results and suggests
             improvements to the survey.},
   Key = {fds301901}

   Author = {Vincent, JR and Carson, RT and DeShazo, JR and Schwabe, KA and Ahmad, I and Chong, SK and Chang, YT and Potts, MD},
   Title = {Tropical countries may be willing to pay more to protect
             their forests.},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of
   Volume = {111},
   Number = {28},
   Pages = {10113-10118},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0027-8424},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Inadequate funding from developed countries has hampered
             international efforts to conserve biodiversity in tropical
             forests. We present two complementary research approaches
             that reveal a significant increase in public demand for
             conservation within tropical developing countries as those
             countries reach upper-middle-income (UMI) status. We
             highlight UMI tropical countries because they contain nearly
             four-fifths of tropical primary forests, which are rich in
             biodiversity and stored carbon. The first approach is a set
             of statistical analyses of various cross-country
             conservation indicators, which suggests that protective
             government policies have lagged behind the increase in
             public demand in these countries. The second approach is a
             case study from Malaysia, which reveals in a more integrated
             fashion the linkages from rising household income to
             increased household willingness to pay for conservation,
             nongovernmental organization activity, and delayed
             government action. Our findings suggest that domestic
             funding in UMI tropical countries can play a larger role in
             (i) closing the funding gap for tropical forest
             conservation, and (ii) paying for supplementary conservation
             actions linked to international payments for reduced
             greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and forest
             degradation in tropical countries.},
   Doi = {10.1073/pnas.1312246111},
   Key = {fds301902}

   Author = {Vincent, JR},
   Title = {EDE: Job well done, but job not yet done},
   Journal = {Environment and Development Economics},
   Volume = {19},
   Number = {03},
   Pages = {318-320},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {1355-770X},
   url = {},
   Doi = {10.1017/S1355770X14000291},
   Key = {fds301903}

   Author = {Ferreira, S and Hamilton, K and Vincent, JR},
   Title = {Does development reduce fatalities from natural disasters?
             New evidence for floods},
   Journal = {Environment and Development Economics},
   Volume = {18},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {649-679},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {1355-770X},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {We analyze the impact of development on flood fatalities
             using a new data set of 2,171 large floods in 92 countries
             between 1985 and 2008. Our results challenge the
             conventional wisdom that development results in fewer
             fatalities during natural disasters. Results indicating that
             higher income and better governance reduce fatalities during
             flood events do not hold up when unobserved country
             heterogeneity and within-country correlation of standard
             errors are taken into account. We find that income does have
             a significant, indirect effect on flood fatalities by
             affecting flood frequency and flood magnitude, but this
             effect is nonmonotonic, with net reductions in fatalities
             occurring only in lower income countries. We find little
             evidence that improved governance affects flood fatalities
             either directly or indirectly. © 2013 Cambridge University
   Doi = {10.1017/S1355770X13000387},
   Key = {fds301904}

   Author = {Levin, S and Xepapadeas, T and Crepin, A-S and Norberg, J and De Zeeuw,
             A and Folke, C and Hughes, T and Arrow, K and Barrett, S and Daily, G and Ehrlich, P and Kautsky, N and Maler, K-G and Polasky, S and Troell, M and Vincent, JR and Walker, B},
   Title = {Social-ecological systems as complex adaptive systems:
             modeling and policy implications},
   Journal = {Environment and Development Economics},
   Volume = {18},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {111-132},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {1355-770X},
   url = {},
   Doi = {10.1017/S1355770X12000460},
   Key = {fds301906}

   Author = {Auffhammer, M. and V. Ramanathan and J.R. Vincent},
   Title = {Climate change, the monsoon, and rice yield in
   Journal = {Climatic Change},
   Year = {2012},
   Key = {fds214980}

   Author = {Carpenter, SR and Arrow, KJ and Barrett, S and Biggs, R and Brock, WA and Crépin, A-S and Engström, G and Folke, C and Hughes, TP and Kautsky,
             N and Li, C-Z and Mccarney, G and Meng, K and Mäler, K-G and Polasky, S and Scheffer, M and Shogren, J and Sterner, T and Vincent, JR and Walker, B and Xepapadeas, A and Zeeuw, AD},
   Title = {General resilience to cope with extreme events},
   Journal = {Sustainability},
   Volume = {4},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {3248-3259},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {2071-1050},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Resilience to specified kinds of disasters is an active area
             of research and practice. However, rare or unprecedented
             disturbances that are unusually intense or extensive require
             a more broad-spectrum type of resilience. General resilience
             is the capacity of social-ecological systems to adapt or
             transform in response to unfamiliar, unexpected and extreme
             shocks. Conditions that enable general resilience include
             diversity, modularity, openness, reserves, feedbacks,
             nestedness, monitoring, leadership, and trust. Processes for
             building general resilience are an emerging and crucially
             important area of research. © 2012 by the
   Doi = {10.3390/su4123248},
   Key = {fds301905}

   Author = {Auffhammer, M and Vincent, JR},
   Title = {Unobserved time effects confound the identification of
             climate change impacts},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of
   Volume = {109},
   Number = {30},
   Pages = {11973-11974},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {0027-8424},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {A recent study by Feng et al. [Feng S, Krueger A,
             Oppenheimer M (2010) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107:14257-14262]
             in PNAS reported statistical evidence of a weather-driven
             causal effect of crop yields on human migration from Mexico
             to the United States. We show that this conclusion is based
             on a different statistical model than the one stated in the
             paper. When we correct for this mistake, there is no
             evidence of a causal link.},
   Doi = {10.1073/pnas.1202049109},
   Key = {fds301946}

   Author = {Alkire, BC and Vincent, JR and Burns, CT and Metzler, IS and Farmer, PE and Meara, JG},
   Title = {Obstructed labor and caesarean delivery: the cost and
             benefit of surgical intervention.},
   Journal = {PloS one},
   Volume = {7},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {e34595},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {1932-6203},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Although advances in the reduction of maternal mortality
             have been made, up to 273,000 women will die this year from
             obstetric etiologies. Obstructed labor (OL), most commonly
             treated with Caesarean delivery, has been identified as a
             major contributor to global maternal morbidity and
             mortality. We used economic and epidemiological modeling to
             estimate the cost per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY)
             averted and benefit-cost ratio of treating OL with Caesarean
             delivery for 49 countries identified as providing an
             insufficient number of Caesarean deliveries to meet demand.
             Using publicly available data and explicit economic
             assumptions, we estimated that the cost per DALY (3,0,0)
             averted for providing Caesarean delivery for OL ranged
             widely, from $251 per DALY averted in Madagascar to $3,462
             in Oman. The median cost per DALY averted was $304.
             Benefit-cost ratios also varied, from 0.6 in Zimbabwe to
             69.9 in Gabon. The median benefit-cost ratio calculated was
             6.0. The main limitation of this study is an assumption that
             lack of surgical capacity is the main factor responsible for
             DALYs from OL. Using the World Health Organization's
             cost-effectiveness standards, investing in Caesarean
             delivery can be considered "highly cost-effective" for 48 of
             the 49 countries included in this study. Furthermore, in 46
             of the 49 included countries, the benefit-cost ratio was
             greater than 1.0, implying that investment in Caesarean
             delivery is a viable economic proposition. While Caesarean
             delivery alone is not sufficient for combating OL, it is
             necessary, cost-effective by WHO standards, and ultimately
             economically favorable in the vast majority of countries
             included in this study.},
   Doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0034595},
   Key = {fds301947}

   Author = {Hughes, CD and Babigian, A and McCormack, S and Alkire, BC and Wong, A and Pap, SA and Vincent, JR and Meara, JG and Castiglione, C and Silverman,
   Title = {The clinical and economic impact of a sustained program in
             global plastic surgery: Valuing cleft care in resource-poor
   Journal = {Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery},
   Volume = {130},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {87e-94e},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {0032-1052},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND:: The development of surgery in low- and
             middle-income countries has been limited by a belief that it
             is too expensive to be sustainable. However, subspecialist
             surgical care can provide substantial clinical and economic
             benefits in low-resource settings. The goal of this study is
             to describe the clinical and economic impact of recurrent
             short-term plastic surgical trips in low- and middle-income
             countries. METHODS:: The authors conducted a retrospective
             review of clinic and operative logbooks from Hands Across
             the World=s surgical experience in Ecuador. The authors
             calculated the disability-adjusted life-years averted to
             estimate the clinical impact of cleft repair and then
             calculated the economic impact of surgical intervention for
             cleft disease. RESULTS:: One thousand one hundred forty-two
             reconstructive surgical cases were performed over 15 years.
             Surgery was most commonly performed for scar contractures
             [449 cases (39.3 percent)], of which burn scars comprised a
             substantial amount [215 cases (18.8 percent)]. There were 40
             postoperative complications within 7 days of operation (3.5
             percent), and partial wound dehiscence was the most common
             complication [16 of 40 (40 percent)]. Cleft disorders
             constituted 277 cases (24.3 percent), and 102 cases were
             primary cleft lip and/or palate cases. Between 396 and 1042
             total disability-adjusted life-years were averted through
             surgery for these 102 cases of primary cleft repair. This
             translates to an economic benefit between $4.7 million
             (human capital approach) and $27.5 million (value of a
             statistical life approach). CONCLUSIONS:: Plastic surgical
             disease is a significant source of morbidity for patients in
             resource-limited regions. Dedicated programs that provide
             essential reconstructive surgery can produce substantial
             clinical and economic benefits to host countries. Copyright
             © 2012 by the American Society of Plastic
   Doi = {10.1097/PRS.0b013e318254b2a2},
   Key = {fds301948}

   Author = {Auffhammer, M and Ramanathan, V and Vincent, JR},
   Title = {Climate change, the monsoon, and rice yield in
   Journal = {Climatic Change},
   Volume = {111},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {411-424},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {0165-0009},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Recent research indicates that monsoon rainfall became less
             frequent but more intense in India during the latter half of
             the Twentieth Century, thus increasing the risk of drought
             and flood damage to the country's wet-season (kharif) rice
             crop. Our statistical analysis of state-level Indian data
             confirms that drought and extreme rainfall negatively
             affected rice yield (harvest per hectare) in predominantly
             rainfed areas during 1966-2002, with drought having a much
             greater impact than extreme rainfall. Using Monte Carlo
             simulation, we find that yield would have been 1. 7% higher
             on average if monsoon characteristics, especially drought
             frequency, had not changed since 1960. Yield would have
             received an additional boost of nearly 4% if two other
             meteorological changes (warmer nights and lower rainfall at
             the end of the growing season) had not occurred. In
             combination, these changes would have increased cumulative
             harvest during 1966-2002 by an amount equivalent to about a
             fifth of the increase caused by improvements in farming
             technology. Climate change has evidently already negatively
             affected India's hundreds of millions of rice producers and
             consumers. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media
   Doi = {10.1007/s10584-011-0208-4},
   Key = {fds301949}

   Author = {Warf, BC and Alkire, BC and Bhai, S and Hughes, C and Schiff, SJ and Vincent, JR and Meara, JG},
   Title = {Costs and benefits of neurosurgical intervention for infant
             hydrocephalus in sub-Saharan Africa: Clinical
   Journal = {Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {509-521},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {1933-0707},
   url = {},
   Keywords = {Africa South of the Sahara • Cohort Studies • Cost
             of Illness • Cost-Benefit Analysis • Developing
             Countries • Disability Evaluation • Female •
             Follow-Up Studies • Humans • Hydrocephalus •
             Infant • Male • Mothers • Neurosurgical
             Procedures • Quality-Adjusted Life Years •
             Treatment Outcome • Uganda • Ventriculoperitoneal
             Shunt • economics • economics* • epidemiology
             • etiology • methods • surgery*},
   Abstract = {Object. Evidence from the CURE Children's Hospital of Uganda
             (CCHU) suggests that treatment for hydrocephalus in infants
             can be effective and sustainable in a developing country.
             This model has not been broadly supported or implemented due
             in part to the absence of data on the economic burden of
             disease or any assessment of the cost and benefit of
             treatment. The authors used economic modeling to estimate
             the annual cost and benefit of treating hydrocephalus in
             infants at CCHU. These results were then extrapolated to the
             potential economic impact of treating all cases of
             hydrocephalus in infants in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).
             Methods. The authors conducted a retrospective review of all
             children initially treated for hydrocephalus at CCHU via
             endoscopic third ventriculostomy or shunt placement in 2005.
             A combination of data and explicit assumptions was used to
             determine the number of times each procedure was performed,
             the cost of performing each procedure, the number of
             disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted with
             neurosurgical intervention, and the economic benefit of the
             treatment. For CCHU and SSA, the cost per DALY averted and
             the benefit-cost ratio of 1 year's treatment of
             hydrocephalus in infants were determined. Results. In 2005,
             297 patients (median age 4 months) were treated at CCHU. The
             total cost of neurosurgical intervention was $350,410, and
             the cost per DALY averted ranged from $59 to $126. The
             CCHU's economic benefit to Uganda was estimated to be
             between $3.1 million and $5.2 million using a human capital
             approach and $4.6 million-$188 million using a value of a
             statistical life (VSL) approach. The total economic benefit
             of treating the conservatively estimated 82,000 annual cases
             of hydrocephalus in infants in SSA ranged from $930 million
             to $1.6 billion using a human capital approach and $1.4
             billion-$56 billion using a VSL approach. The minimum
             benefit-cost ratio of treating hydrocephalus in infants was
             estimated to be 7:1. Conclusions. Untreated hydrocephalus in
             infants exacts an enormous price from SSA. The results of
             this study suggest that neurosurgical intervention has a
             cost/DALY averted comparable to other surgical interventions
             that have been evaluated, as well as a favorable
             benefit-cost ratio. The prevention and treatment of
             hydrocephalus in SSA should be recognized as a major public
             health priority.},
   Doi = {10.3171/2011.8.PEDS11163},
   Key = {fds301950}

   Author = {Alkire, B and Hughes, CD and Nash, K and Vincent, JR and Meara,
   Title = {Potential economic benefit of cleft lip and palate repair in
             sub-saharan Africa},
   Journal = {World Journal of Surgery},
   Volume = {35},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1194-1201},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {0364-2313},
   url = {},
   Keywords = {Africa South of the Sahara • Cleft Lip • Cleft
             Palate • Cost Savings* • Databases, Factual •
             Developing Countries • Female • Health Care Costs
             • Humans • Infant • Infant, Newborn •
             Male • Models, Econometric • Reconstructive
             Surgical Procedures • Retrospective Studies •
             economics • economics* • methods •
   Abstract = {Background: Acceptance of basic surgical care as an
             essential element of any properly functioning health system
             is growing. To justify investment in surgical interventions,
             donors require estimates of the economic benefit of treating
             surgical disease. The present study aimed to establish a
             methodology for valuing the potential economic benefit of
             surgical intervention using cleft lip and palate (CLP) in
             sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) as a model. Methods: Economic
             modeling of cleft lip and cleft palate (CLP) in SSA was
             performed with retrospective demographic and economic data
             from 2008. The total number of Disability-Adjusted
             Life-Years (DALYs) secondary to CLP in 2008 was calculated
             from accepted clefting incidence rates and disability
             weights taken from the Global Burden of Disease Project.
             DALYs were then converted to monetary terms ($US), using
             both a human capital approach and Value of a Statistical
             Life (VSL) approach. Results: With the human capital
             approach, the potential economic benefit if all incident
             cases of CLP in SSA in 2008 were repaired at birth ranged
             from $252 million to $441 million. With VSL, the potential
             economic benefit of the same CLP repair would range from
             $5.4 billion to $9.7 billion. Conclusions: Cleft lip and
             cleft palate can have a substantial impact on the economic
             health of countries in the developing world. Further studies
             should be directed at quantifying the economic benefit of
             surgical interventions and quantifying their costs with an
             economically sound approach. © 2011 Société
             Internationale de Chirurgie.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s00268-011-1055-1},
   Key = {fds301951}

   Author = {Susana Ferreira and Jeffrey R. Vincent},
   Title = {Governance and timber harvests},
   Journal = {Environ & Resource Econ},
   Year = {2010},
   Key = {fds184943}

   Author = {Jeffrey R. Vincent},
   Title = {Microeconomic Analysis of Innovative Environmental Programs
             in Developing Countries},
   Journal = {Review of Environmental Economics and Policy},
   Year = {2010},
   Key = {fds184945}

   Author = {Welch, JR and Vincent, JR and Auffhammer, M and Moya, PF and Dobermann,
             A and Dawe, D},
   Title = {Rice yields in tropical/subtropical Asia exhibit large but
             opposing sensitivities to minimum and maximum
   Journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of
   Volume = {107},
   Number = {33},
   Pages = {14562-14567},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {0027-8424},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Data from farmer-managed fields have not been used
             previously to disentangle the impacts of daily minimum and
             maximum temperatures and solar radiation on rice yields in
             tropical/subtropical Asia. We used a multiple regression
             model to analyze data from 227 intensively managed irrigated
             rice farms in six important rice-producing countries. The
             farm-level detail, observed over multiple growing seasons,
             enabled us to construct farm-specific weather variables,
             control for unobserved factors that either were unique to
             each farm but did not vary over time or were common to all
             farms at a given site but varied by season and year, and
             obtain more precise estimates by including farm- and
             site-specific economic variables. Temperature and radiation
             had statistically significant impacts during both the
             vegetative and ripening phases of the rice plant. Higher
             minimum temperature reduced yield, whereas higher maximum
             temperature raised it; radiation impact varied by growth
             phase. Combined, these effects imply that yield at most
             sites would have grown more rapidly during the high-yielding
             season but less rapidly during the low-yielding season if
             observed temperature and radiation trends at the end of the
             20th century had not occurred, with temperature trends being
             more influential. Looking ahead, they imply a net negative
             impact on yield from moderate warming in coming decades.
             Beyond that, the impact would likely become more negative,
             because prior research indicates that the impact of maximum
             temperature becomes negative at higher levels. Diurnal
             temperature variation must be considered when investigating
             the impacts of climate change on irrigated rice in
   Doi = {10.1073/pnas.1001222107},
   Key = {fds301952}

   Author = {Vincent, JR and Das, S},
   Title = {Reply to Baird et al.: Mangroves and storm protection:
             Getting the numbers right},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of
   Volume = {106},
   Number = {40},
   Pages = {E112},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {0027-8424},
   url = {},
   Doi = {10.1073/pnas.0909952106},
   Key = {fds301945}

   Author = {Walker, B and Barrett, S and Polasky, S and Galaz, V and Folke, C and Engström, G and Ackerman, F and Arrow, K and Carpenter, S and Chopra,
             K and Daily, G and Ehrlich, P and Hughes, T and Kautsky, N and Levin, S and Maler, K-G and Shogren, J and Vincent, J and Xepapadeas, T and Zeeuw,
   Title = {Looming global-scale failures and missing
   Journal = {Science},
   Volume = {325},
   Number = {5946},
   Pages = {1345-1346},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {0036-8075},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Navigating global changes requires a coevolving set of
             collaborative, global institutions.},
   Doi = {10.1126/science.1175325},
   Key = {fds301956}

   Author = {Das, S and Vincent, JR},
   Title = {Mangroves protected villages and reduced death toll during
             Indian super cyclone},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of
   Volume = {106},
   Number = {18},
   Pages = {7357-7360},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {0027-8424},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Protection against coastal disasters has been identified as
             an important service of mangrove ecosystems. Empirical
             studies on this service have been criticized, however, for
             using small samples and inadequately controlling for
             confounding factors. We used data on several hundred
             villages to test the impact of mangroves on human deaths
             during a 1999 super cyclone that struck Orissa, India. We
             found that villages with wider mangroves between them and
             the coast experienced significantly fewer deaths than ones
             with narrower or no mangroves. This finding was robust to
             the inclusion of a wide range of other variables to our
             statistical model, including controls for the historical
             extent of mangroves. Although mangroves evidently saved
             fewer lives than an early warning issued by the government,
             the retention of remaining mangroves in Orissa is
             economically justified even without considering the many
             benefits they provide to human society besides storm-
             protection services.},
   Doi = {10.1073/pnas.0810440106},
   Key = {fds301957}

   Author = {Ferreira, S and Hamilton, K and Vincent, JR},
   Title = {Comprehensive wealth and future consumption: Accounting for
             population growth},
   Journal = {World Bank Economic Review},
   Volume = {22},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {233-248},
   Year = {2008},
   ISSN = {0258-6770},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Economic theory predicts that the current change in national
             wealth, broadly defined to include natural and human capital
             as well as produced capital ("genuine savings"), determines
             whether the present value of future changes in consumption
             is positive or negative. Theoretical research has focused on
             the effects of population growth on this relation, but no
             rigorous empirical investigation has been conducted. Panel
             data for 64 developing countries during 1970-82 are used to
             test the effects of three adjustments for population growth,
             including one that controls for omitted wealth. Although the
             adjustments have substantial impacts on estimates of genuine
             savings, they lead to only limited improvements in the
             relation between those estimates and subsequent consumption
             changes. Even without adjustments for population growth,
             adjustments for natural resource depletion improve the
             relation significantly. Policymakers and economists can
             interpret published estimates of genuine savings as signals
             of future consumption paths if and only if the estimates
             include adjustments for natural resource depletion. But
             better estimates of capital stocks are needed before it can
             be confidently said that adjustments for population growth
             significantly improve the accuracy of those signals. © The
             Author 2008. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf
             of the International Bank for Reconstruction and
             Development/the world bank. All rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1093/wber/lhn008},
   Key = {fds301941}

   Author = {Potts, MD and Vincent, JR},
   Title = {Spatial distribution of species populations, relative
             economic values, and the optimal size and number of
   Journal = {Environmental and Resource Economics},
   Volume = {39},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {91-112},
   Year = {2008},
   ISSN = {0924-6460},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {We examine the tradeoff between the number and average size
             of nature reserves. When the costs of enforcing reserve
             boundaries are negligible, we find analytically that the
             relative price of biodiversity has a positive impact on the
             optimal total reserved area but an ambiguous impact on the
             optimal number of reserves. Simulation modeling of floral
             diversity in a tropical timber concession reveals that the
             resolution of this ambiguity depends on spatial
             distributions of the populations of tree species: whether or
             not they are spatially aggregated (clumped). The impact of
             biodiversity price on optimal reserve number remains
             analytically ambiguous when enforcement costs are not
             negligible. Multiple reserves being economically superior to
             a single reserve now requires, in addition to aggregation, a
             biodiversity price that is sufficiently high to offset the
             effects of enforcement costs. Most of our simulation
             scenarios generate threshold biodiversity prices that do not
             exceed a leading estimate of the marginal value of a higher
             plant species in the bioprospecting literature. Several
             smaller reserves evidently can be economically superior to a
             single larger one even in the presence of enforcement costs.
             © 2007 Springer Science+Business Media,
   Doi = {10.1007/s10640-007-9097-4},
   Key = {fds301942}

   Author = {Potts, MD and Vincent, JR},
   Title = {Harvest and extinction in multi-species ecosystems},
   Journal = {Ecological Economics},
   Volume = {65},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {336-347},
   Year = {2008},
   ISSN = {0921-8009},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {A potential cost of harvesting in multi-species ecosystems
             is the extinction of nonharvested species that are at the
             same trophic level as the harvested species. Existing
             analytical models are not well-suited for studying this
             harvest externality because they focus on species
             interactions across trophic levels instead of within them.
             We identify the conditions under which the harvesting of a
             single species causes at least one extinction of
             nonharvested species at the same trophic level. We compare
             two harvest regimes: uniform management, in which a
             privately optimal harvest rate is applied to the entire
             ecosystem; and specialized management, in which a portion of
             the ecosystem is intensively managed for the harvested
             species and the rest is left unharvested. Which regime is
             more likely to result in extinction depends on the discount
             rate and on the harvested species' competitive ability and
             colonization rate compared to those of the other species. ©
             2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.ecolecon.2007.06.020},
   Key = {fds301943}

   Author = {Vincent, JR},
   Title = {Spatial dynamics, social norms, and the opportunity of the
   Journal = {Ecological Research},
   Volume = {22},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {3-7},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {0912-3814},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {The most important message of Levin (Ecol Res 21:328-333,
             2006) is that "Ecologists and economists have much incentive
             for interaction." Recent studies that account for
             evolutionary processes and local interactions support this
             view by obtaining results that run counter to conventional
             wisdom within resource economics. A second major message of
             the article is that to meet environmental challenges,
             humanity must develop social norms that enhance cooperative
             responses. Successful examples of resource management
             systems back up norms with economic incentives: rewards for
             good behavior and punishments for bad. Economic incentives
             are especially important if rapid and large changes in human
             behavior are desired. © 2006 The Ecological Society of
   Doi = {10.1007/s11284-006-0070-4},
   Key = {fds301938}

   Author = {Boscolo, M and Vincent, JR},
   Title = {Area fees and logging in tropical timber
   Journal = {Environment and Development Economics},
   Volume = {12},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {505-520},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {1355-770X},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Area fees have become an increasingly important component of
             forest revenue systems in tropical developing countries.
             They are commonly viewed as having a neutral impact on
             decisions by timber concessionaires. This view is incorrect.
             Using both theoretical and empirical models, we demonstrate
             that area fees can induce concessionaires to accelerate
             timber harvests and to harvest more selectively. In
             Cameroon, area fees at recent levels create an incentive for
             concessionaires to harvest forests in half the estimated
             sustained-yield period. Countries that wish to encourage
             concessionaires to comply with sustained-yield requirements
             must implement measures that counter the
             depletion-accelerating effects of area fees. © 2007
             Cambridge University Press.},
   Doi = {10.1017/S1355770X0700366X},
   Key = {fds301940}

   Author = {Vincent, JR and Sivalingam, G},
   Title = {Economic incentives for cleaner small and medium
             enterprises: Evidence from Malaysia},
   Pages = {88-111},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {April},
   url = {},
   Doi = {10.4324/9781936331321},
   Key = {fds301896}

   Author = {Sterner, T and Troell, M and Vincent, J and Aniyar, S and Barrett, S and Brock, W and Carpenter, S and Chopra, K and Ehrlich, P and Hoel, M and Levin, S and Mäler, K-G and Norberg, J and Pihl, L and Söderqvist, T and Wilen, J and Xepapadeas, A},
   Title = {Quick fixes for the environment: Part of the solution or
             part of the problem?},
   Journal = {Environment},
   Volume = {48},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {20-27},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {0013-9157},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {When faced with large-scale environmental problems that need
             immediate attention-such as flooding or collapsing fish
             stocks-society has tended to address the symptoms rather
             than fundamental solutions. Can we continue to go for the
             quick fixes?},
   Doi = {10.3200/ENVT.48.10.20-27},
   Key = {fds301937}

   Author = {Auffhammer, M and Ramanathan, V and Vincent, JR},
   Title = {Integrated model shows that atmospheric brown clouds and
             greenhouse gases have reduced rice harvests in
   Journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of
   Volume = {103},
   Number = {52},
   Pages = {19668-19672},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {0027-8424},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Previous studies have found that atmospheric brown clouds
             partially offset the warming effects of greenhouse gases.
             This finding suggests a tradeoff between the impacts of
             reducing emissions of aerosols and greenhouse gases. Results
             from a statistical model of historical rice harvests in
             India, coupled with regional climate scenarios from a
             parallel climate model, indicate that joint reductions in
             brown clouds and greenhouse gases would in fact have
             complementary, positive impacts on harvests. The results
             also imply that adverse climate changes due to brown clouds
             and greenhouse gases contributed to the slowdown in harvest
             growth that occurred during the past two decades. © 2006 by
             The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.},
   Doi = {10.1073/pnas.0609584104},
   Key = {fds301939}

   Author = {Vincent, JR and Ali, RM},
   Title = {Managing natural wealth: Environment and development in
   Journal = {Managing Natural Wealth: Environment and Development in
   Pages = {1-468},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {June},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {© 2005 by Resources for the Future. All rights reserved.
             The remarkably rich natural environment of Malaysia attracts
             the interest of both industry and the environmental
             community. Managing Natural Wealth analyzes major natural
             resource and environmental policy issues in the country
             during the 1970s and 1980s-a period of profound
             socioeconomic change, rapid depletion of natural resources,
             and the emergence of serious problems with pollution.
             Managing Natural Wealth is an important up-date to
             Environment and Development in a Resource-Rich Economy:
             Malaysia under the New Economic Policy. First published in
             hardcover in 1997, this pathbreaking book emphasized
             economics as a source for analyzing the issues involved in
             environmental and natural resource management in developing
             countries. The access that Jeffrey Vincent and Rozali
             Mohamed Ali and the contributing authors had to unpublished
             data and key decisionmakers made their account an essential
             reference for policymakers and researchers in Malaysia and
             throughout the globe. Managing Natural Wealth includes a
             review of key developments since the 1990s by S. Robert
             Aiken and Colin H. Leigh, two geographers with a
             long-standing interest in environmental change in Malaysia
             and an understanding of the institutional context of its
             environmental policy that is unmatched in the scholarly
   Doi = {10.4324/9781936331819},
   Key = {fds301895}

   Author = {Mäler, K-G and Vincent, JR},
   Title = {Preface to the Handbook},
   Journal = {Handbook of Environmental Economics},
   Volume = {2},
   Pages = {xiii-xviii},
   Year = {2005},
   ISSN = {1574-0099},
   url = {},
   Doi = {10.1016/S1574-0099(05)02024-3},
   Key = {fds301935}

   Author = {Ferreira, S and Vincent, JR},
   Title = {Genuine savings: Leading indicator of sustainable
   Journal = {Economic Development and Cultural Change},
   Volume = {53},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {737-754},
   Year = {2005},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Interest in the relationships among national income, wealth,
             and welfare has revived in recent years, driven in large
             part by concern about the long-run consequences of natural
             resource depletion and environmental degradation. A
             fundamental result in this "green accounting" literature is
             that a comprehensive measure of a country's net investment
             across all forms of capital - produced, natural, human -
             should predict whether consumption will be higher or lower
             in the future compared to the present. In this article we
             conduct an empirical investigation of the World Bank's
             genuine savings estimates. Our objectives are to evaluate
             their consistency with green accounting theory and their
             accuracy as predictors of the difference between current and
             average future consumption. We begin by describing the
             estimates and discussing their limitations. Next, we present
             four hypotheses related to equation (4), and we discuss
             econometric issues that arise in testing them. We then
             present our results in two sections: the first focuses on
             consistency with theory, and the second focuses on
             predictive accuracy. We conclude by summarizing the
             implications of our analysis for the interpretation and use
             of the Bank's estimates. © 2005 by The University of
             Chicago. All rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1086/426834},
   Key = {fds301936}

   Author = {Rosen, S and Vincent, JR and MacLeod, W and Fox, M and Thea, DM and Simon,
   Title = {The cost of HIV/AIDS to businesses in southern
   Journal = {AIDS},
   Volume = {18},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {317-324},
   Year = {2004},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Background: Information on the potential costs of HIV/AIDS
             to the private sector is needed if companies are to be given
             a financial incentive to invest in prevention and treatment
             interventions. Objectives: To estimate the cost of HIV/AIDS
             to businesses in southern Africa using company-specific data
             on employees, costs, and HIV prevalence. Methods: Six formal
             sector enterprises in South Africa and Botswana provided
             detailed human resource, financial, and medical data and
             carried out voluntary, anonymous HIV seroprevalence surveys.
             The present value of incident HIV infections with a 9-year
             median survival and 7% real discount rate was estimated.
             Costs included were sick leave; productivity loss;
             supervisory time; retirement, death, disability, and medical
             benefits; and recruitment and training of replacement
             workers. Results: HIV prevalence in the workforces studied
             ranged from 7.9 to 25.0%. HIV/ AIDS among employees added
             0.4-5.9% to the companies' annual salary and wage bills. The
             present value of an incident HIV infection ranged from 0.5
             to 3.6 times the annual salary of the affected worker. Costs
             varied widely across firms and among job levels within
             firms. Key reasons for the differences included HIV
             prevalence, levels and stability of employee benefits, and
             the contractual status of unskilled workers. Some costs were
             omitted from the analysis because of lack of data, and
             results should be regarded as quite conservative.
             Conclusions: AIDS is causing labor costs for businesses in
             southern Africa to rise and threatens the competitiveness of
             African industry. Research on the effectiveness of workplace
             interventions is urgently needed. © 2004 Lippincott
             Williams &amp; Wilkins.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00002030-200401230-00023},
   Key = {fds301933}

   Author = {Mäler, K-G and Vincent, JR},
   Title = {Preface to the handbook},
   Journal = {Handbook of Environmental Economics},
   Volume = {1},
   Pages = {xi-xvi},
   Year = {2003},
   ISSN = {1574-0099},
   url = {},
   Doi = {10.1016/S1574-0099(03)01004-0},
   Key = {fds301931}

   Author = {Rosen, S and Simon, J and Vincent, JR and MacLeod, W and Fox, M and Thea,
   Title = {AIDS Is Your Business},
   Journal = {Harvard Business Review},
   Volume = {81},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {80-87+125},
   Year = {2003},
   ISSN = {0017-8012},
   Abstract = {If your company operates in a developing country, AIDS is
             your business. While Africa has received the most attention,
             AIDS is also spreading swiftly in other parts of the world.
             Russia and Ukraine had the fastest-growing epidemics last
             year, and many experts believe China and India will suffer
             the next tidal wave of infection. Why should executives be
             concerned about AIDS? Because it is destroying the twin
             rationales of globalization strategy-cheap labor and
             fast-growing markets-in countries where people are heavily
             affected by the epidemic. Fortunately, investments in
             programs that prevent infection and provide treatment for
             employees who have HIV/AIDS are profitable for many
             businesses-that is, they lead to savings that outweigh the
             programs' costs. Due to the long latency period between HIV
             infection and the onset of AIDS symptoms, a company is not
             likely to see any of the costs of HIV/AIDS until five to ten
             years after an employee is infected. But executives can
             calculate the present value of epidemic-related costs by
             using the discount rate to weigh each cost according to its
             expected timing. That allows companies to think about
             expenses on HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programs as
             investments rather than merely as costs. The authors found
             that the annual cost of AIDS to six corporations in South
             Africa and Botswana ranged from 0.4% to 5.9% of the wage
             bill. All six companies would have earned positive returns
             on their investments if they had provided employees with
             free treatment for HIV/AIDS in the form of highly active
             antiretroviral therapy (HAART), according to the
             mathematical model the authors used. The annual reduction in
             the AIDS "tax" would have been as much 3540.4%. The authors'
             conclusion? Fighting AIDS not only helps those infected; it
             also makes good business sense.},
   Key = {fds301932}

   Author = {Boscolo, M and Vincent, JR},
   Title = {Nonconvexities in the production of timber, biodiversity,
             and carbon sequestration},
   Journal = {Journal of Environmental Economics and Management},
   Volume = {46},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {251-268},
   Year = {2003},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Fixed logging costs and administrative constraints on
             logging regulations can create nonconvexities in forestry
             production sets that include timber and nontimber products.
             Managing forests to produce multiple values at a landscape
             level, through the aggregation of stands that are completely
             or partially specialized in the production of timber or
             nontimber products, can consequently be superior to
             management systems that treat all stands uniformly, even
             when all stands are identical. Both fixed costs and
             administrative constraints are empirically important sources
             of nonconvexity in tropical rainforests. The former is more
             important when the nontimber product is carbon
             sequestration, while the latter is more important when the
             nontimber product is biodiversity protection. Uniform
             management appears to be superior for the joint production
             of timber and carbon sequestration, while specialized
             management might often be superior for the joint production
             of timber and biodiversity, at least at low discount rates.
             © 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights
   Doi = {10.1016/S0095-0696(02)00034-7},
   Key = {fds301934}

   Author = {Vincent, JR and Aden, J and Dore, G and Adriani, M and Rambe, V and Walton,
   Title = {Public environmental expenditures in Indonesia},
   Journal = {Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {61-74},
   Year = {2002},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {The economic justification for public expenditure is
             especially strong in the case of environmental management.
             Yet expenditures on environmental management have received
             little attention in public expenditure reviews by the World
             Bank and other international development organisations. An
             initial analysis of environmental expenditures in the
             Indonesian government budget between FY1994/95 and FY1998/99
             yields four basic findings. First, most spending in the
             nominal environmental sector, sector 10 (Environment and
             Spatial Planning), is on non-environmental activities, and
             much environmental expenditure occurs in other budget
             sectors. Second, environmental expenditures fell sharply in
             real terms during the economic crisis, to levels far below
             those in FY94/95. Third, they also fell sharply relative to
             the budget and to GDP. Finally, environmental expenditures
             declined more in Indonesia during the economic crisis than
             in Malaysia, Thailand and Korea, relative to both the budget
             and GDP.},
   Doi = {10.1080/000749102753620284},
   Key = {fds301928}

   Author = {Vincent, JR},
   Title = {Timber booms and institutional breakdown in Southeast
   Journal = {Journal of Environment & Development},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {116-119},
   Year = {2002},
   ISSN = {1070-4965},
   Key = {fds301929}

   Author = {Davis, J and Kang, A and Vincent, J and Whittington,
   Title = {How important is improved water infrastructure to
             microenterprises? Evidence from Uganda},
   Journal = {World Development},
   Volume = {29},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {1753-1767},
   Year = {2001},
   ISSN = {0305-750X},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Despite the proliferation of micro and small enterprises
             (MSEs) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), most have difficulty
             surviving, let alone expanding their operations. Using
             empirical evidence from two Ugandan towns we explore the
             impact of investments in water supply infrastructure on
             MSEs. Our findings suggest that, despite perceptions among
             firm owners that water supply is a binding constraint,
             economic benefits to MSEs of supply improvements may be
             limited. Current water infrastructure planning strategies
             may be based on erroneous assumptions about the relative
             demand for improved water supply by firms and households, as
             well as the feasibility of cross-subsidies between groups of
             users. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights
   Doi = {10.1016/S0305-750X(01)00059-6},
   Key = {fds301930}

   Author = {Vincent, JR},
   Title = {Green accounting: From theory to practice},
   Journal = {Environment and Development Economics},
   Volume = {5},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {13-24},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {A decade has passed since Wasting Assets, a study of
             Indonesia by Robert Repetto and colleagues at the World
             Resources Institute, drew widespread attention to the
             potential divergence between gross and net measures of
             national income. This was by no means the first ‘green
             accounting’ study. Martin Weitzman, John Hartwick, and
             Partha Dasgupta and Geoffrey Heal had all conducted seminal
             theoretical work in the 1970s. But the World Resources
             Institute study demonstrated that data were adequate even in
             a developing country to estimate adjustments for the
             depletion of some important forms of natural capital and
             that the adjustments could be large relative to
             conventional, gross measures of national product and
             investment. The adjusted, net measures suggested that a
             substantial portion of Indonesia's rapid economic growth
             during the 1970s and 1980s was simply the unsustainable
             ‘cashing in’ of the country's natural wealth. © 2000,
             Cambridge University Press. All rights reserved.},
   Key = {fds327391}

   Author = {Rosen, S and Simon, JL and Thea, DM and Vincent, JR},
   Title = {Care and treatment to extend the working lives of
             HIV-positive employees: Calculating the benefits to
   Journal = {South African Journal of Science},
   Volume = {96},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {300-304},
   Year = {2000},
   Abstract = {Although HIV infection rates in South Africa have been high
             and rising for nearly a decade, the epidemic of
             HIV/AIDS-related morbidity and mortality is just beginning.
             As South African adults start to sicken and die, concern is
             mounting about the potential costs to companies of HIV/AIDS
             among employees. When a business recognizes the threat posed
             by HIV among employees, it can pursue three basic response
             strategies for mitigating short- and long-term financial
             consequences: (1) try to prevent new infections; (2) avoid
             or reduce the costs associated with existing and future
             infections; and (3) provide treatment and support for
             infected employees to extend their productive working lives
             and thus postpone the costs of infection. This paper
             assesses the potential benefits to South African businesses
             of the third strategy. We describe an approach and methods
             for analysing the benefits of interventions that extend the
             working life of employees and demonstrate such an analysis
             using published data on the costs of HIV/AIDS to companies.
             The analysis indicates that the benefits to companies of
             investments in treatment and care are likely to exceed the
             costs for some existing interventions. Further work is
             needed to identify effective and affordable interventions,
             assess the benefits to companies of implementing the
             interventions, and bring these benefits to the attention of
             business and government leaders.},
   Key = {fds301926}

   Author = {Boscolo, M and Vincent, JR},
   Title = {Promoting better logging practices in tropical forests: A
             simulation analysis of alternative regulations},
   Journal = {Land Economics},
   Volume = {76},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {1-14},
   Year = {2000},
   Abstract = {Standard recommendations for improving logging practices in
             tropical forests include lengthening concession agreements,
             making concessions renewable, and requiring concessionaires
             to deposit performance bonds. In this paper we investigate
             the likely effectiveness of these recommendations by using a
             simulation model of a Malaysian rainforest. We focus on two
             classes of decisions faced by loggers: which logging
             technology to adopt and whether or not to comply with
             prescribed diameter cutting limits. We predict the impact of
             alternative regulations on these decisions and on the
             resulting economic and environmental outcomes. Renewability
             conditions and performance bonds emerge as potent
             instruments for improving logger behavior.},
   Key = {fds301927}

   Author = {Vincent, JR},
   Title = {Net accumulation of timber resources},
   Journal = {Review of Income and Wealth},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {251-262},
   Year = {1999},
   Abstract = {National accounting issues related to forest resources have
             attracted much attention recently. The net-depletion method,
             the most popular method for estimating aggregate changes in
             the value of timber stocks, tends to overstate both the
             depreciation of mature forests due to harvests and the
             appreciation of immature forests due to growth. Alternative,
             correct methods, which I term the net-price and El Serafy
             variations, can be derived from an asset valuation model
             that takes forest age into account. An empirical example
             indicates that estimates from the net-depletion method can
             deviate from actual values by up to 40 percent for some age
   Key = {fds301923}

   Author = {Larson, BA and Avaliani, S and Golub, A and Rosen, S and Shaposhnikov,
             D and Strukova, E and Vincent, JR and Wolff, SK},
   Title = {The economics of air pollution health risks in Russia: A
             case study of Volgograd},
   Journal = {World Development},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {1803-1819},
   Year = {1999},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {A combined health risk assessment, cost-effectiveness
             analysis, and benefit-cost analysis is undertaken for direct
             particulate emissions from 29 stationary source polluters in
             the city of Volgograd, Russia. Annual particulate-related
             mortality risks from these stationary sources are estimated
             to be substantial, with an estimate in the range of
             960-2,667 additional deaths per year in this city of one
             million. The majority of these risks are attributed to two
             major facilities in the northern part of the city. For
             several emission reduction projects, the cost-per-life saved
             was estimated to be quite low. The total net benefits to the
             city of implementing five of the six identified projects,
             leading to roughly a 25% reduction in mortality risk, are
             estimated to be at least $40 million in present value
   Doi = {10.1016/S0305-750X(99)00086-8},
   Key = {fds301924}

   Author = {Vincent, JR},
   Title = {A framework for forest accounting},
   Journal = {Forest Science},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {552-571},
   Year = {1999},
   ISSN = {0015-749X},
   Abstract = {Many recent empirical studies have proposed a variety of
             forest-related adjustments to the national income accounts.
             The complexity of forest-economy interactions makes such
             adjustments prone to double-counting and other problems if
             they are not guided by economic theory. This paper presents
             a framework for making internally consistent, theoretically
             sound adjustments. The framework offers two broad guidelines
             for applied work. First, one should adjust the overall level
             of gross domestic product (GDP), and thus net domestic
             product (NDP), for household consumption of nonmarket forest
             amenities and nontimber products, but not for production
             externalities. Accounting for production externalities
             involves reallocating value added among different production
             sectors included in GDP. Second, one should adjust NDP for
             the net accumulation (not just depreciation) of
             forest-related assets, including the timber stock, the
             carbon stock, and land converted from forest to other uses.
             The framework also offers some guidance for methods to
             quantify values associated with these adjustments.},
   Key = {fds301925}

   Author = {Vincent, JR and Gillis, M},
   Title = {Deforestation and forest land use: A comment},
   Journal = {World Bank Research Observer},
   Volume = {13},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {133-140},
   Year = {1998},
   ISSN = {0257-3032},
   Abstract = {Hyde, Amacher, and Magrath (1996) imply that deforestation
             and timber rents (logging revenue minus logging costs other
             than timber fees) are not subjects that justify
             policymakers' attention, arguing that market responses limit
             the scope of deforestation and that rents are usually small.
             But they fail to recognize that land markets will not
             develop efficiently, nor will efficient levels of forestry
             investments occur, when policy distortions and other factors
             obstruct the conversion of open-access forests to private or
             communal ownership. For these reasons rates of deforestation
             can be far above optimal levels. Contrary to the authors'
             claims, timber rents often (although not always) are large
             in developing countries. Moreover, the allocation of rents
             between loggers and the government owners of public forests
             can indeed affect the profitability of forestry (and thus
             deforestation), the intensity of timber harvesting, and
             national welfare.},
   Key = {fds301921}

   Author = {Vincent, JR and Panayotou, T and Myers, N},
   Title = {...Or distraction?},
   Journal = {Science},
   Volume = {276},
   Number = {5309},
   Pages = {53+55-53+57},
   Year = {1997},
   Key = {fds301916}

   Author = {Myers, N and Vincent, JR and Panayotou, T},
   Title = {Consumption: Challenge to sustainable development},
   Journal = {Science},
   Volume = {276},
   Number = {5309},
   Pages = {53-55},
   Year = {1997},
   url = {},
   Doi = {10.1126/science.276.5309.53},
   Key = {fds301918}

   Author = {Vincent, JR},
   Title = {Resource depletion and economic sustainability in
   Journal = {Environment and Development Economics},
   Volume = {2},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {19-37},
   Year = {1997},
   Abstract = {Countries richly endowed with natural resources have, on
             average, developed less rapidly than countries that are poor
             in natural resources. One possible explanation for this
             phenomenon is that the level of investment in reproducible
             capital has been insufficient to offset the depletion of
             natural capital. The empirical significance of this
             explanation can be investigated by analysing modified
             measures of net investment and net domestic product.
             Estimation of these measures involves calculating the
             economic depreciation of natural resources, a task that has
             been problematic in previous studies. Malaysia provides an
             ideal case for such empirical investigations, as it is one
             of the world's most resource-rich countries yet also has one
             of the world's fastest-growing economies, consists of three
             subnational regions that differ significantly in terms of
             economic structure, and has sufficient data for estimating
             conceptually correct measures of natural resource
             depreciation. Results of the analysis indicate that Malaysia
             has developed sustainably, despite substantial resource
             depletion. This is not the case in two of the regions,
             however, where trends in both net investment and net
             domestic product indicate that current consumption levels
             cannot be sustained. Nevertheless, the regional differences
             in sustainability might be consistent with optimal national
             use of the rents generated by exploitation of the country's
             natural resources.},
   Key = {fds301919}

   Author = {Vincent, JR and Panayotou, T and Hartwick, JM},
   Title = {Resource depletion and sustainability in small open
   Journal = {Journal of Environmental Economics and Management},
   Volume = {33},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {274-286},
   Year = {1997},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Exogenous price changes affect the amount that a small
             country exporting natural resource commodities must invest
             to sustain its consumption level. The necessary amount is
             given by the difference between Hotelling rent and the
             discounted sum of future terms-of-trade effects (capital
             gains). The latter term is found to be large relative to the
             former in the case of petroleum depletion in Indonesia. This
             suggests that resource-rich countries will need to invest
             more than previously expected to sustain their consumption
             levels, if natural resource prices continue their long-term
             historical decline.},
   Doi = {10.1006/jeem.1997.0992},
   Key = {fds301920}

   Author = {Vincent, JR},
   Title = {Testing for environmental Kuznets curves within a developing
   Journal = {Environment and Development Economics},
   Volume = {2},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {417-431},
   Year = {1997},
   Abstract = {Previous studies of the association between pollution and
             income have tended to analyse cross-sectional or panel data
             for a sample of developing and developed countries. This
             paper presents an analysis for a single country, Malaysia.
             This south-east Asian country has more, and probably better,
             data on environmental quality than perhaps any other
             developing country. I find that pollution-income
             relationships from the cross-country studies fail to predict
             accurately trends in air and water pollution in Malaysia. In
             particular, none of six pollution-income relationships
             estimated using a panel data set for Malaysian states has
             the hypothesized 'environmental Kuznets curve' form.
             Although these results are inconsistent with the predictions
             of the cross-country relationships, they make sense in the
             Malaysian context. Perhaps most important, their
             interpretation confirms the importance of policy decisions
             in determining environmental outcomes.},
   Key = {fds301922}

   Author = {Lim, HF and Vincent, J and Woon, WC},
   Title = {Markets for non-timber forest products in the vicinity of
             Pasoh Forest Reserve, Malaysia: preliminary survey
   Journal = {Journal of Tropical Forest Science},
   Volume = {6},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {502-507},
   Year = {1994},
   Abstract = {A preliminary survey of markets around Pasoh Forest Reserve
             was conducted to collect data on sales of non-timber forest
             products (NTFP). Eight types of markets were identified in
             40 rural and two urban communities. At the time of the study
             (October-December 1991) NTFP were sold in all markets,
             except permanent shops. However, only nine types of NTFP
             were sold. Urban markets offered a slightly greater variety
             of NTFP and sellers in urban markets grossed nearly three
             times as much revenue per date as did sellers in rural
             markets. Even in urban markets however, sellers' incomes
             were below the national average. -Authors},
   Key = {fds301917}

   Author = {Vincent, JR and Binkley, CS},
   Title = {Efficient multiple-use forestry may require land-use
   Journal = {Land Economics},
   Volume = {69},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {370-376},
   Year = {1993},
   Abstract = {Considered at the landscape scale, economically efficient
             multiple use of forests may require land-use specialization.
             If managers attempt to satisfy legitimate multiple-use
             demands from society by managing all lands for all outputs,
             both commodity and amenity values of the forest may be
             inappropriately supplied, and management inputs may be
             inefficiently deployed. These results run counter to some of
             the prescriptions called "new forestry'.
   Key = {fds301915}

   Author = {Parthama, I-BP and Vincent, JR},
   Title = {United States demand for Indonesian plywood},
   Journal = {Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies},
   Volume = {28},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {101-112},
   Year = {1992},
   Abstract = {Indonesia's exports of plywood are the largest in the world
             and a leading source of foreign exchange earnings. Although
             the industry's growth has been rapid, several studies
             indicate that it has been subsidised both directly and
             indirectly. What are the prospects for Indonesia to offset
             these subsidies by raising plywood prices as its share of
             key important markets grows? This paper shed light on this
             question by analysing econometrically the United States'
             imports of Indonesian plywood from July 1979 to December
             1986, using a monthly import demand model. The results
             suggest that Indonesia's rapid expansion into the US plywood
             market has been due primarily to its low plywood prices, and
             that attempts to raise prices relative to those of competing
             export regions would result in significant reductions in
             market share. -Authors},
   Key = {fds301913}

   Author = {Vincent, JR},
   Title = {The tropical timber trade and sustainable
   Journal = {Science},
   Volume = {256},
   Number = {5064},
   Pages = {1651-1655},
   Year = {1992},
   ISSN = {0036-8075},
   Abstract = {The tropical timber trade appears to have promoted neither
             sustained forest management nor sustained forest-based
             industrialization. The boom-and-bust export pattern is often
             blamed on demand by developed countries, high import
             barriers, and low international wood prices. In fact, it is
             rooted in tropical countries' own policies related to timber
             concessions and wood-processing industries. These policies
             suppress timber scarcity signals and must be revised if the
             trade is to promote sustained economic growth. Even if this
             is done, the trade may not promote sustained-yield forestry
             in individual countries.},
   Key = {fds301914}

   Author = {Vincent, JR and Gandapur, AK and Brooks, DJ},
   Title = {Species substitution and tropical log imports by
   Journal = {Forest Science},
   Volume = {36},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {657-664},
   Year = {1990},
   ISSN = {0015-749X},
   Abstract = {Tropical rainforests contain many "lesser known species'
             that have not achieved widespread acceptance in
             international timber markets. This paper provides a
             quantitative analysis of the effects on tropical log demand
             of two economic factors: relative prices and technical
             change. A multi-output cost function framework is developed
             to analyze tropical log demand as derived from the
             production of plywood and sawnwood. Data analyzed are
             Japanese imports of dipterocarp and nondipterocarp logs
             (proxies for well- and lesser known species, respectively)
             from the South Seas during 1970-87. The econometric results
             indicate that the composition (dipterocarp vs.
             nondipterocarp) of tropical log imports was not
             significantly influenced by either relative prices or
             technical change during the period analyzed.
   Key = {fds301911}

   Author = {Vincent, JR},
   Title = {Rent capture and the feasibility of tropical forest
   Journal = {Land Economics},
   Volume = {66},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {212-223},
   Year = {1990},
   Abstract = {This paper analyzes how the inefficiency of tropical timber
             royalty systems affects the feasibility of tropical forest
             management. It argues that distorted price signals from
             inefficient royalty systems give an unduly negative
             indication of the potential financial returns to forest
             management. The author estimates the discrepancy between
             royalties and resource rent in Malaysia during 1966-85, uses
             a benefit-cost framework to analyze the impacts of this
             discrepancy on the feasibility of tropical forest
             management. Finds that forest management is feasible in many
             cases even if nontimber benefits are excluded, as long as
             timber is valued by resource rent instead of royalties.
             -from Author},
   Key = {fds301912}

   Author = {Vincent, JR},
   Title = {Optimal tariffs on intermediate and final goods: the case of
             tropical forest products},
   Journal = {Forest Science},
   Volume = {35},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {720-731},
   Year = {1989},
   ISSN = {0015-749X},
   Abstract = {Products made from tropical timber are subject to a variety
             of tariff and nontariff barriers. This paper considers the
             potential welfare gains from the imposition of optimal
             tariffs on these products. Optimal tariffs and associated
             welfare gains are determined by applying nonlinear
             programming to a static three-region, three-product, partial
             equilibrium simulation model. Optimal tariffs are determined
             for each region both with and without retaliation by other
             regions. In the case of retaliation, two- and three-region
             Cournot-Nash equilibria are described. Principal findings
             are that modest welfare gains are possible in the absence of
             retaliation, but large losses may result if other regions
             retaliate. -from Author},
   Key = {fds301909}

   Author = {Vincent, JR},
   Title = {Malaysia: key player in international trade},
   Journal = {Journal of Forestry},
   Volume = {86},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {32-35},
   Year = {1988},
   Abstract = {Concentrates on Malaysia's current position as an exporter
             of forest products. Two main points are made. First,
             Malaysia is best regarded as three separate nations from the
             standpoint of forest products trade. Second, while Malaysia
             will remain an important exporter of forest products,
             resource depletion will probably lead to decreases in its
             importance within the next 5 to 10 years.
   Key = {fds301908}

   Author = {Binkley, CS and Vincent, JR},
   Title = {Timber prices in the U.S. South: past trends and outlook for
             the future},
   Journal = {Southern Journal of Applied Forestry},
   Volume = {12},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {15-18},
   Year = {1988},
   Abstract = {Prior to World War II, prices of southern pine stumpage rose
             at a real rate of 4.6%/yr, and since that time they have
             risen at a real rate of 3.1%/yr. Prices for timber sold from
             private lands have apparently risen more rapidly than have
             prices for public timber. Seven forecasts of future price
             trends which use very different projection methods are
             reviewed. For the next two decades, these studies indicate
             an average annual rate of real price appreciation equal to
             2.5%/yr. For the period between 1990 and 2010, the median
             estimate among these studies is 1.9%/yr.
   Key = {fds301910}

   Author = {Mergen, F and Vincent, JR},
   Title = {Natural management of tropical moist forests: silvicultural
             and management of sustained utilization.},
   Year = {1987},
   Abstract = {In the keynote address on problems and prospects for natural
             management of tropical moist forests, J. WYATT-SMITH
             discusses data availability, forests rights, illegal
             clearing, extraction damage, training, management, market
             demand for timber, and conservation. Opportunity and skills
             must be developed to provide sufficient artificial
             regeneration/enrichment planting to cover future industrial
             production needs, and natural management should be pursued
             on all other forest land. Political and social factors will
             probably be more critical than technological ones.
             Consideration of silvicultural systems is made by HON TAT
             TANG (Problems and strategies for regenerating dipterocarp
             forests in Malaysia); P. K. ASABERE (Sustained yield
             management in the tropical high forests of Ghana); L. C.
             NWOBOSHI (Regeneration success of natural management,
             enrichment planting and plantations of native species in
             West Africa); and F. H. WADSWORTH (Applicability of Asian
             and African silviculture systems to naturally regenerated
             forests of the Neotropics). Silvicultural treatments are
             reviewed by I. D. HUTCHINSON (Improvement thinning in
             natural tropical forests) and M. S. PHILIP (Obstacles to
             measuring growth and yield in tropical rain forests).
             Economic, social and political aspects are noted by P. R. O.
             KIO &amp; S. A. EKWEBELAM (Plantations versus natural
             forests for meeting Nigeria's wood needs) and A. J. LESLIE
             (Economic feasibility of natural management of tropical
             forests). -P.J.Jarvis},
   Key = {fds301907}

%% Chapters in Books   
   Author = {Vincent, JR},
   Title = {Valuing the environment as a production input},
   Pages = {36-78},
   Booktitle = {Environmental Valuation: In South Asia},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9780511843938},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {© A.K. Enamul Haque, M.N. Murty and Priya Shyamsundar 2011.
             Most research on the value of changes in environmental
             quality focuses on values from the standpoint of individual
             consumers. Three valuation methods dominate this research -
             contingent valuation, hedonic pricing, and travel cost
             models. These are sometimes the only methods considered in
             references on valuation methods. One example of this is the
             excellent primer by Champ et al. (2003). Yet, environmental
             quality can also affect production. For example,
             infiltration of saline water from shrimp farms can damage
             harvests on neighbouring rice farms, the loss of spawning
             grounds when mangroves are cut down can reduce fish catch,
             and damage from acid rain and other forms of air pollution
             can reduce timber harvests. This chapter focuses on the
             valuation of these sorts of effects.In these cases,
             environmental quality is acting as a non-market, or
             unpriced, production input. Damage to the environment
             reduces the supply of this input, and as a result production
             falls. Conversely, programmes to improve environmental
             quality can benefit environmentally sensitive forms of
             production by raising the supply of such inputs. These
             production-related benefits can be among the most important
             benefits generated by environmental improvements. This is
             especially likely to be the case in developing regions of
             the world such as South Asia, where agriculture accounts for
             a larger share of GDP than in higher-income regions and
             renewable resources such as forests and fisheries underpin
             local economies.},
   Doi = {10.1017/CBO9780511843938.004},
   Key = {fds301898}

%% Working Papers   
   Author = {J.R. Vincent},
   Title = {Ecosystem services and green growth},
   Journal = {World Bank Policy Research Working Papers},
   Year = {2012},
   Key = {fds214985}

   Author = {Susana Ferreira and Kirk Hamilton and Jeffrey R.
   Title = {Nature, Socioeconomics and Adaptation to Natural Disasters:
             New Evidence from Floods},
   Journal = {World Bank Policy Research Working Paper
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {June},
   Key = {fds202110}

%% Papers Submitted   
   Author = {B, Alkire and J. Meara and J.R. Vincent},
   Title = {Benefit-cost analysis of providing Caesarean delivery for
             obstructed labor},
   Booktitle = {Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries, 3rd ed.
             (Oxford University Press)},
   Year = {2013},
   Key = {fds222663}

   Author = {J.R. Vincent and R.T. Carson and J.R. DeShazo and K.A. Schwabe and I.
             Ahmad, Chong S.K. and Chang Y.T. and M.D. Potts},
   Title = {Developing countries may be willing to pay to protect their
             own tropical forests},
   Journal = {PNAS},
   Year = {2013},
   Key = {fds222556}

   Author = {J. S. Tan-Soo and N. Adnan and I. Ahmad and S. K. Pattanayak and J. R.
   Title = {Converting tropical rainforests to oil palm and rubber
             increased flood duration in Malaysia},
   Journal = {PNAS},
   Year = {2013},
   Key = {fds222557}

   Author = {J.R. DeShazo and R.T. Carson and K.A. Schwabe and J.R. Vincent and I.
             Ahmad, Chong S.K. and Chang Y.T.},
   Title = {Using Surveys to Value Protection and Recreational Use of
             Tropical Forests: Part 1—Survey Instrument Development and
   Journal = {Journal of Tropical Forest Science},
   Year = {2013},
   Key = {fds222558}

   Author = {J.R. DeShazo and R.T. Carson and K.A. Schwabe and J.R. Vincent and I.
             Ahmad, Chong S.K. and Chang Y.T.},
   Title = {Using Surveys to Value Protection and Recreational Use of
             Tropical Forests: Part 2—Design Issues, Survey
             Administration, and Descriptive Statistics},
   Journal = {Journal of Tropical Forest Science},
   Year = {2013},
   Key = {fds222559}

   Author = {K.A. Schwabe and R.T. Carson and J.R. DeShazo and A.N. Reese and J.R.
   Title = {Creation of Malaysia’s Royal Belum State Park: A Case
             Study of Conservation in a Developing Country},
   Journal = {J Env and Development (JED)},
   Year = {2013},
   Key = {fds222560}

   Author = {R.T. Carson and J.R. DeShazo and K.A. Schwabe and J.R. Vincent and I.
   Title = {Incorporating visitor valuation information into park design
   Journal = {Journal of Forest Economics},
   Year = {2013},
   Key = {fds222561}

   Author = {B. Alkire and J. Meara and J.R. Vincent},
   Title = {Benefit-cost analysis of a cleft lip and palate surgical
             subspecialty hospital in India},
   Booktitle = {Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries, 3rd ed.
             (Oxford University Press)},
   Year = {2013},
   Key = {fds222564}

   Author = {S. Ferreira and K. Hamilton and J.R. Vincent},
   Title = {Does development reduce fatalities from natural disasters?
             New evidence for floods},
   Journal = {Environmental & Development Econ},
   Year = {2012},
   Key = {fds214986}

   Author = {Vincent, JR},
   Title = {Microeconomic analysis of innovative environmental programs
             in developing countries},
   Journal = {Review of Environmental Economics and Policy},
   Volume = {4},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {221-233},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {1750-6816},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Environmental management programs that attempt to cope with
             institutional weaknesses in developing countries by being
             less reliant on governments' formal regulatory apparatus are
             becoming increasingly common. Three leading examples of such
             innovative programs are (1) public disclosure and voluntary
             programs to address industrial pollution; (2) programs that
             inform households about environmental health risks; and (3)
             payments for environmental services. Although (1) and (2)
             have reduced emissions of industrial pollutants and
             household exposure to environmental health risks in some
             cases, the reductions are small relative to the size of the
             problems. Conservation benefits from (3) have been similarly
             small so far. Evidence on the effectiveness of these
             programs is limited, both because the programs are
             relatively new and because there has been limited use of
             rigorous impact evaluation methods. Despite this weak
             performance record, continued experimentation with
             innovative programs appears to be warranted, especially if
             the opportunity cost is not too high in terms of redirecting
             resources away from formal environmental management programs
             and if rigorous impact evaluations are built in to determine
             whether and why innovative programs have worked. Future
             research needs to pay attention to the great heterogeneity
             among developing countries (i.e., successful implementation
             in one country is no guarantee of success elsewhere), and to
             the relationship of innovative programs to formal
             environmental management programs. © The Author 2010.
             Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the
             Association of Environmental and Resource Economists. All
             rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1093/reep/req011},
   Key = {fds301954}

   Author = {Ferreira, S and Vincent, JR},
   Title = {Governance and Timber Harvests},
   Journal = {Environmental and Resource Economics},
   Volume = {47},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {241-260},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {0924-6460},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Resource economics theory implies that risks associated with
             weak governance have an ambiguous impact on extraction, with
             the net impact depending on the relative strengths of
             depletion and investment effects. Previous empirical studies
             have found that improved governance tends to reduce
             deforestation but to raise oil production. Here, we present
             evidence that the marginal impact of improved governance on
             timber harvests in developing countries during 1984-2006 was
             nonmonotonic. It tended to raise harvests in countries with
             weaker governance but to reduce harvests in countries with
             stronger governance. This nonmonotonic impact occurred for
             both an index of governmental integrity (corruption,
             bureaucracy quality, law and order) and an index of
             governmental stability. A simulation of hypothetical
             increases in these governance indices to the maximum 2006
             values observed in the sample predicted that improved
             governance would reduce harvests in most countries but could
             raise harvests in some, with large increases occurring in
             countries with the weakest governance. © 2010 Springer
             Science+Business Media B.V.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s10640-010-9374-5},
   Key = {fds301955}

   Author = {Vincent, JR},
   Title = {The value of valuation studies: more than
   Journal = {Unasylva},
   Year = {2009},
   Key = {fds301953}

%% Book Chapters   
   Author = {J.R. Vincent},
   Title = {Valuing the Environment as a Production Input},
   Booktitle = {Environmental Valuation in South Asia (Cambridge University
   Year = {2011},
   Key = {fds202111}

   Author = {J.R. Vincent},
   Title = {Askö 1998: Commentary},
   Booktitle = {Bringing Ecologists and Economists Together
   Year = {2011},
   Key = {fds202112}

%% Other   
   Author = {J.R. Vincent and I. Ahmad and N. Adnan and J.S. Tan-Soo and K.
   Title = {Accounting for the water purification service of tropical
   Year = {2013},
   Key = {fds222562}

   Author = {J. Strand and R.T. Carson and S. Navrud and A. Ortiz-Bobea and J.R.
   Title = {A Delphi exercise as a tool in Amazon rainforest
   Year = {2013},
   Key = {fds222563}

   Author = {J.R. Vincent and S. Das},
   Title = {Mangroves and storm protection: getting the numbers
   Journal = {PNAS},
   Year = {2009},
   Key = {fds169982}

   Author = {Vincent, JR},
   Title = {Forests in the developing world: Is the glass half full or
             half empty?},
   Journal = {Journal of Tropical Forest Science},
   Volume = {21},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {v-vi},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {0128-1283},
   Key = {fds301944}

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