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Publications of Gregory R. Samanez-Larkin    :chronological  alphabetical  by type listing:

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@article{fds342369,
   Author = {Seaman, KL and Smith, CT and Juarez, EJ and Dang, LC and Castrellon, JJ and Burgess, LL and San Juan, MD and Kundzicz, PM and Cowan, RL and Zald,
             DH and Samanez-Larkin, GR},
   Title = {Differential regional decline in dopamine receptor
             availability across adulthood: Linear and nonlinear effects
             of age.},
   Journal = {Human Brain Mapping},
   Volume = {40},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {3125-3138},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.24585},
   Abstract = {Theories of adult brain development, based on
             neuropsychological test results and structural neuroimaging,
             suggest differential rates of age-related change in function
             across cortical and subcortical sub-regions. However, it
             remains unclear if these trends also extend to the aging
             dopamine system. Here we examined cross-sectional adult age
             differences in estimates of D2-like receptor binding
             potential across several cortical and subcortical brain
             regions using PET imaging and the radiotracer [18
             F]Fallypride in two samples of healthy human adults
             (combined N = 132). After accounting for regional
             differences in overall radioligand binding, estimated
             percent difference in receptor binding potential by decade
             (linear effects) were highest in most temporal and frontal
             cortical regions (~6-16% per decade), moderate in
             parahippocampal gyrus, pregenual frontal cortex, fusiform
             gyrus, caudate, putamen, thalamus, and amygdala (~3-5%), and
             weakest in subcallosal frontal cortex, ventral striatum,
             pallidum, and hippocampus (~0-2%). Some regions showed
             linear effects of age while many showed curvilinear effects
             such that binding potential declined from young adulthood to
             middle age and then was relatively stable until old age.
             Overall, these data indicate that the rate and pattern of
             decline in D2 receptor availability is regionally
             heterogeneous. However, the differences across regions were
             challenging to organize within existing theories of brain
             development and did not show the same pattern of regional
             change that has been observed in gray matter volume, white
             matter integrity, or cognitive performance. This variation
             suggests that existing theories of adult brain development
             may need to be modified to better account for the spatial
             dynamics of dopaminergic system aging.},
   Doi = {10.1002/hbm.24585},
   Key = {fds342369}
}

@article{fds330813,
   Author = {Smith, CT and Crawford, JL and Dang, LC and Seaman, KL and San Juan, MD and Vijay, A and Katz, DT and Matuskey, D and Cowan, RL and Morris, ED and Zald, DH and Samanez-Larkin, GR},
   Title = {Partial-volume correction increases estimated dopamine
             D2-like receptor binding potential and reduces adult age
             differences.},
   Journal = {Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism},
   Volume = {39},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {822-833},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0271678X17737693},
   Abstract = {The relatively modest spatial resolution of positron
             emission tomography (PET) increases the likelihood of
             partial volume effects such that binding potential (BPND)
             may be underestimated. Given structural grey matter losses
             across adulthood, partial volume effects may be even more
             problematic in older age leading to overestimation of adult
             age differences. Here we examined the effects of partial
             volume correction (PVC) in two studies from different sites
             using different high-affinity D2-like radioligands
             (18 F-Fallypride, 11C-FLB457) and different PET camera
             resolutions (∼5 mm, 2.5 mm). Results across both data
             sets revealed that PVC increased estimated BPND and reduced,
             though did not eliminate, age effects on BPND. As expected,
             the effects of PVC were smaller in higher compared to lower
             resolution data. Analyses using uncorrected data that
             controlled for grey matter volume in each region of interest
             approximated PVC corrected data for some but not all
             regions. Overall, the findings suggest that PVC increases
             estimated BPND in general and reduces adult age differences
             especially when using lower resolution cameras. The findings
             suggest that the past 30 years of research on dopamine
             receptor availability, for which very few studies use PVC,
             may overestimate effects of aging on dopamine receptor
             availability.},
   Doi = {10.1177/0271678X17737693},
   Key = {fds330813}
}

@article{fds343481,
   Author = {Karrer, TM and McLaughlin, CL and Guaglianone, CP and Samanez-Larkin,
             GR},
   Title = {Reduced serotonin receptors and transporters in normal aging
             adults: a meta-analysis of PET and SPECT imaging
             studies.},
   Journal = {Neurobiology of Aging},
   Volume = {80},
   Pages = {1-10},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2019.03.021},
   Abstract = {Alterations in serotonin (5-HT) function have been
             hypothesized to underlie a range of physiological,
             emotional, and cognitive changes in older age. Here, we
             conducted a quantitative synthesis and comparison of the
             effects of age on 5-HT receptors and transporters from
             cross-sectional positron emission tomography and
             single-photon emission computed tomography imaging studies.
             Random-effects meta-analyses of 31 studies including 1087
             healthy adults yielded large negative effects of age in
             5-HT-2A receptors (largest in global cortex), moderate
             negative effects of age in 5-HT transporters (largest in
             thalamus), and small negative effects of age in 5-HT-1A
             receptors (largest in parietal cortex). Presynaptic 5-HT-1A
             autoreceptors in raphe/midbrain, however, were preserved
             across adulthood. Adult age differences were significantly
             larger in 5-HT-2A receptors compared with 5-HT-1A receptors.
             A meta-regression showed that 5-HT target, radionuclide, and
             publication year significantly moderated the age effects.
             The findings overall identify reduced serotonergic signal
             transmission in healthy aging. The evidence for the relative
             preservation of 5-HT-1A compared with 5-HT-2A receptors may
             partially explain psychological age differences, such as why
             older adults use more emotion-focused rather than
             problem-focused coping strategies.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2019.03.021},
   Key = {fds343481}
}

@article{fds333504,
   Author = {Holland, CAC and Ebner, NC and Lin, T and Samanez-Larkin,
             GR},
   Title = {Emotion identification across adulthood using the Dynamic
             FACES database of emotional expressions in younger, middle
             aged, and older adults.},
   Journal = {Cognition and Emotion},
   Volume = {33},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {245-257},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02699931.2018.1445981},
   Abstract = {Facial stimuli are widely used in behavioural and brain
             science research to investigate emotional facial processing.
             However, some studies have demonstrated that dynamic
             expressions elicit stronger emotional responses compared to
             static images. To address the need for more ecologically
             valid and powerful facial emotional stimuli, we created
             Dynamic FACES, a database of morphed videos (n = 1026)
             from younger, middle-aged, and older adults displaying
             naturalistic emotional facial expressions (neutrality,
             sadness, disgust, fear, anger, happiness). To assess adult
             age differences in emotion identification of dynamic stimuli
             and to provide normative ratings for this modified set of
             stimuli, healthy adults (n = 1822, age range 18-86
             years) categorised for each video the emotional expression
             displayed, rated the expression distinctiveness, estimated
             the age of the face model, and rated the naturalness of the
             expression. We found few age differences in emotion
             identification when using dynamic stimuli. Only for angry
             faces did older adults show lower levels of identification
             accuracy than younger adults. Further, older adults
             outperformed middle-aged adults' in identification of
             sadness. The use of dynamic facial emotional stimuli has
             previously been limited, but Dynamic FACES provides a large
             database of high-resolution naturalistic, dynamic
             expressions across adulthood. Information on using Dynamic
             FACES for research purposes can be found at
             http://faces.mpib-berlin.mpg.de .},
   Doi = {10.1080/02699931.2018.1445981},
   Key = {fds333504}
}

@article{fds330812,
   Author = {Löckenhoff, CE and Rutt, JL and Samanez-Larkin, GR and O'Donoghue,
             T and Reyna, VF},
   Title = {Preferences for Temporal Sequences of Real Outcomes Differ
             Across Domains but do not Vary by Age.},
   Journal = {The Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological
             Sciences and Social Sciences},
   Volume = {74},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {430-439},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbx094},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVES:People's preferences for temporal sequences of
             events have implications for life-long health and
             well-being. Prior research suggests that other aspects of
             intertemporal choice vary by age, but evidence for age
             differences in sequence-preferences is limited and
             inconclusive. In response, the present research examined age
             differences in sequence-preferences for real outcomes
             administered in a controlled laboratory setting. METHODS:A
             pilot study examined sequence-preferences for aversive
             electrodermal shocks in 30 younger and 30 older adults. The
             main study examined sequence-preferences for electrodermal
             shocks, physical effort, and monetary gambles in an adult
             life-span sample (N = 120). It also examined emotional and
             physiological responses to sequences as well as underlying
             mechanisms including time perception and emotion-regulation.
             RESULTS:There were no significant age differences in
             sequence-preferences in either of the studies, and there
             were no age differences in responses to sequences in the
             main study. Instead, there was a domain effect with
             participants preferring decreasing sequences for shocks and
             mixed sequences for effort and money. DISCUSSION:After
             considering potential methodological limitations,
             theoretical contributions and implications for real-life
             decisions are discussed.},
   Doi = {10.1093/geronb/gbx094},
   Key = {fds330812}
}

@article{fds339420,
   Author = {Smith, CT and Dang, LC and Burgess, LL and Perkins, SF and San Juan, MD and Smith, DK and Cowan, RL and Le, NT and Kessler, RM and Samanez-Larkin,
             GR and Zald, DH},
   Title = {Lack of consistent sex differences in D-amphetamine-induced
             dopamine release measured with [18F]fallypride
             PET.},
   Journal = {Psychopharmacology},
   Volume = {236},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {581-590},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-018-5083-5},
   Abstract = {RATIONALE:Sex differences in the dopaminergic response to
             psychostimulants could have implications for drug abuse risk
             and other psychopathology involving the dopamine system, but
             human data are limited and mixed. OBJECTIVES:Here, we sought
             to investigate sex differences in dopamine release after
             oral D-amphetamine administration. METHODS:We used
             [18F]fallypride positron emission tomography (PET) to
             measure the change in dopamine D2/3 receptor availability
             (%ΔBPND, an index of dopamine release) between placebo and
             D-amphetamine sessions in two independent datasets
             containing a total of 39 females (on either hormonal birth
             control n = 18, postmenopausal n = 10, or studied in
             the first 10 days of their menstrual cycle n = 11) and
             37 males. RESULTS:Using both a priori anatomical regions of
             interest based on previous findings and voxelwise analyses,
             we failed to consistently detect broad sex differences in
             D-amphetamine-induced dopamine release. Nevertheless, there
             was limited evidence for greater right ventral striatal
             dopamine release in young adult males relative to similarly
             aged females, but this was not consistently observed across
             samples. Plasma estradiol did not correlate with dopamine
             release and this measure did not differ in females on and
             off hormonal birth control. CONCLUSIONS:While our finding in
             young adults from one dataset of greater %ΔBPND in males is
             partially consistent with a previously published study on
             sex differences in D-amphetamine-induced dopamine release,
             our data do not support the presence of consistent
             widespread sex differences in this measure of dopamine
             release.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s00213-018-5083-5},
   Key = {fds339420}
}

@article{fds339897,
   Author = {Castrellon, JJ and Seaman, KL and Crawford, JL and Young, JS and Smith,
             CT and Dang, LC and Hsu, M and Cowan, RL and Zald, DH and Samanez-Larkin,
             GR},
   Title = {Individual Differences in Dopamine Are Associated with
             Reward Discounting in Clinical Groups But Not in Healthy
             Adults.},
   Journal = {The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the
             Society for Neuroscience},
   Volume = {39},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {321-332},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1984-18.2018},
   Abstract = {Some people are more willing to make immediate, risky, or
             costly reward-focused choices than others, which has been
             hypothesized to be associated with individual differences in
             dopamine (DA) function. In two studies using PET imaging,
             one empirical (Study 1: N = 144 males and females across 3
             samples) and one meta-analytic (Study 2: N = 307 across 12
             samples), we sought to characterize associations between
             individual differences in DA and time, probability, and
             physical effort discounting in human adults. Study 1
             demonstrated that individual differences in DA D2-like
             receptors were not associated with time or probability
             discounting of monetary rewards in healthy humans, and
             associations with physical effort discounting were
             inconsistent across adults of different ages. Meta-analytic
             results for temporal discounting corroborated our empirical
             finding for minimal effect of DA measures on discounting in
             healthy individuals but suggested that associations between
             individual differences in DA and reward discounting depend
             on clinical features. Addictions were characterized by
             negative correlations between DA and discounting, but other
             clinical conditions, such as Parkinson's disease, obesity,
             and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, were
             characterized by positive correlations between DA and
             discounting. Together, the results suggest that trait
             differences in discounting in healthy adults do not appear
             to be strongly associated with individual differences in
             D2-like receptors. The difference in meta-analytic
             correlation effects between healthy controls and individuals
             with psychopathology suggests that individual difference
             findings related to DA and reward discounting in clinical
             samples may not be reliably generalized to healthy controls,
             and vice versa.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Decisions to forgo
             large rewards for smaller ones due to increasing time
             delays, uncertainty, or physical effort have been linked to
             differences in dopamine (DA) function, which is disrupted in
             some forms of psychopathology. It remains unclear whether
             alterations in DA function associated with psychopathology
             also extend to explaining associations between DA function
             and decision making in healthy individuals. We show that
             individual differences in DA D2 receptor availability are
             not consistently related to monetary discounting of time,
             probability, or physical effort in healthy individuals
             across a broad age range. By contrast, we suggest that
             psychopathology accounts for observed inconsistencies in the
             relationship between measures of DA function and reward
             discounting behavior.},
   Doi = {10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1984-18.2018},
   Key = {fds339897}
}

@article{fds342370,
   Author = {Juarez, E and Castrellon, J and Green, M and Crawford, J and Seaman, K and Smith, C and Dang, L and Matuskey, D and Morris, E and Cowan, R and Zald,
             D and Samanez-Larkin, G},
   Title = {Reproducibility of the correlative triad among aging,
             dopamine receptor availability, and cognition},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/494765},
   Abstract = {Abstract The evidence that dopamine function mediates the
             association between aging and cognition is one of the most
             cited findings in the cognitive neuroscience of aging.
             However, few and relatively small studies have directly
             examined these associations. Here we examined correlations
             among adult age, dopamine D2-like receptor (D2R)
             availability, and cognition in two cross-sectional studies
             of healthy human adults. Subjects completed a short
             cognitive test battery and, on a separate day, a PET scan
             with either the high-affinity D2R tracer [ 18 F]Fallypride
             (Study 1) or [ 11 C]FLB457 (Study 2). Digit span, a measure
             of short-term memory maintenance and working memory, was the
             only cognitive test for which dopamine D2R availability
             partially mediated the age effect on cognition. In Study 1,
             age was negatively correlated with digit span. Striatal D2R
             availability was positively correlated with digit span
             controlling for age. The age effect on digit span was
             smaller when controlling for striatal D2R availability.
             Although other cognitive measures used here have
             individually been associated with age and D2R availability
             in prior studies, we found no consistent evidence for
             significant associations between low D2R availability and
             low cognitive performance on these measures. These results
             at best only partially supported the correlative triad of
             age, dopamine D2R availability, and cognition. While a
             wealth of other research in human and non-human animals
             demonstrates that dopamine makes critical contributions to
             cognition, the present studies suggest caution in using PET
             measures as evidence that dopamine D2R loss specifically is
             a primary cause of broad age-related declines in fluid
             cognition.},
   Doi = {10.1101/494765},
   Key = {fds342370}
}

@article{fds340435,
   Author = {Smith, CT and San Juan, MD and Dang, LC and Katz, DT and Perkins, SF and Burgess, LL and Cowan, RL and Manning, HC and Nickels, ML and Claassen,
             DO and Samanez-Larkin, GR and Zald, DH},
   Title = {Ventral striatal dopamine transporter availability is
             associated with lower trait motor impulsivity in healthy
             adults.},
   Journal = {Translational Psychiatry},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {269},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-018-0328-y},
   Abstract = {Impulsivity is a transdiagnostic feature of a range of
             externalizing psychiatric disorders. Preclinical work links
             reduced ventral striatal dopamine transporter (DAT)
             availability with heightened impulsivity and novelty
             seeking. However, there is a lack of human data
             investigating the relationship between DAT availability,
             particularly in subregions of the striatum, and the
             personality traits of impulsivity and novelty seeking. Here
             we collected PET measures of DAT availability (BPND) using
             the tracer 18F-FE-PE2I in 47 healthy adult subjects and
             examined relations between BPND in striatum, including its
             subregions: caudate, putamen, and ventral striatum (VS), and
             trait impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale: BIS-11) and
             novelty seeking (Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire:
             TPQ-NS), controlling for age and sex. DAT BPND in each
             striatal subregion showed nominal negative associations with
             total BIS-11 but not TPQ-NS. At the subscale level, VS DAT
             BPND was significantly associated with BIS-11 motor
             impulsivity (e.g., taking actions without thinking) after
             correction for multiple comparisons. VS DAT BPND explained
             13.2% of the variance in motor impulsivity. Our data
             demonstrate that DAT availability in VS is negatively
             related to impulsivity and suggest a particular influence of
             DAT regulation of dopamine signaling in VS on acting without
             deliberation (BIS motor impulsivity). While needing
             replication, these data converge with models of ventral
             striatal functions that emphasize its role as a key
             interface linking motivation to action.},
   Doi = {10.1038/s41398-018-0328-y},
   Key = {fds340435}
}

@article{fds339363,
   Author = {Karrer, T and McLaughlin, C and Guaglianone, C and Samanez-Larkin,
             G},
   Title = {Reduced serotonin receptors and transporters in normal aging
             adults: a meta-analysis of PET and SPECT imaging
             studies},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/429266},
   Abstract = {Abstract Alterations in serotonin (5-HT) function have been
             hypothesized to underlie a range of physiological,
             emotional, and cognitive changes in older age. Here, we
             conducted a quantitative synthesis and comparison of the
             effects of age on 5-HT receptors and transporters from
             cross-sectional PET and SPECT imaging studies.
             Random-effects meta-analyses of 31 studies including 1087
             healthy adults yielded large negative effects of age in
             5-HT-2A receptors (largest in global cortex), moderate
             negative effects of age in 5-HT transporters (largest in
             thalamus), and small negative effects of age in 5-HT-1A
             receptors (largest in parietal cortex). Presynaptic 5-HT-1A
             autoreceptors in raphe/midbrain, however, were preserved
             across adulthood. Adult age differences were significantly
             larger in 5-HT-2A receptors compared to 5-HT-1A receptors. A
             meta-regression showed that 5-HT target, radionuclide, and
             publication year significantly moderated the age effects.
             The findings overall identify reduced serotonergic signal
             transmission in healthy aging. The evidence for the relative
             preservation of 5-HT-1A compared to 5-HT-2A receptors may
             partially explain psychological age differences, such as why
             older adults use more emotion-focused rather than
             problem-focused coping strategies.},
   Doi = {10.1101/429266},
   Key = {fds339363}
}

@article{fds335707,
   Author = {Leong, JK and MacNiven, KH and Samanez-Larkin, GR and Knutson,
             B},
   Title = {Distinct neural circuits support incentivized
             inhibition.},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {178},
   Pages = {435-444},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2018.05.055},
   Abstract = {The ability to inhibit responses under high stakes, or
             "incentivized inhibition," is critical for adaptive impulse
             control. While previous research indicates that right
             ventrolateral prefrontal cortical (VLPFC) activity plays a
             key role in response inhibition, less research has addressed
             how incentives might influence this circuit. By combining a
             novel behavioral task, functional magnetic resonance imaging
             (FMRI), and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), we targeted
             and characterized specific neural circuits that support
             incentivized inhibition. Behaviorally, large incentives
             enhanced responses to obtain money, but also reduced
             response inhibition. Functionally, activity in both right
             VLPFC and right anterior insula (AIns) predicted successful
             inhibition for high incentives. Structurally,
             characterization of a novel white-matter tract connecting
             the right AIns and VLPFC revealed an association of tract
             coherence with incentivized inhibition performance. Finally,
             individual differences in right VLPFC activity statistically
             mediated the association of right AIns-VLPFC tract coherence
             with incentivized inhibition performance. These multimodal
             findings bridge brain structure, brain function, and
             behavior to clarify how individuals can inhibit impulses,
             even in the face of high stakes.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2018.05.055},
   Key = {fds335707}
}

@article{fds338426,
   Author = {Löckenhoff, CE and Rutt, JL and Samanez-Larkin, GR and Gallagher, C and O'Donoghue, T and Reyna, VF},
   Title = {Age Effects in Sequence-Construction for a Continuous
             Cognitive Task: Similar Sequence-Trends but Fewer
             Switch-Points.},
   Journal = {The Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological
             Sciences and Social Sciences},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gby090},
   Abstract = {Many real-life settings require decision-makers to sort a
             pre-determined set of outcomes or activities into a
             preferred sequence, and people vary in whether they prefer
             to tackle the most challenging aspects first, leave them for
             the last, or intersperse them with less challenging
             outcomes. Prior research on age differences in
             sequence-preferences has focused on discrete and
             hypothetical events. The present study expands this work by
             examining sequence-preferences for a realistic, continuous,
             sustained, and cognitively challenging task.Participants
             (N=121, aged 21-86) were asked to complete 10 minutes of a
             difficult cognitive task (2-back), 10 minutes of an easy
             cognitive task (1-back), and 10 minutes of rest over the
             course of a 30-minute interval. They could complete the
             tasks in any order and switch tasks as often as they wished
             and they were rewarded for correct performance. Additional
             measures included affective and physiological responses,
             task accuracy, time-perspective, and demographics.The
             majority of participants constructed sequences with
             decreasing task difficulty. Preferences for the general
             trend of the sequence were not significantly related to age,
             but the number of switches among the tasks decreased with
             age, and task-switching tended to incur greater accuracy
             decrements among older as compared to younger adults.We
             address potential methodological concerns, discuss
             theoretical implications, and consider potential real-life
             applications.},
   Doi = {10.1093/geronb/gby090},
   Key = {fds338426}
}

@article{fds331245,
   Author = {Dang, LC and Samanez-Larkin, GR and Smith, CT and Castrellon, JJ and Perkins, SF and Cowan, RL and Claassen, DO and Zald,
             DH},
   Title = {FTO affects food cravings and interacts with age to
             influence age-related decline in food cravings.},
   Journal = {Physiology & Behavior},
   Volume = {192},
   Pages = {188-193},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2017.12.013},
   Abstract = {The fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) was the first
             gene identified by genome-wide association studies to
             correlate with higher body mass index (BMI) and increased
             odds of obesity. FTO remains the locus with the largest and
             most replicated effect on body weight, but the mechanism
             whereby FTO affects body weight and the development of
             obesity is not fully understood. Here we tested whether FTO
             is associated with differences in food cravings and a key
             aspect of dopamine function that has been hypothesized to
             influence food reward mechanisms. Moreover, as food cravings
             and dopamine function are known to decline with age, we
             explored effects of age on relations between FTO and food
             cravings and dopamine function. Seven-eight healthy subjects
             between 22 and 83years old completed the Food Cravings
             Questionnaire and underwent genotyping for FTO rs9939609,
             the first FTO single nucleotide polymorphism associated with
             obesity. Compared to TT homozygotes, individuals carrying
             the obesity-susceptible A allele had higher total food
             cravings, which correlated with higher BMI. Additionally,
             food cravings declined with age, but this age effect
             differed across variants of FTO rs9939609: while TT
             homozygotes showed the typical age-related decline in food
             cravings, there was no such decline among A carriers. All
             subjects were scanned with [18F]fallypride PET to assess a
             recent proposal that at the neurochemical level FTO alters
             dopamine D2-like receptor (DRD2) function to influence food
             reward related mechanisms. However, we observed no evidence
             of FTO effects on DRD2 availability.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.physbeh.2017.12.013},
   Key = {fds331245}
}

@article{fds335710,
   Author = {Dang, LC and Samanez-Larkin, GR and Castrellon, JJ and Perkins, SF and Cowan, RL and Zald, DH},
   Title = {Individual differences in dopamine D2 receptor availability
             correlate with reward valuation.},
   Journal = {Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience},
   Volume = {18},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {739-747},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13415-018-0601-9},
   Abstract = {Reward valuation, which underlies all value-based
             decision-making, has been associated with dopamine function
             in many studies of nonhuman animals, but there is relatively
             less direct evidence for an association in humans. Here, we
             measured dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) availability in vivo in
             humans to examine relations between individual differences
             in dopamine receptor availability and neural activity
             associated with a measure of reward valuation, expected
             value (i.e., the product of reward magnitude and the
             probability of obtaining the reward). Fourteen healthy adult
             subjects underwent PET with [18F]fallypride, a radiotracer
             with strong affinity for DRD2, and fMRI (on a separate day)
             while performing a reward valuation task. [18F]fallypride
             binding potential, reflecting DRD2 availability, in the
             midbrain correlated positively with neural activity
             associated with expected value, specifically in the left
             ventral striatum/caudate. The present results provide in
             vivo evidence from humans showing midbrain dopamine
             characteristics are associated with reward
             valuation.},
   Doi = {10.3758/s13415-018-0601-9},
   Key = {fds335710}
}

@article{fds335708,
   Author = {von Helversen, B and Mata, R and Samanez-Larkin, GR and Wilke,
             A},
   Title = {Foraging, exploration, or search? On the (lack of)
             convergent validity between three behavioral
             paradigms},
   Journal = {Evolutionary Behavioral Sciences},
   Volume = {12},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {152-162},
   Publisher = {American Psychological Association (APA)},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/ebs0000121},
   Abstract = {© 2018 American Psychological Association. Recently it has
             been suggested that individual humans and other animals
             possess different levels of a general tendency to explore or
             exploit that may influence behavior in different contexts.
             In the present work, we investigated whether individual
             differences in this general tendency to explore (exploit)
             can be captured across three behavioral paradigms that
             involve exploration- exploitation trade-offs: A foraging
             task involving sequential search for fish in several ponds,
             a multiarmed bandit task involving repeatedly choosing from
             a set of options, and a sequential choice task involving
             choosing a candidate from a pool of applicants. Two hundred
             and sixty-one participants completed two versions of each of
             the three tasks. Structural equation modeling revealed that
             there was no single, general factor underlying exploration
             behavior in all tasks, even though individual differences in
             exploration were stable across the two versions of the same
             task. The results suggest that task-specific factors
             influence individual levels of exploration. This finding
             causes difficulties in the enterprise of measuring general
             exploration tendencies using single behavioral paradigms and
             suggests that more work is needed to understand how general
             exploration tendencies and task-specific characteristics
             translate into exploratory behavior in different
             contexts.},
   Doi = {10.1037/ebs0000121},
   Key = {fds335708}
}

@article{fds342371,
   Author = {Seaman, K and Smith, C and Juarez, E and Dang, L and Castrellon, J and Burgess, L and San Juan and D and Kundzicz, P and Cowan, R and Zald, D and Samanez-Larkin, G},
   Title = {Differential regional decline in dopamine receptor
             availability across adulthood: Linear and nonlinear effects
             of age},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/358200},
   Abstract = {Theories of adult brain development, based on
             neuropsychological test results and structural neuroimaging,
             suggest differential rates of age-related change in function
             across cortical and subcortical sub-regions. However, it
             remains unclear if these trends also extend to the aging
             dopamine system. Here we examined cross-sectional adult age
             differences in estimates of D2-like receptor binding
             potential across several cortical and subcortical brain
             regions using PET imaging and the radiotracer
             [18F]fallypride in two samples of healthy human adults
             (combined N=132). After accounting for regional differences
             in overall radioligand binding, estimated percent declines
             in receptor binding potential by decade (linear effects)
             were highest in most temporal and frontal cortical regions
             (~6 to 16% per decade), moderate in parahippocampal gyrus,
             pregenual frontal cortex, fusiform gyrus, caudate, putamen,
             thalamus, and amygdala (~3 to 5%), and weakest in
             subcallosal frontal cortex, ventral striatum, pallidum, and
             hippocampus (~0 to 2%). Some regions showed linear effects
             of age while many showed curvilinear effects such that
             binding potential declined from young adulthood to middle
             age and then was relatively stable until old age. Overall,
             these data indicate that the rate and pattern of decline in
             D2 receptor availability is regionally heterogeneous.
             However, the differences across regions were challenging to
             organize within existing theories of brain development and
             did not show the same pattern of regional change that has
             been observed in gray matter volume, white matter integrity,
             or cognitive performance. This variation suggests that
             existing theories of adult brain development may need to be
             modified to better account for the spatial dynamics of
             dopaminergic system aging.},
   Doi = {10.1101/358200},
   Key = {fds342371}
}

@article{fds335709,
   Author = {Seaman, KL and Green, MA and Shu, S and Samanez-Larkin,
             GR},
   Title = {Individual differences in loss aversion and preferences for
             skewed risks across adulthood.},
   Journal = {Psychology and Aging},
   Volume = {33},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {654-659},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000261},
   Abstract = {In a previous study, we found adult age differences in the
             tendency to accept more positively skewed gambles (with a
             small chance of a large win) than other equivalent risks, or
             an age-related positive-skew bias. In the present study, we
             examined whether loss aversion explained this bias. A total
             of 508 healthy participants (ages 21-82) completed measures
             of loss aversion and skew preference. Age was not related to
             loss aversion. Although loss aversion was a significant
             predictor of gamble acceptance, it did not influence the
             age-related positive-skew bias. (PsycINFO Database
             Record},
   Doi = {10.1037/pag0000261},
   Key = {fds335709}
}

@article{fds335711,
   Author = {Seaman, KL and Brooks, N and Karrer, TM and Castrellon, JJ and Perkins,
             SF and Dang, LC and Hsu, M and Zald, DH and Samanez-Larkin,
             GR},
   Title = {Subjective value representations during effort, probability
             and time discounting across adulthood.},
   Journal = {Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience},
   Volume = {13},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {449-459},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/scan/nsy021},
   Abstract = {Every day, humans make countless decisions that require the
             integration of information about potential benefits (i.e.
             rewards) with other decision features (i.e. effort required,
             probability of an outcome or time delays). Here, we examine
             the overlap and dissociation of behavioral preferences and
             neural representations of subjective value in the context of
             three different decision features (physical effort,
             probability and time delays) in a healthy adult life span
             sample. While undergoing functional neuroimaging,
             participants (N = 75) made incentive compatible choices
             between a smaller monetary reward with lower physical
             effort, higher probability, or a shorter time delay versus a
             larger monetary reward with higher physical effort, lower
             probability, or a longer time delay. Behavioral preferences
             were estimated from observed choices, and subjective values
             were computed using individual hyperbolic discount
             functions. We found that discount rates were uncorrelated
             across tasks. Despite this apparent behavioral dissociation
             between preferences, we found overlapping subjective
             value-related activity in the medial prefrontal cortex
             across all three tasks. We found no consistent evidence for
             age differences in either preferences or the neural
             representations of subjective value across adulthood. These
             results suggest that while the tolerance of decision
             features is behaviorally dissociable, subjective value
             signals share a common representation across
             adulthood.},
   Doi = {10.1093/scan/nsy021},
   Key = {fds335711}
}

@article{fds335712,
   Author = {Kircanski, K and Notthoff, N and DeLiema, M and Samanez-Larkin, GR and Shadel, D and Mottola, G and Carstensen, LL and Gotlib,
             IH},
   Title = {Emotional arousal may increase susceptibility to fraud in
             older and younger adults.},
   Journal = {Psychology and Aging},
   Volume = {33},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {325-337},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000228},
   Abstract = {Financial fraud is a societal problem for adults of all
             ages, but financial losses are especially damaging to older
             adults who typically live on fixed incomes and have less
             time to recoup losses. Persuasion tactics used by fraud
             perpetrators often elicit high levels of emotional arousal;
             thus, studying emotional arousal may help to identify the
             conditions under which individuals are particularly
             susceptible to fraud. We examined whether inducing
             high-arousal positive (HAP) and high-arousal negative (HAN)
             emotions increased susceptibility to fraud. Older (ages 65
             to 85) and younger (ages 30 to 40) adults were randomly
             assigned to 1 of 3 emotional arousal conditions in a
             laboratory task: HAP, HAN, or low arousal (LA). Fraud
             susceptibility was assessed through participants' responses
             to misleading advertisements. Both HAP and HAN emotions were
             successfully induced in older and younger participants. For
             participants who exhibited the intended induced emotional
             arousal, both the HAP and HAN conditions, relative to the LA
             condition, significantly increased participants' reported
             intention to purchase falsely advertised items. These
             effects did not differ significantly between older and
             younger adults and were mitigated in participants who did
             not exhibit the intended emotional arousal. However,
             irrespective of the emotional arousal condition to which
             older adults were assigned (HAP, HAN, or LA), they reported
             greater purchase intention than did younger adults. These
             results inform the literature on fraud susceptibility and
             aging. Educating consumers to postpone financial decisions
             until they are in calm emotional states may protect against
             this common persuasion tactic. (PsycINFO Database
             Record},
   Doi = {10.1037/pag0000228},
   Key = {fds335712}
}

@article{fds329469,
   Author = {Seaman, KL and Leong, JK and Wu, CC and Knutson, B and Samanez-Larkin,
             GR},
   Title = {Individual differences in skewed financial risk-taking
             across the adult life span.},
   Journal = {Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1232-1241},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13415-017-0545-5},
   Abstract = {Older adults are disproportionately targeted by fraud
             schemes that advertise unlikely but large returns
             (positively skewed risks). We examined adult age differences
             in choice and neural activity as individuals considered
             risky gambles. Gambles were symmetric (50% chance of modest
             win or loss), positively skewed (25% chance of large gain),
             or negatively skewed (25% chance of large loss). The
             willingness to accept positively skewed relative to
             symmetric gambles increased with age, and this effect
             replicated in an independent behavioral study. Whole-brain
             functional magnetic resonance imaging analyses comparing
             positively (vs. negatively) skewed trials revealed that
             relative to younger adults, older adults showed increased
             anticipatory activity for negatively skewed gambles but
             reduced activity for positively skewed gambles in the
             anterior cingulate and lateral prefrontal regions.
             Individuals who were more biased toward positively skewed
             gambles showed increased activity in a network of regions
             including the nucleus accumbens. These results reveal age
             biases toward positively skewed gambles and age differences
             in corticostriatal regions during skewed risk-taking, and
             have implications for identifying financial decision biases
             across adulthood.},
   Doi = {10.3758/s13415-017-0545-5},
   Key = {fds329469}
}

@article{fds328897,
   Author = {Dang, LC and Samanez-Larkin, GR and Castrellon, JJ and Perkins, SF and Cowan, RL and Newhouse, PA and Zald, DH},
   Title = {Spontaneous Eye Blink Rate (EBR) Is Uncorrelated with
             Dopamine D2 Receptor Availability and Unmodulated by
             Dopamine Agonism in Healthy Adults.},
   Journal = {Eneuro},
   Volume = {4},
   Number = {5},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/ENEURO.0211-17.2017},
   Abstract = {Spontaneous eye blink rate (EBR) has been proposed as a
             noninvasive, inexpensive marker of dopamine functioning.
             Support for a relation between EBR and dopamine function
             comes from observations that EBR is altered in populations
             with dopamine dysfunction and EBR changes under a
             dopaminergic manipulation. However, the evidence across the
             literature is inconsistent and incomplete. A direct
             correlation between EBR and dopamine function has so far
             been observed only in nonhuman animals. Given significant
             interest in using EBR as a proxy for dopamine function, this
             study aimed to verify a direct association in healthy, human
             adults. Here we measured EBR in healthy human subjects whose
             dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) availability was assessed with
             positron emission tomography (PET)-[18F]fallypride to
             examine the predictive power of EBR for DRD2 availability.
             Effects of the dopamine agonist bromocriptine on EBR also
             were examined to determine the responsiveness of EBR to
             dopaminergic stimulation and, in light of the hypothesized
             inverted-U profile of dopamine effects, the role of DRD2
             availability in EBR responsivity to bromocriptine. Results
             from 20 subjects (age 33.6 ± 7.6 years, 9F) showed no
             relation between EBR and DRD2 availability. EBR also was not
             responsive to dopaminergic stimulation by bromocriptine, and
             individual differences in DRD2 availability did not modulate
             EBR responsivity to bromocriptine. Given that EBR is
             hypothesized to be particularly sensitive to DRD2 function,
             these findings suggest caution in using EBR as a proxy for
             dopamine function in healthy humans.},
   Doi = {10.1523/ENEURO.0211-17.2017},
   Key = {fds328897}
}

@article{fds326610,
   Author = {Karrer, TM and Josef, AK and Mata, R and Morris, ED and Samanez-Larkin,
             GR},
   Title = {Reduced dopamine receptors and transporters but not
             synthesis capacity in normal aging adults: a
             meta-analysis.},
   Journal = {Neurobiology of Aging},
   Volume = {57},
   Pages = {36-46},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2017.05.006},
   Abstract = {Many theories of cognitive aging are based on evidence that
             dopamine (DA) declines with age. Here, we performed a
             systematic meta-analysis of cross-sectional positron
             emission tomography and single-photon emission-computed
             tomography studies on the average effects of age on distinct
             DA targets (receptors, transporters, or relevant enzymes) in
             healthy adults (N = 95 studies including 2611
             participants). Results revealed significant moderate to
             large, negative effects of age on DA transporters and
             receptors. Age had a significantly larger effect on D1- than
             D2-like receptors. In contrast, there was no significant
             effect of age on DA synthesis capacity. The average age
             reductions across the DA system were 3.7%-14.0% per decade.
             A meta-regression found only DA target as a significant
             moderator of the age effect. This study precisely quantifies
             prior claims of reduced DA functionality with age. It also
             identifies presynaptic mechanisms (spared synthesis capacity
             and reduced DA transporters) that may partially account for
             previously unexplained phenomena whereby older adults appear
             to use dopaminergic resources effectively. Recommendations
             for future studies including minimum required samples sizes
             are provided.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2017.05.006},
   Key = {fds326610}
}

@article{fds327149,
   Author = {Hosking, JG and Kastman, EK and Dorfman, HM and Samanez-Larkin, GR and Baskin-Sommers, A and Kiehl, KA and Newman, JP and Buckholtz,
             JW},
   Title = {Disrupted Prefrontal Regulation of Striatal Subjective Value
             Signals in Psychopathy.},
   Journal = {Neuron},
   Volume = {95},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {221-231.e4},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2017.06.030},
   Abstract = {Psychopathy is a personality disorder with strong links to
             criminal behavior. While research on psychopathy has focused
             largely on socio-affective dysfunction, recent data suggest
             that aberrant decision making may also play an important
             role. Yet, the circuit-level mechanisms underlying
             maladaptive decision making in psychopathy remain unclear.
             Here, we used a multi-modality functional imaging approach
             to identify these mechanisms in a population of adult male
             incarcerated offenders. Psychopathy was associated with
             stronger subjective value-related activity within the
             nucleus accumbens (NAcc) during inter-temporal choice and
             with weaker intrinsic functional connectivity between NAcc
             and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). NAcc-vmPFC
             connectivity strength was negatively correlated with NAcc
             subjective value-related activity; however, this putative
             regulatory pattern was abolished as psychopathy severity
             increased. Finally, weaker cortico-striatal regulation
             predicted more frequent criminal convictions. These data
             suggest that cortico-striatal circuit dysregulation drives
             maladaptive decision making in psychopathy, supporting the
             notion that reward system dysfunction comprises an important
             neurobiological risk factor.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuron.2017.06.030},
   Key = {fds327149}
}

@article{fds325038,
   Author = {Dang, LC and Castrellon, JJ and Perkins, SF and Le, NT and Cowan, RL and Zald, DH and Samanez-Larkin, GR},
   Title = {Reduced effects of age on dopamine D2 receptor levels in
             physically active adults.},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {148},
   Pages = {123-129},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2017.01.018},
   Abstract = {Physical activity has been shown to ameliorate dopaminergic
             degeneration in non-human animal models. However, the
             effects of regular physical activity on normal age-related
             changes in dopamine function in humans are unknown. Here we
             present cross-sectional data from forty-four healthy human
             subjects between 23 and 80 years old, showing that typical
             age-related dopamine D2 receptor loss, assessed with PET
             [18F]fallypride, was significantly reduced in physically
             active adults compared to less active adults.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2017.01.018},
   Key = {fds325038}
}

@article{fds325039,
   Author = {Löckenhoff, CE and Rutt, JL and Samanez-Larkin, GR and O'Donoghue,
             T and Reyna, VF and Ganzel, B},
   Title = {Dread sensitivity in decisions about real and imagined
             electrical shocks does not vary by age.},
   Journal = {Psychology and Aging},
   Volume = {31},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {890-901},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000136},
   Abstract = {Previous research has found age differences in intertemporal
             choices that involve trade-offs among events or outcomes
             that occur at different points in time, but these findings
             were mostly limited to hypothetical financial and consumer
             choices. We examined whether age effects extend to
             unpleasant physical experiences that elicit states of dread
             which lead participants to speed up the outcomes just to get
             them over with. We asked participants of different ages to
             choose among electrical shocks that varied in timing and
             intensity. We also assessed affective responses as a
             potential mechanism behind age effects and considered other
             potential covariates. In Study 1, the choice task involved
             real outcomes and the sample consisted of younger and older
             adults. In Study 2, the choice task was hypothetical and the
             sample was an adult life span sample. Across both studies,
             there was no evidence of age differences in the preferred
             timing of shocks. Instead, dread-sensitive choices were
             associated with higher conscientiousness. Age effects in
             dread-sensitive choices remained nonsignificant even after
             controlling for a range of age-associated covariates. We
             discuss possible explanations for the lack of age effects
             and consider implications for applied and clinical settings.
             (PsycINFO Database Record},
   Doi = {10.1037/pag0000136},
   Key = {fds325039}
}

@article{fds318746,
   Author = {Seaman, KL and Gorlick, MA and Vekaria, KM and Hsu, M and Zald, DH and Samanez-Larkin, GR},
   Title = {Adult age differences in decision making across domains:
             Increased discounting of social and health-related
             rewards.},
   Journal = {Psychology and Aging},
   Volume = {31},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {737-746},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000131},
   Abstract = {Although research on aging and decision making continues to
             grow, the majority of studies examine decisions made to
             maximize monetary earnings or points. It is not clear
             whether these results generalize to other types of rewards.
             To investigate this, we examined adult age differences in 92
             healthy participants aged 22 to 83. Participants completed 9
             hypothetical discounting tasks, which included 3 types of
             discounting factors (time, probability, effort) across 3
             reward domains (monetary, social, health). Participants made
             choices between a smaller magnitude reward with a shorter
             time delay/higher probability/lower level of physical effort
             required and a larger magnitude reward with a longer time
             delay/lower probability/higher level of physical effort
             required. Older compared with younger individuals were more
             likely to choose options that involved shorter time delays
             or higher probabilities of experiencing an interaction with
             a close social partner or receiving health benefits from a
             hypothetical drug. These findings suggest that older adults
             may be more motivated than young adults to obtain social and
             health rewards immediately and with certainty. (PsycINFO
             Database Record},
   Doi = {10.1037/pag0000131},
   Key = {fds318746}
}

@article{fds318747,
   Author = {Dang, LC and Samanez-Larkin, GR and Castrellon, JJ and Perkins, SF and Cowan, RL and Zald, DH},
   Title = {Associations between dopamine D2 receptor availability and
             BMI depend on age.},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {138},
   Pages = {176-183},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2016.05.044},
   Abstract = {The dopamine D2/3 receptor subtypes (DRD2/3) are the most
             widely studied neurotransmitter biomarker in research on
             obesity, but results to date have been inconsistent, have
             typically involved small samples, and have rarely accounted
             for subjects' ages despite the large impact of age on DRD2/3
             levels. We aimed to clarify the relation between DRD2/3
             availability and BMI by examining this association in a
             large sample of subjects with BMI spanning the continuum
             from underweight to extremely obese.130 healthy subjects
             between 18 and 81years old underwent PET with
             [18F]fallypride, a high affinity DRD2/3 ligand.As expected,
             DRD2/3 availability declined with age. Critically, age
             significantly interacted with DRD2/3 availability in
             predicting BMI in the midbrain and striatal regions
             (caudate, putamen, and ventral striatum). Among subjects
             under 30years old, BMI was not associated with DRD2/3
             availability. By contrast, among subjects over 30years old,
             BMI was positively associated with DRD2/3 availability in
             the midbrain, putamen, and ventral striatum.The present
             results are incompatible with the prominent dopaminergic
             hypofunction hypothesis that proposes that a reduction in
             DRD2/3 availability is associated with increased BMI, and
             highlights the importance of age in assessing correlates of
             DRD2/3 function.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2016.05.044},
   Key = {fds318747}
}

@article{fds318748,
   Author = {Josef, AK and Richter, D and Samanez-Larkin, GR and Wagner, GG and Hertwig, R and Mata, R},
   Title = {Stability and change in risk-taking propensity across the
             adult life span.},
   Journal = {Journal of Personality and Social Psychology},
   Volume = {111},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {430-450},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pspp0000090},
   Abstract = {Can risk-taking propensity be thought of as a trait that
             captures individual differences across domains, measures,
             and time? Studying stability in risk-taking propensities
             across the life span can help to answer such questions by
             uncovering parallel, or divergent, trajectories across
             domains and measures. We contribute to this effort by using
             data from respondents aged 18 to 85 in the German
             Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP) and by examining (a)
             differential stability, (b) mean-level differences, and (c)
             individual-level changes in self-reported general (N =
             44,076) and domain-specific (N = 11,903) risk-taking
             propensities across adulthood. In addition, we investigate
             (d) the correspondence between cross-sectional trajectories
             of self-report and behavioral measures of social (trust
             game; N = 646) and nonsocial (monetary gamble; N = 433) risk
             taking. The results suggest that risk-taking propensity can
             be understood as a trait with moderate stability. Results
             show reliable mean-level differences across the life span,
             with risk-taking propensities typically decreasing with age,
             although significant variation emerges across domains and
             individuals. Interestingly, the mean-level trajectory for
             behavioral measures of social and nonsocial risk taking was
             similar to those obtained from self-reported risk, despite
             small correlations between task behavior and self-reports.
             Individual-level analyses suggest a link between changes in
             risk-taking propensities both across domains and in relation
             to changes in some of the Big Five personality traits.
             Overall, these results raise important questions concerning
             the role of common processes or events that shape the life
             span development of risk-taking across domains as well as
             other major personality facets. (PsycINFO Database
             Record},
   Doi = {10.1037/pspp0000090},
   Key = {fds318748}
}

@article{fds318751,
   Author = {Dang, LC and Samanez-Larkin, GR and Young, JS and Cowan, RL and Kessler,
             RM and Zald, DH},
   Title = {Caudate asymmetry is related to attentional impulsivity and
             an objective measure of ADHD-like attentional problems in
             healthy adults.},
   Journal = {Brain Structure & Function},
   Volume = {221},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {277-286},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00429-014-0906-6},
   Abstract = {Case-control studies comparing ADHD with typically
             developing individuals suggest that anatomical asymmetry of
             the caudate nucleus is a marker of attention deficit
             hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, there is no
             consensus on whether the asymmetry favors the right or left
             caudate nucleus in ADHD, or whether the asymmetry is
             increased or decreased in ADHD. The current study aimed to
             clarify this relationship by applying a dimensional approach
             to assessing ADHD symptoms that, instead of relying on
             clinical classification, utilizes the natural behavioral
             continuum of traits related to ADHD. Structural T1-weighted
             MRI was collected from 71 adults between 18 and 35 years
             and analyzed for caudate asymmetry. ADHD-like attentional
             symptoms were assessed with an objective measure of
             attentional problems, the ADHD score from the Test of
             Variables of Attention (TOVA). Impulsivity, a core feature
             in ADHD, was measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale,
             a self-report measure that assesses attentional,
             non-planning, and motor features of impulsivity. We found
             that larger right relative to left caudate volumes
             correlated with both higher attentional impulsiveness and
             worse ADHD scores on the TOVA. Higher attentional
             impulsiveness also correlated with worse ADHD scores,
             establishing coherence between the objective measure and the
             self-report measure of attentional problems. These results
             suggest that a differential passage of information through
             frontal-striatal networks may produce instability leading to
             attentional problems. The findings also demonstrate the
             utility of a dimensional approach to understanding
             structural correlates of ADHD symptoms.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s00429-014-0906-6},
   Key = {fds318751}
}

@article{fds318749,
   Author = {Kline, RL and Zhang, S and Farr, OM and Hu, S and Zaborszky, L and Samanez-Larkin, GR and Li, C-SR},
   Title = {The Effects of Methylphenidate on Resting-State Functional
             Connectivity of the Basal Nucleus of Meynert, Locus
             Coeruleus, and Ventral Tegmental Area in Healthy
             Adults.},
   Journal = {Frontiers in Human Neuroscience},
   Volume = {10},
   Pages = {149},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2016.00149},
   Abstract = {Methylphenidate (MPH) influences catecholaminergic
             signaling. Extant work examined the effects of MPH on the
             neural circuits of attention and cognitive control, but few
             studies have investigated the effect of MPH on the brain's
             resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC).In this
             observational study, we compared rsFC of a group of 24
             healthy adults who were administered an oral 45 mg dose of
             MPH with a group of 24 age and gender matched controls who
             did not receive MPH. We focused on three seed regions: basal
             nucleus of Meynert (BNM), locus coeruleus (LC), and ventral
             tegmental area/substantia nigra, pars compacta (VTA/SNc),
             each providing cholinergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic
             inputs to the cerebral cortex. Images were pre-processed and
             analyzed as in our recent work (Li et al., 2014; Zhang et
             al., 2015). We used one-sample t-test to characterize
             group-specific rsFC of each seed region and two-sample
             t-test to compare rsFC between groups.MPH reversed negative
             connectivity between BNM and precentral gyri. MPH reduced
             positive connectivity between LC and cerebellum, and induced
             positive connectivity between LC and right hippocampus. MPH
             decreased positive VTA/SNc connectivity to the cerebellum
             and putamen, and reduced negative connectivity to left
             middle occipital gyrus.MPH had distinct effects on the rsFC
             of BNM, LC, and VTA/SNc in healthy adults. These new
             findings may further our understanding of the role of
             catecholaminergic signaling in Attention Deficit
             Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Parkinson's disease and
             provide insights into the therapeutic mechanisms of MPH in
             the treatment of clinical conditions that implicate
             catecholaminergic dysfunction.},
   Doi = {10.3389/fnhum.2016.00149},
   Key = {fds318749}
}

@article{fds318750,
   Author = {Leong, JK and Pestilli, F and Wu, CC and Samanez-Larkin, GR and Knutson,
             B},
   Title = {White-Matter Tract Connecting Anterior Insula to Nucleus
             Accumbens Correlates with Reduced Preference for Positively
             Skewed Gambles.},
   Journal = {Neuron},
   Volume = {89},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {63-69},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2015.12.015},
   Abstract = {Individuals sometimes show inconsistent risk preferences,
             including excessive attraction to gambles featuring small
             chances of winning large amounts (called "positively skewed"
             gambles). While functional neuroimaging research indicates
             that nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and anterior insula (AIns)
             activity inversely predict risky choice, structural
             connections between these regions have not been described in
             humans. By combining diffusion-weighted MRI with
             tractography, we identified the anatomical trajectory of
             white-matter tracts projecting from the AIns to the NAcc and
             statistically validated these tracts using Linear Fascicle
             Evaluation (LiFE) and virtual lesions. Coherence of the
             right AIns-NAcc tract correlated with reduced preferences
             for positively skewed gambles. Further, diminished NAcc
             activity during gamble presentation mediated the association
             between tract structure and choice. These results identify
             an unreported tract connecting the AIns to the NAcc in
             humans and support the notion that structural connections
             can alter behavior by influencing brain activity as
             individuals weigh uncertain gains against uncertain
             losses.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuron.2015.12.015},
   Key = {fds318750}
}

@article{fds318752,
   Author = {Samanez-Larkin, GR and Knutson, B},
   Title = {Decision making in the ageing brain: changes in affective
             and motivational circuits.},
   Journal = {Nature Reviews. Neuroscience},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {278-289},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrn3917},
   Abstract = {As the global population ages, older decision makers will be
             required to take greater responsibility for their own
             physical, psychological and financial well-being. With this
             in mind, researchers have begun to examine the effects of
             ageing on decision making and associated neural circuits. A
             new 'affect-integration-motivation' (AIM) framework may help
             to clarify how affective and motivational circuits support
             decision making. Recent research has shed light on whether
             and how ageing influences these circuits, providing an
             interdisciplinary account of how ageing can alter decision
             making.},
   Doi = {10.1038/nrn3917},
   Key = {fds318752}
}

@misc{fds325712,
   Author = {Samanez-Larkin, GR},
   Title = {Chapter 3 - Decision Neuroscience and Aging},
   Pages = {41-60},
   Booktitle = {Aging and Decision Making: Empirical and Applied
             Perspectives},
   Publisher = {Elsevier},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {February},
   ISBN = {9780124171480},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-417148-0.00003-0},
   Abstract = {© 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Over the past
             several years, a subfield of the cognitive neuroscience of
             aging has emerged to investigate age differences in
             reward-based decision making across adulthood. The approach
             combines experimental methods, models, and theory from
             psychology, economics, and neuroscience to characterize age
             differences in decision making in the laboratory and in the
             real world. This chapter reviews what is presently known
             about how age differences in the structure and function of
             frontostriatal brain systems supporting reward-based
             decision making are related to age differences in
             sensitivity to monetary gains and losses, intertemporal
             decision making, risky decision making, and reward learning.
             Already this work has identified interesting divergent
             patterns across adulthood; in some situations, the elderly
             outperform young adults and in other situations they appear
             to make more mistakes. Taken together, the evidence suggests
             that older adults do well when making decisions that rely on
             accumulated life experience, and perform suboptimally in
             uncertain environments that require the fluid integration of
             novel information.},
   Doi = {10.1016/B978-0-12-417148-0.00003-0},
   Key = {fds325712}
}

@misc{fds325713,
   Author = {Sofia Beas and B and Setlow, B and Samanez-Larkin, GR and Bizon,
             JL},
   Title = {Chapter 2 - Modeling Cost-Benefit Decision Making in Aged
             Rodents},
   Pages = {17-40},
   Booktitle = {Aging and Decision Making: Empirical and Applied
             Perspectives},
   Publisher = {Elsevier},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {February},
   ISBN = {9780124171480},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-417148-0.00002-9},
   Abstract = {© 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Aging can impact
             choices between alternatives that differ with respect to
             relative benefits and "costs" (e.g., time delays or risk);
             however, much remains to be learned about the specific
             cognitive, affective, and neural factors that govern choice
             behavior across the life span. Relative to primates, rodents
             offer both comparatively short life spans that facilitate
             longitudinal evaluation of cognition, and enhanced
             tractability of genetic, cellular, and biochemical
             approaches important for identifying the neurobiological
             mechanisms that mediate decision making. This chapter will
             describe approaches for modeling cost-benefit decision
             making in aged rodents, with a focus on intertemporal and
             risky choice. In addition, examples will be provided of how
             these approaches have yielded convergent findings in animal
             and human subjects, as well as novel data regarding
             neurobehavioral mechanisms of age-related alterations in
             decision making and potential directions for future
             research.},
   Doi = {10.1016/B978-0-12-417148-0.00002-9},
   Key = {fds325713}
}

@article{fds318754,
   Author = {Samanez-Larkin, GR and Worthy, DA and Mata, R and McClure, SM and Knutson, B},
   Title = {Adult age differences in frontostriatal representation of
             prediction error but not reward outcome.},
   Journal = {Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {672-682},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13415-014-0297-4},
   Abstract = {Emerging evidence from decision neuroscience suggests that
             although younger and older adults show similar
             frontostriatal representations of reward magnitude, older
             adults often show deficits in feedback-driven reinforcement
             learning. In the present study, healthy adults completed
             reward-based tasks that did or did not depend on
             probabilistic learning, while undergoing functional
             neuroimaging. We observed reductions in the frontostriatal
             representation of prediction errors during probabilistic
             learning in older adults. In contrast, we found evidence for
             stability across adulthood in the representation of reward
             outcome in a task that did not require learning. Together,
             the results identify changes across adulthood in the dynamic
             coding of relational representations of feedback, in spite
             of preserved reward sensitivity in old age. Overall, the
             results suggest that the neural representation of prediction
             error, but not reward outcome, is reduced in old age. These
             findings reveal a potential dissociation between cognition
             and motivation with age and identify a potential mechanism
             for explaining changes in learning-dependent decision making
             in old adulthood.},
   Doi = {10.3758/s13415-014-0297-4},
   Key = {fds318754}
}

@article{fds318753,
   Author = {Braver, TS and Krug, MK and Chiew, KS and Kool, W and Westbrook, JA and Clement, NJ and Adcock, RA and Barch, DM and Botvinick, MM and Carver,
             CS and Cools, R and Custers, R and Dickinson, A and Dweck, CS and Fishbach,
             A and Gollwitzer, PM and Hess, TM and Isaacowitz, DM and Mather, M and Murayama, K and Pessoa, L and Samanez-Larkin, GR and Somerville, LH and MOMCAI group},
   Title = {Mechanisms of motivation-cognition interaction: challenges
             and opportunities.},
   Journal = {Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {443-472},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13415-014-0300-0},
   Abstract = {Recent years have seen a rejuvenation of interest in studies
             of motivation-cognition interactions arising from many
             different areas of psychology and neuroscience. The present
             issue of Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience
             provides a sampling of some of the latest research from a
             number of these different areas. In this introductory
             article, we provide an overview of the current state of the
             field, in terms of key research developments and candidate
             neural mechanisms receiving focused investigation as
             potential sources of motivation-cognition interaction.
             However, our primary goal is conceptual: to highlight the
             distinct perspectives taken by different research areas, in
             terms of how motivation is defined, the relevant dimensions
             and dissociations that are emphasized, and the theoretical
             questions being targeted. Together, these distinctions
             present both challenges and opportunities for efforts aiming
             toward a more unified and cross-disciplinary approach. We
             identify a set of pressing research questions calling for
             this sort of cross-disciplinary approach, with the explicit
             goal of encouraging integrative and collaborative
             investigations directed toward them.},
   Doi = {10.3758/s13415-014-0300-0},
   Key = {fds318753}
}

@misc{fds325714,
   Author = {Samanez-Larkin, GR and Hagen, TA and Weiner, DJ},
   Title = {Financial decision making across adulthood},
   Pages = {121-135},
   Booktitle = {The Psychological Science of Money},
   Publisher = {Springer New York},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {April},
   ISBN = {1493909584},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-0959-9_6},
   Abstract = {© 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York. All rights
             reserved. Choices about money have serious consequences both
             for individuals and society, as reckless spending by young
             adults and financial scamming of the elderly all too clearly
             demonstrate. Recent evidence from psychology and
             neuroscience suggests that financial decision making
             capacity may peak at middle age, with unique vulnerabilities
             manifesting early and late in life. In this chapter, we
             review age differences in performance on a series of
             financial decision making tasks, including those involving
             monetary gain and loss, learning and risk, and intertemporal
             choice. Taken together, the evidence suggests that older
             adults do well when making decisions that rely on
             accumulated life experience and perform suboptimally in
             uncertain and novel environments that require fluid
             learning. Brain imaging reveals declines in frontostriatal
             function in the elderly that may explain the observed
             challenges on these dynamic behavioral decision tasks. In an
             effort to translate these findings from the lab to society,
             a small and growing literature has identified real-world
             financial decision correlates of performance on laboratory
             tasks. Such studies hold enormous promise for developing
             tools that can identify individuals at greater risk for poor
             financial decision making.},
   Doi = {10.1007/978-1-4939-0959-9_6},
   Key = {fds325714}
}

@article{fds318755,
   Author = {Benningfield, MM and Blackford, JU and Ellsworth, ME and Samanez-Larkin, GR and Martin, PR and Cowan, RL and Zald,
             DH},
   Title = {Caudate responses to reward anticipation associated with
             delay discounting behavior in healthy youth.},
   Journal = {Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience},
   Volume = {7},
   Pages = {43-52},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dcn.2013.10.009},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND:Choices requiring delay of gratification made
             during adolescence can have significant impact on life
             trajectory. Willingness to delay gratification can be
             measured using delay discounting tasks that require a choice
             between a smaller immediate reward and a larger delayed
             reward. Individual differences in the subjective value of
             delayed rewards are associated with risk for development of
             psychopathology including substance abuse. The
             neurobiological underpinnings related to these individual
             differences early in life are not fully understood. Using
             functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we tested the
             hypothesis that individual differences in delay discounting
             behavior in healthy youth are related to differences in
             responsiveness to potential reward. METHOD:Nineteen 10-14
             year-olds performed a monetary incentive delay task to
             assess neural sensitivity to potential reward and a
             questionnaire to measure discounting of future monetary
             rewards. RESULTS:Left ventromedial caudate activation during
             anticipation of potential reward was negatively correlated
             with delay discounting behavior. There were no regions where
             brain responses during notification of reward outcome were
             associated with discounting behavior. CONCLUSIONS:Brain
             activation during anticipation of potential reward may serve
             as a marker for individual differences in ability or
             willingness to delay gratification in healthy
             youth.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.dcn.2013.10.009},
   Key = {fds318755}
}

@article{fds318756,
   Author = {Wu, CC and Samanez-Larkin, GR and Katovich, K and Knutson,
             B},
   Title = {Affective traits link to reliable neural markers of
             incentive anticipation.},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {84},
   Pages = {279-289},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.08.055},
   Abstract = {While theorists have speculated that different affective
             traits are linked to reliable brain activity during
             anticipation of gains and losses, few have directly tested
             this prediction. We examined these associations in a
             community sample of healthy human adults (n=52) as they
             played a Monetary Incentive Delay task while undergoing
             functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI). Factor
             analysis of personality measures revealed that subjects
             independently varied in trait Positive Arousal and trait
             Negative Arousal. In a subsample (n=14) retested over
             2.5years later, left nucleus accumbens (NAcc) activity
             during anticipation of large gains (+$5.00) and right
             anterior insula activity during anticipation of large losses
             (-$5.00) showed significant test-retest reliability
             (intraclass correlations>0.50, p's<0.01). In the full sample
             (n=52), trait Positive Arousal correlated with individual
             differences in left NAcc activity during anticipation of
             large gains, while trait Negative Arousal correlated with
             individual differences in right anterior insula activity
             during anticipation of large losses. Associations of
             affective traits with neural activity were not attributable
             to the influence of other potential confounds (including
             sex, age, wealth, and motion). Together, these results
             demonstrate selective links between distinct affective
             traits and reliably-elicited activity in neural circuits
             associated with anticipation of gain versus loss. The
             findings thus reveal neural markers for affective dimensions
             of healthy personality, and potentially for related
             psychiatric symptoms.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.08.055},
   Key = {fds318756}
}

@article{fds318757,
   Author = {Hills, TT and Mata, R and Wilke, A and Samanez-Larkin,
             GR},
   Title = {Mechanisms of age-related decline in memory search across
             the adult life span.},
   Journal = {Developmental Psychology},
   Volume = {49},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {2396-2404},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0032272},
   Abstract = {Three alternative mechanisms for age-related decline in
             memory search have been proposed, which result from either
             reduced processing speed (global slowing hypothesis),
             overpersistence on categories (cluster-switching
             hypothesis), or the inability to maintain focus on local
             cues related to a decline in working memory (cue-maintenance
             hypothesis). We investigated these 3 hypotheses by formally
             modeling the semantic recall patterns of 185 adults between
             27 to 99 years of age in the animal fluency task (Thurstone,
             1938). The results indicate that people switch between
             global frequency-based retrieval cues and local item-based
             retrieval cues to navigate their semantic memory. Contrary
             to the global slowing hypothesis that predicts no
             qualitative differences in dynamic search processes and the
             cluster-switching hypothesis that predicts reduced switching
             between retrieval cues, the results indicate that as people
             age, they tend to switch more often between local and global
             cues per item recalled, supporting the cue-maintenance
             hypothesis. Additional support for the cue-maintenance
             hypothesis is provided by a negative correlation between
             switching and digit span scores and between switching and
             total items recalled, which suggests that cognitive control
             may be involved in cue maintenance and the effective search
             of memory. Overall, the results are consistent with
             age-related decline in memory search being a consequence of
             reduced cognitive control, consistent with models suggesting
             that working memory is related to goal perseveration and the
             ability to inhibit distracting information.},
   Doi = {10.1037/a0032272},
   Key = {fds318757}
}

@article{fds318758,
   Author = {Samanez-Larkin, GR and Buckholtz, JW and Cowan, RL and Woodward, ND and Li, R and Ansari, MS and Arrington, CM and Baldwin, RM and Smith, CE and Treadway, MT and Kessler, RM and Zald, DH},
   Title = {A thalamocorticostriatal dopamine network for
             psychostimulant-enhanced human cognitive
             flexibility.},
   Journal = {Biological Psychiatry},
   Volume = {74},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {99-105},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2012.10.032},
   Abstract = {Everyday life demands continuous flexibility in thought and
             behavior. We examined whether individual differences in
             dopamine function are related to variability in the effects
             of amphetamine on one aspect of flexibility: task
             switching.Forty healthy human participants performed a
             task-switching paradigm following placebo and oral
             amphetamine administration. [(18)F]fallypride was used to
             measure D2/D3 baseline receptor availability and
             amphetamine-stimulated dopamine release.The majority of the
             participants showed amphetamine-induced benefits through
             reductions in switch costs. However, such benefits were
             variable. Individuals with higher baseline thalamic and
             cortical receptor availability and striatal dopamine release
             showed greater reductions in switch costs following
             amphetamine than individuals with lower levels. The
             relationship between dopamine receptors and
             stimulant-enhanced flexibility was partially mediated by
             striatal dopamine release.These data indicate that the
             impact of the psychostimulant on cognitive flexibility is
             influenced by the status of dopamine within a
             thalamocorticostriatal network. Beyond demonstrating a link
             between this dopaminergic network and the enhancement in
             task switching, these neural measures accounted for unique
             variance in predicting the psychostimulant-induced cognitive
             enhancement. These results suggest that there may be
             measurable aspects of variability in the dopamine system
             that predispose certain individuals to benefit from and
             hence use psychostimulants for cognitive
             enhancement.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.biopsych.2012.10.032},
   Key = {fds318758}
}

@article{fds318759,
   Author = {Samanez-Larkin, GR},
   Title = {Financial Decision Making and the Aging Brain.},
   Journal = {Aps Observer},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {30-33},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {June},
   Key = {fds318759}
}

@article{fds318760,
   Author = {Garrett, DD and Samanez-Larkin, GR and MacDonald, SWS and Lindenberger, U and McIntosh, AR and Grady, CL},
   Title = {Moment-to-moment brain signal variability: a next frontier
             in human brain mapping?},
   Journal = {Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews},
   Volume = {37},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {610-624},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2013.02.015},
   Abstract = {Neuroscientists have long observed that brain activity is
             naturally variable from moment-to-moment, but neuroimaging
             research has largely ignored the potential importance of
             this phenomenon. An emerging research focus on within-person
             brain signal variability is providing novel insights, and
             offering highly predictive, complementary, and even
             orthogonal views of brain function in relation to human
             lifespan development, cognitive performance, and various
             clinical conditions. As a result, brain signal variability
             is evolving as a bona fide signal of interest, and should no
             longer be dismissed as meaningless noise when mapping the
             human brain.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neubiorev.2013.02.015},
   Key = {fds318760}
}

@article{fds327691,
   Author = {Camerer, C and Smith, A and Kuhnen, CM and Wargo, DT and Samanez-Larkin,
             G and Montague, R and Levy, DJ and Smith, D and Meshi, D and Kenning, PH and Clithero, J and Weber, B and Hare, T and Huettel, S and Josephson, C and d'Acremont, M and Knoch, D and Krajbich, I and De Martino and B and Mohr,
             PNC and Barton, J and Halko, M-L and Chick, CF and Gianotti, L and Heekeren, HR},
   Title = {Correspondence Are Cognitive Functions Localizable?},
   Journal = {The Journal of Economic Perspectives : a Journal of the
             American Economic Association},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {247-250},
   Publisher = {AMER ECONOMIC ASSOC},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds327691}
}

@article{fds318761,
   Author = {Kuhnen, CM and Samanez-Larkin, GR and Knutson,
             B},
   Title = {Serotonergic genotypes, neuroticism, and financial
             choices.},
   Journal = {Plos One},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {e54632},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054632},
   Abstract = {Life financial outcomes carry a significant heritable
             component, but the mechanisms by which genes influence
             financial choices remain unclear. Focusing on a polymorphism
             in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene
             (5-HTTLPR), we found that individuals possessing the short
             allele of this gene invested less in equities, were less
             engaged in actively making investment decisions, and had
             fewer credit lines. Short allele carriers also showed higher
             levels of the personality trait neuroticism, despite not
             differing from others with respect to cognitive skills,
             education, or wealth. Mediation analysis suggested that the
             presence of the 5-HTTLPR short allele decreased real life
             measures of financial risk taking through its influence on
             neuroticism. These findings show that 5-HTTLPR short allele
             carriers avoid risky and complex financial choices due to
             negative emotional reactions, and have implications for
             understanding and managing individual differences in
             financial choice.},
   Doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0054632},
   Key = {fds318761}
}

@misc{fds325715,
   Author = {Knutson, B and Samanez-Larkin, GR},
   Title = {Brain, Decision, and Debt},
   Pages = {167-180},
   Booktitle = {A Debtor World: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on
             Debt},
   Publisher = {Oxford University Press},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9780199873722},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199873722.003.0007},
   Abstract = {© Oxford University Press, 2013. This chapter summarizes
             recent findings in neuroeconomics suggesting that emotion
             (specifically, "anticipatory affect") can influence
             financial decisions. It then discusses how individual
             differences in anticipatory affect may promote proneness to
             consumer debt. Thanks to improvements in spatial and
             temporal resolution, functional magnetic resonance imaging
             experiments have begun to suggest that activation of a brain
             region associated with anticipating gains (i.e., the nucleus
             accumbens or NAcc) precedes an increased tendency to seek
             financial gains, whereas activation of another region
             associated with anticipating losses (i.e., the anterior
             insula) precedes an increased tendency to avoid financial
             losses. By extension, individual differences in increased
             gain anticipation, decreased loss anticipation, or some
             combination of the two might promote proneness to debt.
             Ultimately, neuroeconomic advances may help individuals to
             optimize their investment strategies, as well as empower
             institutions to minimize consumer debt.},
   Doi = {10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199873722.003.0007},
   Key = {fds325715}
}

@article{fds318762,
   Author = {Samanez-Larkin, GR and Li, S-C and Ridderinkhof,
             KR},
   Title = {Complementary approaches to the study of decision making
             across the adult life span.},
   Journal = {Frontiers in Neuroscience},
   Volume = {7},
   Pages = {243},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2013.00243},
   Doi = {10.3389/fnins.2013.00243},
   Key = {fds318762}
}

@article{fds318763,
   Author = {Samanez-Larkin, GR and Levens, SM and Perry, LM and Dougherty, RF and Knutson, B},
   Title = {Frontostriatal white matter integrity mediates adult age
             differences in probabilistic reward learning.},
   Journal = {The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the
             Society for Neuroscience},
   Volume = {32},
   Number = {15},
   Pages = {5333-5337},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5756-11.2012},
   Abstract = {Frontostriatal circuits have been implicated in reward
             learning, and emerging findings suggest that frontal white
             matter structural integrity and probabilistic reward
             learning are reduced in older age. This cross-sectional
             study examined whether age differences in frontostriatal
             white matter integrity could account for age differences in
             reward learning in a community life span sample of human
             adults. By combining diffusion tensor imaging with a
             probabilistic reward learning task, we found that older age
             was associated with decreased reward learning and decreased
             white matter integrity in specific pathways running from the
             thalamus to the medial prefrontal cortex and from the medial
             prefrontal cortex to the ventral striatum. Further, white
             matter integrity in these thalamocorticostriatal paths could
             statistically account for age differences in learning. These
             findings suggest that the integrity of frontostriatal white
             matter pathways critically supports reward learning. The
             findings also raise the possibility that interventions that
             bolster frontostriatal integrity might improve reward
             learning and decision making.},
   Doi = {10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5756-11.2012},
   Key = {fds318763}
}

@article{fds318764,
   Author = {Samanez-Larkin, GR},
   Title = {Introduction to decision making over the life
             span.},
   Journal = {Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences},
   Volume = {1235},
   Pages = {v-vi},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.06252.x},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.06252.x},
   Key = {fds318764}
}

@article{fds318765,
   Author = {Mata, R and Josef, AK and Samanez-Larkin, GR and Hertwig,
             R},
   Title = {Age differences in risky choice: a meta-analysis.},
   Journal = {Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences},
   Volume = {1235},
   Pages = {18-29},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.06200.x},
   Abstract = {Does risk taking change as a function of age? We conducted a
             systematic literature search and found 29 comparisons
             between younger and older adults on behavioral tasks thought
             to measure risk taking (N= 4,093). The reports relied on
             various tasks differing in several respects, such as the
             amount of learning required or the choice framing (gains vs.
             losses). The results suggest that age-related differences
             vary considerably as a function of task characteristics, in
             particular the learning requirements of the task. In
             decisions from experience, age-related differences in risk
             taking were a function of decreased learning performance:
             older adults were more risk seeking compared to younger
             adults when learning led to risk-avoidant behavior, but were
             more risk averse when learning led to risk-seeking behavior.
             In decisions from description, younger adults and older
             adults showed similar risk-taking behavior for the majority
             of the tasks, and there were no clear age-related
             differences as a function of gain/loss framing. We discuss
             limitations and strengths of past research and provide
             suggestions for future work on age-related differences in
             risk taking.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.06200.x},
   Key = {fds318765}
}

@article{fds318766,
   Author = {Samanez-Larkin, GR and Wagner, AD and Knutson,
             B},
   Title = {Expected value information improves financial risk taking
             across the adult life span.},
   Journal = {Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience},
   Volume = {6},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {207-217},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/scan/nsq043},
   Abstract = {When making decisions, individuals must often compensate for
             cognitive limitations, particularly in the face of advanced
             age. Recent findings suggest that age-related variability in
             striatal activity may increase financial risk-taking
             mistakes in older adults. In two studies, we sought to
             further characterize neural contributions to optimal
             financial risk taking and to determine whether decision aids
             could improve financial risk taking. In Study 1,
             neuroimaging analyses revealed that individuals whose
             mesolimbic activation correlated with the expected value
             estimates of a rational actor made more optimal financial
             decisions. In Study 2, presentation of expected value
             information improved decision making in both younger and
             older adults, but the addition of a distracting secondary
             task had little impact on decision quality. Remarkably,
             provision of expected value information improved the
             performance of older adults to match that of younger adults
             at baseline. These findings are consistent with the notion
             that mesolimbic circuits play a critical role in optimal
             choice, and imply that providing simplified information
             about expected value may improve financial risk taking
             across the adult life span.},
   Doi = {10.1093/scan/nsq043},
   Key = {fds318766}
}

@article{fds318767,
   Author = {Carstensen, LL and Turan, B and Scheibe, S and Ram, N and Ersner-Hershfield, H and Samanez-Larkin, GR and Brooks, KP and Nesselroade, JR},
   Title = {Emotional experience improves with age: evidence based on
             over 10 years of experience sampling.},
   Journal = {Psychology and Aging},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {21-33},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0021285},
   Abstract = {Recent evidence suggests that emotional well-being improves
             from early adulthood to old age. This study used
             experience-sampling to examine the developmental course of
             emotional experience in a representative sample of adults
             spanning early to very late adulthood. Participants (N =
             184, Wave 1; N = 191, Wave 2; N = 178, Wave 3) reported
             their emotional states at five randomly selected times each
             day for a one week period. Using a measurement burst design,
             the one-week sampling procedure was repeated five and then
             ten years later. Cross-sectional and growth curve analyses
             indicate that aging is associated with more positive overall
             emotional well-being, with greater emotional stability and
             with more complexity (as evidenced by greater co-occurrence
             of positive and negative emotions). These findings remained
             robust after accounting for other variables that may be
             related to emotional experience (personality, verbal
             fluency, physical health, and demographic variables).
             Finally, emotional experience predicted mortality;
             controlling for age, sex, and ethnicity, individuals who
             experienced relatively more positive than negative emotions
             in everyday life were more likely to have survived over a 13
             year period. Findings are discussed in the theoretical
             context of socioemotional selectivity theory.},
   Doi = {10.1037/a0021285},
   Key = {fds318767}
}

@article{fds318768,
   Author = {Samanez-Larkin, GR and Mata, R and Radu, PT and Ballard, IC and Carstensen, LL and McClure, SM},
   Title = {Age Differences in Striatal Delay Sensitivity during
             Intertemporal Choice in Healthy Adults.},
   Journal = {Frontiers in Neuroscience},
   Volume = {5},
   Pages = {126},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2011.00126},
   Abstract = {Intertemporal choices are a ubiquitous class of decisions
             that involve selecting between outcomes available at
             different times in the future. We investigated the neural
             systems supporting intertemporal decisions in healthy
             younger and older adults. Using functional neuroimaging, we
             find that aging is associated with a shift in the brain
             areas that respond to delayed rewards. Although we replicate
             findings that brain regions associated with the mesolimbic
             dopamine system respond preferentially to immediate rewards,
             we find a separate region in the ventral striatum with very
             modest time dependence in older adults. Activation in this
             striatal region was relatively insensitive to delay in older
             but not younger adults. Since the dopamine system is
             believed to support associative learning about future
             rewards over time, our observed transfer of function may be
             due to greater experience with delayed rewards as people
             age. Identifying differences in the neural systems
             underlying these decisions may contribute to a more
             comprehensive model of age-related change in intertemporal
             choice.},
   Doi = {10.3389/fnins.2011.00126},
   Key = {fds318768}
}

@article{fds318769,
   Author = {Knutson, B and Samanez-Larkin, GR and Kuhnen, CM},
   Title = {Gain and loss learning differentially contribute to life
             financial outcomes.},
   Journal = {Plos One},
   Volume = {6},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {e24390},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024390},
   Abstract = {Emerging findings imply that distinct neurobehavioral
             systems process gains and losses. This study investigated
             whether individual differences in gain learning and loss
             learning might contribute to different life financial
             outcomes (i.e., assets versus debt). In a community sample
             of healthy adults (n = 75), rapid learners had smaller
             debt-to-asset ratios overall. More specific analyses,
             however, revealed that those who learned rapidly about gains
             had more assets, while those who learned rapidly about
             losses had less debt. These distinct associations remained
             strong even after controlling for potential cognitive (e.g.,
             intelligence, memory, and risk preferences) and
             socioeconomic (e.g., age, sex, ethnicity, income, education)
             confounds. Self-reported measures of assets and debt were
             additionally validated with credit report data in a subset
             of subjects. These findings support the notion that
             different gain and loss learning systems may exert a
             cumulative influence on distinct life financial
             outcomes.},
   Doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0024390},
   Key = {fds318769}
}

@article{fds318770,
   Author = {Samanez-Larkin, GR and Kuhnen, CM and Yoo, DJ and Knutson,
             B},
   Title = {Variability in nucleus accumbens activity mediates
             age-related suboptimal financial risk taking.},
   Journal = {The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the
             Society for Neuroscience},
   Volume = {30},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1426-1434},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4902-09.2010},
   Abstract = {As human life expectancy continues to rise, financial
             decisions of aging investors may have an increasing impact
             on the global economy. In this study, we examined age
             differences in financial decisions across the adult life
             span by combining functional neuroimaging with a dynamic
             financial investment task. During the task, older adults
             made more suboptimal choices than younger adults when
             choosing risky assets. This age-related effect was mediated
             by a neural measure of temporal variability in nucleus
             accumbens activity. These findings reveal a novel neural
             mechanism by which aging may disrupt rational financial
             choice.},
   Doi = {10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4902-09.2010},
   Key = {fds318770}
}

@article{fds318771,
   Author = {Samanez-Larkin, GR and Robertson, ER and Mikels, JA and Carstensen,
             LL and Gotlib, IH},
   Title = {Selective attention to emotion in the aging
             brain.},
   Journal = {Psychology and Aging},
   Volume = {24},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {519-529},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0016952},
   Abstract = {A growing body of research suggests that the ability to
             regulate emotion remains stable or improves across the adult
             life span. Socioemotional selectivity theory maintains that
             this pattern of findings reflects the prioritization of
             emotional goals. Given that goal-directed behavior requires
             attentional control, the present study was designed to
             investigate age differences in selective attention to
             emotional lexical stimuli under conditions of emotional
             interference. Both neural and behavioral measures were
             obtained during an experiment in which participants
             completed a flanker task that required them to make
             categorical judgments about emotional and nonemotional
             stimuli. Older adults showed interference in both the
             behavioral and neural measures on control trials but not on
             emotion trials. Although older adults typically show
             relatively high levels of interference and reduced cognitive
             control during nonemotional tasks, they appear to be able to
             successfully reduce interference during emotional
             tasks.},
   Doi = {10.1037/a0016952},
   Key = {fds318771}
}

@article{fds318772,
   Author = {Kwon, Y and Scheibe, S and Samanez-Larkin, GR and Tsai, JL and Carstensen, LL},
   Title = {Replicating the positivity effect in picture memory in
             Koreans: evidence for cross-cultural generalizability.},
   Journal = {Psychology and Aging},
   Volume = {24},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {748-754},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0016054},
   Abstract = {Older adults' relatively better memory for positive over
             negative material (positivity effect) has been widely
             observed in Western samples. This study examined whether a
             relative preference for positive over negative material is
             also observed in older Koreans. Younger and older Korean
             participants viewed images from the International Affective
             Picture System (IAPS), were tested for recall and
             recognition of the images, and rated the images for valence.
             Cultural differences in the valence ratings of images
             emerged. Once considered, the relative preference for
             positive over negative material in memory observed in older
             Koreans was indistinguishable from that observed previously
             in older Americans.},
   Doi = {10.1037/a0016054},
   Key = {fds318772}
}

@article{fds318773,
   Author = {Ersner-Hershfield, H and Garton, MT and Ballard, K and Samanez-Larkin, GR and Knutson, B},
   Title = {Don't stop thinking about tomorrow: Individual differences
             in future self-continuity account for saving.},
   Journal = {Judgment and Decision Making},
   Volume = {4},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {280-286},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {June},
   Abstract = {Some people find it more difficult to delay rewards than
             others. In three experiments, we tested a "future
             self-continuity" hypothesis that individual differences in
             the perception of one's present self as continuous with a
             future self would be associated with measures of saving in
             the laboratory and everyday life. Higher future
             self-continuity (assessed by a novel index) predicted
             reduced discounting of future rewards in a laboratory task,
             more matches in adjectival descriptions of present and
             future selves, and greater lifetime accumulation of
             financial assets (even after controlling for age and
             education). In addition to demonstrating the reliability and
             validity of the future self-continuity index, these findings
             are consistent with the notion that increased future
             self-continuity might promote saving for the
             future.},
   Key = {fds318773}
}

@article{fds318774,
   Author = {Samanez-Larkin, GR and D'Esposito, M},
   Title = {Group comparisons: imaging the aging brain.},
   Journal = {Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience},
   Volume = {3},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {290-297},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/scan/nsn029},
   Abstract = {With the recent growth of functional magnetic resonance
             imaging (fMRI), scientists across a range of disciplines are
             comparing neural activity between groups of interest, such
             as healthy controls and clinical patients, children and
             young adults and younger and older adults. In this edition
             of Tools of the Trade, we will discuss why great caution
             must be taken when making group comparisons in studies using
             fMRI. Although many methodological contributions have been
             made in recent years, the suggestions for overcoming common
             issues are too often overlooked. This review focuses
             primarily on neuroimaging studies of healthy aging, but many
             of the issues raised apply to other group designs as
             well.},
   Doi = {10.1093/scan/nsn029},
   Key = {fds318774}
}

@article{fds318775,
   Author = {Samanez-Larkin, GR and Hollon, NG and Carstensen, LL and Knutson,
             B},
   Title = {Individual differences in insular sensitivity during loss
             anticipation predict avoidance learning.},
   Journal = {Psychological Science},
   Volume = {19},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {320-323},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02087.x},
   Abstract = {The anterior insula has been implicated in both the
             experience and the anticipation of negative outcomes.
             Although individual differences in insular sensitivity have
             been associated with self-report measures of chronic
             anxiety, previous research has not examined whether
             individual differences in insular sensitivity predict
             learning to avoid aversive stimuli. In the present study,
             insular sensitivity was assessed as participants anticipated
             monetary losses while undergoing functional magnetic
             resonance imaging. We found that insular responsiveness to
             anticipated losses predicted participants' ability to learn
             to avoid losses (but not to approach gains) in a behavioral
             test several months later. These findings suggest that in
             addition to correlating with self-reported anxiety,
             heightened insular sensitivity may promote learning to avoid
             loss.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02087.x},
   Key = {fds318775}
}

@article{fds318776,
   Author = {Samanez Larkin and GR and Gibbs, SEB and Khanna, K and Nielsen, L and Carstensen, LL and Knutson, B},
   Title = {Erratum: Anticipation of monetary gain but not loss in
             healthy older adults (Nature Neuroscience (2007) 10,
             (787-791))},
   Journal = {Nature Neuroscience},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {1222},
   Publisher = {Springer Nature},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nn0907-1222b},
   Doi = {10.1038/nn0907-1222b},
   Key = {fds318776}
}

@article{fds318777,
   Author = {Samanez-Larkin, GR and Gibbs, SEB and Khanna, K and Nielsen, L and Carstensen, LL and Knutson, B},
   Title = {Anticipation of monetary gain but not loss in healthy older
             adults.},
   Journal = {Nature Neuroscience},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {787-791},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nn1894},
   Abstract = {Although global declines in structure have been documented
             in the aging human brain, little is known about the
             functional integrity of the striatum and prefrontal cortex
             in older adults during incentive processing. We used
             event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to
             determine whether younger and older adults differed in both
             self-reported and neural responsiveness to anticipated
             monetary gains and losses. The present study provides
             evidence for intact striatal and insular activation during
             gain anticipation with age, but shows a relative reduction
             in activation during loss anticipation. These findings
             suggest that there is an asymmetry in the processing of
             gains and losses in older adults that may have implications
             for decision-making.},
   Doi = {10.1038/nn1894},
   Key = {fds318777}
}

@article{fds318778,
   Author = {Mikels, JA and Larkin, GR and Reuter-Lorenz, PA and Cartensen,
             LL},
   Title = {Divergent trajectories in the aging mind: changes in working
             memory for affective versus visual information with
             age.},
   Journal = {Psychology and Aging},
   Volume = {20},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {542-553},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.20.4.542},
   Abstract = {Working memory mediates the short-term maintenance of
             information. Virtually all empirical research on working
             memory involves investigations of working memory for verbal
             and visual information. Whereas aging is typically
             associated with a deficit in working memory for these types
             of information, recent findings suggestive of relatively
             well-preserved long-term memory for emotional information in
             older adults raise questions about working memory for
             emotional material. This study examined age differences in
             working memory for emotional versus visual information.
             Findings demonstrate that, despite an age-related deficit
             for the latter, working memory for emotion was unimpaired.
             Further, older adults exhibited superior performance on
             positive relative to negative emotion trials, whereas their
             younger counterparts exhibited the opposite
             pattern.},
   Doi = {10.1037/0882-7974.20.4.542},
   Key = {fds318778}
}

@article{fds320740,
   Author = {Mikels, JA and Fredrickson, BL and Larkin, GR and Lindberg, CM and Maglio, SJ and Reuter-Lorenz, PA},
   Title = {Emotional category data on images from the International
             Affective Picture System.},
   Journal = {Behavior Research Methods},
   Volume = {37},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {626-630},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/bf03192732},
   Abstract = {The International Affective Picture System (IAPS) is widely
             used in studies of emotion and has been characterized
             primarily along the dimensions of valence, arousal, and
             dominance. Even though research has shown that the IAPS is
             useful in the study of discrete emotions, the categorical
             structure of the IAPS has not been characterized thoroughly.
             The purpose of the present project was to collect
             descriptive emotional category data on subsets of the LAPS
             in an effort to identify images that elicit onediscrete
             emotion more than others. These data reveal multiple
             emotional categories for the images and indicate that this
             image set has great potential in the investigation of
             discrete emotions. This article makes these data available
             to researchers with such interests. Data for all the
             pictures are archived at www.psychonomic.org/archive/.},
   Doi = {10.3758/bf03192732},
   Key = {fds320740}
}

@article{fds318779,
   Author = {Fredrickson, BL and Tugade, MM and Waugh, CE and Larkin,
             GR},
   Title = {What good are positive emotions in crises? A prospective
             study of resilience and emotions following the terrorist
             attacks on the United States on September 11th,
             2001.},
   Journal = {Journal of Personality and Social Psychology},
   Volume = {84},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {365-376},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037//0022-3514.84.2.365},
   Abstract = {Extrapolating from B. L. Fredrickson's (1998, 2001)
             broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, the authors
             hypothesized that positive emotions are active ingredients
             within trait resilience. U.S. college students (18 men and
             28 women) were tested in early 2001 and again in the weeks
             following the September 11th terrorist attacks. Mediational
             analyses showed that positive emotions experienced in the
             wake of the attacks--gratitude, interest, love, and so
             forth--fully accounted for the relations between (a)
             precrisis resilience and later development of depressive
             symptoms and (b) precrisis resilience and postcrisis growth
             in psychological resources. Findings suggest that positive
             emotions in the aftermath of crises buffer resilient people
             against depression and fuel thriving, consistent with the
             broaden-and-build theory. Discussion touches on implications
             for coping.},
   Doi = {10.1037//0022-3514.84.2.365},
   Key = {fds318779}
}


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