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Publications of Kevin S. LaBar    :chronological  alphabetical  combined listing:

%% Journal Articles   
@article{fds341826,
   Author = {Harris, AA and Romer, AL and Hanna, EK and Keeling, LA and LaBar, KS and Sinnott-Armstrong, W and Strauman, TJ and Wagner, HR and Marcus, MD and Zucker, NL},
   Title = {The central role of disgust in disorders of food
             avoidance.},
   Journal = {The International Journal of Eating Disorders},
   Volume = {52},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {543-553},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eat.23047},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND:Individuals with extreme food avoidance such as
             Avoidant Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) experience
             impairing physical and mental health consequences from
             nutrition of insufficient variety or/and quantity.
             Identifying mechanisms contributing to food avoidance is
             essential to develop effective interventions. Anxiety
             figures prominently in theoretical models of food avoidance;
             however, there is limited evidence that repeated exposures
             to foods increases approach behavior in ARFID. Studying
             disgust, and relationships between disgust and anxiety, may
             offer novel insights, as disgust is functionally associated
             with avoidance of contamination from pathogens (as may occur
             via ingestion) and is largely resistant to extinction.
             METHOD:This exploratory, cross-sectional study included data
             from 1,644 adults who completed an online questionnaire.
             Participant responses were used to measure ARFID
             classification, picky eating, sensory sensitivity, disgust,
             and anxiety. Structural equation modeling tested a
             measurement model of latent disgust and anxiety factors as
             measured by self-reported frequency of disgust and anxiety
             reactions. Mediational models were used to explore causal
             ordering. RESULTS:A latent disgust factor was more strongly
             related to severity of picky eating (B ≈ 0.4) and
             ARFID classification (B ≈ 0.6) than the latent anxiety
             factor (B ≈ 0.1). Disgust partially mediated the
             association between anxiety and picky eating and fully
             mediated the association between anxiety and ARFID. Models
             testing the reverse causal ordering demonstrated poorer fit.
             Findings suggest anxiety may be associated with food
             avoidance in part due to increased disgust.
             CONCLUSIONS:Disgust may play a prominent role in food
             avoidance. Findings may inform novel approaches to
             treatment.},
   Doi = {10.1002/eat.23047},
   Key = {fds341826}
}

@article{fds340130,
   Author = {Powers, JP and LaBar, KS},
   Title = {Regulating emotion through distancing: A taxonomy,
             neurocognitive model, and supporting meta-analysis.},
   Journal = {Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews},
   Volume = {96},
   Pages = {155-173},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2018.04.023},
   Abstract = {Distancing is a type of emotion regulation that involves
             simulating a new perspective to alter the psychological
             distance and emotional impact of a stimulus. The
             effectiveness and versatility of distancing relative to
             other types of emotion regulation make it a promising tool
             for clinical applications. However, the neurocognitive
             mechanisms of this tactic are unclear, and inconsistencies
             in terminology and methods across studies make it difficult
             to synthesize the literature. To promote more effective
             research, we propose a taxonomy of distancing within the
             broader context of emotion regulation strategies; review the
             effects of this tactic; and offer a preliminary
             neurocognitive model describing key cognitive processes and
             their neural bases. Our model emphasizes three
             components-self-projection, affective self-reflection, and
             cognitive control. Additionally, we present results from a
             supporting meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies of
             distancing. These efforts are presented within the
             overarching goals of supporting effective applications of
             distancing in laboratory, clinical, and other real-world
             contexts, and advancing understanding of the relevant
             high-level cognitive functions in the brain.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neubiorev.2018.04.023},
   Key = {fds340130}
}

@article{fds338535,
   Author = {Chen, LW and Sun, D and Davis, SL and Haswell, CC and Dennis, EL and Swanson, CA and Whelan, CD and Gutman, B and Jahanshad, N and Iglesias,
             JE and Thompson, P and Mid-Atlantic MIRECC Workgroup, and Wagner,
             HR and Saemann, P and LaBar, KS and Morey, RA},
   Title = {Smaller hippocampal CA1 subfield volume in posttraumatic
             stress disorder.},
   Journal = {Depression and Anxiety},
   Volume = {35},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {1018-1029},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/da.22833},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND:Smaller hippocampal volume in patients with
             posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) represents the most
             consistently reported structural alteration in the brain.
             Subfields of the hippocampus play distinct roles in encoding
             and processing of memories, which are disrupted in PTSD. We
             examined PTSD-associated alterations in 12 hippocampal
             subfields in relation to global hippocampal shape, and
             clinical features. METHODS:Case-control cross-sectional
             studies of U.S. military veterans (n = 282) from the Iraq
             and Afghanistan era were grouped into PTSD (n = 142) and
             trauma-exposed controls (n = 140). Participants underwent
             clinical evaluation for PTSD and associated clinical
             parameters followed by MRI at 3 T. Segmentation with
             FreeSurfer v6.0 produced hippocampal subfield volumes for
             the left and right CA1, CA3, CA4, DG, fimbria, fissure,
             hippocampus-amygdala transition area, molecular layer,
             parasubiculum, presubiculum, subiculum, and tail, as well as
             hippocampal meshes. Covariates included age, gender, trauma
             exposure, alcohol use, depressive symptoms, antidepressant
             medication use, total hippocampal volume, and MRI scanner
             model. RESULTS:Significantly lower subfield volumes were
             associated with PTSD in left CA1 (P = 0.01; d = 0.21;
             uncorrected), CA3 (P = 0.04; d = 0.08; uncorrected), and
             right CA3 (P = 0.02; d = 0.07; uncorrected) only if
             ipsilateral whole hippocampal volume was included as a
             covariate. A trend level association of L-CA1 with PTSD (F4,
             221  = 3.32, P = 0.07) is present and the other subfield
             findings are nonsignificant if ipsilateral whole hippocampal
             volume is not included as a covariate. PTSD-associated
             differences in global hippocampal shape were nonsignificant.
             CONCLUSIONS:The present finding of smaller hippocampal CA1
             in PTSD is consistent with model systems in rodents that
             exhibit increased anxiety-like behavior from repeated
             exposure to acute stress. Behavioral correlations with
             hippocampal subfield volume differences in PTSD will
             elucidate their relevance to PTSD, particularly behaviors of
             associative fear learning, extinction training, and
             formation of false memories.},
   Doi = {10.1002/da.22833},
   Key = {fds338535}
}

@article{fds332658,
   Author = {Wing, EA and Iyengar, V and Hess, TM and LaBar, KS and Huettel, SA and Cabeza, R},
   Title = {Neural mechanisms underlying subsequent memory for personal
             beliefs:An fMRI study.},
   Journal = {Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience},
   Volume = {18},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {216-231},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13415-018-0563-y},
   Abstract = {Many fMRI studies have examined the neural mechanisms
             supporting emotional memory for stimuli that generate
             emotion rather automatically (e.g., a picture of a dangerous
             animal or of appetizing food). However, far fewer studies
             have examined how memory is influenced by emotion related to
             social and political issues (e.g., a proposal for large
             changes in taxation policy), which clearly vary across
             individuals. In order to investigate the neural substrates
             of affective and mnemonic processes associated with personal
             opinions, we employed an fMRI task wherein participants
             rated the intensity of agreement/disagreement to
             sociopolitical belief statements paired with neural face
             pictures. Following the rating phase, participants performed
             an associative recognition test in which they distinguished
             identical versus recombined face-statement pairs. The study
             yielded three main findings: behaviorally, the intensity of
             agreement ratings was linked to greater subjective emotional
             arousal as well as enhanced high-confidence subsequent
             memory. Neurally, statements that elicited strong (vs. weak)
             agreement or disagreement were associated with greater
             activation of the amygdala. Finally, a subsequent memory
             analysis showed that the behavioral memory advantage for
             statements generating stronger ratings was dependent on the
             medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Together, these results
             both underscore consistencies in neural systems supporting
             emotional arousal and suggest a modulation of
             arousal-related encoding mechanisms when emotion is
             contingent on referencing personal beliefs.},
   Doi = {10.3758/s13415-018-0563-y},
   Key = {fds332658}
}

@article{fds335693,
   Author = {Sun, D and Davis, SL and Haswell, CC and Swanson, CA and Mid-Atlantic
             MIRECC Workgroup, and LaBar, KS and Fairbank, JA and Morey,
             RA},
   Title = {Brain Structural Covariance Network Topology in Remitted
             Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.},
   Journal = {Frontiers in Psychiatry},
   Volume = {9},
   Pages = {90},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00090},
   Abstract = {Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent, chronic
             disorder with high psychiatric morbidity; however, a
             substantial portion of affected individuals experience
             remission after onset. Alterations in brain network topology
             derived from cortical thickness correlations are associated
             with PTSD, but the effects of remitted symptoms on network
             topology remain essentially unexplored. In this
             cross-sectional study, US military veterans (N = 317)
             were partitioned into three diagnostic groups, current PTSD
             (CURR-PTSD, N = 101), remitted PTSD with lifetime but no
             current PTSD (REMIT-PTSD, N = 35), and trauma-exposed
             controls (CONTROL, n = 181). Cortical thickness was
             assessed for 148 cortical regions (nodes) and suprathreshold
             interregional partial correlations across subjects
             constituted connections (edges) in each group. Four
             centrality measures were compared with characterize
             between-group differences. The REMIT-PTSD and CONTROL groups
             showed greater centrality in left frontal pole than the
             CURR-PTSD group. The REMIT-PTSD group showed greater
             centrality in right subcallosal gyrus than the other two
             groups. Both REMIT-PTSD and CURR-PTSD groups showed greater
             centrality in right superior frontal sulcus than CONTROL
             group. The centrality in right subcallosal gyrus, left
             frontal pole, and right superior frontal sulcus may play a
             role in remission, current symptoms, and PTSD history,
             respectively. The network centrality changes in critical
             brain regions and structural networks are associated with
             remitted PTSD, which typically coincides with enhanced
             functional behaviors, better emotion regulation, and
             improved cognitive processing. These brain regions and
             associated networks may be candidates for developing novel
             therapies for PTSD. Longitudinal work is needed to
             characterize vulnerability to chronic PTSD, and resilience
             to unremitting PTSD.},
   Doi = {10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00090},
   Key = {fds335693}
}

@article{fds335694,
   Author = {Hall, SA and Brodar, KE and LaBar, KS and Berntsen, D and Rubin,
             DC},
   Title = {Neural responses to emotional involuntary memories in
             posttraumatic stress disorder: Differences in timing and
             activity.},
   Journal = {Neuroimage. Clinical},
   Volume = {19},
   Pages = {793-804},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2018.05.009},
   Abstract = {Background:Involuntary memories are a hallmark symptom of
             posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but studies of the
             neural basis of involuntary memory retrieval in
             posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are sparse. The study
             of the neural correlates of involuntary memories of
             stressful events in PTSD focuses on the voluntary retrieval
             of memories that are sometimes recalled as intrusive
             involuntary memories, not on involuntary retrieval while
             being scanned. Involuntary memory retrieval in controls has
             been shown to elicit activity in the parahippocampal gyrus,
             precuneus, inferior parietal cortex, and posterior midline
             regions. However, it is unknown whether involuntary memories
             are supported by the same mechanisms in PTSD. Because
             previous work has shown that both behavioral and neural
             responsivity is slowed in PTSD, we examined the
             spatiotemporal dynamics of the neural activity underlying
             negative and neutral involuntary memory retrieval.
             Methods:Twenty-one individuals with PTSD and 21 non-PTSD,
             trauma-exposed controls performed an involuntary memory
             task, while undergoing a functional magnetic resonance
             imaging scan. Environmental sounds served as cues for
             well-associated pictures of negative and neutral scenes. We
             used a finite impulse response model to analyze temporal
             differences between groups in neural responses.
             Results:Compared with controls, participants with PTSD
             reported more involuntary memories, which were more
             emotional and more vivid, but which activated a similar
             network of regions. However, compared to controls,
             individuals with PTSD showed delayed neural responsivity in
             this network and increased vmPFC/ACC activity for
             negative > neutral stimuli. Conclusions:The similarity
             between PTSD and controls in neural substrates underlying
             involuntary memories suggests that, unlike voluntary
             memories, involuntary memories elicit similar activity in
             regions critical for memory retrieval. Further, the delayed
             neural responsivity for involuntary memories in PTSD
             suggests that factors affecting cognition in PTSD, like
             increased fatigue, or avoidance behaviors could do so by
             delaying activity in regions necessary for cognitive
             processing. Finally, compared to neutral memories, negative
             involuntary memories elicit hyperactivity in the vmPFC,
             whereas the vmPFC is typically shown to be hypoactive in
             PTSD during voluntary memory retrieval. These patterns
             suggest that considering both the temporal dynamics of
             cognitive processes as well as involuntary cognitive
             processes would improve existing neurobiological models of
             PTSD.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.nicl.2018.05.009},
   Key = {fds335694}
}

@article{fds330541,
   Author = {LaBar, KS},
   Title = {Advances in neuroscience.},
   Journal = {Science Advances},
   Volume = {3},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {eaar2953},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aar2953},
   Doi = {10.1126/sciadv.aar2953},
   Key = {fds330541}
}

@article{fds327386,
   Author = {Zucker, NL and Kragel, PA and Wagner, HR and Keeling, L and Mayer, E and Wang, J and Kang, MS and Merwin, R and Simmons, WK and LaBar,
             KS},
   Title = {The Clinical Significance of Posterior Insular Volume in
             Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {79},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {1025-1035},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0000000000000510},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE:The diagnostic criterion disturbance in the
             experience of the body remains a poorly understood and
             persistent feature of anorexia nervosa (AN). Increased
             sophistication in understanding the structure of the insular
             cortex-a neural structure that receives and integrates
             visceral sensations with action and meaning-may elucidate
             the nature of this disturbance. We explored age, weight
             status, illness severity, and self-reported body
             dissatisfaction associations with insular cortex volume.
             METHODS:Structural magnetic resonance imaging data were
             collected from 21 adolescents with a history of AN and 20
             age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched controls. Insular
             cortical volumes (bilateral anterior and posterior regions)
             were identified using manual tracing. RESULTS:Volumes of the
             right posterior insula demonstrated the following: (a) a
             significant age by clinical status interaction (β = -0.018
             [0.008]; t = 2.32, p = .02) and (b) larger volumes were
             associated with longer duration of illness (r = 0.48, p <
             .04). In contrast, smaller volumes of the right anterior
             insula were associated with longer duration of illness (r =
             -0.50, p < .03). The associations of insular volume with
             body dissatisfaction were of moderate effect size and also
             of opposite direction, but a statistical trend in right
             posterior (r = 0.40, p < .10 in right posterior; r = -0.49,
             p < .04 in right anterior). CONCLUSIONS:In this exploratory
             study, findings of atypical structure of the right posterior
             insular cortex point to the importance of future work
             investigating the role of visceral afferent signaling in
             understanding disturbance in body experience in
             AN.},
   Doi = {10.1097/PSY.0000000000000510},
   Key = {fds327386}
}

@article{fds318723,
   Author = {Li, D and Zucker, NL and Kragel, PA and Covington, VE and LaBar,
             KS},
   Title = {Adolescent development of insula-dependent interoceptive
             regulation.},
   Journal = {Developmental Science},
   Volume = {20},
   Number = {5},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/desc.12438},
   Abstract = {Adolescence is hypothesized to be a critical period for the
             maturation of self-regulatory capacities, including those
             that depend on interoceptive sensitivity, but the neural
             basis of interoceptive regulation in adolescence is unknown.
             We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and
             psychophysiology to study interoceptive regulation in
             healthy adolescent females. Participants regulated their gut
             activities in response to a virtual roller coaster by deep
             breathing aided by visually monitoring their online
             electrogastrogram (EGG) activity through a virtual
             thermometer (i.e. gut biofeedback), or without biofeedback.
             Analyses focused on the insula, given its putative role in
             interoception. The bilateral posterior insula showed
             increased activation in the no-biofeedback compared to
             biofeedback condition, suggesting that the participants
             relied more on interoceptive input when exteroceptive
             feedback was unavailable. The bilateral dorsal anterior
             insula showed activation linearly associated with age during
             both induction and regulation, and its activation during
             regulation correlated positively with change of EGG in the
             tachygastria frequency band from induction to regulation.
             Induction-related activation in the bilateral ventral
             anterior insula was nonlinearly associated with age and
             peaked at mid-adolescence. These results implicate different
             developmental trajectories of distinct sub-regions of the
             insula in interoceptive processes, with implications for
             competing neurobiological theories of female adolescent
             development.},
   Doi = {10.1111/desc.12438},
   Key = {fds318723}
}

@article{fds318721,
   Author = {Murty, VP and LaBar, KS and Adcock, RA},
   Title = {Distinct medial temporal networks encode surprise during
             motivation by reward versus punishment.},
   Journal = {Neurobiology of Learning and Memory},
   Volume = {134 Pt A},
   Pages = {55-64},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nlm.2016.01.018},
   Abstract = {Adaptive motivated behavior requires predictive internal
             representations of the environment, and surprising events
             are indications for encoding new representations of the
             environment. The medial temporal lobe memory system,
             including the hippocampus and surrounding cortex, encodes
             surprising events and is influenced by motivational state.
             Because behavior reflects the goals of an individual, we
             investigated whether motivational valence (i.e., pursuing
             rewards versus avoiding punishments) also impacts neural and
             mnemonic encoding of surprising events. During functional
             magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants encountered
             perceptually unexpected events either during the pursuit of
             rewards or avoidance of punishments. Despite similar levels
             of motivation across groups, reward and punishment
             facilitated the processing of surprising events in different
             medial temporal lobe regions. Whereas during reward
             motivation, perceptual surprises enhanced activation in the
             hippocampus, during punishment motivation surprises instead
             enhanced activation in parahippocampal cortex. Further, we
             found that reward motivation facilitated hippocampal
             coupling with ventromedial PFC, whereas punishment
             motivation facilitated parahippocampal cortical coupling
             with orbitofrontal cortex. Behaviorally, post-scan testing
             revealed that reward, but not punishment, motivation
             resulted in greater memory selectivity for surprising events
             encountered during goal pursuit. Together these findings
             demonstrate that neuromodulatory systems engaged by
             anticipation of reward and punishment target separate
             components of the medial temporal lobe, modulating medial
             temporal lobe sensitivity and connectivity. Thus, reward and
             punishment motivation yield distinct neural contexts for
             learning, with distinct consequences for how surprises are
             incorporated into predictive mnemonic models of the
             environment.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.nlm.2016.01.018},
   Key = {fds318721}
}

@article{fds318722,
   Author = {Dowd, EW and Mitroff, SR and LaBar, KS},
   Title = {Fear generalization gradients in visuospatial
             attention.},
   Journal = {Emotion},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {1011-1018},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/emo0000197},
   Abstract = {Fear learning can be adaptively advantageous, but only if
             the learning is integrated with higher-order cognitive
             processes that impact goal-directed behaviors. Recent work
             has demonstrated generalization (i.e., transfer) of
             conditioned fear across perceptual dimensions and conceptual
             categories, but it is not clear how fear generalization
             influences other cognitive processes. The current study
             investigated how associative fear learning impacts
             higher-order visuospatial attention, specifically in terms
             of attentional bias toward generalized threats (i.e., the
             heightened assessment of potentially dangerous stimuli). We
             combined discriminative fear conditioning of color stimuli
             with a subsequent visual search task, in which targets and
             distractors were presented inside colored circles that
             varied in perceptual similarity to the fear-conditioned
             color. Skin conductance responses validated the
             fear-conditioning manipulation. Search response times
             indicated that attention was preferentially deployed not
             just to the specific fear-conditioned color, but also to
             similar colors that were never paired with the aversive
             shock. Furthermore, this attentional bias decreased
             continuously and symmetrically from the fear-conditioned
             value along the color spectrum, indicating a generalization
             gradient based on perceptual similarity. These results
             support functional accounts of fear learning that promote
             broad, defensive generalization of attentional bias toward
             threat. (PsycINFO Database Record},
   Doi = {10.1037/emo0000197},
   Key = {fds318722}
}

@article{fds321836,
   Author = {Kragel, PA and Knodt, AR and Hariri, AR and LaBar,
             KS},
   Title = {Decoding Spontaneous Emotional States in the Human
             Brain.},
   Journal = {Plos Biology},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {e2000106},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2000106},
   Abstract = {Pattern classification of human brain activity provides
             unique insight into the neural underpinnings of diverse
             mental states. These multivariate tools have recently been
             used within the field of affective neuroscience to classify
             distributed patterns of brain activation evoked during
             emotion induction procedures. Here we assess whether neural
             models developed to discriminate among distinct emotion
             categories exhibit predictive validity in the absence of
             exteroceptive emotional stimulation. In two experiments, we
             show that spontaneous fluctuations in human resting-state
             brain activity can be decoded into categories of experience
             delineating unique emotional states that exhibit
             spatiotemporal coherence, covary with individual differences
             in mood and personality traits, and predict on-line,
             self-reported feelings. These findings validate objective,
             brain-based models of emotion and show how emotional states
             dynamically emerge from the activity of separable neural
             systems.},
   Doi = {10.1371/journal.pbio.2000106},
   Key = {fds321836}
}

@article{fds318724,
   Author = {Kragel, PA and LaBar, KS},
   Title = {Decoding the Nature of Emotion in the Brain.},
   Journal = {Trends in Cognitive Sciences},
   Volume = {20},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {444-455},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2016.03.011},
   Abstract = {A central, unresolved problem in affective neuroscience is
             understanding how emotions are represented in nervous system
             activity. After prior localization approaches largely
             failed, researchers began applying multivariate statistical
             tools to reconceptualize how emotion constructs might be
             embedded in large-scale brain networks. Findings from
             pattern analyses of neuroimaging data show that affective
             dimensions and emotion categories are uniquely represented
             in the activity of distributed neural systems that span
             cortical and subcortical regions. Results from
             multiple-category decoding studies are incompatible with
             theories postulating that specific emotions emerge from the
             neural coding of valence and arousal. This 'new look' into
             emotion representation promises to improve and reformulate
             neurobiological models of affect.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.tics.2016.03.011},
   Key = {fds318724}
}

@article{fds318725,
   Author = {Gorka, AX and LaBar, KS and Hariri, AR},
   Title = {Variability in emotional responsiveness and coping style
             during active avoidance as a window onto psychological
             vulnerability to stress.},
   Journal = {Physiology & Behavior},
   Volume = {158},
   Pages = {90-99},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2016.02.036},
   Abstract = {Individual differences in coping styles are associated with
             psychological vulnerability to stress. Recent animal
             research suggests that coping styles reflect trade-offs
             between proactive and reactive threat responses during
             active avoidance paradigms, with proactive responses
             associated with better stress tolerance. Based on these
             preclinical findings, we developed a novel instructed active
             avoidance paradigm to characterize patterns of proactive and
             reactive responses using behavioral, motoric, and autonomic
             measures in humans. Analyses revealed significant
             inter-individual variability not only in the magnitude of
             general emotional responsiveness but also the likelihood to
             specifically express proactive or reactive responses. In men
             but not women, individual differences in general emotional
             responsiveness were linked to increased trait anxiety while
             proactive coping style was linked to increased trait
             aggression. These patterns are consistent with preclinical
             findings and suggest that instructed active avoidance
             paradigms may be useful in assessing psychological
             vulnerability to stress using objective behavioral
             measures.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.physbeh.2016.02.036},
   Key = {fds318725}
}

@article{fds318726,
   Author = {Lake, JI and LaBar, KS and Meck, WH},
   Title = {Emotional modulation of interval timing and time
             perception.},
   Journal = {Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews},
   Volume = {64},
   Pages = {403-420},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.03.003},
   Abstract = {Like other senses, our perception of time is not veridical,
             but rather, is modulated by changes in environmental
             context. Anecdotal experiences suggest that emotions can be
             powerful modulators of time perception; nevertheless, the
             functional and neural mechanisms underlying emotion-induced
             temporal distortions remain unclear. Widely accepted
             pacemaker-accumulator models of time perception suggest that
             changes in arousal and attention have unique influences on
             temporal judgments and contribute to emotional distortions
             of time perception. However, such models conflict with
             current views of arousal and attention suggesting that
             current models of time perception do not adequately explain
             the variability in emotion-induced temporal distortions.
             Instead, findings provide support for a new perspective of
             emotion-induced temporal distortions that emphasizes both
             the unique and interactive influences of arousal and
             attention on time perception over time. Using this
             framework, we discuss plausible functional and neural
             mechanisms of emotion-induced temporal distortions and how
             these temporal distortions may have important implications
             for our understanding of how emotions modulate our
             perceptual experiences in service of adaptive responding to
             biologically relevant stimuli.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.03.003},
   Key = {fds318726}
}

@article{fds318727,
   Author = {Kragel, PA and LaBar, KS},
   Title = {Somatosensory Representations Link the Perception of
             Emotional Expressions and Sensory Experience.},
   Journal = {Eneuro},
   Volume = {3},
   Number = {2},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/ENEURO.0090-15.2016},
   Abstract = {Studies of human emotion perception have linked a
             distributed set of brain regions to the recognition of
             emotion in facial, vocal, and body expressions. In
             particular, lesions to somatosensory cortex in the right
             hemisphere have been shown to impair recognition of facial
             and vocal expressions of emotion. Although these findings
             suggest that somatosensory cortex represents body states
             associated with distinct emotions, such as a furrowed brow
             or gaping jaw, functional evidence directly linking
             somatosensory activity and subjective experience during
             emotion perception is critically lacking. Using functional
             magnetic resonance imaging and multivariate decoding
             techniques, we show that perceiving vocal and facial
             expressions of emotion yields hemodynamic activity in right
             somatosensory cortex that discriminates among emotion
             categories, exhibits somatotopic organization, and tracks
             self-reported sensory experience. The findings both support
             embodied accounts of emotion and provide mechanistic insight
             into how emotional expressions are capable of biasing
             subjective experience in those who perceive
             them.},
   Doi = {10.1523/ENEURO.0090-15.2016},
   Key = {fds318727}
}

@article{fds318728,
   Author = {Lake, JI and Meck, WH and LaBar, KS},
   Title = {Discriminative Fear Learners are Resilient to Temporal
             Distortions during Threat Anticipation.},
   Journal = {Timing & Time Perception},
   Volume = {4},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {63-78},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/22134468-00002063},
   Abstract = {Discriminative fear conditioning requires learning to
             dissociate between safety cues and cues that predict
             negative outcomes yet little is known about what processes
             contribute to discriminative fear learning. According to
             attentional models of time perception, processes that
             distract from timing result in temporal underestimation. If
             discriminative fear learning only requires learning what
             cues predict what outcomes, and threatening stimuli distract
             attention from timing, then better discriminative fear
             learning should predict greater temporal distortion on
             threat trials. Alternatively, if discriminative fear
             learning also reflects a more accurate perceptual experience
             of time in threatening contexts, discriminative fear
             learning scores would predict less temporal distortion on
             threat trials, as time is perceived more veridically.
             Healthy young adults completed discriminative fear
             conditioning in which they learned to associate one stimulus
             (CS+) with aversive electrical stimulation and another
             stimulus (CS-) with non-aversive tactile stimulation and
             then an ordinal comparison timing task during which CSs were
             presented as task-irrelevant distractors Consistent with
             predictions, we found an overall temporal underestimation
             bias on CS+ relative to CS- trials. Differential skin
             conductance responses to the CS+ versus the CS- during
             conditioning served as a physiological index of
             discriminative fear conditioning and this measure predicted
             the magnitude of the underestimation bias, such that
             individuals exhibiting greater discriminative fear
             conditioning showed less underestimation on CS+ versus CS-
             trials. These results are discussed with respect to the
             nature of discriminative fear learning and the relationship
             between temporal distortions and maladaptive threat
             processing in anxiety.},
   Doi = {10.1163/22134468-00002063},
   Key = {fds318728}
}

@article{fds318729,
   Author = {Morey, RA and Dunsmoor, JE and Haswell, CC and Brown, VM and Vora, A and Weiner, J and Stjepanovic, D and Wagner, HR and VA Mid-Atlantic
             MIRECC Workgroup, and LaBar, KS},
   Title = {Fear learning circuitry is biased toward generalization of
             fear associations in posttraumatic stress
             disorder.},
   Journal = {Translational Psychiatry},
   Volume = {5},
   Pages = {e700},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/tp.2015.196},
   Abstract = {Fear conditioning is an established model for investigating
             posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, symptom
             triggers may vaguely resemble the initial traumatic event,
             differing on a variety of sensory and affective dimensions.
             We extended the fear-conditioning model to assess
             generalization of conditioned fear on fear processing
             neurocircuitry in PTSD. Military veterans (n=67) consisting
             of PTSD (n=32) and trauma-exposed comparison (n=35) groups
             underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during fear
             conditioning to a low fear-expressing face while a neutral
             face was explicitly unreinforced. Stimuli that varied along
             a neutral-to-fearful continuum were presented before
             conditioning to assess baseline responses, and after
             conditioning to assess experience-dependent changes in
             neural activity. Compared with trauma-exposed controls, PTSD
             patients exhibited greater post-study memory distortion of
             the fear-conditioned stimulus toward the stimulus expressing
             the highest fear intensity. PTSD patients exhibited biased
             neural activation toward high-intensity stimuli in fusiform
             gyrus (P<0.02), insula (P<0.001), primary visual cortex
             (P<0.05), locus coeruleus (P<0.04), thalamus (P<0.01), and
             at the trend level in inferior frontal gyrus (P=0.07). All
             regions except fusiform were moderated by childhood trauma.
             Amygdala-calcarine (P=0.01) and amygdala-thalamus (P=0.06)
             functional connectivity selectively increased in PTSD
             patients for high-intensity stimuli after conditioning. In
             contrast, amygdala-ventromedial prefrontal cortex (P=0.04)
             connectivity selectively increased in trauma-exposed
             controls compared with PTSD patients for low-intensity
             stimuli after conditioning, representing safety learning. In
             summary, fear generalization in PTSD is biased toward
             stimuli with higher emotional intensity than the original
             conditioned-fear stimulus. Functional brain differences
             provide a putative neurobiological model for fear
             generalization whereby PTSD symptoms are triggered by threat
             cues that merely resemble the index trauma.},
   Doi = {10.1038/tp.2015.196},
   Key = {fds318729}
}

@article{fds252347,
   Author = {Åhs, F and Kragel, PA and Zielinski, DJ and Brady, R and LaBar,
             KS},
   Title = {Medial prefrontal pathways for the contextual regulation of
             extinguished fear in humans.},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {122},
   Pages = {262-271},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {1053-8119},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.07.051},
   Abstract = {The maintenance of anxiety disorders is thought to depend,
             in part, on deficits in extinction memory, possibly due to
             reduced contextual control of extinction that leads to fear
             renewal. Animal studies suggest that the neural circuitry
             responsible fear renewal includes the hippocampus, amygdala,
             and dorsomedial (dmPFC) and ventromedial (vmPFC) prefrontal
             cortex. However, the neural mechanisms of context-dependent
             fear renewal in humans remain poorly understood. We used
             functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), combined with
             psychophysiology and immersive virtual reality, to elucidate
             how the hippocampus, amygdala, and dmPFC and vmPFC interact
             to drive the context-dependent renewal of extinguished fear.
             Healthy human participants encountered dynamic fear-relevant
             conditioned stimuli (CSs) while navigating through 3-D
             virtual reality environments in the MRI scanner.
             Conditioning and extinction were performed in two different
             virtual contexts. Twenty-four hours later, participants were
             exposed to the CSs without reinforcement while navigating
             through both contexts in the MRI scanner. Participants
             showed enhanced skin conductance responses (SCRs) to the
             previously-reinforced CS+ in the acquisition context on Day
             2, consistent with fear renewal, and sustained responses in
             the dmPFC. In contrast, participants showed low SCRs to the
             CSs in the extinction context on Day 2, consistent with
             extinction recall, and enhanced vmPFC activation to the
             non-reinforced CS-. Structural equation modeling revealed
             that the dmPFC fully mediated the effect of the hippocampus
             on right amygdala activity during fear renewal, whereas the
             vmPFC partially mediated the effect of the hippocampus on
             right amygdala activity during extinction recall. These
             results indicate dissociable contextual influences of the
             hippocampus on prefrontal pathways, which, in turn,
             determine the level of reactivation of fear
             associations.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.07.051},
   Key = {fds252347}
}

@article{fds252350,
   Author = {Kragel, PA and LaBar, KS},
   Title = {Multivariate neural biomarkers of emotional states are
             categorically distinct.},
   Journal = {Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {1437-1448},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {1749-5016},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/scan/nsv032},
   Abstract = {Understanding how emotions are represented neurally is a
             central aim of affective neuroscience. Despite decades of
             neuroimaging efforts addressing this question, it remains
             unclear whether emotions are represented as distinct
             entities, as predicted by categorical theories, or are
             constructed from a smaller set of underlying factors, as
             predicted by dimensional accounts. Here, we capitalize on
             multivariate statistical approaches and computational
             modeling to directly evaluate these theoretical
             perspectives. We elicited discrete emotional states using
             music and films during functional magnetic resonance imaging
             scanning. Distinct patterns of neural activation predicted
             the emotion category of stimuli and tracked subjective
             experience. Bayesian model comparison revealed that
             combining dimensional and categorical models of emotion best
             characterized the information content of activation
             patterns. Surprisingly, categorical and dimensional aspects
             of emotion experience captured unique and opposing sources
             of neural information. These results indicate that diverse
             emotional states are poorly differentiated by simple models
             of valence and arousal, and that activity within separable
             neural systems can be mapped to unique emotion
             categories.},
   Doi = {10.1093/scan/nsv032},
   Key = {fds252350}
}

@article{fds252355,
   Author = {Åhs, F and Dunsmoor, JE and Zielinski, D and LaBar,
             KS},
   Title = {Spatial proximity amplifies valence in emotional memory and
             defensive approach-avoidance.},
   Journal = {Neuropsychologia},
   Volume = {70},
   Pages = {476-485},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0028-3932},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2014.12.018},
   Abstract = {In urban areas, people often have to stand or move in close
             proximity to others. The egocentric distance to stimuli is a
             powerful determinant of defensive behavior in animals. Yet,
             little is known about how spatial proximity to others alters
             defensive responses in humans. We hypothesized that the
             valence of social cues scales with egocentric distance, such
             that proximal social stimuli have more positive or negative
             valence than distal stimuli. This would predict enhanced
             defensive responses to proximal threat and reduced defensive
             responses to proximal reward. We tested this hypothesis
             across four experiments using 3-D virtual reality
             simulations. Results from Experiment 1 confirmed that
             proximal social stimuli facilitate defensive responses, as
             indexed by fear-potentiated startle, relative to distal
             stimuli. Experiment 2 revealed that interpersonal defensive
             boundaries flexibly increase with aversive learning.
             Experiment 3 examined whether spatial proximity enhances
             memory for aversive experiences. Fear memories for social
             threats encroaching on the body were more persistent than
             those acquired at greater interpersonal distances, as
             indexed by startle. Lastly, Experiment 4 examined how
             egocentric distance influenced startle responses to social
             threats during defensive approach and avoidance. Whereas
             fear-potentiated startle increased with proximity when
             participants actively avoided receiving shocks, startle
             decreased with proximity when participants tolerated shocks
             to receive monetary rewards, implicating opposing gradients
             of distance on threat versus reward. Thus, proximity in
             egocentric space amplifies the valence of social stimuli
             that, in turn, facilitates emotional memory and
             approach-avoidance responses. These findings have
             implications for understanding the consequences of increased
             urbanization on affective interpersonal behavior.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2014.12.018},
   Key = {fds252355}
}

@article{fds252360,
   Author = {Kragel, PA and Zucker, NL and Covington, VE and LaBar,
             KS},
   Title = {Developmental trajectories of cortical-subcortical
             interactions underlying the evaluation of trust in
             adolescence.},
   Journal = {Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {240-247},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {1749-5016},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/scan/nsu050},
   Abstract = {Social decision making is guided by the ability to
             intuitively judge personal attributes, including analysis of
             facial features to infer the trustworthiness of others.
             Although the neural basis for trustworthiness evaluation is
             well characterized in adults, less is known about its
             development during adolescence. We used event-related
             functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine age-related
             changes in neural activation and functional connectivity
             during the evaluation of trust in faces in a sample of
             adolescent females. During scanning, participants viewed
             masked presentations of faces and rated their
             trustworthiness. Parametric modeling of trust ratings
             revealed enhanced activation in amygdala and insula to
             untrustworthy faces, effects which peaked during
             mid-adolescence. Analysis of amygdala functional
             connectivity demonstrated enhanced amygdala-insula coupling
             during the evaluation of untrustworthy faces. This boost in
             connectivity was attenuated during mid-adolescence,
             suggesting a functional transition within face-processing
             circuits. Together, these findings underscore adolescence as
             a period of reorganization in neural circuits underlying
             socioemotional behavior.},
   Doi = {10.1093/scan/nsu050},
   Key = {fds252360}
}

@article{fds252348,
   Author = {LaBar, KS},
   Title = {Therapeutic affect reduction, emotion regulation, and
             emotional memory reconsolidation: A neuroscientific
             quandary.},
   Journal = {Behavioral and Brain Sciences},
   Volume = {38},
   Pages = {e10},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0140-525X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0140525x14000193},
   Abstract = {Lane et al. emphasize the role of emotional arousal as a
             precipitating factor for successful psychotherapy. However,
             as therapy ensues, the arousal diminishes. How can the
             unfolding therapeutic process generate long-term memories
             for reconsolidated emotional material without the benefit of
             arousal? Studies investigating memory for emotionally
             regulated material provide some clues regarding the neural
             pathways that may underlie therapy-based memory
             reconsolidation.},
   Doi = {10.1017/s0140525x14000193},
   Key = {fds252348}
}

@article{fds252369,
   Author = {Dunsmoor, JE and Kragel, PA and Martin, A and LaBar,
             KS},
   Title = {Aversive learning modulates cortical representations of
             object categories.},
   Journal = {Cerebral Cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)},
   Volume = {24},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {2859-2872},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23709642},
   Abstract = {Experimental studies of conditioned learning reveal activity
             changes in the amygdala and unimodal sensory cortex
             underlying fear acquisition to simple stimuli. However,
             real-world fears typically involve complex stimuli
             represented at the category level. A consequence of
             category-level representations of threat is that aversive
             experiences with particular category members may lead one to
             infer that related exemplars likewise pose a threat, despite
             variations in physical form. Here, we examined the effect of
             category-level representations of threat on human brain
             activation using 2 superordinate categories (animals and
             tools) as conditioned stimuli. Hemodynamic activity in the
             amygdala and category-selective cortex was modulated by the
             reinforcement contingency, leading to widespread fear of
             different exemplars from the reinforced category.
             Multivariate representational similarity analyses revealed
             that activity patterns in the amygdala and object-selective
             cortex were more similar among exemplars from the threat
             versus safe category. Learning to fear animate objects was
             additionally characterized by enhanced functional coupling
             between the amygdala and fusiform gyrus. Finally,
             hippocampal activity co-varied with object typicality and
             amygdala activation early during training. These findings
             provide novel evidence that aversive learning can modulate
             category-level representations of object concepts, thereby
             enabling individuals to express fear to a range of related
             stimuli.},
   Doi = {10.1093/cercor/bht138},
   Key = {fds252369}
}

@article{fds252361,
   Author = {Dunsmoor, JE and Ahs, F and Zielinski, DJ and LaBar,
             KS},
   Title = {Extinction in multiple virtual reality contexts diminishes
             fear reinstatement in humans.},
   Journal = {Neurobiology of Learning and Memory},
   Volume = {113},
   Pages = {157-164},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {1074-7427},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nlm.2014.02.010},
   Abstract = {Although conditioned fear can be effectively extinguished by
             unreinforced exposure to a threat cue, fear responses tend
             to return when the cue is encountered some time after
             extinction (spontaneous recovery), in a novel environment
             (renewal), or following presentation of an aversive stimulus
             (reinstatement). As extinction represents a
             context-dependent form of new learning, one possible
             strategy to circumvent the return of fear is to conduct
             extinction across several environments. Here, we tested the
             effectiveness of multiple context extinction in a two-day
             fear conditioning experiment using 3-D virtual reality
             technology to create immersive, ecologically-valid context
             changes. Fear-potentiated startle served as the dependent
             measure. All three experimental groups initially acquired
             fear in a single context. A multiple extinction group then
             underwent extinction in three contexts, while a second group
             underwent extinction in the acquisition context and a third
             group underwent extinction in a single different context.
             All groups returned 24h later to test for return of fear in
             the extinction context (spontaneous recovery) and a novel
             context (renewal and reinstatement/test). Extinction in
             multiple contexts attenuated reinstatement of fear but did
             not reduce spontaneous recovery. Results from fear renewal
             were tendential. Our findings suggest that multi-context
             extinction can reduce fear relapse following an aversive
             event--an event that often induces return of fear in
             real-world settings--and provides empirical support for
             conducting exposure-based clinical treatments across a
             variety of environments.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.nlm.2014.02.010},
   Key = {fds252361}
}

@article{fds252363,
   Author = {Dew, ITZ and Ritchey, M and LaBar, KS and Cabeza,
             R},
   Title = {Prior perceptual processing enhances the effect of emotional
             arousal on the neural correlates of memory
             retrieval.},
   Journal = {Neurobiology of Learning and Memory},
   Volume = {112},
   Pages = {104-113},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24380867},
   Abstract = {A fundamental idea in memory research is that items are more
             likely to be remembered if encoded with a semantic, rather
             than perceptual, processing strategy. Interestingly, this
             effect has been shown to reverse for emotionally arousing
             materials, such that perceptual processing enhances memory
             for emotional information or events. The current fMRI study
             investigated the neural mechanisms of this effect by testing
             how neural activations during emotional memory retrieval are
             influenced by the prior encoding strategy. Participants
             incidentally encoded emotional and neutral pictures under
             instructions to attend to either semantic or perceptual
             properties of each picture. Recognition memory was tested 2
             days later. fMRI analyses yielded three main findings.
             First, right amygdalar activity associated with emotional
             memory strength was enhanced by prior perceptual processing.
             Second, prior perceptual processing of emotional pictures
             produced a stronger effect on recollection- than
             familiarity-related activations in the right amygdala and
             left hippocampus. Finally, prior perceptual processing
             enhanced amygdalar connectivity with regions strongly
             associated with retrieval success, including
             hippocampal/parahippocampal regions, visual cortex, and
             ventral parietal cortex. Taken together, the results specify
             how encoding orientations yield alterations in brain systems
             that retrieve emotional memories.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.nlm.2013.12.012},
   Key = {fds252363}
}

@article{fds252366,
   Author = {Hoscheidt, SM and LaBar, KS and Ryan, L and Jacobs, WJ and Nadel,
             L},
   Title = {Encoding negative events under stress: high subjective
             arousal is related to accurate emotional memory despite
             misinformation exposure.},
   Journal = {Neurobiology of Learning and Memory},
   Volume = {112},
   Pages = {237-247},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24055594},
   Abstract = {Stress at encoding affects memory processes, typically
             enhancing, or preserving, memory for emotional information.
             These effects have interesting implications for eyewitness
             accounts, which in real-world contexts typically involve
             encoding an aversive event under stressful conditions
             followed by potential exposure to misinformation. The
             present study investigated memory for a negative event
             encoded under stress and subsequent misinformation
             endorsement. Healthy young adults participated in a
             between-groups design with three experimental sessions
             conducted 48 h apart. Session one consisted of a
             psychosocial stress induction (or control task) followed by
             incidental encoding of a negative slideshow. During session
             two, participants were asked questions about the slideshow,
             during which a random subgroup was exposed to
             misinformation. Memory for the slideshow was tested during
             the third session. Assessment of memory accuracy across
             stress and no-stress groups revealed that stress induced
             just prior to encoding led to significantly better memory
             for the slideshow overall. The classic misinformation effect
             was also observed - participants exposed to misinformation
             were significantly more likely to endorse false information
             during memory testing. In the stress group, however, memory
             accuracy and misinformation effects were moderated by
             arousal experienced during encoding of the negative event.
             Misinformed-stress group participants who reported that the
             negative slideshow elicited high arousal during encoding
             were less likely to endorse misinformation for the most
             aversive phase of the story. Furthermore, these individuals
             showed better memory for components of the aversive
             slideshow phase that had been directly misinformed. Results
             from the current study provide evidence that stress and high
             subjective arousal elicited by a negative event act
             concomitantly during encoding to enhance emotional memory
             such that the most aversive aspects of the event are well
             remembered and subsequently more resistant to misinformation
             effects.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.nlm.2013.09.008},
   Key = {fds252366}
}

@article{fds252359,
   Author = {Lake, JI and LaBar, KS and Meck, WH},
   Title = {Hear it playing low and slow: how pitch level differentially
             influences time perception.},
   Journal = {Acta Psychologica},
   Volume = {149},
   Pages = {169-177},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0001-6918},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actpsy.2014.03.010},
   Abstract = {Variations in both pitch and time are important in conveying
             meaning through speech and music, however, research is scant
             on perceptual interactions between these two domains. Using
             an ordinal comparison procedure, we explored how different
             pitch levels of flanker tones influenced the perceived
             duration of empty interstimulus intervals (ISIs).
             Participants heard monotonic, isochronous tone sequences
             (ISIs of 300, 600, or 1200 ms) composed of either one or
             five standard ISIs flanked by 500 Hz tones, followed by a
             final interval (FI) flanked by tones of either the same (500
             Hz), higher (625 Hz), or lower (400 Hz) pitch. The FI varied
             in duration around the standard ISI duration. Participants
             were asked to determine if the FI was longer or shorter in
             duration than the preceding intervals. We found that an
             increase in FI flanker tone pitch level led to the
             underestimation of FI durations while a decrease in FI
             flanker tone pitch led to the overestimation of FI
             durations. The magnitude of these pitch-level effects
             decreased as the duration of the standard interval was
             increased, suggesting that the effect was driven by
             differences in mode-switch latencies to start/stop timing.
             Temporal context (One vs. Five Standard ISIs) did not have a
             consistent effect on performance. We propose that the
             interaction between pitch and time may have important
             consequences in understanding the ways in which meaning and
             emotion are communicated.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.actpsy.2014.03.010},
   Key = {fds252359}
}

@article{fds252356,
   Author = {Morey, R and Haswell, CC and Vora, A and Brown, VM and LaBar,
             KS},
   Title = {Fear Learning Circuitry in PTSD is Biased Toward
             Generalization of Conditioned Response},
   Journal = {Biological Psychiatry},
   Volume = {75},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {14S-14S},
   Publisher = {ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0006-3223},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000334101800044&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds252356}
}

@article{fds252357,
   Author = {Kragel, PA and LaBar, KS},
   Title = {Advancing emotion theory with multivariate pattern
             classification.},
   Journal = {Emotion Review},
   Volume = {6},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {160-174},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {1754-0739},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1754073913512519},
   Abstract = {Characterizing how activity in the central and autonomic
             nervous systems corresponds to distinct emotional states is
             one of the central goals of affective neuroscience. Despite
             the ease with which individuals label their own experiences,
             identifying specific autonomic and neural markers of
             emotions remains a challenge. Here we explore how
             multivariate pattern classification approaches offer an
             advantageous framework for identifying emotion specific
             biomarkers and for testing predictions of theoretical models
             of emotion. Based on initial studies using multivariate
             pattern classification, we suggest that central and
             autonomic nervous system activity can be reliably decoded
             into distinct emotional states. Finally, we consider future
             directions in applying pattern classification to understand
             the nature of emotion in the nervous system.},
   Doi = {10.1177/1754073913512519},
   Key = {fds252357}
}

@article{fds252365,
   Author = {Green, SR and Kragel, PA and Fecteau, ME and LaBar,
             KS},
   Title = {Development and validation of an unsupervised scoring system
             (Autonomate) for skin conductance response
             analysis.},
   Journal = {International Journal of Psychophysiology : Official Journal
             of the International Organization of Psychophysiology},
   Volume = {91},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {186-193},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24184342},
   Abstract = {The skin conductance response (SCR) is increasingly being
             used as a measure of sympathetic activation concurrent with
             neuroscience measurements. We present a method of automated
             analysis of SCR data in the contexts of event-related
             cognitive tasks and nonspecific responding to complex
             stimuli. The primary goal of the method is to accurately
             measure the classical trough-to-peak amplitude of SCR in a
             fashion closely matching manual scoring. To validate the
             effectiveness of the method in event-related paradigms,
             three archived datasets were analyzed by two manual raters,
             the fully-automated method (Autonomate), and three
             alternative software packages. Further, the ability of the
             method to score non-specific responses to complex stimuli
             was validated against manual scoring. Results indicate high
             concordance between fully-automated and computer-assisted
             manual scoring methods. Given that manual scoring is error
             prone, subject to bias, and time consuming, the automated
             method may increase the efficiency and accuracy of SCR data
             analysis.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2013.10.015},
   Key = {fds252365}
}

@article{fds252362,
   Author = {Brown, VM and Strauss, JL and LaBar, KS and Gold, AL and McCarthy, G and Morey, RA},
   Title = {Acute effects of trauma-focused research procedures on
             participant safety and distress},
   Journal = {Psychiatry Research},
   Volume = {215},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {154-158},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0165-1781},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/10979 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {The ethical conduct of research on posttraumatic stress
             disorder (PTSD) requires assessing the risks to study
             participants. Some previous findings suggest that patients
             with PTSD report higher distress compared to non-PTSD
             participants after trauma-focused research. However, the
             impact of study participation on participant risk, such as
             suicidal/homicidal ideation and increased desire to use
             drugs or alcohol, has not been adequately investigated.
             Furthermore, systematic evaluation of distress using pre-
             and post-study assessments, and the effects of study
             procedures involving exposure to aversive stimuli, are
             lacking. Individuals with a history of PTSD (n=68) and
             trauma-exposed non-PTSD controls (n=68) responded to five
             questions about risk and distress before and after
             participating in research procedures including a PTSD
             diagnostic interview and a behavioral task with aversive
             stimuli consisting of mild electrical shock. The desire to
             use alcohol or drugs increased modestly with study
             participation among the subgroup (n=48) of participants with
             current PTSD. Participation in these research procedures was
             not associated with increased distress or participant risk,
             nor did study participation interact with lifetime PTSD
             diagnosis. These results suggest some increase in distress
             with active PTSD but a participant risk profile that
             supports a favorable risk-benefit ratio for conducting
             research in individuals with PTSD. © 2013.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.psychres.2013.10.038},
   Key = {fds252362}
}

@article{fds252358,
   Author = {Stanton, SJ and Reeck, C and Huettel, SA and LaBar,
             KS},
   Title = {Effects of induced moods on economic choices},
   Journal = {Judgment and Decision Making},
   Volume = {9},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {167-175},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1930-2975},
   Abstract = {Emotions can shape decision processes by altering valuation
             signals, risk perception, and strategic orientation.
             Although multiple theories posit a role for affective
             processes in mediating the influence of frames on decision
             making, empirical studies have yet to demonstrate that
             manipulated affect modulates framing phenomena. The present
             study asked whether induced affective states alter gambling
             propensity and the influence of frames on decision making.
             In a between-subjects design, we induced mood (happy, sad,
             or neutral) in subjects (N=91) via films that were
             interleaved with the framing task. Happy mood induction
             increased gambling and apparently accentuated framing
             effects compared to sad mood induction, although the effect
             on framing could have resulted from the fact that the
             increased tendency to gamble made the framing measure more
             sensitive. Happy mood induction increased gambling, but not
             framing magnitude, compared to neutral mood induction.
             Subjects experiencing a sad mood induction did not exhibit
             behavioral differences from those experiencing a neutral
             mood. For those subjects who experienced the happy mood
             induction, both gambling propensity and framing magnitude
             were positively correlated with the magnitude of the change
             in their mood valence. We discuss the broader implications
             of mood effects on real-world economic decisions. ©
             2013.},
   Key = {fds252358}
}

@article{fds252367,
   Author = {Smoski, MJ and Labar, KS and Steffens, DC},
   Title = {Relative effectiveness of reappraisal and distraction in
             regulating emotion in late-life depression},
   Journal = {American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry},
   Volume = {22},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {898-907},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1064-7481},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24021222},
   Abstract = {© 2014 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry.
             Objectives The present study compares the effectiveness of
             two strategies, reappraisal and distraction, in reducing
             negative affect in older adults induced by focusing on
             personally relevant negative events and stressors.
             Participants 30 adults with major depressive disorger (MDD)
             and 40 never-depressed (ND) comparison participants ages 60
             years and over (mean age = 69.7 years). Design and
             Measurements Participants underwent three affect induction
             trials, each followed by a different emotion regulation
             strategy: distraction, reappraisal, and a no-instruction
             control condition. Self-reported affect was recorded pre-
             and post-affect induction, and at one-minute intervals
             during regulation. Results Across groups, participants
             reported greater reductions in negative affect with
             distraction than reappraisal or the no-instruction control
             condition. An interaction between group and regulation
             condition indicated that distraction was more effective in
             reducing negative affect in the MDD group than the ND group.
             Conclusions These results suggest that distraction is an
             especially effective strategy for reducing negative affect
             in older adults with MDD. Finding ways to incorporate
             distraction skills into psychotherapeutic interventions for
             late-life MDD may improve their effectiveness, especially
             for short-term improvement of affect following
             rumination.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jagp.2013.01.070},
   Key = {fds252367}
}

@article{fds252368,
   Author = {Brown, VM and LaBar, KS and Haswell, CC and Gold, AL and Mid-Atlantic
             MIRECC Workgroup, and McCarthy, G and Morey, RA},
   Title = {Altered resting-state functional connectivity of basolateral
             and centromedial amygdala complexes in posttraumatic stress
             disorder.},
   Journal = {Neuropsychopharmacology},
   Volume = {39},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {351-359},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23929546},
   Abstract = {The amygdala is a major structure that orchestrates
             defensive reactions to environmental threats and is
             implicated in hypervigilance and symptoms of heightened
             arousal in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The
             basolateral and centromedial amygdala (CMA) complexes are
             functionally heterogeneous, with distinct roles in learning
             and expressing fear behaviors. PTSD differences in
             amygdala-complex function and functional connectivity with
             cortical and subcortical structures remain unclear. Recent
             military veterans with PTSD (n=20) and matched
             trauma-exposed controls (n=22) underwent a resting-state
             fMRI scan to measure task-free synchronous blood-oxygen
             level dependent activity. Whole-brain voxel-wise functional
             connectivity of basolateral and CMA seeds was compared
             between groups. The PTSD group had stronger functional
             connectivity of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) complex with
             the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), dorsomedial
             prefrontal cortex, and dorsal ACC than the trauma-exposed
             control group (p<0.05; corrected). The trauma-exposed
             control group had stronger functional connectivity of the
             BLA complex with the left inferior frontal gyrus than the
             PTSD group (p<0.05; corrected). The CMA complex lacked
             connectivity differences between groups. We found PTSD
             modulates BLA complex connectivity with prefrontal cortical
             targets implicated in cognitive control of emotional
             information, which are central to explanations of core PTSD
             symptoms. PTSD differences in resting-state connectivity of
             BLA complex could be biasing processes in target regions
             that support behaviors central to prevailing laboratory
             models of PTSD such as associative fear learning. Further
             research is needed to investigate how differences in
             functional connectivity of amygdala complexes affect target
             regions that govern behavior, cognition, and affect in
             PTSD.},
   Doi = {10.1038/npp.2013.197},
   Key = {fds252368}
}

@article{fds220643,
   Author = {Hoscheidt, S. M. and LaBar, K. S. and Ryan, L. and Jacobs, W. J. and Nadel, L},
   Title = {Encoding events under stress: high subjective arousal is
             related to accurate emotional memory despite misinformation
             exposure},
   Journal = {Neurobiology of Learning and Memory},
   Volume = {in press},
   Year = {2014},
   Key = {fds220643}
}

@article{fds220650,
   Author = {Stanton, S. J. and Reeck, C. and Huettel, S. A. and LaBar, K.
             S},
   Title = {Affective states and cognitive contexts: Induced moods alter
             the influence of frames on economic choices},
   Journal = {Judgment and Decision Making},
   Volume = {in press},
   Year = {2014},
   Key = {fds220650}
}

@article{fds220651,
   Author = {Kragel, P. A. and LaBar, K. S},
   Title = {Advancing emotion theory by multivariate pattern
             classification},
   Journal = {Emotion Review},
   Volume = {in press},
   Year = {2014},
   Key = {fds220651}
}

@article{fds220652,
   Author = {Green, S. R. and Kragel, P. A. and Fecteau, M. E. and LaBar, K.
             S},
   Title = {Development and validation of an unsupervised scoring system
             (Autonomate) for skin conductance analysis},
   Journal = {International Journal of Psychophysiology},
   Volume = {in press},
   Year = {2014},
   Key = {fds220652}
}

@article{fds287922,
   Author = {Ritchey, M and Wing, EA and LaBar, KS and Cabeza,
             R},
   Title = {Neural similarity between encoding and retrieval is related
             to memory via hippocampal interactions.},
   Journal = {Cerebral Cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)},
   Volume = {23},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {2818-2828},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22967731},
   Abstract = {A fundamental principle in memory research is that memory is
             a function of the similarity between encoding and retrieval
             operations. Consistent with this principle, many
             neurobiological models of declarative memory assume that
             memory traces are stored in cortical regions, and the
             hippocampus facilitates the reactivation of these traces
             during retrieval. The present investigation tested the novel
             prediction that encoding-retrieval similarity can be
             observed and related to memory at the level of individual
             items. Multivariate representational similarity analysis was
             applied to functional magnetic resonance imaging data
             collected during encoding and retrieval of emotional and
             neutral scenes. Memory success tracked fluctuations in
             encoding-retrieval similarity across frontal and posterior
             cortices. Importantly, memory effects in posterior regions
             reflected increased similarity between item-specific
             representations during successful recognition. Mediation
             analyses revealed that the hippocampus mediated the link
             between cortical similarity and memory success, providing
             crucial evidence for hippocampal-cortical interactions
             during retrieval. Finally, because emotional arousal is
             known to modulate both perceptual and memory processes,
             similarity effects were compared for emotional and neutral
             scenes. Emotional arousal was associated with enhanced
             similarity between encoding and retrieval patterns. These
             findings speak to the promise of pattern similarity measures
             for evaluating memory representations and
             hippocampal-cortical interactions.},
   Doi = {10.1093/cercor/bhs258},
   Key = {fds287922}
}

@article{fds252371,
   Author = {Kragel, PA and Labar, KS},
   Title = {Multivariate pattern classification reveals autonomic and
             experiential representations of discrete
             emotions.},
   Journal = {Emotion},
   Volume = {13},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {681-690},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23527508},
   Abstract = {Defining the structural organization of emotions is a
             central unresolved question in affective science. In
             particular, the extent to which autonomic nervous system
             activity signifies distinct affective states remains
             controversial. Most prior research on this topic has used
             univariate statistical approaches in attempts to classify
             emotions from psychophysiological data. In the present
             study, electrodermal, cardiac, respiratory, and gastric
             activity, as well as self-report measures were taken from
             healthy subjects during the experience of fear, anger,
             sadness, surprise, contentment, and amusement in response to
             film and music clips. Information pertaining to affective
             states present in these response patterns was analyzed using
             multivariate pattern classification techniques. Overall
             accuracy for classifying distinct affective states was 58.0%
             for autonomic measures and 88.2% for self-report measures,
             both of which were significantly above chance. Further,
             examining the error distribution of classifiers revealed
             that the dimensions of valence and arousal selectively
             contributed to decoding emotional states from self-report,
             whereas a categorical configuration of affective space was
             evident in both self-report and autonomic measures. Taken
             together, these findings extend recent multivariate
             approaches to study emotion and indicate that pattern
             classification tools may improve upon univariate approaches
             to reveal the underlying structure of emotional experience
             and physiological expression.},
   Doi = {10.1037/a0031820},
   Key = {fds252371}
}

@article{fds252370,
   Author = {Dunsmoor, JE and LaBar, KS},
   Title = {Effects of discrimination training on fear generalization
             gradients and perceptual classification in
             humans.},
   Journal = {Behavioral Neuroscience},
   Volume = {127},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {350-356},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23421709},
   Abstract = {To examine the effect of discriminative fear conditioning on
             the shape of the generalization gradient, two groups of
             participants first learned to discriminate between two color
             stimuli, one paired with an electrical shock (conditional
             stimulus, CS+) and the other explicitly unpaired (CS-). The
             CS+ was held constant as an intermediate (ambiguous) value
             along the blue-green color dimension while the CS- varied
             between groups as opposite endpoints along the blue-green
             color dimension. Postdiscrimination testing, using spectral
             wavelengths above and below the CS+, revealed opposing
             asymmetric gradients of conditioned skin conductance
             responses across training groups that skewed in a direction
             opposite the CS-. Moreover, perceptual ratings for the color
             of the CS+ were affected by discriminative conditioning,
             with the color value of the blue or green CS- inducing a
             shift in the frequency for ratings of the ambiguous CS+ as
             either "green" or "blue," respectively. These results extend
             findings on gradient shifts in the animal literature and
             suggest that postdiscrimination testing provides a more
             comprehensive estimate of the effects of discriminative fear
             conditioning than testing responses solely to the
             conditioned stimuli.},
   Doi = {10.1037/a0031933},
   Key = {fds252370}
}

@article{fds252395,
   Author = {Zucker, N and Moskovich, A and Bulik, CM and Merwin, R and Gaddis, K and Losh, M and Piven, J and Wagner, HR and LaBar, KS},
   Title = {Perception of affect in biological motion cues in anorexia
             nervosa.},
   Journal = {The International Journal of Eating Disorders},
   Volume = {46},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {12-22},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23109257},
   Abstract = {Nonverbal motion cues (a clenched fist) convey essential
             information about the intentions of the actor. Individuals
             with anorexia nervosa (AN) have demonstrated impairment in
             deciphering intention from facial affective cues, but it is
             unknown whether such deficits extend to deciphering affect
             from body motion cues.We examined the capacities of adults
             with AN (n = 21) or those weight restored for ≥12 months
             (WR; n = 20) to perceive affect in biological motion cues
             relative to healthy controls (HC; n = 23).Overall,
             individuals with AN evidenced greater deficit in
             discriminating affect from biological motion cues than WR or
             HC. Follow-up analyses showed that individuals with AN
             differed especially across two of the five
             conditions--deviating most from normative data when
             discriminating sadness and more consistently discriminating
             anger relative to WR or HC.Implications of these findings
             are discussed in relation to some puzzling interpersonal
             features of AN.},
   Doi = {10.1002/eat.22062},
   Key = {fds252395}
}

@article{fds252399,
   Author = {Morey, RA and Gold, AL and LaBar, KS and Beall, SK and Brown, VM and Haswell, CC and Nasser, JD and Wagner, HR and McCarthy, G and Mid-Atlantic MIRECC Workgroup},
   Title = {Amygdala volume changes in posttraumatic stress disorder in
             a large case-controlled veterans group.},
   Journal = {Archives of General Psychiatry},
   Volume = {69},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {1169-1178},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23117638},
   Abstract = {Smaller hippocampal volumes are well established in
             posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but the relatively few
             studies of amygdala volume in PTSD have produced equivocal
             results.To assess a large cohort of recent military veterans
             with PTSD and trauma-exposed control subjects, with
             sufficient power to perform a definitive assessment of the
             effect of PTSD on volumetric changes in the amygdala and
             hippocampus and of the contribution of illness duration,
             trauma load, and depressive symptoms.Case-controlled design
             with structural magnetic resonance imaging and clinical
             diagnostic assessments. We controlled statistically for the
             important potential confounds of alcohol use, depression,
             and medication use.Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center,
             which is located in proximity to major military
             bases.Ambulatory patients (n = 200) recruited from a
             registry of military service members and veterans serving
             after September 11, 2001, including a group with current
             PTSD (n = 99) and a trauma-exposed comparison group without
             PTSD (n = 101).Amygdala and hippocampal volumes computed
             from automated segmentation of high-resolution structural
             3-T magnetic resonance imaging.Smaller volume was
             demonstrated in the PTSD group compared with the non-PTSD
             group for the left amygdala (P = .002), right amygdala (P =
             .01), and left hippocampus (P = .02) but not for the right
             hippocampus (P = .25). Amygdala volumes were not associated
             with PTSD chronicity, trauma load, or severity of depressive
             symptoms.These results provide clear evidence of an
             association between a smaller amygdala volume and PTSD. The
             lack of correlation between trauma load or illness
             chronicity and amygdala volume suggests that a smaller
             amygdala represents a vulnerability to developing PTSD or
             the lack of a dose-response relationship with amygdala
             volume. Our results may trigger a renewed impetus for
             investigating structural differences in the amygdala, its
             genetic determinants, its environmental modulators, and the
             possibility that it reflects an intrinsic vulnerability to
             PTSD.},
   Doi = {10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2012.50},
   Key = {fds252399}
}

@article{fds252398,
   Author = {Murty, VP and Labar, KS and Adcock, RA},
   Title = {Threat of punishment motivates memory encoding via amygdala,
             not midbrain, interactions with the medial temporal
             lobe.},
   Journal = {The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the
             Society for Neuroscience},
   Volume = {32},
   Number = {26},
   Pages = {8969-8976},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22745496},
   Abstract = {Neural circuits associated with motivated declarative
             encoding and active threat avoidance have both been
             described, but the relative contribution of these systems to
             punishment-motivated encoding remains unknown. The current
             study used functional magnetic resonance imaging in humans
             to examine mechanisms of declarative memory enhancement when
             subjects were motivated to avoid punishments that were
             contingent on forgetting. A motivational cue on each trial
             informed participants whether they would be punished or not
             for forgetting an upcoming scene image. Items associated
             with the threat of shock were better recognized 24 h later.
             Punishment-motivated enhancements in subsequent memory were
             associated with anticipatory activation of right amygdala
             and increases in its functional connectivity with
             parahippocampal and orbitofrontal cortices. On a
             trial-by-trial basis, right amygdala activation during the
             motivational cue predicted hippocampal activation during
             encoding of the subsequent scene; across participants, the
             strength of this interaction predicted memory advantages due
             to motivation. Of note, punishment-motivated learning was
             not associated with activation of dopaminergic midbrain, as
             would be predicted by valence-independent models of
             motivation to learn. These data are consistent with the view
             that motivation by punishment activates the amygdala, which
             in turn prepares the medial temporal lobe for memory
             formation. The findings further suggest a brain system for
             declarative learning motivated by punishment that is
             distinct from that for learning motivated by
             reward.},
   Doi = {10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0094-12.2012},
   Key = {fds252398}
}

@article{fds252397,
   Author = {Reeck, C and LaBar, KS and Egner, T},
   Title = {Neural mechanisms mediating contingent capture of attention
             by affective stimuli.},
   Journal = {Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience},
   Volume = {24},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1113-1126},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22360642},
   Abstract = {Attention is attracted exogenously by physically salient
             stimuli, but this effect can be dampened by endogenous
             attention settings, a phenomenon called "contingent
             capture." Emotionally salient stimuli are also thought to
             exert a strong exogenous influence on attention, especially
             in anxious individuals, but whether and how top-down
             attention can ameliorate bottom-up capture by affective
             stimuli is currently unknown. Here, we paired a novel
             spatial cueing task with fMRI to investigate contingent
             capture as a function of the affective salience of bottom-up
             cues (face stimuli) and individual differences in trait
             anxiety. In the absence of top-down cues, exogenous stimuli
             validly cueing targets facilitated attention in low-anxious
             participants, regardless of affective salience. However,
             although high-anxious participants exhibited similar
             facilitation following neutral exogenous cues, this
             facilitation was completely absent following affectively
             negative exogenous cues. Critically, these effects were
             contingent on endogenous attentional settings, such that
             explicit top-down cues presented before the appearance of
             exogenous stimuli removed anxious individuals' sensitivity
             to affectively salient stimuli. fMRI analyses revealed a
             network of brain regions underlying this variability in
             affective contingent capture across individuals, including
             the fusiform face area (FFA), posterior ventrolateral
             frontal cortex, and SMA. Importantly, activation in the
             posterior ventrolateral frontal cortex and the SMA fully
             mediated the effects observed in FFA, demonstrating a
             critical role for these frontal regions in mediating
             attentional orienting and interference resolution processes
             when engaged by affectively salient stimuli.},
   Doi = {10.1162/jocn_a_00211},
   Key = {fds252397}
}

@article{fds252376,
   Author = {Brown, VM and Haswell, CC and Gold, AL and McCarthy, G and LaBar, KS and Morey, RA},
   Title = {Resting State Connectivity Between Amygdalar Subregions and
             the Prefrontal Cortex is Disrupted in PTSD},
   Journal = {Biological Psychiatry},
   Volume = {71},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {307S-307S},
   Publisher = {ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0006-3223},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000302466001285&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds252376}
}

@article{fds252400,
   Author = {Graham, R and Labar, KS},
   Title = {Neurocognitive mechanisms of gaze-expression interactions in
             face processing and social attention.},
   Journal = {Neuropsychologia},
   Volume = {50},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {553-566},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22285906},
   Abstract = {The face conveys a rich source of non-verbal information
             used during social communication. While research has
             revealed how specific facial channels such as emotional
             expression are processed, little is known about the
             prioritization and integration of multiple cues in the face
             during dyadic exchanges. Classic models of face perception
             have emphasized the segregation of dynamic vs. static facial
             features along independent information processing pathways.
             Here we review recent behavioral and neuroscientific
             evidence suggesting that within the dynamic stream,
             concurrent changes in eye gaze and emotional expression can
             yield early independent effects on face judgments and covert
             shifts of visuospatial attention. These effects are
             partially segregated within initial visual afferent
             processing volleys, but are subsequently integrated in
             limbic regions such as the amygdala or via reentrant visual
             processing volleys. This spatiotemporal pattern may help to
             resolve otherwise perplexing discrepancies across behavioral
             studies of emotional influences on gaze-directed attentional
             cueing. Theoretical explanations of gaze-expression
             interactions are discussed, with special consideration of
             speed-of-processing (discriminability) and contextual
             (ambiguity) accounts. Future research in this area promises
             to reveal the mental chronometry of face processing and
             interpersonal attention, with implications for understanding
             how social referencing develops in infancy and is impaired
             in autism and other disorders of social cognition.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2012.01.019},
   Key = {fds252400}
}

@article{fds252401,
   Author = {Dunsmoor, JE and LaBar, KS},
   Title = {Brain activity associated with omission of an aversive event
             reveals the effects of fear learning and
             generalization.},
   Journal = {Neurobiology of Learning and Memory},
   Volume = {97},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {301-312},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22387662},
   Abstract = {During fear learning, anticipation of an impending aversive
             stimulus increases defensive behaviors. Interestingly,
             omission of the aversive stimulus often produces another
             response around the time the event was expected. This
             omission response suggests that the subject detected a
             mismatch between what was predicted and what actually
             occurred, thereby providing an indirect measure of cognitive
             expectancy. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance
             imaging to investigate whether omission-related brain
             activity reflects fear expectancy during learning and
             generalization of conditioned fear. During conditioning, a
             face expressing a moderate amount of fear (conditioned
             stimulus, CS+) signaled delivery of an aversive shock
             unconditioned stimulus (US), whereas the same face with a
             neutral expression was unreinforced. In a subsequent
             generalization test, subjects were presented with faces
             expressing more or less fear intensity than the CS+.
             Psychophysiological results revealed an increase in the skin
             conductance response (SCR) during learning when the US was
             omitted. Omission-related SCRs were also observed during the
             generalization test following the offset of high- but not
             low-intensity face expressions. Neuroimaging results
             revealed omission-related neural activity during learning in
             the anterior cingulate cortex, parietal cortex, insula, and
             striatum. These same regions also showed omission-related
             responses during the generalization test following highly
             expressive fearful faces. Finally, regression analysis on
             omission responses during the generalization test revealed
             correlations in offset-related SCRs and neural activity in
             the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal
             cortex. Thus, converging psychophysiological and neural
             activity upon omission of aversive stimulation provides a
             novel metric of US expectancy, even to generalized cues that
             had no prior history of reinforcement.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.nlm.2012.02.003},
   Key = {fds252401}
}

@article{fds252402,
   Author = {Morey, RA and McCarthy, G and Selgrade, ES and Seth, S and Nasser, JD and LaBar, KS},
   Title = {Neural systems for guilt from actions affecting self versus
             others.},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {60},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {683-692},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22230947},
   Abstract = {Guilt is a core emotion governing social behavior by
             promoting compliance with social norms or self-imposed
             standards. The goal of this study was to contrast guilty
             responses to actions that affect self versus others, since
             actions with social consequences are hypothesized to yield
             greater guilty feelings due to adopting the perspective and
             subjective emotional experience of others. Sixteen
             participants were presented with brief hypothetical
             scenarios in which the participant's actions resulted in
             harmful consequences to self (guilt-self) or to others
             (guilt-other) during functional MRI. Participants felt more
             intense guilt for guilt-other than guilt-self and
             guilt-neutral scenarios. Guilt scenarios revealed distinct
             regions of activity correlated with intensity of guilt,
             social consequences of actions, and the interaction of guilt
             by social consequence. Guilt intensity was associated with
             activation of the dorsomedial PFC, superior frontal gyrus,
             supramarginal gyrus, and anterior inferior frontal gyrus.
             Guilt accompanied by social consequences was associated with
             greater activation than without social consequences in the
             ventromedial and dorsomedial PFC, precuneus, posterior
             cingulate, and posterior superior temporal sulcus. Finally,
             the interaction analysis highlighted select regions that
             were more strongly correlated with guilt intensity as a
             function of social consequence, including the left anterior
             inferior frontal gyrus, left ventromedial PFC, and left
             anterior inferior parietal cortex. Our results suggest these
             regions intensify guilt where harm to others may incur a
             greater social cost.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.12.069},
   Key = {fds252402}
}

@article{fds252389,
   Author = {Dunsmoor, JE and Martin, A and LaBar, KS},
   Title = {Role of conceptual knowledge in learning and retention of
             conditioned fear.},
   Journal = {Biological Psychology},
   Volume = {89},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {300-305},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22118937},
   Abstract = {Associating sensory cues with aversive outcomes is a
             relatively basic process shared across species. Yet
             higher-order cognitive processes likely contribute to
             associative fear learning in many circumstances, especially
             in humans. Here we ask whether fears can be acquired based
             on conceptual knowledge of object categories, and whether
             such concept-based fear conditioning leads to enhanced
             memory representations for conditioned objects. Participants
             were presented with a heterogeneous collection of images of
             animals and tools. Objects from one category were reinforced
             by an electrical shock, whereas the other category was never
             reinforced. Results confirmed concept-based fear learning
             through subjective report of shock expectancy, heightened
             skin conductance responses, and enhanced 24h recognition
             memory for items from the conditioned category. These
             results provide novel evidence that conditioned fear can
             generalize through knowledge of object concepts, and sheds
             light on the persistent nature of fear memories and
             category-based fear responses symptomatic of some anxiety
             disorders.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.biopsycho.2011.11.002},
   Key = {fds252389}
}

@article{fds252405,
   Author = {Prince, SE and Thomas, LA and Kragel, PA and LaBar,
             KS},
   Title = {Fear-relevant outcomes modulate the neural correlates of
             probabilistic classification learning.},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {59},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {695-707},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21827859},
   Abstract = {Although much work has implicated the contributions of
             frontostriatal and medial temporal lobe (MTL) systems during
             probabilistic classification learning, the impact of emotion
             on these learning circuits is unknown. We used a modified
             version of the weather prediction task in which two
             participant groups were scanned with identical neutral cue
             cards probabilistically linked to either emotional
             (snake/spider) or neutral (mushroom/flower) outcomes. Owing
             to the differences in visual information shown as outcomes,
             analyses were restricted to the cue phase of the trials.
             Learning rates did not differ between the two groups,
             although the Emotional group was more likely to use complex
             strategies and to respond more slowly during initial
             learning. The Emotional group had reduced frontostriatal and
             MTL activation relative to the Neutral group, especially for
             participants who scored higher on snake/spider phobia
             questionnaires. Accurate performance was more tied to medial
             prefrontal activity in the Emotional group early in
             training, and to MTL activity in the Neutral group later in
             training. Trial-by-trial fluctuations in functional
             connectivity between the caudate and MTL were also reduced
             in the Emotional group compared to the Neutral group. Across
             groups, reaction time indexed a switch in learning systems,
             with faster trials mediated by the caudate and slower trials
             mediated by the MTL and frontal lobe. The extent to which
             the caudate was activated early in training predicted later
             performance improvements. These results reveal insights into
             how emotional outcomes modulate procedural learning systems,
             and the dynamics of MTL-striatal engagement across training
             trials.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.07.027},
   Key = {fds252405}
}

@article{fds252396,
   Author = {Ritchey, M and Wing, E and LaBar, KS and Cabeza, R},
   Title = {Cortical reactivation predicts memory success for individual
             items via hippocampal interactions},
   Journal = {Cerebral Cortex},
   Volume = {in press},
   Pages = {2818-2828},
   Year = {2012},
   Key = {fds252396}
}

@article{fds252416,
   Author = {Dennis, NA and Cabeza, R and Need, AC and Waters-Metenier, S and Goldstein, DB and LaBar, KS},
   Title = {Brain-derived neurotrophic factor val66met polymorphism and
             hippocampal activation during episodic encoding and
             retrieval tasks.},
   Journal = {Hippocampus},
   Volume = {21},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {980-989},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20865733},
   Abstract = {Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin
             which has been shown to regulate cell survival and
             proliferation, as well as synaptic growth and hippocampal
             long-term potentiation. A naturally occurring single
             nucleotide polymorphism in the human BDNF gene (val66met)
             has been associated with altered intercellular trafficking
             and regulated secretion of BDNF in met compared to val
             carriers. Additionally, previous studies have found a
             relationship between the BDNF val66met genotype and
             functional activity in the hippocampus during episodic and
             working memory tasks in healthy young adults. Specifically,
             studies have found that met carriers exhibit both poorer
             performance and reduced neural activity within the medial
             temporal lobe (MTL) when performing episodic memory tasks.
             However, these studies have not been well replicated and
             have not considered the role of behavioral differences in
             the interpretation of neural differences. The current study
             sought to control for cognitive performance in investigating
             the role of the BDNF val66met genotype on neural activity
             associated with episodic memory. Across item and relational
             memory tests, met carriers exhibited increased MTL
             activation during both encoding and retrieval stages,
             compared to noncarriers. The results suggest that met
             carriers are able to recruit MTL activity to support
             successful memory processes, and reductions in cognitive
             performance observed in prior studies are not a ubiquitous
             effect associated with variants of the BDNF val66met
             genotype.},
   Doi = {10.1002/hipo.20809},
   Key = {fds252416}
}

@article{fds252388,
   Author = {LaBar, KS},
   Title = {Cracking the almond (Commentary on Prévost et
             al.).},
   Journal = {The European Journal of Neuroscience},
   Volume = {34},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {133},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21722206},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1460-9568.2011.07730.x},
   Key = {fds252388}
}

@article{fds252406,
   Author = {Cain, MS and Dunsmoor, JE and LaBar, KS and Mitroff,
             SR},
   Title = {Anticipatory anxiety hinders detection of a second target in
             dual-target search.},
   Journal = {Psychological Science},
   Volume = {22},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {866-871},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21670427},
   Abstract = {Professional visual searches (e.g., baggage screenings,
             military searches, radiological examinations) are often
             conducted in high-pressure environments and require focus on
             multiple visual targets. Yet laboratory studies of visual
             search tend to be conducted in emotionally neutral settings
             with only one possible target per display. In the experiment
             reported here, we looked to better emulate high-pressure
             search conditions by presenting searchers with arrays that
             contained between zero and two targets while inducing
             anticipatory anxiety via a threat-of-shock paradigm. Under
             conditions of anticipatory anxiety, dual-target performance
             was negatively affected, but single-target performance and
             time on task were unaffected. These results suggest that
             multiple-target searches may be a more sensitive instrument
             to measure the effect of environmental factors on visual
             cognition than single-target searches are. Further, the
             effect of anticipatory anxiety was modulated by individual
             differences in state anxiety levels of participants prior to
             the experiment. These results have implications for both the
             laboratory study of visual search and the management and
             assessment of professional searchers.},
   Doi = {10.1177/0956797611412393},
   Key = {fds252406}
}

@article{fds252415,
   Author = {Smoski, MJ and Salsman, N and Wang, L and Smith, V and Lynch, TR and Dager,
             SR and LaBar, KS and Linehan, MM},
   Title = {Functional imaging of emotion reactivity in opiate-dependent
             borderline personality disorder.},
   Journal = {Personality Disorders},
   Volume = {2},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {230-241},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22448769},
   Abstract = {Opiate dependence (OD) and borderline personality disorder
             (BPD), separately and together, are significant public
             health problems with poor treatment outcomes. BPD is
             associated with difficulties in emotion regulation, and
             brain-imaging studies in BPD individuals indicate
             differential activation in prefrontal cingulate cortices and
             their interactions with limbic regions. Likewise, a similar
             network is implicated in drug cue responsivity in substance
             abusers. The present, preliminary study used functional MRI
             to examine activation of this network in comorbid OD/BPD
             participants when engaged in an "oddball" task that required
             attention to a target in the context of emotionally negative
             distractors. Twelve male OD/BPD participants and 12 male
             healthy controls participated. All OD/BPD participants were
             taking the opiate replacement medication Suboxone, and a
             subset of participants was positive for substances of abuse
             on scan day. Relative to controls, OD/BPD participants
             demonstrated reduced activation to negative stimuli in the
             amygdala and anterior cingulate. Unlike previous studies
             that demonstrated hyperresponsivity in neural regions
             associated with affective processing in individuals with BPD
             versus healthy controls, comorbid OD/BPD participants were
             hyporesponsive to emotional cues. Future studies that also
             include BPD-only and OD-only groups are necessary to help
             clarify the individual and potentially synergistic effects
             of these two conditions.},
   Doi = {10.1037/a0022228},
   Key = {fds252415}
}

@article{fds304685,
   Author = {Zucker, NL and Green, S and Morris, JP and Kragel, P and Pelphrey, KA and Bulik, CM and LaBar, KS},
   Title = {Hemodynamic signals of mixed messages during a social
             exchange.},
   Journal = {Neuroreport},
   Volume = {22},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {413-418},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21602650},
   Abstract = {This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to
             characterize hemodynamic activation patterns recruited when
             the participants viewed mixed social communicative messages
             during a common interpersonal exchange. Mixed messages were
             defined as conflicting sequences of biological motion and
             facial affect signals that are unexpected within a
             particular social context (e.g. observing the reception of a
             gift). Across four social vignettes, valenced facial
             expressions were crossed with rejecting and accepting
             gestures in a virtual avatar responding to presentation of a
             gift from the participant. The results indicate that
             conflicting facial affect and gesture activated superior
             temporal sulcus, a region implicated in expectancy
             violations, as well as inferior frontal gyrus and putamen.
             Scenarios conveying rejection differentially activated the
             insula and putamen, regions implicated in embodied
             cognition, and motivated learning, as well as frontoparietal
             cortex. Characterizing how meaning is inferred from
             integration of conflicting nonverbal communicative cues is
             essential to understand nuances and complexities of human
             exchange.},
   Doi = {10.1097/WNR.0b013e3283455c23},
   Key = {fds304685}
}

@article{fds252413,
   Author = {Hayes, JP and LaBar, KS and McCarthy, G and Selgrade, E and Nasser, J and Dolcos, F and VISN 6 Mid-Atlantic MIRECC workgroup, and Morey,
             RA},
   Title = {Reduced hippocampal and amygdala activity predicts memory
             distortions for trauma reminders in combat-related
             PTSD.},
   Journal = {Journal of Psychiatric Research},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {660-669},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21047644},
   Abstract = {Neurobiological models of posttraumatic stress disorder
             (PTSD) suggest that altered activity in the medial temporal
             lobes (MTL) during encoding of traumatic memories contribute
             to the development and maintenance of the disorder. However,
             there is little direct evidence in the PTSD literature to
             support these models. The goal of the present study was to
             examine MTL activity during trauma encoding in combat
             veterans using the subsequent memory paradigm. Fifteen
             combat veterans diagnosed with PTSD and 14 trauma-exposed
             control participants viewed trauma-related and neutral
             pictures while undergoing event-related fMRI. Participants
             returned one week after scanning for a recognition memory
             test. Region-of-interest (ROI) and voxel-wise whole brain
             analyses were conducted to examine the neural correlates of
             successful memory encoding. Patients with PTSD showed
             greater false alarm rates for novel lures than the
             trauma-exposed control group, suggesting reliance on
             gist-based representations in lieu of encoding contextual
             details. Imaging analyses revealed reduced activity in the
             amygdala and hippocampus in PTSD patients during successful
             encoding of trauma-related stimuli. Reduction in left
             hippocampal activity was associated with high arousal
             symptoms on the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS).
             The behavioral false alarm rate for traumatic stimuli
             co-varied with activity in the bilateral precuneus. These
             results support neurobiological theories positing reduced
             hippocampal activity under conditions of high stress and
             arousal. Reduction in MTL activity for successfully encoded
             stimuli and increased precuneus activity may underlie
             reduced stimulus-specific encoding and greater gist memory
             in patients with PTSD, leading to maintenance of the
             disorder.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jpsychires.2010.10.007},
   Key = {fds252413}
}

@article{fds252391,
   Author = {Stanton, SJ and Mullette-Gillman, OA and McLaurin, RE and Kuhn, CM and LaBar, KS and Platt, ML and Huettel, SA},
   Title = {Low- and high-testosterone individuals exhibit decreased
             aversion to economic risk.},
   Journal = {Psychological Science},
   Volume = {22},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {447-453},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21393575},
   Abstract = {Testosterone is positively associated with risk-taking
             behavior in social domains (e.g., crime, physical
             aggression). However, the scant research linking
             testosterone to economic risk preferences presents
             inconsistent findings. We examined the relationship between
             endogenous testosterone and individuals' economic
             preferences (i.e., risk preference, ambiguity preference,
             and loss aversion) in a large sample (N = 298) of men and
             women. We found that endogenous testosterone levels have a
             significant U-shaped association with individuals' risk and
             ambiguity preferences, but not loss aversion. Specifically,
             individuals with low or high levels of testosterone (more
             than 1.5 SD from the mean for their gender) were risk and
             ambiguity neutral, whereas individuals with intermediate
             levels of testosterone were risk and ambiguity averse. This
             relationship was highly similar in men and women. In
             contrast to received wisdom regarding testosterone and risk,
             the present data provide the first robust evidence for a
             nonlinear association between economic preferences and
             levels of endogenous testosterone.},
   Doi = {10.1177/0956797611401752},
   Key = {fds252391}
}

@article{fds252407,
   Author = {Dunsmoor, JE and Prince, SE and Murty, VP and Kragel, PA and LaBar,
             KS},
   Title = {Neurobehavioral mechanisms of human fear
             generalization.},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {55},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1878-1888},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21256233},
   Abstract = {While much research has elucidated the neurobiology of fear
             learning, the neural systems supporting the generalization
             of learned fear are unknown. Using functional magnetic
             resonance imaging (fMRI), we show that regions involved in
             the acquisition of fear support the generalization of fear
             to stimuli that are similar to a learned threat, but vary in
             fear intensity value. Behaviorally, subjects retrospectively
             misidentified a learned threat as a more intense stimulus
             and expressed greater skin conductance responses (SCR) to
             generalized stimuli of high intensity. Brain activity
             related to intensity-based fear generalization was observed
             in the striatum, insula, thalamus/periacqueductal gray, and
             subgenual cingulate cortex. The psychophysiological
             expression of generalized fear correlated with amygdala
             activity, and connectivity between the amygdala and
             extrastriate visual cortex was correlated with individual
             differences in trait anxiety. These findings reveal the
             brain regions and functional networks involved in flexibly
             responding to stimuli that resemble a learned threat. These
             regions may comprise an intensity-based fear generalization
             circuit that underlies retrospective biases in threat value
             estimation and overgeneralization of fear in anxiety
             disorders.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.01.041},
   Key = {fds252407}
}

@article{fds252411,
   Author = {Winecoff, A and Labar, KS and Madden, DJ and Cabeza, R and Huettel,
             SA},
   Title = {Cognitive and neural contributors to emotion regulation in
             aging.},
   Journal = {Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience},
   Volume = {6},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {165-176},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20385663},
   Abstract = {Older adults, compared to younger adults, focus on emotional
             well-being. While the lifespan trajectory of emotional
             processing and its regulation has been characterized
             behaviorally, few studies have investigated the underlying
             neural mechanisms. Here, older adults (range: 59-73 years)
             and younger adults (range: 19-33 years) participated in a
             cognitive reappraisal task during functional magnetic
             resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning. On each trial,
             participants viewed positive, negative or neutral pictures
             and either naturally experienced the image ('Experience'
             condition) or attempted to detach themselves from the image
             ('Reappraise' condition). Across both age groups, cognitive
             reappraisal activated prefrontal regions similar to those
             reported in prior studies of emotion regulation, while
             emotional experience activated the bilateral amygdala.
             Psychophysiological interaction analyses revealed that the
             left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and amygdala demonstrated
             greater inverse connectivity during the 'Reappraise'
             condition relative to the 'Experience' condition. The only
             regions exhibiting significant age differences were the left
             IFG and the left superior temporal gyrus, for which greater
             regulation-related activation was observed in younger
             adults. Controlling for age, increased performance on
             measures of cognition predicted greater regulation-related
             decreases in amygdala activation. Thus, while older and
             younger adults use similar brain structures for emotion
             regulation and experience, the functional efficacy of those
             structures depends on underlying cognitive
             ability.},
   Doi = {10.1093/scan/nsq030},
   Key = {fds252411}
}

@article{fds252412,
   Author = {Ritchey, M and LaBar, KS and Cabeza, R},
   Title = {Level of processing modulates the neural correlates of
             emotional memory formation.},
   Journal = {Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience},
   Volume = {23},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {757-771},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20350176},
   Abstract = {Emotion is known to influence multiple aspects of memory
             formation, including the initial encoding of the memory
             trace and its consolidation over time. However, the neural
             mechanisms whereby emotion impacts memory encoding remain
             largely unexplored. The present study used a
             levels-of-processing manipulation to characterize the impact
             of emotion on encoding with and without the influence of
             elaborative processes. Participants viewed emotionally
             negative, neutral, and positive scenes under two conditions:
             a shallow condition focused on the perceptual features of
             the scenes and a deep condition that queried their semantic
             meaning. Recognition memory was tested 2 days later. Results
             showed that emotional memory enhancements were greatest in
             the shallow condition. fMRI analyses revealed that the right
             amygdala predicted subsequent emotional memory in the
             shallow more than deep condition, whereas the right
             ventrolateral PFC demonstrated the reverse pattern.
             Furthermore, the association of these regions with the
             hippocampus was modulated by valence: the
             amygdala-hippocampal link was strongest for negative
             stimuli, whereas the prefrontal-hippocampal link was
             strongest for positive stimuli. Taken together, these
             results suggest two distinct activation patterns underlying
             emotional memory formation: an amygdala component that
             promotes memory during shallow encoding, especially for
             negative information, and a prefrontal component that
             provides extra benefits during deep encoding, especially for
             positive information.},
   Doi = {10.1162/jocn.2010.21487},
   Key = {fds252412}
}

@article{fds252394,
   Author = {Murty, VP and Ritchey, M and Adcock, RA and LaBar,
             KS},
   Title = {Reprint of: fMRI studies of successful emotional memory
             encoding: a quantitative meta-analysis.},
   Journal = {Neuropsychologia},
   Volume = {49},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {695-705},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21414466},
   Abstract = {Over the past decade, fMRI techniques have been increasingly
             used to interrogate the neural correlates of successful
             emotional memory encoding. These investigations have
             typically aimed to either characterize the contributions of
             the amygdala and medial temporal lobe (MTL) memory system,
             replicating results in animals, or delineate the neural
             correlates of specific behavioral phenomena. It has remained
             difficult, however, to synthesize these findings into a
             systems neuroscience account of how networks across the
             whole-brain support the enhancing effects of emotion on
             memory encoding. To this end, the present study employed a
             meta-analytic approach using activation likelihood estimates
             to assess the anatomical specificity and reliability of
             event-related fMRI activations related to successful memory
             encoding for emotional versus neutral information. The
             meta-analysis revealed consistent clusters within bilateral
             amygdala, anterior hippocampus, anterior and posterior
             parahippocampal gyrus, the ventral visual stream, left
             lateral prefrontal cortex and right ventral parietal cortex.
             The results within the amygdala and MTL support a wealth of
             findings from the animal literature linking these regions to
             arousal-mediated memory effects. The consistency of findings
             in cortical targets, including the visual, prefrontal, and
             parietal cortices, underscores the importance of generating
             hypotheses regarding their participation in emotional memory
             formation. In particular, we propose that the amygdala
             interacts with these structures to promote enhancements in
             perceptual processing, semantic elaboration, and attention,
             which serve to benefit subsequent memory for emotional
             material. These findings may motivate future research on
             emotional modulation of widespread neural systems and the
             implications of this modulation for cognition.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2011.02.031},
   Key = {fds252394}
}

@article{fds252417,
   Author = {Hallahan, B and Newell, J and Soares, JC and Brambilla, P and Strakowski, SM and Fleck, DE and Kieseppä, T and Altshuler, LL and Fornito, A and Malhi, GS and McIntosh, AM and Yurgelun-Todd, DA and Labar, KS and Sharma, V and MacQueen, GM and Murray, RM and McDonald,
             C},
   Title = {Structural magnetic resonance imaging in bipolar disorder:
             an international collaborative mega-analysis of individual
             adult patient data.},
   Journal = {Biological Psychiatry},
   Volume = {69},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {326-335},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21030008},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: There is substantial inconsistency in results of
             brain structural magnetic resonance imaging studies in adult
             bipolar disorder. This is likely consequent upon limited
             statistical power of studies together with their clinical
             and methodological heterogeneity. The current study was
             undertaken to perform an international collaborative
             mega-analysis of regional volumetric measurements of
             individual patient and healthy subject data, to optimize
             statistical power, detect case-control differences, assess
             the association of psychotropic medication usage with brain
             structural variation, and detect other possible sources of
             heterogeneity. METHODS: Eleven international research groups
             contributed published and unpublished data on 321
             individuals with bipolar disorder I and 442 healthy
             subjects. We used linear mixed effects regression models to
             evaluate differences in brain structure between patient
             groups. RESULTS: Individuals with bipolar disorder had
             increased right lateral ventricular, left temporal lobe, and
             right putamen volumes. Bipolar patients taking lithium
             displayed significantly increased hippocampal and amygdala
             volume compared with patients not treated with lithium and
             healthy comparison subjects. Cerebral volume reduction was
             significantly associated with illness duration in bipolar
             individuals. CONCLUSIONS: The application of mega-analysis
             to bipolar disorder imaging identified lithium use and
             illness duration as substantial and consistent sources of
             heterogeneity, with lithium use associated with regionally
             specific increased brain volume.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.08.029},
   Key = {fds252417}
}

@article{fds252403,
   Author = {Lake, JI and Labar, KS},
   Title = {Unpredictability and uncertainty in anxiety: a new direction
             for emotional timing research.},
   Journal = {Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience},
   Volume = {5},
   Pages = {55},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21954380},
   Doi = {10.3389/fnint.2011.00055},
   Key = {fds252403}
}

@article{fds252404,
   Author = {Dunsmoor, JE and Ahs, F and Labar, KS},
   Title = {Neurocognitive mechanisms of fear conditioning and
             vulnerability to anxiety.},
   Journal = {Frontiers in Human Neuroscience},
   Volume = {5},
   Pages = {35},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21519378},
   Doi = {10.3389/fnhum.2011.00035},
   Key = {fds252404}
}

@article{fds252408,
   Author = {Huff, NC and Hernandez, JA and Fecteau, ME and Zielinski, DJ and Brady,
             R and Labar, KS},
   Title = {Revealing context-specific conditioned fear memories with
             full immersion virtual reality.},
   Journal = {Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience},
   Volume = {5},
   Pages = {75},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22069384},
   Abstract = {The extinction of conditioned fear is known to be
             context-specific and is often considered more contextually
             bound than the fear memory itself (Bouton, 2004). Yet,
             recent findings in rodents have challenged the notion that
             contextual fear retention is initially generalized. The
             context-specificity of a cued fear memory to the learning
             context has not been addressed in the human literature
             largely due to limitations in methodology. Here we adapt a
             novel technology to test the context-specificity of cued
             fear conditioning using full immersion 3-D virtual reality
             (VR). During acquisition training, healthy participants
             navigated through virtual environments containing dynamic
             snake and spider conditioned stimuli (CSs), one of which was
             paired with electrical wrist stimulation. During a 24-h
             delayed retention test, one group returned to the same
             context as acquisition training whereas another group
             experienced the CSs in a novel context. Unconditioned
             stimulus expectancy ratings were assayed on-line during fear
             acquisition as an index of contingency awareness. Skin
             conductance responses time-locked to CS onset were the
             dependent measure of cued fear, and skin conductance levels
             during the interstimulus interval were an index of context
             fear. Findings indicate that early in acquisition training,
             participants express contingency awareness as well as
             differential contextual fear, whereas differential cued fear
             emerged later in acquisition. During the retention test,
             differential cued fear retention was enhanced in the group
             who returned to the same context as acquisition training
             relative to the context shift group. The results extend
             recent rodent work to illustrate differences in cued and
             context fear acquisition and the contextual specificity of
             recent fear memories. Findings support the use of full
             immersion VR as a novel tool in cognitive neuroscience to
             bridge rodent models of contextual phenomena underlying
             human clinical disorders.},
   Doi = {10.3389/fnbeh.2011.00075},
   Key = {fds252408}
}

@article{fds252409,
   Author = {Murty, VP and LaBar, KS and Hamilton, DA and Adcock,
             RA},
   Title = {Is all motivation good for learning? Dissociable influences
             of approach and avoidance motivation in declarative
             memory.},
   Journal = {Learning & Memory (Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.)},
   Volume = {18},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {712-717},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22021253},
   Abstract = {The present study investigated the effects of approach
             versus avoidance motivation on declarative learning. Human
             participants navigated a virtual reality version of the
             Morris water task, a classic spatial memory paradigm,
             adapted to permit the experimental manipulation of
             motivation during learning. During this task, participants
             were instructed to navigate to correct platforms while
             avoiding incorrect platforms. To manipulate motivational
             states participants were either rewarded for navigating to
             correct locations (approach) or punished for navigating to
             incorrect platforms (avoidance). Participants' skin
             conductance levels (SCLs) were recorded during navigation to
             investigate the role of physiological arousal in motivated
             learning. Behavioral results revealed that, overall,
             approach motivation enhanced and avoidance motivation
             impaired memory performance compared to nonmotivated spatial
             learning. This advantage was evident across several
             performance indices, including accuracy, learning rate, path
             length, and proximity to platform locations during probe
             trials. SCL analysis revealed three key findings. First,
             within subjects, arousal interacted with approach
             motivation, such that high arousal on a given trial was
             associated with performance deficits. In addition, across
             subjects, high arousal negated or reversed the benefits of
             approach motivation. Finally, low-performing, highly aroused
             participants showed SCL responses similar to those of
             avoidance-motivation participants, suggesting that for these
             individuals, opportunities for reward may evoke states of
             learning similar to those typically evoked by threats of
             punishment. These results provide a novel characterization
             of how approach and avoidance motivation influence
             declarative memory and indicate a critical and selective
             role for arousal in determining how reinforcement influences
             goal-oriented learning.},
   Doi = {10.1101/lm.023549.111},
   Key = {fds252409}
}

@article{fds252414,
   Author = {Dunsmoor, JE and White, AJ and LaBar, KS},
   Title = {Conceptual similarity promotes generalization of higher
             order fear learning.},
   Journal = {Learning & Memory (Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.)},
   Volume = {18},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {156-160},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21330378},
   Abstract = {We tested the hypothesis that conceptual similarity promotes
             generalization of conditioned fear. Using a sensory
             preconditioning procedure, three groups of subjects learned
             an association between two cues that were conceptually
             similar, unrelated, or mismatched. Next, one of the cues was
             paired with a shock. The other cue was then reintroduced to
             test for fear generalization, as measured by the skin
             conductance response. Results showed enhanced fear
             generalization that correlated with trait anxiety levels in
             the group that learned an association between conceptually
             similar stimuli. These findings suggest that conceptual
             representations of conditional stimuli influence human fear
             learning processes.},
   Doi = {10.1101/lm.2016411},
   Key = {fds252414}
}

@article{fds184854,
   Author = {Stanton, S. J. and Mullette-Gillman, O. A. and McLaurin, R. E. and Kuhn, C. M. and LaBar, K. S. and Platt, M. L. and Huettel, S.
             A.},
   Title = {High and low testosterone individuals exhibit decreased
             aversion to economic risk},
   Journal = {Psycyhological Science},
   Volume = {22},
   Pages = {447-453},
   Year = {2011},
   Key = {fds184854}
}

@article{fds252410,
   Author = {Zucker, NL and Green, S and Morris, JP and Kragel, P and Pelphrey, KA and Bulik, CM and LaBar, KS},
   Title = {Neural signaling of mixed messages during a social
             exchange},
   Journal = {Neuroreport},
   Volume = {22},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {413-418},
   Year = {2011},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21602650},
   Abstract = {This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to
             characterize hemodynamic activation patterns recruited when
             the participants viewed mixed social communicative messages
             during a common interpersonal exchange. Mixed messages were
             defined as conflicting sequences of biological motion and
             facial affect signals that are unexpected within a
             particular social context (e.g. observing the reception of a
             gift). Across four social vignettes, valenced facial
             expressions were crossed with rejecting and accepting
             gestures in a virtual avatar responding to presentation of a
             gift from the participant. The results indicate that
             conflicting facial affect and gesture activated superior
             temporal sulcus, a region implicated in expectancy
             violations, as well as inferior frontal gyrus and putamen.
             Scenarios conveying rejection differentially activated the
             insula and putamen, regions implicated in embodied
             cognition, and motivated learning, as well as frontoparietal
             cortex. Characterizing how meaning is inferred from
             integration of conflicting nonverbal communicative cues is
             essential to understand nuances and complexities of human
             exchange.},
   Doi = {10.1097/WNR.0b013e3283455c23},
   Key = {fds252410}
}

@article{fds252420,
   Author = {Murty, VP and Ritchey, M and Adcock, RA and LaBar,
             KS},
   Title = {fMRI studies of successful emotional memory encoding: A
             quantitative meta-analysis.},
   Journal = {Neuropsychologia},
   Volume = {48},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {3459-3469},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20688087},
   Abstract = {Over the past decade, fMRI techniques have been increasingly
             used to interrogate the neural correlates of successful
             emotional memory encoding. These investigations have
             typically aimed to either characterize the contributions of
             the amygdala and medial temporal lobe (MTL) memory system,
             replicating results in animals, or delineate the neural
             correlates of specific behavioral phenomena. It has remained
             difficult, however, to synthesize these findings into a
             systems neuroscience account of how networks across the
             whole-brain support the enhancing effects of emotion on
             memory encoding. To this end, the present study employed a
             meta-analytic approach using activation likelihood estimates
             to assess the anatomical specificity and reliability of
             event-related fMRI activations related to successful memory
             encoding for emotional versus neutral information. The
             meta-analysis revealed consistent clusters within bilateral
             amygdala, anterior hippocampus, anterior and posterior
             parahippocampal gyrus, the ventral visual stream, left
             lateral prefrontal cortex and right ventral parietal cortex.
             The results within the amygdala and MTL support a wealth of
             findings from the animal literature linking these regions to
             arousal-mediated memory effects. The consistency of findings
             in cortical targets, including the visual, prefrontal, and
             parietal cortices, underscores the importance of generating
             hypotheses regarding their participation in emotional memory
             formation. In particular, we propose that the amygdala
             interacts with these structures to promote enhancements in
             perceptual processing, semantic elaboration, and attention,
             which serve to benefit subsequent memory for emotional
             material. These findings may motivate future research on
             emotional modulation of widespread neural systems and the
             implications of this modulation for cognition.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2010.07.030},
   Key = {fds252420}
}

@article{fds252419,
   Author = {Huff, NC and Zeilinski, DJ and Fecteau, ME and Brady, R and LaBar,
             KS},
   Title = {Human fear conditioning conducted in full immersion
             3-dimensional virtual reality.},
   Journal = {Journal of Visualized Experiments : Jove},
   Volume = {42},
   Number = {42},
   Pages = {1993},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20736913},
   Abstract = {Fear conditioning is a widely used paradigm in non-human
             animal research to investigate the neural mechanisms
             underlying fear and anxiety. A major challenge in conducting
             conditioning studies in humans is the ability to strongly
             manipulate or simulate the environmental contexts that are
             associated with conditioned emotional behaviors. In this
             regard, virtual reality (VR) technology is a promising tool.
             Yet, adapting this technology to meet experimental
             constraints requires special accommodations. Here we address
             the methodological issues involved when conducting fear
             conditioning in a fully immersive 6-sided VR environment and
             present fear conditioning data. In the real world, traumatic
             events occur in complex environments that are made up of
             many cues, engaging all of our sensory modalities. For
             example, cues that form the environmental configuration
             include not only visual elements, but aural, olfactory, and
             even tactile. In rodent studies of fear conditioning animals
             are fully immersed in a context that is rich with novel
             visual, tactile and olfactory cues. However, standard
             laboratory tests of fear conditioning in humans are
             typically conducted in a nondescript room in front of a flat
             or 2D computer screen and do not replicate the complexity of
             real world experiences. On the other hand, a major
             limitation of clinical studies aimed at reducing
             (extinguishing) fear and preventing relapse in anxiety
             disorders is that treatment occurs after participants have
             acquired a fear in an uncontrolled and largely unknown
             context. Thus the experimenters are left without information
             about the duration of exposure, the true nature of the
             stimulus, and associated background cues in the environment.
             In the absence of this information it can be difficult to
             truly extinguish a fear that is both cue and
             context-dependent. Virtual reality environments address
             these issues by providing the complexity of the real world,
             and at the same time allowing experimenters to constrain
             fear conditioning and extinction parameters to yield
             empirical data that can suggest better treatment options
             and/or analyze mechanistic hypotheses. In order to test the
             hypothesis that fear conditioning may be richly encoded and
             context specific when conducted in a fully immersive
             environment, we developed distinct virtual reality 3-D
             contexts in which participants experienced fear conditioning
             to virtual snakes or spiders. Auditory cues co-occurred with
             the CS in order to further evoke orienting responses and a
             feeling of "presence" in subjects. Skin conductance response
             served as the dependent measure of fear acquisition, memory
             retention and extinction.},
   Doi = {10.3791/1993},
   Key = {fds252419}
}

@article{fds252424,
   Author = {Stanton, SJ and Labar, KS and Saini, EK and Kuhn, CM and Beehner,
             JC},
   Title = {Stressful politics: voters' cortisol responses to the
             outcome of the 2008 United States Presidential
             election.},
   Journal = {Psychoneuroendocrinology},
   Volume = {35},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {768-774},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19962831},
   Abstract = {Social subordination can be biologically stressful; when
             mammals lose dominance contests they have acute increases in
             the stress hormone cortisol. However, human studies of the
             effect of dominance contest outcomes on cortisol changes
             have had inconsistent results. Moreover, human studies have
             been limited to face-to-face competitions and have
             heretofore never examined cortisol responses to shifts in
             political dominance hierarchies. The present study
             investigated voters' cortisol responses to the outcome of
             the 2008 United States Presidential election. 183
             participants at two research sites (Michigan and North
             Carolina) provided saliva samples at several time points
             before and after the announcement of the winner on Election
             Night. Radioimmunoassay was used to measure levels of
             cortisol in the saliva samples. In North Carolina, John
             McCain voters (losers) had increases in post-outcome
             cortisol levels, whereas Barack Obama voters (winners) had
             stable post-outcome cortisol levels. The present research
             provides novel evidence that societal shifts in political
             dominance can impact biological stress responses in voters
             whose political party becomes socio-politically
             subordinate.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.psyneuen.2009.10.018},
   Key = {fds252424}
}

@article{fds252423,
   Author = {Dennis, NA and Need, AC and LaBar, KS and Waters-Metenier, S and Cirulli, ET and Kragel, J and Goldstein, DB and Cabeza,
             R},
   Title = {COMT val108/158 met genotype affects neural but not
             cognitive processing in healthy individuals.},
   Journal = {Cerebral Cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)},
   Volume = {20},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {672-683},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19641018},
   Abstract = {The relationship between cognition and a functional
             polymorphism in the catechol-O-methlytransferase (COMT)
             gene, val108/158met, is one of debate in the literature.
             Furthermore, based on the dopaminergic differences
             associated with the COMT val108/158met genotype, neural
             differences during cognition may be present, regardless of
             genotypic differences in cognitive performance. To
             investigate these issues the current study aimed to 1)
             examine the effects of COMT genotype using a large sample of
             healthy individuals (n = 496-1218) and multiple cognitive
             measures, and using a subset of the sample (n = 22), 2)
             examine whether COMT genotype effects medial temporal lobe
             (MTL) and frontal activity during successful relational
             memory processing, and 3) investigate group differences in
             functional connectivity associated with successful
             relational memory processing. Results revealed no
             significant group difference in cognitive performance
             between COMT genotypes in any of the 19 cognitive measures.
             However, in the subset sample, COMT val homozygotes
             exhibited significantly decreased MTL and increased
             prefrontal activity during both successful relational
             encoding and retrieval, and reduced connectivity between
             these regions compared with met homozygotes. Taken together,
             the results suggest that although the COMT val108/158met
             genotype has no effect on cognitive behavioral measures in
             healthy individuals, it is associated with differences in
             neural process underlying cognitive output.},
   Doi = {10.1093/cercor/bhp132},
   Key = {fds252423}
}

@article{fds252425,
   Author = {Graham, R and Friesen, CK and Fichtenholtz, HM and Labar,
             KS},
   Title = {Modulation of reflexive orienting to gaze direction by
             facial expressions},
   Journal = {Visual Cognition},
   Volume = {18},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {331-368},
   Publisher = {Informa UK Limited},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {1350-6285},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13506280802689281},
   Abstract = {Facial expression and gaze perception are thought to share
             brain mechanisms but behavioural interactions, especially
             from gaze-cueing paradigms, are inconsistent. We conducted a
             series of gaze-cueing studies using dynamic facial cues to
             examine orienting across different emotional expression and
             task conditions, including face inversion. Across
             experiments, at a short stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) we
             observed both an expression effect (i.e., faster responses
             when the face was emotional versus neutral) and a cue
             validity effect (i.e., faster responses when the target was
             gazed-at), but no interaction between validity and emotion.
             Results from face inversion suggest that the emotion effect
             may have been due to both facial expression and stimulus
             motion. At longer SOAs, validity and emotion interacted such
             that cueing by emotional faces, fearful faces in particular,
             was enhanced relative to neutral faces. These results
             converge with a growing body of evidence that suggests that
             gaze and expression are initially processed independently
             and interact at later stages to direct attentional
             orienting. © 2009.},
   Doi = {10.1080/13506280802689281},
   Key = {fds252425}
}

@article{fds252422,
   Author = {Botzung, A and Rubin, DC and Miles, A and Cabeza, R and Labar,
             KS},
   Title = {Mental hoop diaries: emotional memories of a college
             basketball game in rival fans.},
   Journal = {The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the
             Society for Neuroscience},
   Volume = {30},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {2130-2137},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20147540},
   Abstract = {The rivalry between the men's basketball teams of Duke
             University and the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill
             (UNC) is one of the most storied traditions in college
             sports. A subculture of students at each university form
             social bonds with fellow fans, develop expertise in college
             basketball rules, team statistics, and individual players,
             and self-identify as a member of a fan group. The present
             study capitalized on the high personal investment of these
             fans and the strong affective tenor of a Duke-UNC basketball
             game to examine the neural correlates of emotional memory
             retrieval for a complex sporting event. Male fans watched a
             competitive, archived game in a social setting. During a
             subsequent functional magnetic resonance imaging session,
             participants viewed video clips depicting individual plays
             of the game that ended with the ball being released toward
             the basket. For each play, participants recalled whether or
             not the shot went into the basket. Hemodynamic signal
             changes time locked to correct memory decisions were
             analyzed as a function of emotional intensity and valence,
             according to the fan's perspective. Results showed
             intensity-modulated retrieval activity in midline cortical
             structures, sensorimotor cortex, the striatum, and the
             medial temporal lobe, including the amygdala. Positively
             valent memories specifically recruited processing in dorsal
             frontoparietal regions, and additional activity in the
             insula and medial temporal lobe for positively valent shots
             recalled with high confidence. This novel paradigm reveals
             how brain regions implicated in emotion, memory retrieval,
             visuomotor imagery, and social cognition contribute to the
             recollection of specific plays in the mind of a sports
             fan.},
   Doi = {10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2481-09.2010},
   Key = {fds252422}
}

@article{fds252418,
   Author = {Botzung, A and Labar, KS and Kragel, P and Miles, A and Rubin,
             DC},
   Title = {Component Neural Systems for the Creation of Emotional
             Memories during Free Viewing of a Complex, Real-World
             Event.},
   Journal = {Frontiers in Human Neuroscience},
   Volume = {4},
   Pages = {34},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20508750},
   Abstract = {To investigate the neural systems that contribute to the
             formation of complex, self-relevant emotional memories,
             dedicated fans of rival college basketball teams watched a
             competitive game while undergoing functional magnetic
             resonance imaging (fMRI). During a subsequent recognition
             memory task, participants were shown video clips depicting
             plays of the game, stemming either from previously-viewed
             game segments (targets) or from non-viewed portions of the
             same game (foils). After an old-new judgment, participants
             provided emotional valence and intensity ratings of the
             clips. A data driven approach was first used to decompose
             the fMRI signal acquired during free viewing of the game
             into spatially independent components. Correlations were
             then calculated between the identified components and
             post-scanning emotion ratings for successfully encoded
             targets. Two components were correlated with intensity
             ratings, including temporal lobe regions implicated in
             memory and emotional functions, such as the hippocampus and
             amygdala, as well as a midline fronto-cingulo-parietal
             network implicated in social cognition and self-relevant
             processing. These data were supported by a general linear
             model analysis, which revealed additional valence effects in
             fronto-striatal-insular regions when plays were divided into
             positive and negative events according to the fan's
             perspective. Overall, these findings contribute to our
             understanding of how emotional factors impact distributed
             neural systems to successfully encode dynamic,
             personally-relevant event sequences.},
   Doi = {10.3389/fnhum.2010.00034},
   Key = {fds252418}
}

@article{fds252421,
   Author = {Hayes, JP and Morey, RA and Petty, CM and Seth, S and Smoski, MJ and McCarthy, G and Labar, KS},
   Title = {Staying cool when things get hot: emotion regulation
             modulates neural mechanisms of memory encoding.},
   Journal = {Frontiers in Human Neuroscience},
   Volume = {4},
   Pages = {230},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21212840},
   Abstract = {During times of emotional stress, individuals often engage
             in emotion regulation to reduce the experiential and
             physiological impact of negative emotions. Interestingly,
             emotion regulation strategies also influence memory encoding
             of the event. Cognitive reappraisal is associated with
             enhanced memory while expressive suppression is associated
             with impaired explicit memory of the emotional event.
             However, the mechanism by which these emotion regulation
             strategies affect memory is unclear. We used event-related
             fMRI to investigate the neural mechanisms that give rise to
             memory formation during emotion regulation. Twenty-five
             participants viewed negative pictures while alternately
             engaging in cognitive reappraisal, expressive suppression,
             or passive viewing. As part of the subsequent memory design,
             participants returned to the laboratory two weeks later for
             a surprise memory test. Behavioral results showed a
             reduction in negative affect and a retention advantage for
             reappraised stimuli relative to the other conditions.
             Imaging results showed that successful encoding during
             reappraisal was uniquely associated with greater
             co-activation of the left inferior frontal gyrus, amygdala,
             and hippocampus, suggesting a possible role for elaborative
             encoding of negative memories. This study provides
             neurobehavioral evidence that engaging in cognitive
             reappraisal is advantageous to both affective and mnemonic
             processes.},
   Doi = {10.3389/fnhum.2010.00230},
   Key = {fds252421}
}

@article{fds252386,
   Author = {Morey, RA and Petty, CM and Xu, Y and Hayes, JP and Wagner, HR and Lewis,
             DV and Labar, KS and Styner, M and McCarthy, G},
   Title = {Rebuttal to Hasan and Pedraza in comments and controversies:
             "Improving the reliability of manual and automated methods
             for hippocampal and amygdala volume measurements".},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {48},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {499-500},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19616634},
   Abstract = {Here we address the critiques offered by Hasan and Pedraza
             to our recently published manuscript comparing the
             performance of two automated segmentation programs,
             FSL/FIRST and FreeSurfer (Morey R, Petty C, Xu Y, Pannu
             Hayes J, Wagner H, Lewis D, LaBar K, Styner M, McCarthy G.
             (2009): A comparison of automated segmentation and manual
             tracing for quantifying of hippocampal and amygdala volumes.
             Neuroimage 45:855-866). We provide an assessment and
             discussion of their specific critiques. Hasan and Pedraza
             bring up some important points concerning our omission of
             sample demographic features and inclusion of left and right
             hemisphere volumes as independent measures in correlational
             analyses. We present additional data on demographic
             attributes of our sample and correlations analyzed
             separately on left and right hemispheres of the amygdala and
             hippocampus. While their commentary aids the reader to more
             critically asses our study, it falls short of substantiating
             that our omissions ought to lead readers to significantly
             revise their interpretations. Further research will help to
             disentangle the advantages and limitations of the various
             freely-available automated segmentation software
             packages.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.07.013},
   Key = {fds252386}
}

@article{fds252428,
   Author = {Huff, NC and Hernandez, JA and Blanding, NQ and LaBar,
             KS},
   Title = {Delayed extinction attenuates conditioned fear renewal and
             spontaneous recovery in humans.},
   Journal = {Behavioral Neuroscience},
   Volume = {123},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {834-843},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19634943},
   Abstract = {This study investigated whether the retention interval after
             an aversive learning experience influences the return of
             fear after extinction training. After fear conditioning,
             participants underwent extinction training either 5 min or 1
             day later and in either the same room (same context) or a
             different room (context shift). The next day, conditioned
             fear was tested in the original room. When extinction took
             place immediately, fear renewal was robust and prolonged for
             context-shift participants, and spontaneous recovery was
             observed in the same-context participants. Delayed
             extinction, by contrast, yielded a brief form of fear
             renewal that reextinguished within the testing session for
             context-shift participants, and there was no spontaneous
             recovery in the same-context participants. The authors
             conclude that the passage of time allows for memory
             consolidation processes to promote the formation of distinct
             yet flexible emotional memory traces that confer an ability
             to recall extinction, even in an alternate context, and
             minimize the return of fear. Furthermore, immediate
             extinction can yield spontaneous recovery and prolong fear
             renewal. These findings have potential implications for
             ameliorating fear relapse in anxiety disorders.},
   Doi = {10.1037/a0016511},
   Key = {fds252428}
}

@article{fds252426,
   Author = {Dunsmoor, JE and Mitroff, SR and LaBar, KS},
   Title = {Generalization of conditioned fear along a dimension of
             increasing fear intensity.},
   Journal = {Learning & Memory (Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.)},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {460-469},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19553384},
   Abstract = {The present study investigated the extent to which fear
             generalization in humans is determined by the amount of fear
             intensity in nonconditioned stimuli relative to a
             perceptually similar conditioned stimulus. Stimuli consisted
             of graded emotionally expressive faces of the same identity
             morphed between neutral and fearful endpoints. Two
             experimental groups underwent discriminative fear
             conditioning between a face stimulus of 55% fear intensity
             (conditioned stimulus, CS+), reinforced with an electric
             shock, and a second stimulus that was unreinforced (CS-). In
             Experiment 1 the CS- was a relatively neutral face stimulus,
             while in Experiment 2 the CS- was the most fear-intense
             stimulus. Before and following fear conditioning, skin
             conductance responses (SCR) were recorded to different morph
             values along the neutral-to-fear dimension. Both
             experimental groups showed gradients of generalization
             following fear conditioning that increased with the fear
             intensity of the stimulus. In Experiment 1 a peak shift in
             SCRs extended to the most fear-intense stimulus. In
             contrast, generalization to the most fear-intense stimulus
             was reduced in Experiment 2, suggesting that discriminative
             fear learning procedures can attenuate fear generalization.
             Together, the findings indicate that fear generalization is
             broadly tuned and sensitive to the amount of fear intensity
             in nonconditioned stimuli, but that fear generalization can
             come under stimulus control. These results reveal a novel
             form of fear generalization in humans that is not merely
             based on physical similarity to a conditioned exemplar, and
             may have implications for understanding generalization
             processes in anxiety disorders characterized by heightened
             sensitivity to nonthreatening stimuli.},
   Doi = {10.1101/lm.1431609},
   Key = {fds252426}
}

@article{fds252432,
   Author = {Morey, RA and Dolcos, F and Petty, CM and Cooper, DA and Hayes, JP and LaBar, KS and McCarthy, G},
   Title = {The role of trauma-related distractors on neural systems for
             working memory and emotion processing in posttraumatic
             stress disorder.},
   Journal = {Journal of Psychiatric Research},
   Volume = {43},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {809-817},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19091328},
   Abstract = {The relevance of emotional stimuli to threat and survival
             confers a privileged role in their processing. In PTSD, the
             ability of trauma-related information to divert attention is
             especially pronounced. Information unrelated to the trauma
             may also be highly distracting when it shares perceptual
             features with trauma material. Our goal was to study how
             trauma-related environmental cues modulate working memory
             networks in PTSD. We examined neural activity in
             participants performing a visual working memory task while
             distracted by task-irrelevant trauma and non-trauma
             material. Recent post-9/11 veterans were divided into a PTSD
             group (n=22) and a trauma-exposed control group (n=20) based
             on the Davidson trauma scale. Using fMRI, we measured
             hemodynamic change in response to emotional (trauma-related)
             and neutral distraction presented during the active
             maintenance period of a delayed-response working memory
             task. The goal was to examine differences in functional
             networks associated with working memory (dorsolateral
             prefrontal cortex and lateral parietal cortex) and emotion
             processing (amygdala, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and
             fusiform gyrus). The PTSD group showed markedly different
             neural activity compared to the trauma-exposed control group
             in response to task-irrelevant visual distractors. Enhanced
             activity in ventral emotion processing regions was
             associated with trauma distractors in the PTSD group,
             whereas activity in brain regions associated with working
             memory and attention regions was disrupted by distractor
             stimuli independent of trauma content. Neural evidence for
             the impact of distraction on working memory is consistent
             with PTSD symptoms of hypervigilance and general
             distractibility during goal-directed cognitive
             processing.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jpsychires.2008.10.014},
   Key = {fds252432}
}

@article{fds252430,
   Author = {Pannu Hayes and J and Labar, KS and Petty, CM and McCarthy, G and Morey,
             RA},
   Title = {Alterations in the neural circuitry for emotion and
             attention associated with posttraumatic stress
             symptomatology.},
   Journal = {Psychiatry Research},
   Volume = {172},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {7-15},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0165-1781},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19237269},
   Abstract = {Information processing models of posttraumatic stress
             disorder (PTSD) suggest that PTSD is characterized by
             preferential allocation of attentional resources to
             potentially threatening stimuli. However, few studies have
             examined the neural pattern underlying attention and emotion
             in association with PTSD symptomatology. In the present
             study, combat veterans with PTSD symptomatology engaged in
             an emotional oddball task while undergoing functional
             magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Veterans were classified
             into a high or low symptomatology group based on their
             scores on the Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS). Participants
             discriminated infrequent target stimuli (circles) from
             frequent standards (squares) while emotional and neutral
             distractors were presented infrequently and irregularly.
             Results revealed that participants with greater PTSD
             symptomatology showed enhanced neural activity in
             ventral-limbic and dorsal regions for emotional stimuli and
             attenuated activity in dorsolateral prefrontal and parietal
             regions for attention targets. In the anterior cingulate
             gyrus, participants with fewer PTSD symptoms showed
             equivalent responses to attentional and emotional stimuli
             while the high symptom group showed greater activation for
             negative emotional stimuli. Taken together, the results
             suggest that hyperresponsive ventral-limbic activity coupled
             with altered dorsal-attention and anterior cingulate
             function may be a neural marker of attention bias in
             PTSD.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.pscychresns.2008.05.005},
   Key = {fds252430}
}

@article{fds252431,
   Author = {Morey, RA and Petty, CM and Xu, Y and Hayes, JP and Wagner, HR and Lewis,
             DV and LaBar, KS and Styner, M and McCarthy, G},
   Title = {A comparison of automated segmentation and manual tracing
             for quantifying hippocampal and amygdala
             volumes.},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {855-866},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19162198},
   Abstract = {Large databases of high-resolution structural MR images are
             being assembled to quantitatively examine the relationships
             between brain anatomy, disease progression, treatment
             regimens, and genetic influences upon brain structure.
             Quantifying brain structures in such large databases cannot
             be practically accomplished by expert neuroanatomists using
             hand-tracing. Rather, this research will depend upon
             automated methods that reliably and accurately segment and
             quantify dozens of brain regions. At present, there is
             little guidance available to help clinical research groups
             in choosing such tools. Thus, our goal was to compare the
             performance of two popular and fully automated tools,
             FSL/FIRST and FreeSurfer, to expert hand tracing in the
             measurement of the hippocampus and amygdala. Volumes derived
             from each automated measurement were compared to hand
             tracing for percent volume overlap, percent volume
             difference, across-sample correlation, and 3-D group-level
             shape analysis. In addition, sample size estimates for
             conducting between-group studies were computed for a range
             of effect sizes. Compared to hand tracing, hippocampal
             measurements with FreeSurfer exhibited greater volume
             overlap, smaller volume difference, and higher correlation
             than FIRST, and sample size estimates with FreeSurfer were
             closer to hand tracing. Amygdala measurement with FreeSurfer
             was also more highly correlated to hand tracing than FIRST,
             but exhibited a greater volume difference than FIRST. Both
             techniques had comparable volume overlap and similar sample
             size estimates. Compared to hand tracing, a 3-D shape
             analysis of the hippocampus showed FreeSurfer was more
             accurate than FIRST, particularly in the head and tail.
             However, FIRST more accurately represented the amygdala
             shape than FreeSurfer, which inflated its anterior and
             posterior surfaces.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2008.12.033},
   Key = {fds252431}
}

@article{fds252427,
   Author = {Fichtenholtz, HM and Hopfinger, JB and Graham, R and Detwiler, JM and LaBar, KS},
   Title = {Event-related potentials reveal temporal staging of dynamic
             facial expression and gaze shift effects on attentional
             orienting.},
   Journal = {Social Neuroscience},
   Volume = {4},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {317-331},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19274577},
   Abstract = {Multiple sources of information from the face guide
             attention during social interaction. The present study
             modified the Posner cueing paradigm to investigate how
             dynamic changes in emotional expression and eye gaze in
             faces affect the neural processing of subsequent target
             stimuli. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while
             participants viewed centrally presented face displays in
             which gaze direction (left, direct, right) and facial
             expression (fearful, neutral) covaried in a fully crossed
             design. Gaze direction was not predictive of peripheral
             target location. ERP analysis revealed several sequential
             effects, including: (1) an early enhancement of target
             processing following fearful faces (P1); (2) an interaction
             between expression and gaze (N1), with enhanced target
             processing following fearful faces with rightward gaze; and
             (3) an interaction between gaze and target location (P3),
             with enhanced processing for invalidly cued left visual
             field targets. Behaviorally, participants responded faster
             to targets following fearful faces and targets presented in
             the right visual field, in concordance with the P1 and N1
             effects, respectively. The findings indicate that two
             nonverbal social cues-facial expression and gaze
             direction-modulate attentional orienting across different
             temporal stages of processing. Results have implications for
             understanding the mental chronometry of shared attention and
             social referencing.},
   Doi = {10.1080/17470910902809487},
   Key = {fds252427}
}

@article{fds252429,
   Author = {Stanton, SJ and Beehner, JC and Saini, EK and Kuhn, CM and Labar,
             KS},
   Title = {Dominance, politics, and physiology: voters' testosterone
             changes on the night of the 2008 United States presidential
             election.},
   Journal = {Plos One},
   Volume = {4},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {e7543},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19844583},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Political elections are dominance competitions.
             When men win a dominance competition, their testosterone
             levels rise or remain stable to resist a circadian decline;
             and when they lose, their testosterone levels fall. However,
             it is unknown whether this pattern of testosterone change
             extends beyond interpersonal competitions to the vicarious
             experience of winning or losing in the context of political
             elections. Women's testosterone responses to dominance
             competition outcomes are understudied, and to date, a clear
             pattern of testosterone changes in response to winning and
             losing dominance competitions has not emerged.
             METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present study
             investigated voters' testosterone responses to the outcome
             of the 2008 United States Presidential election. 183
             participants provided multiple saliva samples before and
             after the winner was announced on Election Night. The
             results show that male Barack Obama voters (winners) had
             stable post-outcome testosterone levels, whereas
             testosterone levels dropped in male John McCain and Robert
             Barr voters (losers). There were no significant effects in
             female voters. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The findings
             indicate that male voters exhibit biological responses to
             the realignment of a country's dominance hierarchy as if
             they participated in an interpersonal dominance
             contest.},
   Doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0007543},
   Key = {fds252429}
}

@article{fds252433,
   Author = {Thomas, LA and LaBar, KS},
   Title = {Fear relevancy, strategy use, and probabilistic learning of
             cue-outcome associations.},
   Journal = {Learning & Memory (Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.)},
   Volume = {15},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {777-784},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18832564},
   Abstract = {The goal of this study was to determine how the fear
             relevancy of outcomes during probabilistic classification
             learning affects behavior and strategy use. Novel variants
             of the "weather prediction" task were created, in which cue
             cards predicted either looming fearful or neutral outcomes
             in a between-groups design. Strategy use was examined by
             goodness-of-fit estimates of response patterns across trial
             blocks to mathematical models of simple, complex, and
             nonidentifiable strategies. Participants in the emotional
             condition who were fearful of the outcomes had greater skin
             conductance responses compared with controls and performed
             worse, used suboptimal strategies, and had less insight into
             the predictive cue features during initial learning. In
             contrast, nonfearful participants in the emotional condition
             used more optimal strategies than the other groups by the
             end of the two training days. Results have implications for
             understanding how individual differences in fear relevancy
             alter the impact of emotion on feedback-based
             learning.},
   Doi = {10.1101/lm.1048808},
   Key = {fds252433}
}

@article{fds252393,
   Author = {St Jacques and P and Rubin, DC and LaBar, KS and Cabeza,
             R},
   Title = {The short and long of it: neural correlates of
             temporal-order memory for autobiographical
             events.},
   Journal = {Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience},
   Volume = {20},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {1327-1341},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0898-929X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18284345},
   Abstract = {Previous functional neuroimaging studies of temporal-order
             memory have investigated memory for laboratory stimuli that
             are causally unrelated and poor in sensory detail. In
             contrast, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging
             (fMRI) study investigated temporal-order memory for
             autobiographical events that were causally interconnected
             and rich in sensory detail. Participants took photographs at
             many campus locations over a period of several hours, and
             the following day they were scanned while making
             temporal-order judgments to pairs of photographs from
             different locations. By manipulating the temporal lag
             between the two locations in each trial, we compared the
             neural correlates associated with reconstruction processes,
             which we hypothesized depended on recollection and
             contribute mainly to short lags, and distance processes,
             which we hypothesized to depend on familiarity and
             contribute mainly to longer lags. Consistent with our
             hypotheses, parametric fMRI analyses linked shorter lags to
             activations in regions previously associated with
             recollection (left prefrontal, parahippocampal, precuneus,
             and visual cortices), and longer lags with regions
             previously associated with familiarity (right prefrontal
             cortex). The hemispheric asymmetry in prefrontal cortex
             activity fits very well with evidence and theories regarding
             the contributions of the left versus right prefrontal cortex
             to memory (recollection vs. familiarity processes) and
             cognition (systematic vs. heuristic processes). In sum,
             using a novel photo-paradigm, this study provided the first
             evidence regarding the neural correlates of temporal-order
             for autobiographical events.},
   Doi = {10.1162/jocn.2008.20091},
   Key = {fds252393}
}

@article{fds252436,
   Author = {Wang, L and LaBar, KS and Smoski, M and Rosenthal, MZ and Dolcos, F and Lynch, TR and Krishnan, RR and McCarthy, G},
   Title = {Prefrontal mechanisms for executive control over emotional
             distraction are altered in major depression.},
   Journal = {Psychiatry Research},
   Volume = {163},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {143-155},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0165-1781},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18455373},
   Abstract = {A dysfunction in the interaction between executive function
             and mood regulation has been proposed as the pathophysiology
             of depression. However, few studies have investigated the
             alteration in brain systems related to executive control
             over emotional distraction in depression. To address this
             issue, 19 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and
             20 healthy controls were scanned using functional magnetic
             resonance imaging. Participants performed an emotional
             oddball task in which infrequently presented circle targets
             required detection while sad and neutral pictures were
             irrelevant novel distractors. Hemodynamic responses were
             compared for targets, sad distractors, and for targets that
             followed sad or neutral distractors (Target-after-Sad and
             Target-after-Neutral). Patients with MDD revealed attenuated
             activation overall to targets in executive brain regions.
             Behaviorally, MDD patients were slower in response to
             Target-after-Sad than Target-after-Neutra stimuli. Patients
             also revealed a reversed activation pattern from controls in
             response to this contrast in the left anterior cingulate,
             insula, right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and bilateral
             middle frontal gyrus. Those patients who engaged the right
             IFG more during Target-after-Neutral stimuli responded
             faster to targets, confirming a role of this region in
             coping with emotional distraction. The results provide
             direct evidence of an alteration in the neural systems that
             interplay cognition with mood in MDD.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.pscychresns.2007.10.004},
   Key = {fds252436}
}

@article{fds252435,
   Author = {Doty, TJ and Payne, ME and Steffens, DC and Beyer, JL and Krishnan, KRR and LaBar, KS},
   Title = {Age-dependent reduction of amygdala volume in bipolar
             disorder.},
   Journal = {Psychiatry Research},
   Volume = {163},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {84-94},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0165-1781},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18407469},
   Abstract = {The amygdala is hypothesized to play a critical role in mood
             regulation, yet its involvement in bipolar disorder remains
             unclear. The aim of the present study was to compare
             measurements of amygdala volumes in a relatively large
             sample of bipolar disorder patients and healthy controls
             ranging in age from 18 to 49 years. Subjects comprised 54
             adult patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for bipolar disorder
             and 41 healthy controls matched for age, sex, and education.
             Magnetic resonance imaging (1.5 T) was performed to obtain
             volumetric measurements of the amygdala using a manual
             region-of-interest tracing method with software that allowed
             simultaneous visualization of the amygdala in three
             orthogonal planes. The anterior head of the hippocampus was
             removed in the sagittal plane prior to amygdala volumetry
             measurement. Multiple regression analysis was computed on
             amygdala volume measurements as a function of diagnosis,
             age, sex, and cerebral volume. Bipolar patients showed an
             age-related reduction of amygdala volume, but controls did
             not. Among bipolar subjects, amygdala volume was unrelated
             to medication history. There were no significant hemispheric
             or sex interactions with the main effects. Results support a
             role for amygdala dysfunction in bipolar disorder which
             appears most robustly in older relative to younger adult
             patients. Differential aging effects in bipolar disorder may
             compromise amygdala integrity and contribute to mood
             dysregulation.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.pscychresns.2007.08.003},
   Key = {fds252435}
}

@article{fds252434,
   Author = {Morey, RA and Petty, CM and Cooper, DA and Labar, KS and McCarthy,
             G},
   Title = {Neural systems for executive and emotional processing are
             modulated by symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in
             Iraq War veterans.},
   Journal = {Psychiatry Research},
   Volume = {162},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {59-72},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0165-1781},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18093809},
   Abstract = {The symptom-provocation paradigms generally used in
             neuroimaging studies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
             have placed high demands on emotion processing but lacked
             cognitive processing, thereby limiting the ability to assess
             alterations in neural systems that subserve executive
             functions and their interactions with emotion processing.
             Thirty-nine veterans from Iraq and Afghanistan underwent
             functional magnetic resonance imaging while exposed to
             emotional combat-related and neutral civilian scenes
             interleaved with an executive processing task. Contrast
             activation maps were regressed against PTSD symptoms as
             measured by the Davidson Trauma Scale. Activation for
             emotional compared with neutral stimuli was highly
             positively correlated with level of PTSD symptoms in ventral
             frontolimbic regions, notably the ventromedial prefrontal
             cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, and ventral anterior
             cingulate gyrus. Conversely, activation for the executive
             task was negatively correlated with PTSD symptoms in the
             dorsal executive network, notably the middle frontal gyrus,
             dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus, and inferior parietal
             lobule. Thus, there is a strong link between the
             subjectively assessed behavioral phenomenology of PTSD and
             objective neurobiological markers. These findings extend the
             largely symptom provocation-based functional neuroanatomy to
             provide evidence that interrelated executive and emotional
             processing systems of the brain are differentially affected
             by PTSD symptomatology in recently deployed war
             veterans.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.pscychresns.2007.07.007},
   Key = {fds252434}
}

@article{fds252437,
   Author = {Daselaar, SM and Rice, HJ and Greenberg, DL and Cabeza, R and LaBar, KS and Rubin, DC},
   Title = {The spatiotemporal dynamics of autobiographical memory:
             neural correlates of recall, emotional intensity, and
             reliving.},
   Journal = {Cerebral Cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)},
   Volume = {18},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {217-229},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17548799},
   Abstract = {We sought to map the time course of autobiographical memory
             retrieval, including brain regions that mediate
             phenomenological experiences of reliving and emotional
             intensity. Participants recalled personal memories to
             auditory word cues during event-related functional magnetic
             resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants pressed a button when
             a memory was accessed, maintained and elaborated the memory,
             and then gave subjective ratings of emotion and reliving. A
             novel fMRI approach based on timing differences capitalized
             on the protracted reconstructive process of autobiographical
             memory to segregate brain areas contributing to initial
             access and later elaboration and maintenance of episodic
             memories. The initial period engaged hippocampal,
             retrosplenial, and medial and right prefrontal activity,
             whereas the later period recruited visual, precuneus, and
             left prefrontal activity. Emotional intensity ratings were
             correlated with activity in several regions, including the
             amygdala and the hippocampus during the initial period.
             Reliving ratings were correlated with activity in visual
             cortex and ventromedial and inferior prefrontal regions
             during the later period. Frontopolar cortex was the only
             brain region sensitive to emotional intensity across both
             periods. Results were confirmed by time-locked averages of
             the fMRI signal. The findings indicate dynamic recruitment
             of emotion-, memory-, and sensory-related brain regions
             during remembering and their dissociable contributions to
             phenomenological features of the memories.},
   Doi = {10.1093/cercor/bhm048},
   Key = {fds252437}
}

@article{fds252445,
   Author = {Fichtenholtz, HM and Hopfinger, JB and Graham, R and Detwiler, JM and LaBar, KS},
   Title = {Happy and fearful emotion in cues and targets modulate
             event-related potential indices of gaze-directed attentional
             orienting.},
   Journal = {Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience},
   Volume = {2},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {323-333},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18626515},
   Abstract = {The goal of the present study was to characterize the
             effects of valence in facial cues and object targets on
             event-related potential (ERPs) indices of gaze-directed
             orienting. Participants were shown faces at fixation that
             concurrently displayed dynamic gaze shifts and expression
             changes from neutral to fearful or happy emotions.
             Emotionally-salient target objects subsequently appeared in
             the periphery and were spatially congruent or incongruent
             with the gaze direction. ERPs were time-locked to target
             presentation. Three sequential ERP components were modulated
             by happy emotion, indicating a progression from an
             expression effect to a gaze-by-expression interaction to a
             target emotion effect. These effects included larger P1
             amplitude over contralateral occipital sites for targets
             following happy faces, larger centrally distributed N1
             amplitude for targets following happy faces with leftward
             gaze, and faster P3 latency for positive targets. In
             addition, parietally distributed P3 amplitude was reduced
             for validly cued targets following fearful expressions.
             Results are consistent with accounts of attentional
             broadening and motivational approach by happy emotion, and
             facilitation of spatially directed attention in the presence
             of fearful cues. The findings have implications for
             understanding how socioemotional signals in faces interact
             with each other and with emotional features of objects in
             the environment to alter attentional processes.},
   Doi = {10.1093/scan/nsm026},
   Key = {fds252445}
}

@article{fds252438,
   Author = {Zucker, NL and Losh, M and Bulik, CM and LaBar, KS and Piven, J and Pelphrey, KA},
   Title = {Anorexia nervosa and autism spectrum disorders: guided
             investigation of social cognitive endophenotypes.},
   Journal = {Psychological Bulletin},
   Volume = {133},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {976-1006},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0033-2909},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17967091},
   Abstract = {Death by suicide occurs in a disproportionate percentage of
             individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN), with a standardized
             mortality ratio indicating a 57-fold greater risk of death
             from suicide relative to an age-matched cohort. Longitudinal
             studies indicate impaired social functioning increases risk
             for fatal outcomes, while social impairment persists
             following recovery. Study of social cognition in AN may
             elucidate impaired processes that may influence therapeutic
             efficacy. Symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are
             overrepresented in those who evidence a chronic course.
             Relative to that in AN, social information processing in ASD
             is well characterized and may inform systematic study in AN.
             This article (a) reviews impaired interpersonal processes in
             AN, (b) compares the phenotype of AN with that of ASD, (c)
             highlights deficits of social cognitive disturbance in ASD
             relative to AN, and (d) proposes a new framework to
             understand the interaction of individuals with AN with their
             social context.},
   Doi = {10.1037/0033-2909.133.6.976},
   Key = {fds252438}
}

@article{fds252443,
   Author = {Thomas, LA and De Bellis, MD and Graham, R and LaBar,
             KS},
   Title = {Development of emotional facial recognition in late
             childhood and adolescence.},
   Journal = {Developmental Science},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {547-558},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {1363-755X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17683341},
   Abstract = {The ability to interpret emotions in facial expressions is
             crucial for social functioning across the lifespan. Facial
             expression recognition develops rapidly during infancy and
             improves with age during the preschool years. However, the
             developmental trajectory from late childhood to adulthood is
             less clear. We tested older children, adolescents and adults
             on a two-alternative forced-choice discrimination task using
             morphed faces that varied in emotional content. Actors
             appeared to pose expressions that changed incrementally
             along three progressions: neutral-to-fear, neutral-to-anger,
             and fear-to-anger. Across all three morph types, adults
             displayed more sensitivity to subtle changes in emotional
             expression than children and adolescents. Fear morphs and
             fear-to-anger blends showed a linear developmental
             trajectory, whereas anger morphs showed a quadratic trend,
             increasing sharply from adolescents to adults. The results
             provide evidence for late developmental changes in emotional
             expression recognition with some specificity in the time
             course for distinct emotions.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1467-7687.2007.00614.x},
   Key = {fds252443}
}

@article{fds252440,
   Author = {Pelphrey, KA and Morris, JP and McCarthy, G and Labar,
             KS},
   Title = {Perception of dynamic changes in facial affect and identity
             in autism.},
   Journal = {Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience},
   Volume = {2},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {140-149},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18174910},
   Abstract = {Despite elegant behavioral descriptions of abnormalities for
             processing emotional facial expressions and biological
             motion in autism, identification of the neural mechanisms
             underlying these abnormalities remains a critical and
             largely unmet challenge. We compared brain activity with
             dynamic and static facial expressions in participants with
             and without high-functioning autism using event-related
             functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and three
             classes of face stimuli-emotion morphs (fearful and angry),
             identity morphs and static images (fearful, angry and
             neutral). We observed reduced activity in the amygdala (AMY)
             and fusiform gyrus (FFG) to dynamic emotional expressions in
             people with autism. There was also a lack of modulation by
             dynamic compared with static emotional expressions of social
             brain regions including the AMY, posterior superior temporal
             sulcus (STS) region and FFG. We observed equivalent emotion
             and identity morph-evoked activity in participants with and
             without autism in a region corresponding to the expected
             location of the more generally motion-sensitive area MT or
             V5. We conclude that dysfunctions in key components of the
             human face processing system including the AMY, FFG and
             posterior STS region are present in individuals with
             high-functioning autism, and this dysfunction might
             contribute to the deficits in processing emotional facial
             expressions.},
   Doi = {10.1093/scan/nsm010},
   Key = {fds252440}
}

@article{fds252442,
   Author = {Graham, R and LaBar, KS},
   Title = {Garner interference reveals dependencies between emotional
             expression and gaze in face perception.},
   Journal = {Emotion},
   Volume = {7},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {296-313},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {1528-3542},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17516809},
   Abstract = {The relationship between facial expression and gaze
             processing was investigated with the Garner selective
             attention paradigm. In Experiment 1, participants performed
             expression judgments without interference from gaze, but
             expression interfered with gaze judgments. Experiment 2
             replicated these results across different emotions. In both
             experiments, expression judgments occurred faster than gaze
             judgments, suggesting that expression was processed before
             gaze could interfere. In Experiments 3 and 4, the difficulty
             of the emotion discrimination was increased in two different
             ways. In both cases, gaze interfered with emotion judgments
             and vice versa. Furthermore, increasing the difficulty of
             the emotion discrimination resulted in gaze and expression
             interactions. Results indicate that expression and gaze
             interactions are modulated by discriminability. Whereas
             expression generally interferes with gaze judgments, gaze
             direction modulates expression processing only when facial
             emotion is difficult to discriminate.},
   Doi = {10.1037/1528-3542.7.2.296},
   Key = {fds252442}
}

@article{fds252444,
   Author = {Dillon, DG and Ritchey, M and Johnson, BD and LaBar,
             KS},
   Title = {Dissociable effects of conscious emotion regulation
             strategies on explicit and implicit memory.},
   Journal = {Emotion},
   Volume = {7},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {354-365},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {1528-3542},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17516813},
   Abstract = {The authors manipulated emotion regulation strategies at
             encoding and administered explicit and implicit memory
             tests. In Experiment 1, participants used reappraisal to
             enhance and decrease the personal relevance of unpleasant
             and neutral pictures. In Experiment 2, decrease cues were
             replaced with suppress cues that directed participants to
             inhibit emotion-expressive behavior. Across experiments,
             using reappraisal to enhance the personal relevance of
             pictures improved free recall. By contrast, attempting to
             suppress emotional displays tended to impair recall,
             especially compared to the enhance condition. Using
             reappraisal to decrease the personal relevance of pictures
             had different effects depending on picture type. Paired with
             unpleasant pictures, the decrease cue tended to improve
             recall. Paired with neutral stimuli, the decrease cue tended
             to impair recall. Emotion regulation did not affect
             perceptual priming. Results highlight dissociable effects of
             emotion regulation on explicit and implicit memory, as well
             as dissociations between regulation strategies with respect
             to explicit memory.},
   Doi = {10.1037/1528-3542.7.2.354},
   Key = {fds252444}
}

@article{fds252373,
   Author = {Morey, RA and Petty, CM and Cooper, DA and Labar, KS and McCarthy,
             G},
   Title = {Neural systems for executive and emotional processing are
             modulated by level of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms
             in Iraq war veterans},
   Journal = {Biological Psychiatry},
   Volume = {61},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {182S-182S},
   Publisher = {ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0006-3223},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000245698100584&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds252373}
}

@article{fds252439,
   Author = {Schmajuk, NA and Larrauri, JA and Labar, KS},
   Title = {Reinstatement of conditioned fear and the hippocampus: an
             attentional-associative model.},
   Journal = {Behavioural Brain Research},
   Volume = {177},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {242-253},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0166-4328},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17178163},
   Abstract = {An existing attentional-associative model of classical
             conditioning [Schmajuk N, Lam Y, Gray JA. Latent inhibition:
             a neural network approach. J Exp Psychol: Anim Behav Process
             1996;22:321-49] is applied to the description of
             reinstatement in animals and humans. According to the model,
             inhibitory associations between the context (CX) and
             unconditioned stimulus (US) are formed during extinction,
             which help preserve the association between the conditioned
             stimulus (CS) and the US. However, summation and retardation
             tests fail to reveal these associations because (a) the CX
             is not attended or (b) a CX-CS configural stimulus formed
             during extinction is both poorly attended and weakly active
             during testing. When US presentations and testing occur in
             the same context, reinstatement is the consequence of a
             decreased CX inhibition and the increased attention to the
             CS, which activates the remaining CS-US association. When US
             presentations occur in the context of extinction but the CS
             is tested in a different context, reinstatement results from
             an increased attention to the CS and the combination of
             CS-CX and CX-US excitatory associations. The assumption that
             associations between CSs are impaired following neurotoxic
             hippocampal lesions or in amnesia, is sufficient to describe
             absence of reinstatement in those cases. However, additional
             assumptions might be needed to describe the effect of
             hippocampal lesions on other postextinction
             manipulations.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.bbr.2006.11.026},
   Key = {fds252439}
}

@article{fds252441,
   Author = {Labar, KS},
   Title = {Beyond Fear Emotional Memory Mechanisms in the Human
             Brain.},
   Journal = {Current Directions in Psychological Science},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {173-177},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0963-7214},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18604284},
   Abstract = {Neurobiological accounts of emotional memory have been
             derived largely from animal models investigating the
             encoding and retention of memories for events that signal
             threat. This literature has implicated the amygdala, a
             structure in the brain's temporal lobe, in the learning and
             consolidation of fear memories. Its role in fear
             conditioning has been confirmed, but the human amygdala also
             interacts with cortical regions to mediate other aspects of
             emotional memory. These include the encoding and
             consolidation of pleasant and unpleasant arousing events
             into long-term memory, the narrowing of focus on central
             emotional information, the retrieval of prior emotional
             events and contexts, and the subjective experience of
             recollection and emotional intensity during retrieval. Along
             with other mechanisms that do not involve the amygdala,
             these functions ensure that significant life events leave a
             lasting impression in memory.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1467-8721.2007.00498.x},
   Key = {fds252441}
}

@article{fds252447,
   Author = {Graham, R and Devinsky, O and Labar, KS},
   Title = {Quantifying deficits in the perception of fear and anger in
             morphed facial expressions after bilateral amygdala
             damage.},
   Journal = {Neuropsychologia},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {42-54},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0028-3932},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16806315},
   Abstract = {Amygdala damage has been associated with impairments in
             perceiving facial expressions of fear. However, deficits in
             perceiving other emotions, such as anger, and deficits in
             perceiving emotion blends have not been definitively
             established. One possibility is that methods used to index
             expression perception are susceptible to heuristic use,
             which may obscure impairments. To examine this, we adapted a
             task used to examine categorical perception of morphed
             facial expressions [Etcoff, N. L., & Magee, J. J. (1992).
             Categorical perception of facial expressions. Cognition,
             44(3), 227-240]. In one version of the task, expressions
             were categorized with unlimited time constraints. In the
             other, expressions were presented with limited exposure
             durations to tap more automatic aspects of processing. Three
             morph progressions were employed: neutral to anger, neutral
             to fear, and fear to anger. Both tasks were administered to
             a participant with bilateral amygdala damage (S.P.), age-
             and education-matched controls, and young controls. The
             second task was also administered to unilateral temporal
             lobectomy patients. In the first version, S.P. showed
             impairments relative to normal controls on the
             neutral-to-anger and fear-to-anger morphs, but not on the
             neutral-to-fear morph. However, reaction times suggested
             that speed-accuracy tradeoffs could account for results. In
             the second version, S.P. showed impairments on all morph
             types relative to all other subject groups. A third
             experiment showed that this deficit did not extend to the
             perception of morphed identities. These results imply that
             when heuristics use is discouraged on tasks utilizing subtle
             emotion transitions, deficits in the perception of anger and
             anger/fear blends, as well as fear, are evident with
             bilateral amygdala damage.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2006.04.021},
   Key = {fds252447}
}

@article{fds252385,
   Author = {Wang, L and LaBar, KS and McCarthy, G},
   Title = {Mood alters amygdala activation to sad distractors during an
             attentional task.},
   Journal = {Biological Psychiatry},
   Volume = {60},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {1139-1146},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0006-3223},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16713587},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: A behavioral hallmark of mood disorders is
             biased perception and memory for sad events. The amygdala is
             poised to mediate internal mood and external event
             processing because of its connections with both the internal
             milieu and the sensory world. There is little evidence
             showing that the amygdala's response to sad sensory stimuli
             is functionally modulated by mood state, however. METHODS:
             We investigated the impact of mood on amygdala activation
             evoked by sad and neutral pictures presented as distractors
             during an attentional oddball task. Healthy adults underwent
             functional magnetic resonance imaging during task runs that
             were preceded by sad or happy movie clips. Happy and sad
             mood induction was conducted within-subjects on consecutive
             days in counterbalanced order. RESULTS: Amygdala activation
             to sad distractors was enhanced after viewing sad movies
             relative to happy ones and was correlated with reaction time
             costs to detect attentional targets. The activation was
             higher in female subjects in the right hemisphere. The
             anterior cingulate, ventromedial and orbital prefrontal
             cortex, insula, and other posterior regions also showed
             enhanced responses to sad distractors during sad mood.
             CONCLUSIONS: These findings reveal brain mechanisms that
             integrate emotional input and current mood state, with
             implications for understanding cognitive distractibility in
             depression.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.01.021},
   Key = {fds252385}
}

@article{fds252446,
   Author = {Dillon, DG and Cooper, JJ and Grent-'t-Jong, T and Woldorff, MG and LaBar, KS},
   Title = {Dissociation of event-related potentials indexing arousal
             and semantic cohesion during emotional word
             encoding.},
   Journal = {Brain and Cognition},
   Volume = {62},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {43-57},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0278-2626},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16678953},
   Abstract = {Event-related potential (ERP) studies have shown that
             emotional stimuli elicit greater amplitude late
             positive-polarity potentials (LPPs) than neutral stimuli.
             This effect has been attributed to arousal, but emotional
             stimuli are also more semantically coherent than
             uncategorized neutral stimuli. ERPs were recorded during
             encoding of positive, negative, uncategorized neutral, and
             categorized neutral words. Differences in LPP amplitude
             elicited by emotional versus uncategorized neutral stimuli
             were evident from 450 to 1000 ms. From 450 to 700 ms, LPP
             effects at midline and right hemisphere frontal electrodes
             indexed arousal, whereas LPP effects at left hemisphere
             centro-parietal electrodes indexed semantic cohesion. This
             dissociation helps specify the processes underlying
             emotional stimulus encoding, and suggests the need to
             control for semantic cohesion in emotional information
             processing studies.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.bandc.2006.03.008},
   Key = {fds252446}
}

@article{fds252390,
   Author = {Zorawski, M and Blanding, NQ and Kuhn, CM and LaBar,
             KS},
   Title = {Effects of stress and sex on acquisition and consolidation
             of human fear conditioning.},
   Journal = {Learning & Memory (Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.)},
   Volume = {13},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {441-450},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {1072-0502},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16847304},
   Abstract = {We examined the relationship between stress hormone
             (cortisol) release and acquisition and consolidation of
             conditioned fear learning in healthy adults. Participants
             underwent acquisition of differential fear conditioning, and
             consolidation was assessed in a 24-h delayed extinction
             test. The acquisition phase was immediately followed by an
             11-min psychosocial stress period (arithmetic test combined
             with a public speech). Salivary cortisol was sampled at
             various time points before and after acquisition and
             retention of fear conditioning. Results showed two effects
             of endogenous cortisol. Post-acquisition cortisol correlated
             with fear acquisition in male but not female participants.
             In addition, post-acquisition cortisol correlated with
             consolidation of fear but only in those participants with
             high cortisol levels. We conclude that in the short term, a
             robust and sexually dimorphic relationship exists between
             fear learning and stress hormone levels. For those
             participants whose fear learning is accompanied by high
             stress hormone levels, a long-term relationship exists
             between cortisol release and memory consolidation. These
             short-term and long-term effects may relate to the
             differential involvement of mineralocorticoid and
             glucocorticoid receptor subtypes, respectively. The findings
             have implications for understanding the role of stress, sex,
             and hormones in different stages of fear learning and
             memory.},
   Doi = {10.1101/lm.189106},
   Key = {fds252390}
}

@article{fds252372,
   Author = {LaBar, KS},
   Title = {Integrating psychophysiology and fMRI to study attention and
             learning},
   Journal = {Psychophysiology},
   Volume = {43},
   Pages = {S12-S12},
   Publisher = {BLACKWELL PUBLISHING},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0048-5772},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000239965400048&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds252372}
}

@article{fds252384,
   Author = {Graham, R and Devinsky, O and LaBar, KS},
   Title = {Sequential ordering of morphed faces and facial expressions
             following temporal lobe damage.},
   Journal = {Neuropsychologia},
   Volume = {44},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {1398-1405},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0028-3932},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16464481},
   Abstract = {A card ordering task was developed to evaluate the role of
             the temporal lobe in perceiving subtle featural
             displacements of faces that contribute to judgments of
             facial expression and identity. Individuals with varying
             degrees of temporal lobe damage and healthy controls were
             required to manually sort cards depicting morphs of facial
             expressions or facial identities so that the cards were
             sequentially ordered from one morph endpoint to another.
             Four morph progressions were used--three emotion morphs
             (neutral-to-anger, neutral-to-fear, and fear-to-anger) and
             an identity morph. Five exemplars were given per morph type.
             Debriefing verified that participants were using
             feature-level cues to sort the cards. A patient with
             bilateral amygdala damage due to epilepsy did not differ in
             her sorting abilities from unilateral temporal lobectomy
             patients or controls. In contrast, a post-encephalitic
             patient with widespread left temporal lobe damage showed
             impairments that were most marked on the fear-to-anger and
             identity sorts. These results show that amygdala-damaged
             individuals can use information contained in facial
             expressions to solve tasks that rely on feature-level
             analysis, which recruits processing in other temporal lobe
             regions involved in making fine featural
             distinctions.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2005.12.010},
   Key = {fds252384}
}

@article{fds252448,
   Author = {LaBar, KS and Cabeza, R},
   Title = {Cognitive neuroscience of emotional memory.},
   Journal = {Nature Reviews. Neuroscience},
   Volume = {7},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {54-64},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1471-003X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16371950},
   Abstract = {Emotional events often attain a privileged status in memory.
             Cognitive neuroscientists have begun to elucidate the
             psychological and neural mechanisms underlying emotional
             retention advantages in the human brain. The amygdala is a
             brain structure that directly mediates aspects of emotional
             learning and facilitates memory operations in other regions,
             including the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex.
             Emotion-memory interactions occur at various stages of
             information processing, from the initial encoding and
             consolidation of memory traces to their long-term retrieval.
             Recent advances are revealing new insights into the
             reactivation of latent emotional associations and the
             recollection of personal episodes from the remote
             past.},
   Doi = {10.1038/nrn1825},
   Key = {fds252448}
}

@article{fds252449,
   Author = {Dillon, DG and LaBar, KS},
   Title = {Startle modulation during conscious emotion regulation is
             arousal-dependent.},
   Journal = {Behavioral Neuroscience},
   Volume = {119},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1118-1124},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0735-7044},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16187839},
   Abstract = {Conscious regulation of negative emotion has been shown to
             affect human eyeblink startle responses, but whether these
             results depend on modulation of arousal- or valence-based
             processes is unknown. The authors presented participants
             with negative, neutral, and positive pictures and directed
             them to enhance, maintain, and suppress emotional responses.
             On emotional picture trials, startle responses decreased as
             a function of cue in the following order: enhance > maintain
             > suppress. Analysis of negative and positive picture trials
             separately revealed similar patterns of startle modulation
             by emotion regulation. There were no effects of emotion
             regulation on neutral trials. Results indicate that arousal,
             not valence, may be critical to startle modulation via
             conscious emotion regulation.},
   Doi = {10.1037/0735-7044.119.4.1118},
   Key = {fds252449}
}

@article{fds252452,
   Author = {LaBar, KS and Phelps, EA},
   Title = {Reinstatement of conditioned fear in humans is context
             dependent and impaired in amnesia.},
   Journal = {Behavioral Neuroscience},
   Volume = {119},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {677-686},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0735-7044},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15998188},
   Abstract = {A contextual reinstatement procedure was developed to assess
             the contributions of environmental cues and hippocampal
             function in the recovery of conditioned fear following
             extinction in humans. Experiment 1 showed context
             specificity in the recovery of extinguished skin conductance
             responses after presentations of an auditory unconditioned
             stimulus. Experiment 2 demonstrated that fear recovery did
             not generalize to an explicitly unpaired conditioned
             stimulus. Experiment 3 replicated the context dependency of
             fear recovery with a shock as an unconditioned stimulus. Two
             amnesic patients failed to recover fear responses following
             reinstatement in the same context, despite showing initial
             fear acquisition. These results extend the known functions
             of the human hippocampus and highlight the importance of
             environmental contexts in regulating the expression of
             latent fear associations.},
   Doi = {10.1037/0735-7044.119.3.677},
   Key = {fds252452}
}

@article{fds252455,
   Author = {Zorawski, M and Cook, CA and Kuhn, CM and LaBar, KS},
   Title = {Sex, stress, and fear: individual differences in conditioned
             learning.},
   Journal = {Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience},
   Volume = {5},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {191-201},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {1530-7026},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16180625},
   Abstract = {It has long been recognized that humans vary in their
             conditionability, yet the factors that contribute to
             individual variation in emotional learning remain to be
             delineated. The goal of the present study was to investigate
             the relationship among sex, stress hormones, and fear
             conditioning in humans. Forty-five healthy adults (22
             females) underwent differential delay conditioning, using
             fear-relevant conditioned stimuli and a shock unconditioned
             stimulus. Salivary cortisol samples were taken at baseline
             and after acquisition training and a 24-h-delayed retention
             test. The results showed that acquisition of conditioning
             significantly correlated with postacquisition cortisol
             levels in males, but not in females. This sex-specific
             relationship was found despite similar overall levels of
             conditioning, unconditioned responding, and cortisol. There
             was no effect of postacquisition cortisol on consolidation
             of fear learning in either sex. These findings have
             implications for the understanding of individual differences
             in fear acquisition and risk factors for the development of
             affective disorders.},
   Doi = {10.3758/cabn.5.2.191},
   Key = {fds252455}
}

@article{fds252383,
   Author = {Wang, L and McCarthy, G and Song, AW and Labar, KS},
   Title = {Amygdala activation to sad pictures during high-field (4
             tesla) functional magnetic resonance imaging.},
   Journal = {Emotion},
   Volume = {5},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {12-22},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {1528-3542},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15755216},
   Abstract = {Fear-related processing in the amygdala has been well
             documented, but its role in signaling other emotions remains
             controversial. The authors recovered signal loss in the
             amygdala at high-field strength using an inward spiral pulse
             sequence and probed its response to pictures varying in
             their degree of portrayed sadness. These pictures were
             presented as intermittent task-irrelevant distractors during
             a concurrent visual oddball task. Relative to neutral
             distractors, sad distractors elicited greater activation
             along ventral brain regions, including the amygdala,
             fusiform gyrus, and inferior frontal gyrus. In contrast,
             oddball targets engaged dorsal sectors of frontal, parietal,
             and cingulate cortices. The amygdala's role in emotional
             evaluation thus extends to images of grief and despair as
             well as to those depicting violence and threat.},
   Doi = {10.1037/1528-3542.5.1.12},
   Key = {fds252383}
}

@article{fds252450,
   Author = {Dolcos, F and LaBar, KS and Cabeza, R},
   Title = {Remembering one year later: role of the amygdala and the
             medial temporal lobe memory system in retrieving emotional
             memories.},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the
             United States of America},
   Volume = {102},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {2626-2631},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0027-8424},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15703295},
   Abstract = {The memory-enhancing effect of emotion can be powerful and
             long-lasting. Most studies investigating the neural bases of
             this phenomenon have focused on encoding and early
             consolidation processes, and hence little is known regarding
             the contribution of retrieval processes, particularly after
             lengthy retention intervals. To address this issue, we used
             event-related functional MRI to measure neural activity
             during the retrieval of emotional and neutral pictures after
             a retention interval of 1 yr. Retrieval activity for
             emotional and neutral pictures was separately analyzed for
             successfully (hits) vs. unsuccessfully (misses) retrieved
             items and for responses based on recollection vs.
             familiarity. Recognition performance was better for
             emotional than for neutral pictures, and this effect was
             found only for recollection-based responses. Successful
             retrieval of emotional pictures elicited greater activity
             than successful retrieval of neutral pictures in the
             amygdala, entorhinal cortex, and hippocampus. Moreover, in
             the amygdala and hippocampus, the emotion effect was greater
             for recollection than for familiarity, whereas in the
             entorhinal cortex, it was similar for both forms of
             retrieval. These findings clarify the role of the amygdala
             and the medial temporal lobe memory regions in recollection
             and familiarity of emotional memory after lengthy retention
             intervals.},
   Doi = {10.1073/pnas.0409848102},
   Key = {fds252450}
}

@article{fds318730,
   Author = {Zorawski, M and Cook, CA and Kuhn, CM and LaBar, KS},
   Title = {Sex, stress, and fear: Individual differences in conditioned
             learning},
   Journal = {Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience},
   Pages = {61-61},
   Publisher = {M I T PRESS},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds318730}
}

@article{fds252375,
   Author = {Pelphrey, KA and Morris, JP and McCarthy, G and LaBar,
             KS},
   Title = {Perception of dynamic changes in facial expressions of
             emotion in autism},
   Journal = {Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience},
   Pages = {63-63},
   Publisher = {M I T PRESS},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0898-929X},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000227878700250&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds252375}
}

@article{fds252377,
   Author = {Graham, R and LaBar, KS},
   Title = {The Garner paradigm reveals asymmetric dependencies between
             facial emotional expression and gaze processing},
   Journal = {Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience},
   Pages = {144-144},
   Publisher = {M I T PRESS},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0898-929X},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000227878700622&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds252377}
}

@article{fds252451,
   Author = {Greenberg, DL and Rice, HJ and Cooper, JJ and Cabeza, R and Rubin, DC and Labar, KS},
   Title = {Co-activation of the amygdala, hippocampus and inferior
             frontal gyrus during autobiographical memory
             retrieval.},
   Journal = {Neuropsychologia},
   Volume = {43},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {659-674},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0028-3932},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15721179},
   Abstract = {Functional MRI was used to investigate the role of medial
             temporal lobe and inferior frontal lobe regions in
             autobiographical recall. Prior to scanning, participants
             generated cue words for 50 autobiographical memories and
             rated their phenomenological properties using our
             autobiographical memory questionnaire (AMQ). During
             scanning, the cue words were presented and participants
             pressed a button when they retrieved the associated memory.
             The autobiographical retrieval task was interleaved in an
             event-related design with a semantic retrieval task
             (category generation). Region-of-interest analyses showed
             greater activation of the amygdala, hippocampus, and right
             inferior frontal gyrus during autobiographical retrieval
             relative to semantic retrieval. In addition, the left
             inferior frontal gyrus showed a more prolonged duration of
             activation in the semantic retrieval condition. A targeted
             correlational analysis revealed pronounced functional
             connectivity among the amygdala, hippocampus, and right
             inferior frontal gyrus during autobiographical retrieval but
             not during semantic retrieval. These results support
             theories of autobiographical memory that hypothesize
             co-activation of frontotemporal areas during recollection of
             episodes from the personal past.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2004.09.002},
   Key = {fds252451}
}

@article{fds252453,
   Author = {LaBar, KS and Torpey, DC and Cook, CA and Johnson, SR and Warren, LH and Burke, JR and Welsh-Bohmer, KA},
   Title = {Emotional enhancement of perceptual priming is preserved in
             aging and early-stage Alzheimer's disease.},
   Journal = {Neuropsychologia},
   Volume = {43},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {1824-1837},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0028-3932},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16154458},
   Abstract = {Perceptual priming for emotionally-negative and neutral
             scenes was tested in early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD)
             patients and healthy younger, middle-aged and older adults.
             In the study phase, participants rated the scenes for their
             arousal properties. In the test phase, studied and novel
             scenes were initially presented subliminally, and the
             exposure duration was gradually increased until a valence
             categorization was made. The difference in exposure duration
             required to categorize novel versus studied items was the
             dependent measure of priming. Aversive content increased the
             magnitude of priming, an effect that was preserved in
             healthy aging and AD. Results from an immediate recognition
             memory test showed that the priming effects could not be
             attributable to enhanced explicit memory for the aversive
             scenes. These findings implicate a dissociation between the
             modulatory effect of emotion across implicit and explicit
             forms of memory in aging and early-stage
             AD.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2005.01.018},
   Key = {fds252453}
}

@article{fds252454,
   Author = {Thomas, LA and LaBar, KS},
   Title = {Emotional arousal enhances word repetition
             priming.},
   Journal = {Cognition and Emotion},
   Volume = {19},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {1027-1047},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0269-9931},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02699930500172440},
   Abstract = {Three experiments were conducted to determine if emotional
             content increases repetition priming magnitude. In the study
             phase of Experiment 1, participants rated high-arousing
             negative (taboo) words and neutral words for concreteness.
             In the test phase, they made lexical decision judgements for
             the studied words intermixed with novel words (half taboo,
             half neutral) and pseudowords. In Experiment 2, low-arousing
             negative (LAN) words were substituted for the taboo words,
             and in Experiment 3 all three word types were used. Results
             showed significant priming in all experiments, as indicated
             by faster reaction times for studied words than for novel
             words. A priming × emotion interaction was found in
             Experiments 1 and 3, with greater priming for taboo relative
             to neutral words. The LAN words in Experiments 2 and 3
             showed no difference in priming magnitude relative to the
             other word types. These results show selective enhancement
             of word repetition priming by emotional arousal.},
   Doi = {10.1080/02699930500172440},
   Key = {fds252454}
}

@article{fds44189,
   Author = {Dolcos, F. and LaBar, K. S. and Cabeza, R.},
   Title = {Remembering one year later: Role of the amygdala and medial
             temporal lobe system in retrieving emotional
             memories},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
             USA},
   Volume = {102},
   Pages = {2626-2631},
   Year = {2005},
   Key = {fds44189}
}

@article{fds252392,
   Author = {Cabeza, R and Prince, SE and Daselaar, SM and Greenberg, DL and Budde,
             M and Dolcos, F and LaBar, KS and Rubin, DC},
   Title = {Brain activity during episodic retrieval of autobiographical
             and laboratory events: an fMRI study using a novel photo
             paradigm.},
   Journal = {Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {1583-1594},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0898-929X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15622612},
   Abstract = {Functional neuroimaging studies of episodic memory retrieval
             generally measure brain activity while participants remember
             items encountered in the laboratory ("controlled laboratory
             condition") or events from their own life ("open
             autobiographical condition"). Differences in activation
             between these conditions may reflect differences in
             retrieval processes, memory remoteness, emotional content,
             retrieval success, self-referential processing,
             visual/spatial memory, and recollection. To clarify the
             nature of these differences, a functional MRI study was
             conducted using a novel "photo paradigm," which allows
             greater control over the autobiographical condition,
             including a measure of retrieval accuracy. Undergraduate
             students took photos in specified campus locations
             ("controlled autobiographical condition"), viewed in the
             laboratory similar photos taken by other participants
             (controlled laboratory condition), and were then scanned
             while recognizing the two kinds of photos. Both conditions
             activated a common episodic memory network that included
             medial temporal and prefrontal regions. Compared with the
             controlled laboratory condition, the controlled
             autobiographical condition elicited greater activity in
             regions associated with self-referential processing (medial
             prefrontal cortex), visual/spatial memory (visual and
             parahippocampal regions), and recollection (hippocampus).
             The photo paradigm provides a way of investigating the
             functional neuroanatomy of real-life episodic memory under
             rigorous experimental control.},
   Doi = {10.1162/0898929042568578},
   Key = {fds252392}
}

@article{fds252381,
   Author = {Talarico, JM and LaBar, KS and Rubin, DC},
   Title = {Emotional intensity predicts autobiographical memory
             experience.},
   Journal = {Memory & Cognition},
   Volume = {32},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {1118-1132},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0090-502X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15813494},
   Abstract = {College students generated autobiographical memories from
             distinct emotional categories that varied in valence
             (positive vs. negative) and intensity (high vs. low). They
             then rated various perceptual, cognitive, and emotional
             properties for each memory. The distribution of these
             emotional memories favored a vector model over a circumplex
             model. For memories of all specific emotions, intensity
             accounted for significantly more variance in
             autobiographical memory characteristics than did valence or
             age of the memory. In two additional experiments, we
             examined multiple memories of emotions of high intensity and
             positive or negative valence and of positive valence and
             high or low intensity. Intensity was a more consistent
             predictor of autobiographical memory properties than was
             valence or the age of the memory in these experiments as
             well. The general effects of emotion on autobiographical
             memory properties are due primarily to intensity differences
             in emotional experience, not to benefits or detriments
             associated with a specific valence.},
   Doi = {10.3758/bf03196886},
   Key = {fds252381}
}

@article{fds252382,
   Author = {Labar, KS and Cook, CA and Torpey, DC and Welsh-Bohmer,
             KA},
   Title = {Impact of healthy aging on awareness and fear
             conditioning.},
   Journal = {Behavioral Neuroscience},
   Volume = {118},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {905-915},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0735-7044},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15506873},
   Abstract = {Fear conditioning has provided a useful model system for
             studying associative emotional learning, but the impact of
             healthy aging has gone relatively unexplored. The present
             study investigated fear conditioning across the adult life
             span in humans. A delay discrimination task was employed
             using visual conditioned stimuli and an auditory
             unconditioned stimulus. Awareness of the reinforcement
             contingencies was assessed in a postexperimental interview.
             Compared with young adult participants, middle-aged and
             older adults displayed reductions in unconditioned
             responding, discriminant conditioning, and contingency
             awareness. When awareness and overall arousability were
             taken into consideration, there were no residual effects of
             aging on conditioning. These results highlight the
             importance of considering the influence of declarative
             knowledge when interpreting age-associated changes in
             discriminative conditioned learning.},
   Doi = {10.1037/0735-7044.118.5.905},
   Key = {fds252382}
}

@article{fds252459,
   Author = {Dolcos, F and LaBar, KS and Cabeza, R},
   Title = {Dissociable effects of arousal and valence on prefrontal
             activity indexing emotional evaluation and subsequent
             memory: an event-related fMRI study.},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {23},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {64-74},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {1053-8119},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15325353},
   Abstract = {Prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity associated with emotional
             evaluation and subsequent memory was investigated with
             event-related functional MRI (fMRI). Participants were
             scanned while rating the pleasantness of emotionally
             positive, negative, and neutral pictures, and memory for the
             pictures was tested after scanning. Emotional evaluation was
             measured by comparing activity during the picture rating
             task relative to baseline, and successful encoding was
             measured by comparing activity for subsequently remembered
             versus forgotten pictures (Dm effect). The effect of arousal
             on these measures was indicated by greater activity for both
             positive and negative pictures than for neutral ones, and
             the effect of valence was indicated by differences in
             activity between positive and negative pictures. The study
             yielded three main results. First, consistent with the
             valence hypothesis, specific regions in left dorsolateral
             PFC were more activated for positive than for negative
             picture evaluation, whereas regions in right ventrolateral
             PFC showed the converse pattern. Second, dorsomedial PFC
             activity was sensitive to emotional arousal, whereas
             ventromedial PFC activity was sensitive to positive valence,
             consistent with evidence linking these regions,
             respectively, to emotional processing and self-awareness or
             appetitive behavior. Finally, successful encoding (Dm)
             activity in left ventrolateral and dorsolateral PFC was
             greater for arousing than for neutral pictures. This finding
             suggests that the enhancing effect of emotion on memory
             formation is partly due to an augmentation of PFC-mediated
             strategic, semantic, and working memory operations. These
             results underscore the critical role of PFC in emotional
             evaluation and memory, and disentangle the effects of
             arousal and valence across PFC regions associated with
             different cognitive functions.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2004.05.015},
   Key = {fds252459}
}

@article{fds252456,
   Author = {Dolcos, F and LaBar, KS and Cabeza, R},
   Title = {Interaction between the amygdala and the medial temporal
             lobe memory system predicts better memory for emotional
             events.},
   Journal = {Neuron},
   Volume = {42},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {855-863},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0896-6273},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15182723},
   Abstract = {Emotional events are remembered better than neutral events
             possibly because the amygdala enhances the function of
             medial temporal lobe (MTL) memory system (modulation
             hypothesis). Although this hypothesis has been supported by
             much animal research, evidence from humans has been scarce
             and indirect. We investigated this issue using event-related
             fMRI during encoding of emotional and neutral pictures.
             Memory performance after scanning showed a retention
             advantage for emotional pictures. Successful encoding
             activity in the amygdala and MTL memory structures was
             greater and more strongly correlated for emotional than for
             neutral pictures. Moreover, a double dissociation was found
             along the longitudinal axis of the MTL memory system:
             activity in anterior regions predicted memory for emotional
             items, whereas activity in posterior regions predicted
             memory for neutral items. These results provide direct
             evidence for the modulation hypothesis in humans and reveal
             a functional specialization within the MTL regarding the
             effects of emotion on memory formation.},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0896-6273(04)00289-2},
   Key = {fds252456}
}

@article{fds252460,
   Author = {Fichtenholtz, HM and Dean, HL and Dillon, DG and Yamasaki, H and McCarthy, G and LaBar, KS},
   Title = {Emotion-attention network interactions during a visual
             oddball task.},
   Journal = {Brain Research. Cognitive Brain Research},
   Volume = {20},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {67-80},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0926-6410},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15130591},
   Abstract = {Emotional and attentional functions are known to be
             distributed along ventral and dorsal networks in the brain,
             respectively. However, the interactions between these
             systems remain to be specified. The present study used
             event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
             to investigate how attentional focus can modulate the neural
             activity elicited by scenes that vary in emotional content.
             In a visual oddball task, aversive and neutral scenes were
             presented intermittently among circles and squares. The
             squares were frequent standard events, whereas the other
             novel stimulus categories occurred rarely. One experimental
             group [N=10] was instructed to count the circles, whereas
             another group [N=12] counted the emotional scenes. A main
             effect of emotion was found in the amygdala (AMG) and
             ventral frontotemporal cortices. In these regions,
             activation was significantly greater for emotional than
             neutral stimuli but was invariant to attentional focus. A
             main effect of attentional focus was found in dorsal
             frontoparietal cortices, whose activity signaled
             task-relevant target events irrespective of emotional
             content. The only brain region that was sensitive to both
             emotion and attentional focus was the anterior cingulate
             gyrus (ACG). When circles were task-relevant, the ACG
             responded equally to circle targets and distracting
             emotional scenes. The ACG response to emotional scenes
             increased when they were task-relevant, and the response to
             circles concomitantly decreased. These findings support and
             extend prominent network theories of emotion-attention
             interactions that highlight the integrative role played by
             the anterior cingulate.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.cogbrainres.2004.01.006},
   Key = {fds252460}
}

@article{fds252479,
   Author = {LaBar, KS and Crupain, MJ and Voyvodic, JT and McCarthy,
             G},
   Title = {Dynamic perception of facial affect and identity in the
             human brain.},
   Journal = {Cerebral Cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)},
   Volume = {13},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {1023-1033},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {1047-3211},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12967919},
   Abstract = {Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to
             compare brain activation to static facial displays versus
             dynamic changes in facial identity or emotional expression.
             Static images depicted prototypical fearful, angry and
             neutral expressions. Identity morphs depicted identity
             changes from one person to another, always with neutral
             expressions. Emotion morphs depicted expression changes from
             neutral to fear or anger, creating the illusion that the
             actor was 'getting scared' or 'getting angry' in real-time.
             Brain regions implicated in processing facial affect,
             including the amygdala and fusiform gyrus, showed greater
             responses to dynamic versus static emotional expressions,
             especially for fear. Identity morphs activated a dorsal
             fronto-cingulo-parietal circuit and additional ventral
             areas, including the amygdala, that also responded to the
             emotion morphs. Activity in the superior temporal sulcus
             discriminated emotion morphs from identity morphs, extending
             its known role in processing biologically relevant motion.
             The results highlight the importance of temporal cues in the
             neural coding of facial displays.},
   Doi = {10.1093/cercor/13.10.1023},
   Key = {fds252479}
}

@article{fds252465,
   Author = {LaBar, KS},
   Title = {Emotional memory functions of the human amygdala.},
   Journal = {Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports},
   Volume = {3},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {363-364},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {1528-4042},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12914677},
   Doi = {10.1007/s11910-003-0015-z},
   Key = {fds252465}
}

@article{fds252462,
   Author = {Paller, KA and Ranganath, C and Gonsalves, B and LaBar, KS and Parrish,
             TB and Gitelman, DR and Mesulam, M-M and Reber, PJ},
   Title = {Neural correlates of person recognition.},
   Journal = {Learning & Memory (Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.)},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {253-260},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {1072-0502},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12888543},
   Abstract = {Rapidly identifying known individuals is an essential skill
             in human society. To elucidate the neural basis of this
             skill, we monitored brain activity while experimental
             participants demonstrated their ability to recognize people
             on the basis of viewing their faces. Each participant first
             memorized the faces of 20 individuals who were not known to
             the participants in advance. Each face was presented along
             with a voice simulating the individual speaking their name
             and a biographical fact. Following this learning procedure,
             the associated verbal information could be recalled
             accurately in response to each face. These learned faces
             were subsequently viewed together with new faces in a memory
             task. Subjects made a yes-no recognition decision in
             response to each face while also covertly retrieving the
             person-specific information associated with each learned
             face. Brain activity that accompanied this retrieval of
             person-specific information was contrasted to that when new
             faces were processed. Functional magnetic resonance imaging
             in 10 participants showed that several brain regions were
             activated during blocks of learned faces, including left
             hippocampus, left middle temporal gyrus, left insula, and
             bilateral cerebellum. Recordings of event-related brain
             potentials in 10 other participants tracked the time course
             of face processing and showed that learned faces engaged
             neural activity responsible for person recognition 300-600
             msec after face onset. Collectively, these results suggest
             that the visual input of a recently learned face can rapidly
             trigger retrieval of associated person-specific information
             through reactivation of distributed cortical networks linked
             via hippocampal connections.},
   Doi = {10.1101/lm.57403},
   Key = {fds252462}
}

@article{fds252374,
   Author = {Rachbauer, D and Labar, KS and Doppelmayr, M and Klimesch,
             W},
   Title = {Increased event-related theta activity during emotional
             scene encoding},
   Journal = {Brain and Cognition},
   Volume = {51},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {186-187},
   Publisher = {ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0278-2626},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000182360600026&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds252374}
}

@article{fds252457,
   Author = {Knuttinen, MG and Parrish, TB and Weiss, C and LaBar, KS and Gitelman,
             DR and Power, JM and Mesulam, MM and Disterhoft, JF},
   Title = {Electromyography as a recording system for eyeblink
             conditioning with functional magnetic resonance
             imaging.},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {977-987},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {1053-8119},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12377171},
   Abstract = {This study was designed to develop a suitable method of
             recording eyeblink responses while conducting functional
             magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Given the complexity of
             this behavioral setup outside of the magnet, this study
             sought to adapt and further optimize an approach to eyeblink
             conditioning that would be suitable for conducting
             event-related fMRI experiments. This method involved the
             acquisition of electromyographic (EMG) signals from the
             orbicularis oculi of the right eye, which were subsequently
             amplified and converted into an optical signal outside of
             the head coil. This optical signal was converted back into
             an electrical signal once outside the magnet room.
             Electromyography (EMG)-detected eyeblinks were used to
             measure responses in a delay eyeblink conditioning paradigm.
             Our results indicate that: (1) electromyography is a
             sensitive method for the detection of eyeblinks during fMRI;
             (2) minimal interactions or artifacts of the EMG signal were
             created from the magnetic resonance pulse sequence; and (3)
             no electromyography-related artifacts were detected in the
             magnetic resonance images. Furthermore, an analysis of the
             functional data showed areas of activation that have
             previously been shown in positron emission tomography
             studies of human eyeblink conditioning. Our results support
             the strength of this behavioral setup as a suitable method
             to be used in association with fMRI.},
   Doi = {10.1016/s1053-8119(02)91199-7},
   Key = {fds252457}
}

@article{fds252463,
   Author = {Yamasaki, H and LaBar, KS and McCarthy, G},
   Title = {Dissociable prefrontal brain systems for attention and
             emotion.},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the
             United States of America},
   Volume = {99},
   Number = {17},
   Pages = {11447-11451},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0027-8424},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12177452},
   Abstract = {The prefrontal cortex has been implicated in a variety of
             attentional, executive, and mnemonic mental operations, yet
             its functional organization is still highly debated. The
             present study used functional MRI to determine whether
             attentional and emotional functions are segregated into
             dissociable prefrontal networks in the human brain. Subjects
             discriminated infrequent and irregularly presented
             attentional targets (circles) from frequent standards
             (squares) while novel distracting scenes, parametrically
             varied for emotional arousal, were intermittently presented.
             Targets differentially activated middle frontal gyrus,
             posterior parietal cortex, and posterior cingulate gyrus.
             Novel distracters activated inferior frontal gyrus,
             amygdala, and fusiform gyrus, with significantly stronger
             activation evoked by the emotional scenes. The anterior
             cingulate gyrus was the only brain region with equivalent
             responses to attentional and emotional stimuli. These
             results show that attentional and emotional functions are
             segregated into parallel dorsal and ventral streams that
             extend into prefrontal cortex and are integrated in the
             anterior cingulate. These findings may have implications for
             understanding the neural dynamics underlying emotional
             distractibility on attentional tasks in affective
             disorders.},
   Doi = {10.1073/pnas.182176499},
   Key = {fds252463}
}

@article{fds252464,
   Author = {LaBar, KS and Gitelman, DR and Parrish, TB and Mesulam,
             MM},
   Title = {Functional changes in temporal lobe activity during
             transient global amnesia.},
   Journal = {Neurology},
   Volume = {58},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {638-641},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0028-3878},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11865146},
   Abstract = {The integrity of temporal lobe activity during and after
             recovery from transient global amnesia (TGA) was assessed in
             a case study using functional MRI. TGA was associated with
             scene-encoding deficits in a temporolimbic circuit that
             recovered over time. Frontoparietal areas recruited during
             the amnesic state may signify a compensatory reliance on
             visuospatial or working memory strategies. Reduction of
             extrastriate cortex responses over repeated testing sessions
             possibly indicates intact visual priming in
             TGA.},
   Doi = {10.1212/wnl.58.4.638},
   Key = {fds252464}
}

@article{fds12143,
   Author = {Knuttinen, M.G. and Weiss, C. and Parrish, T.B. and LaBar, K.S. and Gitelman, D.R. and Power, J.M. and Mesulam, M.M. and Disterhoft,
             J.F.},
   Title = {Event-Related fMRI of Delay Eyeblink Conditioning},
   Journal = {Neurolmage},
   Volume = {17},
   Pages = {977-987},
   Year = {2002},
   Key = {fds12143}
}

@article{fds252477,
   Author = {LaBar, KS and Gitelman, DR and Mesulam, MM and Parrish,
             TB},
   Title = {Impact of signal-to-noise on functional MRI of the human
             amygdala.},
   Journal = {Neuroreport},
   Volume = {12},
   Number = {16},
   Pages = {3461-3464},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0959-4965},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11733691},
   Abstract = {The impact of signal-to-noise (SNR) on fMRI of the amygdala
             was investigated during a picture encoding task. The SNR
             value required to observe reliable activation was determined
             by computer simulations. Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD)
             sensitivity maps were generated to indicate brain regions
             with sufficient SNR to test the statistical hypotheses. The
             results showed that the medial aspect of the amygdala had
             insufficient SNR to detect a 1% peak BOLD signal change for
             a t-test comparison in a majority of subjects. None of these
             subjects showed activation in regions with unacceptable SNR
             values, indicating a low false positive rate. Furthermore,
             hemispheric asymmetries in the BOLD sensitivity maps
             mirrored asymmetries in the activation patterns.
             Impoverished SNR was also found in the basal forebrain and
             orbitofrontal cortex. These findings emphasize the
             importance of considering SNR when interpreting fMRI results
             in the limbic forebrain.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00001756-200111160-00017},
   Key = {fds252477}
}

@article{fds252478,
   Author = {LaBar, KS and Gitelman, DR and Parrish, TB and Kim, YH and Nobre, AC and Mesulam, MM},
   Title = {Hunger selectively modulates corticolimbic activation to
             food stimuli in humans.},
   Journal = {Behavioral Neuroscience},
   Volume = {115},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {493-500},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0735-7044},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11345973},
   Abstract = {Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to
             determine whether visual responses to food in the human
             amygdala and related corticolimbic structures would be
             selectively altered by changes in states of hunger.
             Participants viewed images of motivationally relevant (food)
             and motivationally irrelevant (tool) objects while
             undergoing fMRI in alternately hungry and satiated
             conditions. Food-related visual stimuli elicited greater
             responses in the amygdala, parahippocampal gyrus. and
             anterior fusiform gyrus when participants were in a hungry
             state relative to a satiated state. The state-dependent
             activation of these brain structures did not generalize to
             the motivationally irrelevant objects. These results support
             the hypothesis that the amygdala and associated
             inferotemporal regions are involved in the integration of
             subjective interoceptive states with relevant sensory cues
             processed along the ventral visual stream.},
   Doi = {10.1037//0735-7044.115.2.493},
   Key = {fds252478}
}

@article{fds252380,
   Author = {Parrish, TB and Gitelman, DR and LaBar, KS and Mesulam,
             MM},
   Title = {Impact of signal-to-noise on functional MRI.},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance in Medicine},
   Volume = {44},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {925-932},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0740-3194},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11108630},
   Abstract = {Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has recently
             been adopted as an investigational tool in the field of
             neuroscience. The signal changes induced by brain
             activations are small ( approximately 1-2%) at 1.5T.
             Therefore, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the time
             series used to calculate the functional maps is critical. In
             this study, the minimum SNR required to detect an expected
             MR signal change is determined using computer simulations
             for typical fMRI experimental designs. These SNR results are
             independent of manufacturer, site environment, field
             strength, coil type, or type of cognitive task used.
             Sensitivity maps depicting the minimum detectable signal
             change can be constructed. These sensitivity maps can be
             used as a mask of the activation map to help remove false
             positive activations as well as identify regions of the
             brain where it is not possible to confidently reject the
             null hypothesis due to a low SNR.},
   Doi = {10.1002/1522-2594(200012)44:6<925::aid-mrm14>3.0.co;2-m},
   Key = {fds252380}
}

@article{fds252475,
   Author = {LaBar, KS and Mesulam, M and Gitelman, DR and Weintraub,
             S},
   Title = {Emotional curiosity: modulation of visuospatial attention by
             arousal is preserved in aging and early-stage Alzheimer's
             disease.},
   Journal = {Neuropsychologia},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {13},
   Pages = {1734-1740},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0028-3932},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11099731},
   Abstract = {Previous studies have shown that Alzheimer's disease, even
             in its early stages, decreases novelty-seeking behaviors
             (curiosity) and impairs the shifting of spatial attention to
             extrapersonal targets. In this study, early-stage probable
             Alzheimer's disease patients (PRAD) and young and aging
             controls were shown pairs of visual scenes, some of which
             contained emotionally-arousing material, while eye movements
             were recorded under free viewing conditions. In all three
             subject groups, emotionally-arousing scenes attracted more
             viewing time and also became the preferential target of the
             initial visual orientation. Our findings suggest that the
             arousing properties of sensory stimuli may overcome some of
             the AD-related impairments in the distribution of attention
             to extrapersonal targets. These results may have
             implications for interventions aimed at improving the
             cognitive symptoms of PRAD.},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0028-3932(00)00077-4},
   Key = {fds252475}
}

@article{fds252476,
   Author = {Gitelman, DR and Parrish, TB and LaBar, KS and Mesulam,
             MM},
   Title = {Real-time monitoring of eye movements using infrared
             video-oculography during functional magnetic resonance
             imaging of the frontal eye fields.},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {58-65},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1053-8119},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10686117},
   Abstract = {Monitoring eye movements is a critical aspect of
             experimental design for studies of spatial attention and
             visual perception. However, obtaining online eye-movement
             recordings has been technologically difficult during
             functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies. Previous
             approaches to monitoring eye movements either have distorted
             the MR images or have shown MR-related interference in the
             recordings. We report a technique using long-range infrared
             video-oculography to record eye movements without causing
             artifacts in the MR images. Analysis of the MR signal from a
             phantom obtained with the eye-movement equipment turned on
             or off confirmed the absence of significant additional noise
             in the MR time series. Eye movements of three subjects were
             monitored while they performed tasks of covert and overt
             shifts of spatial attention. Activation of the frontal eye
             fields during the covert task was seen even when the
             eye-movement recordings demonstrated no significant
             difference in saccadic eye movements between the baseline
             and the active conditions.},
   Doi = {10.1006/nimg.1999.0517},
   Key = {fds252476}
}

@article{fds252472,
   Author = {LaBar, KS and Gitelman, DR and Parrish, TB and Mesulam,
             M},
   Title = {Neuroanatomic overlap of working memory and spatial
             attention networks: a functional MRI comparison within
             subjects.},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {695-704},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {1053-8119},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10600415},
   Abstract = {Frontal and posterior parietal activations have been
             reported in numerous studies of working memory and
             visuospatial attention. To directly compare the brain
             regions engaged by these two cognitive functions, the same
             set of subjects consecutively participated in tasks of
             working memory and spatial attention while undergoing
             functional MRI (fMRI). The working memory task required the
             subject to maintain an on-line representation of foveally
             displayed letters against a background of distracters. The
             spatial attention task required the subject to shift visual
             attention covertly in response to a centrally presented
             directional cue. The spatial attention task had no working
             memory requirement, and the working memory task had no
             covert spatial attention requirement. Subjects' ability to
             maintain central fixation was confirmed outside the MRI
             scanner using infrared oculography. According to cognitive
             conjunction analysis, the set of activations common to both
             tasks included the intraparietal sulcus, ventral precentral
             sulcus, supplementary motor area, frontal eye fields,
             thalamus, cerebellum, left temporal neocortex, and right
             insula. Double-subtraction analyses yielded additional
             activations attributable to verbal working memory in
             premotor cortex, left inferior prefrontal cortex, right
             inferior parietal lobule, precuneus, and right cerebellum.
             Additional activations attributable to covert spatial
             attention included the occipitotemporal junction and
             extrastriate cortex. The use of two different tasks in the
             same set of subjects allowed us to provide an unequivocal
             demonstration that the neural networks subserving spatial
             attention and working memory intersect at several
             frontoparietal sites. These findings support the view that
             major cognitive domains are represented by partially
             overlapping large-scale neural networks. The presence of
             this overlap also suggests that spatial attention and
             working memory share common cognitive features related to
             the dynamic shifting of attentional resources.},
   Doi = {10.1006/nimg.1999.0503},
   Key = {fds252472}
}

@article{fds252474,
   Author = {Gitelman, DR and Nobre, AC and Parrish, TB and LaBar, KS and Kim, YH and Meyer, JR and Mesulam, M},
   Title = {A large-scale distributed network for covert spatial
             attention: further anatomical delineation based on stringent
             behavioural and cognitive controls.},
   Journal = {Brain},
   Volume = {122 ( Pt 6)},
   Pages = {1093-1106},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0006-8950},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10356062},
   Abstract = {Functional MRI was used to examine cerebral activations in
             12 subjects while they performed a spatial attention task.
             This study applied more stringent behavioural and cognitive
             controls than previously used for similar experiments: (i)
             subjects were included only if they showed evidence of
             attentional shifts while performing the task in the magnet;
             (ii) the experimental task and baseline condition were
             designed to eliminate the contributions of motor output,
             visual fixation, inhibition of eye movements, working memory
             and the conditional (no-go) component of responding.
             Activations were seen in all three hypothesized cortical
             epicentres forming a network for spatial attention: the
             lateral premotor cortex (frontal eye fields), the posterior
             parietal cortex and the cingulate cortex. Subcortical
             activations were seen in the basal ganglia and the thalamus.
             Although the task required attention to be equally shifted
             to the left and to the right, eight of 10 subjects showed a
             greater area of activation in the right parietal cortex,
             consistent with the specialization of the right hemisphere
             for spatial attention. Other areas of significant activation
             included the posterior temporo-occipital cortex and the
             anterior insula. The temporo-occipital activation was within
             a region broadly defined as MT+ (where MT is the middle
             temporal area) which contains the human equivalent of area
             MT in the macaque monkey. This temporo-occipital area
             appears to constitute a major component of the functional
             network activated by this spatial attention task. Its
             activation may reflect the 'inferred' shift of the
             attentional focus across the visual scene.},
   Doi = {10.1093/brain/122.6.1093},
   Key = {fds252474}
}

@article{fds252473,
   Author = {Kim, YH and Gitelman, DR and Nobre, AC and Parrish, TB and LaBar, KS and Mesulam, MM},
   Title = {The large-scale neural network for spatial attention
             displays multifunctional overlap but differential
             asymmetry.},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {9},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {269-277},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {1053-8119},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10075897},
   Abstract = {Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to
             determine the brain regions activated by two types of covert
             visuospatial attentional shifts: one based on exogenous
             spatial priming and the other on foveally presented cues
             which endogenously regulated the direction of spatial
             expectancy. Activations were seen in the cortical and
             subcortical components of a previously characterized
             attentional network, namely, the frontal eye fields,
             posterior parietal cortex, the cingulate gyrus, the putamen,
             and the thalamus. Additional activations occurred in the
             anterior insula, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex,
             temporo-occipital cortex in the middle and inferior temporal
             gyri, the supplementary motor area, and the cerebellum.
             Direct comparisons showed a nearly complete overlap in the
             location of activations resulting from the two tasks.
             However, the spatial priming task displayed a more
             pronounced rightward asymmetry of parietal activation, and a
             conjunction analysis showed that the area of posterior
             parietal cortex jointly activated by both tasks was more
             extensive in the right hemisphere. Furthermore, the
             posterior parietal and temporo-occipital activations were
             more pronounced in the task of endogenous attentional
             shifts. The results show that both exogenous (based on
             spatial priming) and endogenous (based on expectancy cueing)
             shifts of attention are subserved by a common network of
             cortical and subcortical regions. However, the differences
             between the two tasks, especially in the degree of rightward
             asymmetry, suggests that the pattern of activation within
             this network may show variations that reflect the specific
             attributes of the attentional task.},
   Doi = {10.1006/nimg.1999.0408},
   Key = {fds252473}
}

@article{fds252469,
   Author = {Phelps, EA and Labar, KS and Anderson, AK and O'Connor, KJ and Fulbright, RK and Spencer, DD},
   Title = {Specifying the contributions of the human amygdala to
             emotional memory: A case study},
   Journal = {Neurocase},
   Volume = {4},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {527-540},
   Publisher = {Informa UK Limited},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {1355-4794},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neucas/4.6.527},
   Abstract = {We examined emotional memory in patient SP, a 54-year-old
             woman with bilateral damage to the amygdala. Consistent with
             previous case studies, SP showed deficits on tests of fear
             conditioning and recognition memory for arousing stimuli.
             SP's performance on several emotional episodic memory tasks
             was examined. We found that bilateral damage to the amygdala
             only leads to deficits on a subset of emotional episodic
             memory tasks. Specifically, the amygdala does not seem to be
             involved when episodic memory performance benefits from the
             valence of the stimuli. However, when episodic memory
             benefits from arousal, damage to the amygdala leads to a
             deficit in performance. Based on our results, we postulate
             that the amygdala is not involved when emotion enhances
             episodic memory primarily by contributing an organizing
             principle such as a schema or category. We expect the
             effects of amygdala damage to be limited to memory tasks
             affected by the neuromodulatory changes that occur with
             arousal. The effects of arousal on episodic memory would be
             most apparent in the rate of forgetting for arousing
             stimuli, the recall of arousing stimuli that have a weak
             central theme, and the recognition of details or events
             associated with arousing stimuli.},
   Doi = {10.1093/neucas/4.6.527},
   Key = {fds252469}
}

@article{fds252458,
   Author = {LaBar, KS and Gatenby, JC and Gore, JC and LeDoux, JE and Phelps,
             EA},
   Title = {Human amygdala activation during conditioned fear
             acquisition and extinction: a mixed-trial fMRI
             study.},
   Journal = {Neuron},
   Volume = {20},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {937-945},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0896-6273},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9620698},
   Abstract = {Echoplanar functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was
             used in normal human subjects to investigate the role of the
             amygdala in conditioned fear acquisition and extinction. A
             simple discrimination procedure was employed in which
             activation to a visual cue predicting shock (CS+) was
             compared with activation to another cue presented alone
             (CS-). CS+ and CS- trial types were intermixed in a
             pseudorandom order. Functional images were acquired with an
             asymmetric spin echo pulse sequence from three coronal
             slices centered on the amygdala. Activation of the
             amygdala/periamygdaloid cortex was observed during
             conditioned fear acquisition and extinction. The extent of
             activation during acquisition was significantly correlated
             with autonomic indices of conditioning in individual
             subjects. Consistent with a recent electrophysiological
             recording study in the rat (Quirk et al., 1997), the profile
             of the amygdala response was temporally graded, although
             this dynamic was only statistically reliable during
             extinction. These results provide further evidence for the
             conservation of amygdala function across species and
             implicate an amygdalar contribution to both acquisition and
             extinction processes during associative emotional learning
             tasks.},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0896-6273(00)80475-4},
   Key = {fds252458}
}

@article{fds252470,
   Author = {LaBar, KS and Phelps, EA},
   Title = {Arousal-mediated memory consolidation: Role of the Medial
             Temporal Lobe in Humans},
   Journal = {Psychological Science},
   Volume = {9},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {490-493},
   Publisher = {SAGE Publications},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9280.00090},
   Abstract = {Although the influence of emotional arousal on declarative
             memory has been documented behaviorally, the mechanisms
             underlying arousal-memory interactions and their
             representation in the human brain remain uncertain. One
             route through which arousal achieves its effects on memory
             performance is by regulating consolidation processes. Animal
             research has revealed that the amygdala strengthens
             hippocampal-dependent memory consolidation in a limited time
             window following participation in an arousing task. To
             examine whether this integrative function of
             amygdalo-hippocampal structures extends to the human brain,
             we tested unilateral-temporal-lobectomy patients on an
             adaptation of a classic paradigm in which levels of
             physiological arousal at encoding modulate retention over
             time. Subjects rated emotionally arousing (taboo) and
             neutral words on an arousal scale while their skin
             conductance responses (SCRs) were monitored. Recall for the
             words was assessed immediately and after a 1-hr delay. Both
             temporal-lobectomy patients and control subjects generated
             enhanced SCRs and arousal ratings for the arousing words at
             the time of encoding. However, only control subjects
             exhibited an increase in memory for the arousing words over
             time. This group difference in the effect of arousal on the
             rate of forgetting suggests that the role of medial temporal
             lobe structures in memory consolidation for arousing events
             is conserved across species.},
   Doi = {10.1111/1467-9280.00090},
   Key = {fds252470}
}

@article{fds252471,
   Author = {LaBar, KS and Disterhoft, JF},
   Title = {Conditioning, awareness, and the hippocampus.},
   Journal = {Hippocampus},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {620-626},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1050-9631},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9882019},
   Abstract = {For the past 50 years, psychologists have wrestled with
             questions regarding the relationship between conscious
             awareness and human conditioned behavior. A recent proposal
             that the hippocampus mediates awareness during trace
             conditioning (Clark, Squire, Science 1998;280:77-81) has
             extended the awareness-conditioning debate to the
             neuroscience arena. In the following commentary, we raise
             specific theoretical and methodological issues regarding the
             Clark and Squire study and place their finding into a
             broader context. Throughout our discussion, we consider the
             difficulties in assessing subjective awareness, the
             importance of establishing necessary and sufficient
             conditions for cognitive mediation effects, the influence of
             conditioned response modality, and the nature of hippocampal
             requirements across conditioning protocols. It is clear that
             trace eyeblink conditioning is a hippocampal-dependent task,
             but whether awareness is a necessary component of trace
             conditioning is not definitively proven. We propose that
             future functional neuroimaging studies and behavioral
             experiments using on-line measures of awareness may help
             clarify the relationship among classical conditioning,
             awareness, and the hippocampus.},
   Doi = {10.1002/(sici)1098-1063(1998)8:6<620::aid-hipo4>3.0.co;2-6},
   Key = {fds252471}
}

@article{fds252468,
   Author = {Phelps, EA and LaBar, KS and Spencer, DD},
   Title = {Memory for emotional words following unilateral temporal
             lobectomy.},
   Journal = {Brain and Cognition},
   Volume = {35},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {85-109},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0278-2626},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9339304},
   Abstract = {We recently reported that patients who had received
             unilateral temporal lobectomy, including the amygdala and
             hippocampus, show impaired acquisition in a fear
             conditioning task (LaBar, LeDoux, Spencer, & Phelps, 1995),
             indicating a deficit in emotional memory. In the present
             paper, we examined performance of these patients on two
             verbal, emotional memory tasks in an effort to determine the
             extent of this deficit. In Experiment 1, subjects were asked
             to recall emotional and non-emotional words. In Experiment
             2, subjects were asked to recall neutral words which were
             embedded in emotional and non-emotional sentence contexts.
             Both temporal lobectomy subjects and normal controls showed
             enhanced recall for emotional words (Experiment 1) and
             enhanced recall for neutral words embedded in emotional
             sentence contexts (Experiment 2). These results suggest that
             the deficit seen in emotional memory following unilateral
             temporal lobectomy is not a global deficit and may be
             limited to specific circumstances where emotion influences
             memory performance. Several hypotheses concerning the
             discrepancy between the present studies and the fear
             conditioning results (LaBar et al., 1995) are
             discussed.},
   Doi = {10.1006/brcg.1997.0929},
   Key = {fds252468}
}

@article{fds252461,
   Author = {Hyder, F and Phelps, EA and Wiggins, CJ and Labar, KS and Blamire, AM and Shulman, RG},
   Title = {"Willed action": a functional MRI study of the human
             prefrontal cortex during a sensorimotor task.},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the
             United States of America},
   Volume = {94},
   Number = {13},
   Pages = {6989-6994},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0027-8424},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9192679},
   Abstract = {Functional MRI (fMRI) was used to examine human brain
             activity within the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during a
             sensorimotor task that had been proposed to require
             selection between several responses, a cognitive concept
             termed "willed action" in a positron emission tomography
             (PET) study by Frith et al. [Frith, C. D., Friston, K.,
             Liddle, P. F. & Frackowiak, R. S. J. (1991) Proc. R. Soc.
             London Ser. B 244, 241-246]. We repeated their sensorimotor
             task, in which the subject chooses to move either of two
             fingers after a stimulus, by fMRI experiments in a 2.1-T
             imaging spectrometer. Echo-planar images were acquired from
             four coronal slices in the prefrontal cortex from nine
             healthy subjects. Slices were 5 mm thick, centers separated
             by 7 mm, with nominal in-plane spatial resolution of 9.6 x
             5.0 mm2 for mean data. Our mean results are in agreement
             with the PET results in that we saw similar bilateral
             activations. The present results are compared with our
             previously published fMRI study of a verbal fluency task,
             which had also been proposed by Frith et al. to elicit a
             "willed action" response. We find a clear separation of
             activation foci in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
             for the sensorimotor (Brodmann area 46) and verbal fluency
             (Brodmann area 45) tasks. Hence, assigning a particular
             activated region to "willed action" is not supported by the
             fMRI data when examined closely because identical regions
             are not activated with different modalities. Similar
             modality linked activations can be observed in the original
             PET study but the greater resolution of the fMRI data makes
             the modality linkages more definite.},
   Doi = {10.1073/pnas.94.13.6989},
   Key = {fds252461}
}

@article{fds252467,
   Author = {LaBar, KS and LeDoux, JE},
   Title = {Partial disruption of fear conditioning in rats with
             unilateral amygdala damage: correspondence with unilateral
             temporal lobectomy in humans.},
   Journal = {Behavioral Neuroscience},
   Volume = {110},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {991-997},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0735-7044},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8919001},
   Abstract = {Conditioned fear in rats was assessed for the effects of
             pretraining amygdala lesions (unilateral vs. bilateral)
             across unconditioned stimulus (US) modalities (white noise
             vs. shock). In contrast to sham controls, unilateral
             amygdala lesions significantly reduced conditioned freezing
             responses, whereas bilateral amygdala lesions resulted in a
             nearly complete lack of freezing to both the conditioned
             stimulus (CS) and the context. The lesion effects were more
             pronounced for CS conditioning but were consistent across US
             modalities. It was concluded that white noise can serve as
             an effective US and that unilateral amygdala lesions
             attenuate but do not eliminate conditioned fear in rats. The
             results support our interpretation of a recent fear
             conditioning study in humans (K. S. LaBar, J. E. LeDoux, D.
             D. Spencer, & E. A. Phelps, 1995).},
   Doi = {10.1037//0735-7044.110.5.991},
   Key = {fds252467}
}

@article{fds252466,
   Author = {LaBar, KS and LeDoux, JE and Spencer, DD and Phelps,
             EA},
   Title = {Impaired fear conditioning following unilateral temporal
             lobectomy in humans.},
   Journal = {The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the
             Society for Neuroscience},
   Volume = {15},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {6846-6855},
   Year = {1995},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0270-6474},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7472442},
   Abstract = {Classical fear conditioning was used in the present study as
             a model for investigating emotional learning and memory in
             human subjects with lesions to the medial temporal lobe.
             Animal studies have revealed a critical role for medial
             temporal lobe structures, particularly the amygdala, in
             simple and complex associative emotional responding. Whether
             these structures perform similar functions in humans is
             unknown. On both simple and conditional discrimination
             tasks, unilateral temporal lobectomy subjects showed
             impaired conditioned response acquisition relative to
             control subjects. This impairment could not be accounted for
             by deficits in nonassociative sensory or autonomic
             performance factors, or by differences in declarative memory
             for the experimental parameters. These results show that
             temporal lobe structures in humans, as in other mammals, are
             important components in an emotional memory
             network.},
   Doi = {10.1523/jneurosci.15-10-06846.1995},
   Key = {fds252466}
}


%% Books   
@book{fds212739,
   Author = {Purves, D. and Cabeza, R. and Huettel, S. A. and LaBar, K. S. and Platt, M. L. and Woldorff, M. G},
   Title = {Principles of Cognitive Neuroscience},
   Series = {2nd Edition},
   Publisher = {Sinauer},
   Address = {Sunderland, MA},
   Year = {2012},
   Key = {fds212739}
}

@book{fds139828,
   Author = {Purves, D. and Brannon, E. M. and Cabeza, R. and Huettel, S. A. and LaBar, K. S. and Platt, M. L. and Woldorff, M.
             G.},
   Title = {Principles of Cognitive Neuroscience},
   Publisher = {Sinauer Press},
   Address = {Sunderland, MA},
   Year = {2008},
   Key = {fds139828}
}


%% Chapters in Books   
@misc{fds252345,
   Author = {LaBar, KS},
   Title = {Emotion},
   Volume = {2},
   Pages = {619-624},
   Booktitle = {Brain Mapping: An Encyclopedic Reference},
   Publisher = {Elsevier},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {February},
   ISBN = {9780123973160},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-397025-1.00055-5},
   Doi = {10.1016/B978-0-12-397025-1.00055-5},
   Key = {fds252345}
}

@misc{fds252346,
   Author = {Byrne, JH and LaBar, KS and LeDoux, JE and Schafe, GE and Thompson,
             RF},
   Title = {Learning and Memory: Basic Mechanisms},
   Volume = {3rd Ed.},
   Pages = {591-637},
   Booktitle = {From Molecules to Networks: An Introduction to Cellular and
             Molecular Neuroscience: Third Edition},
   Publisher = {Elsevier},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {July},
   ISBN = {9780123971791},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-397179-1.00020-8},
   Abstract = {© 2014, 2009, 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
             Previous chapters in this book described the various
             components of nerve cells and their biophysical and
             biochemical properties as well as the ways in which neurons
             are connected to each other to process information and
             generate behavior. This chapter describes the ways in which
             these components and properties of the nervous system are
             used to mediate two of its most important functions:
             learning and memory. Neuroscientists are beginning to have a
             reasonably detailed cellular and molecular theory of simple
             forms or aspects of learning and memory. The field is
             experiencing great synergism from the fusion of two research
             traditions. The "bottom-up" approach begins by exploring
             neuronal modifications that seem to be promising candidate
             mechanisms for supporting plasticity in circuits that
             control a behavior(s) of interest. (This approach was
             described in Chapter 18.) The "top-down" approach described
             in this chapter starts with the behavioral facts and laws,
             identifies the critical circuits, and then localizes the
             neuronal mechanisms responsible for changes in the modified
             circuits.},
   Doi = {10.1016/B978-0-12-397179-1.00020-8},
   Key = {fds252346}
}

@misc{fds252353,
   Author = {Yamasaki, H and Labar, KS and McCarthy, G},
   Title = {Dissociable Prefrontal Brain Systems for Attention and
             Emotion},
   Pages = {43-52},
   Booktitle = {Social Neuroscience: Key Readings},
   Publisher = {PSYCHOLOGY PRESS},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9780203496190},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203496190},
   Abstract = {© 2005 by Taylor and Francis Books, Inc. The prefrontal
             cortex has been implicated in a variety of attentional,
             executive, and mnemonic mental operations, yet its
             functional organization is still highly debated. The present
             study used functional MRI to determine whether attentional
             and emotional functions are segregated into dissociable
             prefrontal networks in the human brain. Subjects
             discriminated infrequent and irregularly presented
             attentional targets (circles) from frequent standards
             (squares) while novel distracting scenes, parametrically
             varied for emotional arousal, were intermittently presented.
             Targets differentially activated middle frontal gyrus,
             posterior parietal cortex, and posterior cingulate gyrus.
             Novel distracters activated inferior frontal gyrus,
             amygdala, and fusiform gyrus, with significantly stronger
             activation evoked by the emotional scenes. The anterior
             cingulate gyrus was the only brain region with equivalent
             responses to attentional and emotional stimuli. These
             results show that attentional and emotional functions are
             segregated into parallel dorsal and ventral streams that
             extend into prefrontal cortex and are integrated in the
             anterior cingulate. These findings may have implications for
             understanding the neural dynamics underlying emotional
             distractibility on attentional tasks in affective
             disorders.},
   Doi = {10.4324/9780203496190},
   Key = {fds252353}
}

@misc{fds184857,
   Author = {Dunsmoor, J. E. and LaBar, K. S.},
   Title = {Neural basis of human fear learning},
   Pages = {419-443},
   Booktitle = {Handbook of Human Affective Neuroscience},
   Publisher = {Cambridge University Press},
   Address = {Cambridge, England},
   Editor = {P. Vuilleumier and J. L. Armony},
   Year = {2013},
   Key = {fds184857}
}

@misc{fds252354,
   Author = {Fichtenholtz, HM and LaBar, KS},
   Title = {Emotional Influences on Visuospatial Attention},
   Pages = {250-266},
   Booktitle = {The Neuroscience of Attention: Attentional Control and
             Selection},
   Publisher = {Oxford University Press},
   Address = {New York},
   Editor = {G. R. Mangun},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {May},
   ISBN = {9780195334364},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195334364.003.0012},
   Abstract = {© Oxford University Press, 2014. This chapter focuses on
             how emotional processing in the amygdala and related limbic
             regions interact with frontoparietal attentional control
             systems and the visual processing stream. Such effects have
             been elucidated by studying neurologic patients with brain
             damage, as well as by functional brain imaging methods in
             healthy individuals. A systematic treatment of attentional
             biases in affective disorders is beyond the scope of this
             chapter, although it mentions some studies that investigate
             how anxiety as a trait marker moderates emotion-attention
             interactions. It also considers the time course of emotional
             influences on visual processing that have been revealed by
             event-related potential (ERP) studies in
             humans.},
   Doi = {10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195334364.003.0012},
   Key = {fds252354}
}

@misc{fds252351,
   Author = {LaBar, KS},
   Title = {Imaging emotional influences on learning and
             memory},
   Pages = {331-348},
   Booktitle = {Neuroimaging of Human Memory: Linking Cognitive Processes to
             Neural Systems},
   Publisher = {Oxford University Press},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {March},
   ISBN = {9780199217298},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199217298.003.0018},
   Abstract = {© Oxford University Press, 2009. All rights reserved. This
             chapter discusses relevant psychological and neurobiological
             theories on emotion and emotional memory. It also
             illustrates how neuroimaging research has validated and
             extended the animal models and has led to new insights into
             mechanisms of emotional memory in humans.},
   Doi = {10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199217298.003.0018},
   Key = {fds252351}
}

@misc{fds252352,
   Author = {Huff, NC and LaBar, KS},
   Title = {Generalization and specialization of conditioned
             learning},
   Pages = {3-30},
   Booktitle = {Generalization of Knowledge: Multidisciplinary
             Perspectives},
   Publisher = {PSYCHOLOGY PRESS},
   Address = {New York},
   Editor = {M. T. Banich and D. Caccamise},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9780203848036},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203848036},
   Doi = {10.4324/9780203848036},
   Key = {fds252352}
}

@misc{fds167727,
   Author = {LaBar, K. S},
   Title = {Emotion-cognition interactions},
   Volume = {1},
   Pages = {469-476},
   Booktitle = {Encyclopedia of Behavioral Neuroscience},
   Publisher = {Elsevier Science},
   Address = {New York},
   Editor = {G. Koob and R. F. Thompson and M. LeMoal},
   Year = {2010},
   Key = {fds167727}
}

@misc{fds167725,
   Author = {LaBar, K. S},
   Title = {Memory (emotional)},
   Pages = {250-252},
   Booktitle = {The Oxford Companion to Emotion and the Affective
             Sciences},
   Publisher = {Oxford University Press},
   Address = {New York},
   Editor = {Sander, D. and Scherer, K. R.},
   Year = {2009},
   Key = {fds167725}
}

@misc{fds139829,
   Author = {Byrne, J. H. and LaBar, K. S. and LeDoux, J. E. and Schafe, G. E. and Sweatt, J. D. and Thompson, R. F},
   Title = {Learning and memory: Basic mechanisms},
   Series = {2nd Edition},
   Pages = {539-608},
   Booktitle = {From Molecules to Networks: An Introduction to Cellular and
             Molecular Neuroscience},
   Publisher = {Elsevier Science (USA)},
   Address = {New York},
   Editor = {J. H. Byrne and J. L. Roberts},
   Year = {2009},
   Key = {fds139829}
}

@misc{fds139831,
   Author = {K.S. LaBar},
   Title = {Imaging emotional influences on learning and
             memory},
   Pages = {331-348},
   Booktitle = {Neuroimaging of Human Memory: Linking Cognitive Processes to
             Neural Systems},
   Publisher = {Oxford University Press},
   Address = {New York},
   Editor = {F. Roesler and C. Ranganath and B. Roder and R. H.
             Kluwe},
   Year = {2009},
   Key = {fds139831}
}

@misc{fds139832,
   Author = {LaBar, K. S. and Warren, L. H.},
   Title = {Methodological approaches to studying the human
             amygdala},
   Pages = {155-176},
   Booktitle = {The Human Amygdala},
   Publisher = {Guilford Press},
   Address = {New York},
   Editor = {E. A. Phelps and P. J. Whalen},
   Year = {2009},
   Key = {fds139832}
}

@misc{fds252364,
   Author = {Dolcos, F and LaBar, KS and Cabeza, R},
   Title = {The Memory Enhancing Effect of Emotion: Functional
             Neuroimaging Evidence},
   Pages = {105-134},
   Booktitle = {Memory and Emotion: Interdisciplinary Perspectives},
   Publisher = {BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {1405139811},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470756232.ch6},
   Abstract = {Emotional events are usually remembered better than neutral
             events. The anatomical and functional correlates of this
             phenomenon have been investigated in both animals and
             humans, with approaches ranging from neuropsychological and
             pharmacological to electrophysiological and functional
             neuroimaging. The present chapter reviews this evidence,
             focusing in particular on functional neuroimaging studies in
             humans, which have examined the effects of emotion on
             memory-related activity during both encoding and retrieval.
             The available evidence emphasizes the role of the amygdala,
             the medial temporal lobe memory system, and the prefrontal
             cortex. The chapter ends with a discussion of open issues
             and future directions. © 2006 Blackwell Publishing
             Ltd.},
   Doi = {10.1002/9780470756232.ch6},
   Key = {fds252364}
}

@misc{fds340131,
   Author = {LaBar, KS and LeDoux, JE},
   Title = {Fear and anxiety pathways},
   Pages = {133-154},
   Booktitle = {Understanding Autism: From Basic Neuroscience to
             Treatment},
   Publisher = {Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press},
   Editor = {S. Moldin and J. L. Rubenstein},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {0849327326},
   Key = {fds340131}
}

@misc{fds44193,
   Author = {Phelps, E. A. and LaBar, K. S.},
   Title = {Emotion and social cognition: Role of the
             amygdala},
   Volume = {2},
   Pages = {421-453},
   Booktitle = {Handbook of Functional Neuroimaging of Cognition},
   Publisher = {Cambridge, MA: MIT Press},
   Editor = {R. Cabeza and A. Kingstone},
   Year = {2006},
   Key = {fds44193}
}

@misc{fds44195,
   Author = {Dolcos, F. and LaBar, K. S. and Cabeza, R.},
   Title = {The memory-enhancing effect of emotion: Functional
             neuroimaging evidence},
   Pages = {in press},
   Booktitle = {Memory and Emotion: Interdisciplinary Perspectives},
   Publisher = {New York: Blackwell},
   Editor = {R. Uttl and N. Sugimoto},
   Year = {2006},
   Key = {fds44195}
}

@misc{fds26964,
   Author = {Brown, T.H. and Byrne, J.H. and LaBar, K.S. and LeDoux, J.E. and Lindquist, D.H. and Thompson, R.F. and Tyler,
             T.J.},
   Title = {Learning and Memory: Basic Mechanisms},
   Pages = {499-574},
   Booktitle = {From Molecules to Networks: An Introduction to Cellular and
             Molecular Neuroscience},
   Publisher = {New York: Elsevier Science (USA)},
   Editor = {J. H. Byrne and J.L. Roberts},
   Year = {2003},
   Key = {fds26964}
}

@misc{fds26965,
   Author = {K.S. LaBar and LeDoux, J.E.},
   Title = {Emotional Learning Circuits in Animals and
             Humans},
   Pages = {52-65},
   Booktitle = {Handbook of Affective Sciences},
   Publisher = {New York; Oxford University Press},
   Editor = {R.J. Davidson and K. Scherer and H.H. Goldsmith},
   Year = {2003},
   Key = {fds26965}
}

@misc{fds26963,
   Author = {LaBar, K. S. and LeDoux, J. E.},
   Title = {Emotion and the brain: An overview},
   Series = {2nd Edition},
   Pages = {711-724},
   Booktitle = {Behavioral Neurology and Neuropsychology},
   Publisher = {New York: McGraw-Hill},
   Editor = {T. E. Feinberg and M. J. Farah},
   Year = {2002},
   Key = {fds26963}
}

@misc{fds26199,
   Author = {K.S. LaBar and Le Doux and J.E.},
   Title = {Coping with Danger: The Neural Basis of Defensive Behaviors
             and Fearful Feelings},
   Pages = {139-154},
   Booktitle = {Handbook of Physiology, Section 7: The Endocrine System,
             Vol. IV: Coping with the Environment: Neural and Endocrine
             Mechanisms},
   Publisher = {New York: Oxford University Press},
   Editor = {B.S. McEwen},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {fds26199}
}

@misc{fds26197,
   Author = {K.S. LaBar and LeDoux, J.E.},
   Title = {I jmeccanismi cerebrali dell'emozione e dell'apprendimento
             emotivo},
   Pages = {215-229},
   Booktitle = {Frontiere della Vita,Vol. III},
   Publisher = {Rome: Istituto dell'Enciclopedia Italiana
             Treccani},
   Editor = {E.Bizzi, P. Calissano and V. Volterra},
   Year = {1999},
   Key = {fds26197}
}

@misc{fds26198,
   Author = {Beggs, J.M. and Brown, T.H. and Crow, T.J. and LaBar, K.S. and LeDoux, J.E. and Thompson, R.F.},
   Title = {Learning and Memory: Basic Mechanisms},
   Pages = {1411-1454},
   Booktitle = {Fundamental Neuroscience},
   Editor = {M.J. Zigmond and F.E. Bloom and S.C. Landis and J.L. Roberts and L.R.
             Squire},
   Year = {1999},
   Key = {fds26198}
}

@misc{fds21907,
   Author = {LaBar, K.S. and LeDoux, J.E.},
   Title = {Emotion and the brain: An overview},
   Pages = {675-689},
   Booktitle = {Behavioral Neurology and Neuropsychology},
   Publisher = {New York: McGraw-Hill},
   Editor = {T.E. Feinberg and M.J. Farah},
   Year = {1997},
   Key = {fds21907}
}


%% Reprinted Articles   
@article{fds199738,
   Author = {Murty, V. P. and Ritchey, M. and Adcock, R. A. and LaBar, K.
             S.},
   Title = {fMRI studies of successful emotional memory encoding: A
             quantitative meta-analysis},
   Journal = {Neuropsychologia},
   Volume = {49},
   Pages = {3459-3469},
   Editor = {Hamman, S. B.},
   Year = {2011},
   Key = {fds199738}
}


%% Other   
@misc{fds11193,
   Author = {Parrish, T.B. and Gitelman, D.R. and LaBar, K.S. and Mesulam,
             M.M.},
   Title = {"Signal to Noise Influence on Clinical fMRI"},
   Journal = {Neurolmage},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {S532},
   Year = {2000},
   Key = {fds11193}
}

@misc{fds11194,
   Author = {Thompson, C.K. and Fix, S.C. and Gitelman, D.R. and LaBar, K.S. and Parrish, T.B. and Mesulam, M.M.},
   Title = {"A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
             Study"},
   Journal = {Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, Suppl.
             S},
   Volume = {53},
   Year = {2000},
   Key = {fds11194}
}

@misc{fds11195,
   Author = {Gitelman, D.R. and Parrish, T.B. and LaBar, K.S. and Mesulam,
             M.M.},
   Title = {"Frontal Eye Field and Collicular Asymmetries in Visual
             Exploration"},
   Journal = {Society for Neuroscience Abstracts},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {287},
   Year = {1999},
   Key = {fds11195}
}

@misc{fds11196,
   Author = {K.S. Labar and Gitelman, D.R. and Parrish, T.B. and Kim, Y.H. and Nobre, A.C. and Mesulam, M.M.},
   Title = {"Motivational State Selectivity Modulates Amygdala
             Activation to Appetitive Visual Stimuli"},
   Journal = {Neurolmage},
   Volume = {9},
   Number = {S765},
   Year = {1999},
   Key = {fds11196}
}

@misc{fds11197,
   Author = {K.S. Labar and Mesulam, M.M. and Weintraub, S.},
   Title = {"Emotional Curiosity: Arousal Modulation of Visual
             Exploration and its Preservation in Aging and Early-Stage
             Alzheimer's Disease"},
   Journal = {Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, Suppl.
             S},
   Volume = {73},
   Year = {1999},
   Key = {fds11197}
}

@misc{fds11198,
   Author = {K.S. Labar and Rabinovici, G.D. and Ranganath, C. and Gitelman, D.R. and Parrish, T.B. and Paller, K.A. and Mesulam, M.M.},
   Title = {"Spatiotemporal Dynamics of a Neural Network for Emotional
             Picture Encoding Revealed by Parallel Evoked Potential and
             fMRI Measurements"},
   Journal = {Society for Neuroscience Abstracts},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {2146},
   Year = {1999},
   Key = {fds11198}
}

@misc{fds11199,
   Author = {O'Connor, K.J. and LaBar, K.S. and Phelps, E.A.},
   Title = {"Impaired Contextual Fear Conditioning in
             Amnesics"},
   Journal = {Journal of Neuroscience, Suppl. S},
   Volume = {19},
   Year = {1999},
   Key = {fds11199}
}

@misc{fds11200,
   Author = {Paller, K.A. and Ranganath, C. and LaBar, K.S. and Parrish, T.B. and Gitelman, D.R. and Bozic, V.S. and Mesulam, M.M.},
   Title = {"Neural Correlates of Memory for Faces: Differential Frontal
             Activity for Retrieval Success vs. Retrieval
             Effort"},
   Journal = {Neurolmage},
   Volume = {9},
   Number = {S962},
   Year = {1999},
   Key = {fds11200}
}

@misc{fds11201,
   Author = {Paller, K.A. and Ranganath, C. and LaBar, K.S. and Parrish, T.B. and Gitelman, D.R. and Bozic, V.S. and Whalen, T.E. and Mesulam,
             M.M.},
   Title = {"Neural Correlates of Memory for Faces: Hemodynamic and
             Electrophysiological Differences Between Retrieval Success
             and Retrieval Effort"},
   Journal = {Society for Neuroscience Abstracts},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {648},
   Year = {1999},
   Key = {fds11201}
}


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