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Publications of Paul Seli    :chronological  alphabetical  combined listing:

%% Journal Articles   
@article{fds335720,
   Author = {Seli, P and Schacter, DL and Risko, EF and Smilek,
             D},
   Title = {Increasing participant motivation reduces rates of
             intentional and unintentional mind wandering.},
   Journal = {Psychological Research},
   Volume = {83},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1057-1069},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00426-017-0914-2},
   Abstract = {We explored the possibility that increasing participants'
             motivation to perform well on a focal task can reduce mind
             wandering. Participants completed a sustained-attention task
             either with standard instructions (normal motivation), or
             with instructions informing them that they could be excused
             from the experiment early if they achieved a certain level
             of performance (higher motivation). Throughout the task, we
             assessed rates of mind wandering (both intentional and
             unintentional types) via thought probes. Results showed that
             the motivation manipulation led to significant reductions in
             both intentional and unintentional mind wandering as well as
             improvements in task performance. Most critically, we found
             that our simple motivation manipulation led to a dramatic
             reduction in probe-caught mind-wandering rates (49%)
             compared to a control condition (67%), which suggests the
             utility of motivation-based methods to reduce people's
             propensity to mind-wander.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s00426-017-0914-2},
   Key = {fds335720}
}

@article{fds342492,
   Author = {Seli, P and Beaty, RE and Marty-Dugas, J and Smilek,
             D},
   Title = {Depression, anxiety, and stress and the distinction between
             intentional and unintentional mind wandering},
   Journal = {Psychology of Consciousness: Theory Research, and
             Practice},
   Volume = {6},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {163-170},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/cns0000182},
   Abstract = {© 2019 American Psychological Association. We examined
             whether the previously documented association between mind
             wandering and affective dysfunction depends, at least to
             some extent, on whether mind wandering episodes are
             intentional or unintentional. In two large samples, we
             assessed trait-level rates of intentional and unintentional
             mind wandering, as well as three different types of
             affective dysfunction: depression, anxiety, and stress.
             Results indicated that, whereas unintentional mind wandering
             was uniquely positively associated with all three types of
             affective dysfunction, intentional mind wandering was
             uniquely (albeit very weakly) negatively associated with
             stress and anxiety and had no relation to depression. These
             findings indicate that people who more frequently engage in
             unintentional types of mind wandering are more likely to
             report symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress, and that
             intentional mind wandering may buffer against these types of
             affective dysfunction.},
   Doi = {10.1037/cns0000182},
   Key = {fds342492}
}

@article{fds338080,
   Author = {Beaty, RE and Seli, P and Schacter, DL},
   Title = {Network Neuroscience of Creative Cognition: Mapping
             Cognitive Mechanisms and Individual Differences in the
             Creative Brain.},
   Journal = {Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences},
   Volume = {27},
   Pages = {22-30},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.08.013},
   Abstract = {Network neuroscience research is providing increasing
             specificity on the contribution of large-scale brain
             networks to creative cognition. Here, we summarize recent
             experimental work examining cognitive mechanisms of network
             interactions and correlational studies assessing network
             dynamics associated with individual creative abilities. Our
             review identifies three cognitive processes related to
             network interactions during creative performance:
             goal-directed memory retrieval, prepotent-response
             inhibition, and internally-focused attention. Correlational
             work using prediction modeling indicates that functional
             connectivity between networks-particularly the executive
             control and default networks-can reliably predict an
             individual's creative thinking ability. We discuss potential
             directions for future network neuroscience, including
             assessing creative performance in specific domains and using
             brain stimulation to test causal hypotheses regarding
             network interactions and cognitive mechanisms of creative
             thought.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.08.013},
   Key = {fds338080}
}

@article{fds337407,
   Author = {Beaty, RE and Seli, P and Schacter, DL},
   Title = {Thinking about the past and future in daily life: an
             experience sampling study of individual differences in
             mental time travel.},
   Journal = {Psychological Research},
   Volume = {83},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {805-816},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00426-018-1075-7},
   Abstract = {Remembering the past and imagining the future are hallmarks
             of mental time travel. We provide evidence that such
             experiences are influenced by individual differences in
             temporal and affective biases in cognitive style,
             particularly brooding rumination (a negative past-oriented
             bias) and optimism (a positive future-oriented bias).
             Participants completed a 7-day, cellphone-based
             experience-sampling study of temporal orientation and mental
             imagery. Multilevel models showed that individual
             differences in brooding rumination predicted less vivid and
             positive past- and future-oriented thoughts, even after
             controlling for depressed mood. People high in brooding
             rumination were also more likely to report thinking about a
             past experience when probed at random during the day.
             Conversely, optimists were more likely to report more vivid
             and positive future-oriented, but not past-oriented
             thoughts, although they did not report thinking more or less
             often about the past and future. The results suggest that
             temporal and affective biases in cognitive style influence
             how people think about the past and future in daily
             life.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s00426-018-1075-7},
   Key = {fds337407}
}

@article{fds339652,
   Author = {Seli, P and Beaty, RE and Cheyne, JA and Smilek, D and Oakman, J and Schacter, DL},
   Title = {How pervasive is mind wandering, really?},
   Journal = {Consciousness and Cognition},
   Volume = {66},
   Pages = {74-78},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2018.10.002},
   Abstract = {Recent claims that people spend 30-50% of their waking lives
             mind wandering (Killingsworth & Gilbert, 2010; Kane et al.,
             2007) have become widely accepted and frequently cited.
             While acknowledging attention to be inconstant and wavering,
             and mind wandering to be ubiquitous, we argue and present
             evidence that such simple quantitative estimates are
             misleading and potentially meaningless without serious
             qualification. Mind-wandering estimates requiring
             dichotomous judgments of inner experience rely on
             questionable assumptions about how such judgments are made,
             and the resulting data do not permit straightforward
             interpretation. We present evidence that estimates of
             daily-life mind wandering vary dramatically depending on the
             response options provided. Offering participants a range of
             options in estimating task engagement yielded variable
             mind-wandering estimates, from approximately 60% to 10%,
             depending on assumptions made about how observers make
             introspective judgments about their mind-wandering
             experiences and how they understand what it means to be on-
             or off-task.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.concog.2018.10.002},
   Key = {fds339652}
}

@article{fds338054,
   Author = {Seli, P and Kane, MJ and Metzinger, T and Smallwood, J and Schacter, DL and Maillet, D and Schooler, JW and Smilek, D},
   Title = {The Family-Resemblances Framework for Mind-Wandering Remains
             Well Clad.},
   Journal = {Trends in Cognitive Sciences},
   Volume = {22},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {959-961},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2018.07.007},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.tics.2018.07.007},
   Key = {fds338054}
}

@article{fds338053,
   Author = {Seli, P and Konishi, M and Risko, EF and Smilek, D},
   Title = {The role of task difficulty in theoretical accounts of mind
             wandering.},
   Journal = {Consciousness and Cognition},
   Volume = {65},
   Pages = {255-262},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2018.08.005},
   Abstract = {Recent research has indicated that reducing the difficulty
             of a task by increasing the predictability of critical
             stimuli produces increases in intentional mind wandering,
             but, contrary to theoretical expectations, decreases in
             unintentional mind wandering. Here, we sought to determine
             whether reducing task difficulty by reducing working-memory
             load would yield similar results. Participants completed an
             easy (Choice Response Time; CRT) task and a relatively
             difficult (Working Memory; WM) task, and intermittently
             responded to thought probes asking about intentional and
             unintentional mind wandering. As in prior studies, we found
             higher rates of intentional mind wandering during the easy
             compared to the more difficult task. However, we also found
             more unintentional mind wandering during the difficult
             compared to the easy task. We discuss these results in the
             context of theoretical accounts of mind wandering.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.concog.2018.08.005},
   Key = {fds338053}
}

@article{fds335716,
   Author = {Seli, P and Carriere, JSA and Wammes, JD and Risko, EF and Schacter, DL and Smilek, D},
   Title = {On the Clock: Evidence for the Rapid and Strategic
             Modulation of Mind Wandering.},
   Journal = {Psychological Science},
   Volume = {29},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {1247-1256},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618761039},
   Abstract = {We examined the hypothesis that people can modulate their
             mind wandering on the basis of their expectations of
             upcoming challenges in a task. To this end, we developed a
             novel paradigm in which participants were presented with an
             analog clock, via a computer monitor, and asked to push a
             button every time the clock's hand was pointed at 12:00.
             Importantly, the time at which the clock's hand was pointed
             at 12:00 was completely predictable and occurred at 20-s
             intervals. During some of the 20-s intervals, we presented
             thought probes to index participants' rates of mind
             wandering. Results indicated that participants decreased
             their levels of mind wandering as they approached the
             predictable upcoming target. Critically, these results
             suggest that people can and do modulate their mind wandering
             in anticipation of changes in task demands.},
   Doi = {10.1177/0956797618761039},
   Key = {fds335716}
}

@article{fds335718,
   Author = {Laflamme, P and Seli, P and Smilek, D},
   Title = {Validating a visual version of the metronome response
             task.},
   Journal = {Behavior Research Methods},
   Volume = {50},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1503-1514},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-018-1020-0},
   Abstract = {The metronome response task (MRT)-a sustained-attention task
             that requires participants to produce a response in
             synchrony with an audible metronome-was recently developed
             to index response variability in the context of studies on
             mind wandering. In the present studies, we report on the
             development and validation of a visual version of the MRT
             (the visual metronome response task; vMRT), which uses the
             rhythmic presentation of visual, rather than auditory,
             stimuli. Participants completed the vMRT (Studies 1 and 2)
             and the original (auditory-based) MRT (Study 2) while also
             responding to intermittent thought probes asking them to
             report the depth of their mind wandering. The results showed
             that (1) individual differences in response variability
             during the vMRT are highly reliable; (2) prior to thought
             probes, response variability increases with increasing depth
             of mind wandering; (3) response variability is highly
             consistent between the vMRT and the original MRT; and (4)
             both response variability and depth of mind wandering
             increase with increasing time on task. Our results indicate
             that the original MRT findings are consistent across the
             visual and auditory modalities, and that the response
             variability measured in both tasks indexes a
             non-modality-specific tendency toward behavioral
             variability. The vMRT will be useful in the place of the MRT
             in experimental contexts in which researchers' designs
             require a visual-based primary task.},
   Doi = {10.3758/s13428-018-1020-0},
   Key = {fds335718}
}

@article{fds335714,
   Author = {Ralph, BCW and Seli, P and Wilson, KE and Smilek,
             D},
   Title = {Volitional media multitasking: awareness of performance
             costs and modulation of media multitasking as a function of
             task demand.},
   Journal = {Psychological Research},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00426-018-1056-x},
   Abstract = {In two experiments, we sought to determine whether (a)
             people are aware of the frequently observed performance
             costs associated with engaging in media multitasking
             (Experiment 1), and (b) if so, whether they modulate the
             extent to which they engage in multitasking as a function of
             task demand (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, participants
             completed a high-demand task (2-back) both independently and
             while a video was simultaneously presented. To determine
             whether people were sensitive to the impact that the
             concurrent video had on primary-task performance, subjective
             estimates of performance were collected following both trial
             types (No-Video vs. Video trials), as were explicit beliefs
             about the influence of the video on performance. In
             Experiment 2, we modified our paradigm by allowing
             participants to turn the video on and off at their
             discretion, and had them complete either a high-demand task
             (2-back) or a low-demand task (0-back). Findings from
             Experiment 1 indicated that people are sensitive to the
             magnitude of the decrement that media multitasking has on
             primary-task performance. In addition, findings from
             Experiment 2 indicated that people modulate the extent to
             which they engage in media multitasking in accordance with
             the demands of their primary task. In particular,
             participants completing the high-demand task were more
             likely to turn off the optional video stream compared to
             those completing the low-demand task. The results suggest
             that people media multitask in a strategic manner by
             balancing considerations of task performance with other
             potential concerns.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s00426-018-1056-x},
   Key = {fds335714}
}

@article{fds335715,
   Author = {Seli, P and Kane, MJ and Smallwood, J and Schacter, DL and Maillet, D and Schooler, JW and Smilek, D},
   Title = {Mind-Wandering as a Natural Kind: A Family-Resemblances
             View.},
   Journal = {Trends in Cognitive Sciences},
   Volume = {22},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {479-490},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2018.03.010},
   Abstract = {As empirical research on mind-wandering accelerates, we draw
             attention to an emerging trend in how mind-wandering is
             conceptualized. Previously articulated definitions of
             mind-wandering differ from each other in important ways, yet
             they also maintain overlapping characteristics. This
             conceptual structure suggests that mind-wandering is best
             considered from a family-resemblances perspective, which
             entails treating it as a graded, heterogeneous construct and
             clearly measuring and describing the specific aspect(s) of
             mind-wandering that researchers are investigating. We
             believe that adopting this family-resemblances approach will
             increase conceptual and methodological connections among
             related phenomena in the mind-wandering family and encourage
             a more nuanced and precise understanding of the many
             varieties of mind-wandering.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.tics.2018.03.010},
   Key = {fds335715}
}

@article{fds335717,
   Author = {Seli, P and Smilek, D and Ralph, BCW and Schacter,
             DL},
   Title = {The awakening of the attention: Evidence for a link between
             the monitoring of mind wandering and prospective
             goals.},
   Journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology. General},
   Volume = {147},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {431-443},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000385},
   Abstract = {Across 2 independent samples, we examined the relation
             between individual differences in rates of self-caught mind
             wandering and individual differences in temporal monitoring
             of an unrelated response goal. Rates of self-caught mind
             wandering were assessed during a commonly used
             sustained-attention task, and temporal goal monitoring was
             indexed during a well-established prospective-memory task.
             The results from both samples showed a positive relation
             between rates of self-caught mind wandering during the
             sustained-attention task and rates of checking a clock to
             monitor the amount of time remaining before a response was
             required in the prospective-memory task. This relation held
             even when controlling for overall propensity to mind-wander
             (indexed by intermittent thought probes) and levels of
             motivation (indexed by subjective reports). These results
             suggest the possibility that there is a common monitoring
             system that monitors the contents of consciousness and the
             progress of ongoing goals and tasks. (PsycINFO Database
             Record},
   Doi = {10.1037/xge0000385},
   Key = {fds335717}
}

@article{fds335719,
   Author = {Seli, P and Ralph, BCW and Risko, EF and W Schooler and J and Schacter, DL and Smilek, D},
   Title = {Intentionality and meta-awareness of mind wandering: Are
             they one and the same, or distinct dimensions?},
   Journal = {Psychonomic Bulletin & Review},
   Volume = {24},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1808-1818},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13423-017-1249-0},
   Abstract = {Researchers have recently demonstrated that mind-wandering
             episodes can vary on numerous dimensions, and it has been
             suggested that assessing these dimensions will play an
             important role in our understanding of mind wandering. One
             dimension that has received considerable attention in recent
             work is the intentionality of mind wandering. Although it
             has been claimed that indexing the intentionality of mind
             wandering will be necessary if researchers are to obtain a
             coherent understanding of the wandering mind, one concern is
             that this dimension might be redundant with another,
             longstanding, dimension: namely, meta-awareness. Thus, the
             utility of the argument for assessing intentionality rests
             upon a demonstration that this dimension is distinct from
             the meta-awareness dimension. To shed light on this issue,
             across two studies we compared and contrasted these
             dimensions to determine whether they are redundant or
             distinct. In both studies, we found support for the view
             that these dimensions are distinct.},
   Doi = {10.3758/s13423-017-1249-0},
   Key = {fds335719}
}

@article{fds335721,
   Author = {Maillet, D and Seli, P and Schacter, DL},
   Title = {Mind-wandering and task stimuli: Stimulus-dependent thoughts
             influence performance on memory tasks and are more often
             past- versus future-oriented.},
   Journal = {Consciousness and Cognition},
   Volume = {52},
   Pages = {55-67},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2017.04.014},
   Abstract = {Although many studies have indicated that participants
             frequently mind-wander during experimental tasks, relatively
             little research has examined the extent to which such
             thoughts are triggered by task stimuli (stimulus-dependent
             thoughts; SDTs) versus internally triggered
             (stimulus-independent thoughts; SITs). In the current
             experiment, we assessed differences in the frequency and
             characteristics of SDTs and SITs, as well as their
             associations with subsequent memory in young adults. Whereas
             frequency of SDTs (but not SITs) increased in a task with
             more meaningful stimuli, frequency of SITs (but not SDTs)
             increased in an easier task. Furthermore, only SDTs were
             more likely to be past- versus future-oriented. Finally,
             frequency and vividness of SDTs during a shallow, but not a
             deep, incidental encoding task both correlated with later
             memory performance for word stimuli. These results suggest
             that SDTs differ from SITs in several important
             ways.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.concog.2017.04.014},
   Key = {fds335721}
}

@article{fds335722,
   Author = {Seli, P and Maillet, D and Smilek, D and Oakman, JM and Schacter,
             DL},
   Title = {Cognitive aging and the distinction between intentional and
             unintentional mind wandering.},
   Journal = {Psychology and Aging},
   Volume = {32},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {315-324},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000172},
   Abstract = {A growing number of studies have reported age-related
             reductions in the frequency of mind wandering. Here, at both
             the trait (Study 1) and state (Study 2) levels, we
             reexamined this association while distinguishing between
             intentional (deliberate) and unintentional (spontaneous)
             mind wandering. Based on research demonstrating
             age-accompanied deficits in executive functioning, we
             expected to observe increases in unintentional mind
             wandering with increasing age. Moreover, because aging is
             associated with increased task motivation, we reasoned that
             older adults might be more engaged in their tasks, and
             hence, show a more pronounced decline in intentional mind
             wandering relative to young adults. In both studies, we
             found that older adults did indeed report lower rates of
             intentional mind wandering compared with young adults.
             However, contrary to our expectations, we also found that
             older adults reported lower rates of unintentional mind
             wandering (Studies 1 and 2). We discuss the implications of
             these findings for theories of age-related declines in mind
             wandering. (PsycINFO Database Record},
   Doi = {10.1037/pag0000172},
   Key = {fds335722}
}

@article{fds335723,
   Author = {Seli, P and Ralph, BCW and Konishi, M and Smilek, D and Schacter,
             DL},
   Title = {What did you have in mind? Examining the content of
             intentional and unintentional types of mind
             wandering.},
   Journal = {Consciousness and Cognition},
   Volume = {51},
   Pages = {149-156},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2017.03.007},
   Abstract = {It has recently been argued that researchers should
             distinguish between mind wandering (MW) that is engaged with
             and without intention. Supporting this argument, studies
             have found that intentional and unintentional MW have
             behavioral/neural differences, and that they are
             differentially associated with certain variables of
             theoretical interest. Although there have been considerable
             inroads made into the distinction between
             intentional/unintentional MW, possible differences in their
             content remain unexplored. To determine whether these two
             types of MW differ in content, we had participants complete
             a task during which they categorized their MW as intentional
             or unintentional, and then provided responses to questions
             about the content of their MW. Results indicated that
             intentional MW was more frequently rated as being
             future-oriented and less vague than unintentional MW. These
             findings shed light on the nature of intentional and
             unintentional MW and provide support for the argument that
             researchers should distinguish between intentional and
             unintentional types.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.concog.2017.03.007},
   Key = {fds335723}
}

@article{fds335724,
   Author = {Xu, M and Purdon, C and Seli, P and Smilek, D},
   Title = {Mindfulness and mind wandering: The protective effects of
             brief meditation in anxious individuals.},
   Journal = {Consciousness and Cognition},
   Volume = {51},
   Pages = {157-165},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2017.03.009},
   Abstract = {Mind wandering can be costly, especially when we are engaged
             in attentionally demanding tasks. Preliminary studies
             suggest that mindfulness can be a promising antidote for
             mind wandering, albeit the evidence is mixed. To better
             understand the exact impact of mindfulness on mind
             wandering, we had a sample of highly anxious undergraduate
             students complete a sustained-attention task during which
             off-task thoughts including mind wandering were assessed.
             Participants were randomly assigned to a meditation or
             control condition, after which the sustained-attention task
             was repeated. In general, our results indicate that
             mindfulness training may only have protective effects on
             mind wandering for anxious individuals. Meditation prevented
             the increase of mind wandering over time and ameliorated
             performance disruption during off-task episodes. In
             addition, we found that the meditation intervention appeared
             to promote a switch of attentional focus from the internal
             to present-moment external world, suggesting important
             implications for treating worrying in anxious
             populations.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.concog.2017.03.009},
   Key = {fds335724}
}

@article{fds335725,
   Author = {Seli, P and Risko, EF and Purdon, C and Smilek, D},
   Title = {Intrusive thoughts: linking spontaneous mind wandering and
             OCD symptomatology.},
   Journal = {Psychological Research},
   Volume = {81},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {392-398},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00426-016-0756-3},
   Abstract = {One recent line of research in the literature on mind
             wandering has been concerned with examining rates of mind
             wandering in special populations, such as those
             characterized by attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder,
             dysphoria, and schizophrenia. To best conceptualize mind
             wandering in studies examining special populations, it has
             recently been suggested that researchers distinguish between
             deliberate and spontaneous subtypes of this experience.
             Extending this line of research on mind wandering in special
             populations, in a large non-clinical sample (N = 2636), we
             examined how rates of deliberate and spontaneous mind
             wandering vary with symptoms of obsessive-compulsive
             disorder (OCD). Results indicate that, whereas deliberate
             mind wandering is not associated with OCD symptomatology,
             spontaneous mind wandering is, with higher reports of
             spontaneous mind wandering being associated with higher
             reports of OCD symptoms. We discuss the implications of
             these results for understanding both mind wandering and
             OCD.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s00426-016-0756-3},
   Key = {fds335725}
}

@article{fds335726,
   Author = {Golchert, J and Smallwood, J and Jefferies, E and Seli, P and Huntenburg, JM and Liem, F and Lauckner, ME and Oligschläger, S and Bernhardt, BC and Villringer, A and Margulies,
             DS},
   Title = {Individual variation in intentionality in the mind-wandering
             state is reflected in the integration of the default-mode,
             fronto-parietal, and limbic networks.},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {146},
   Pages = {226-235},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2016.11.025},
   Abstract = {Mind-wandering has a controversial relationship with
             cognitive control. Existing psychological evidence supports
             the hypothesis that episodes of mind-wandering reflect a
             failure to constrain thinking to task-relevant material, as
             well the apparently alternative view that control can
             facilitate the expression of self-generated mental content.
             We assessed whether this apparent contradiction arises
             because of a failure to consider differences in the types of
             thoughts that occur during mind-wandering, and in
             particular, the associated level of intentionality. Using
             multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis, we
             examined the cortical organisation that underlies
             inter-individual differences in descriptions of the
             spontaneous or deliberate nature of mind-wandering. Cortical
             thickness, as well as functional connectivity analyses,
             implicated regions relevant to cognitive control and regions
             of the default-mode network for individuals who reported
             high rates of deliberate mind-wandering. In contrast, higher
             reports of spontaneous mind-wandering were associated with
             cortical thinning in parietal and posterior temporal regions
             in the left hemisphere (which are important in the control
             of cognition and attention) as well as heightened
             connectivity between the intraparietal sulcus and a region
             that spanned limbic and default-mode regions in the ventral
             inferior frontal gyrus. Finally, we observed a dissociation
             in the thickness of the retrosplenial cortex/lingual gyrus,
             with higher reports of spontaneous mind-wandering being
             associated with thickening in the left hemisphere, and
             higher repots of deliberate mind-wandering with thinning in
             the right hemisphere. These results suggest that the
             intentionality of the mind-wandering state depends on
             integration between the control and default-mode networks,
             with more deliberation being associated with greater
             integration between these systems. We conclude that one
             reason why mind-wandering has a controversial relationship
             with control is because it depends on whether the thoughts
             emerge in a deliberate or spontaneous fashion.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2016.11.025},
   Key = {fds335726}
}

@article{fds335727,
   Author = {Ozubko, JD and Seli, P},
   Title = {Forget all that nonsense: The role of meaning during the
             forgetting of recollective and familiarity-based
             memories.},
   Journal = {Neuropsychologia},
   Volume = {90},
   Pages = {136-147},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2016.06.026},
   Abstract = {Memory can be divided into recollection and familiarity.
             Recollection is characterized as the ability to vividly
             re-experience past events, and is believed to be supported
             by the hippocampus, whereas familiarity is defined as an
             undifferentiated feeling of knowing or acquaintance, and is
             believed to be supported by extra-hippocampal regions, such
             as the perirhinal cortex. Recent evidence suggests that the
             neural architectures of the hippocampus and neocortex lead
             information in these regions being susceptible to different
             forgetting processes. We expand on these accounts and
             propose that the neocortex may be sensitive to the semantic
             content of a trace, with more meaningful traces being more
             easily retained. The hippocampus, in contrast, is not
             hypothesized to be influenced by semantics in the same way.
             To test this new account, we use a continuous-recognition
             paradigm to examine the forgetting rates words and nonwords
             that are either recollected or familiar. We find that words
             and nonwords that are recollected are equally likely to be
             forgotten over time. However, nonwords that are familiar are
             more likely to be forgotten over time than are words that
             are familiar. Our results support recent
             neuropsychologically-based forgetting theories of
             recollection and familiarity and provide new insight into
             how and why representations are forgotten over
             time.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2016.06.026},
   Key = {fds335727}
}

@article{fds335728,
   Author = {Seli, P and Risko, EF and Smilek, D and Schacter,
             DL},
   Title = {Mind-Wandering With and Without Intention.},
   Journal = {Trends in Cognitive Sciences},
   Volume = {20},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {605-617},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2016.05.010},
   Abstract = {The past decade has seen a surge of research examining
             mind-wandering, but most of this research has not considered
             the potential importance of distinguishing between
             intentional and unintentional mind-wandering. However, a
             recent series of papers have demonstrated that
             mind-wandering reported in empirical investigations
             frequently occurs with and without intention, and, more
             crucially, that intentional and unintentional mind-wandering
             are dissociable. This emerging literature suggests that, to
             increase clarity in the literature, there is a need to
             reconsider the bulk of the mind-wandering literature with an
             eye toward deconvolving these two different cognitive
             experiences. In this review we highlight recent trends in
             investigations of the intentionality of mind-wandering, and
             we outline a novel theoretical framework regarding the
             mechanisms underlying intentional and unintentional
             mind-wandering.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.tics.2016.05.010},
   Key = {fds335728}
}

@article{fds335729,
   Author = {Seli, P and Wammes, JD and Risko, EF and Smilek, D},
   Title = {On the relation between motivation and retention in
             educational contexts: The role of intentional and
             unintentional mind wandering.},
   Journal = {Psychonomic Bulletin & Review},
   Volume = {23},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1280-1287},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13423-015-0979-0},
   Abstract = {Highly motivated students often exhibit better academic
             performance than less motivated students. However, to date,
             the specific cognitive mechanisms through which motivation
             increases academic achievement are not well understood. Here
             we explored the possibility that mind wandering mediates the
             relation between motivation and academic performance, and
             additionally, we examined possible mediation by both
             intentional and unintentional forms of mind wandering. We
             found that participants reporting higher motivation to learn
             in a lecture-based setting tended to engage in less mind
             wandering, and that this decrease in mind wandering was in
             turn associated with greater retention of the lecture
             material. Critically, we also found that the influence of
             motivation on retention was mediated by both intentional and
             unintentional types of mind wandering. Not only do the
             present results advance our theoretical understanding of the
             mechanisms underlying the relation between motivation and
             academic achievement, they also provide insights into
             possible methods of intervention that may be useful in
             improving student retention in educational
             settings.},
   Doi = {10.3758/s13423-015-0979-0},
   Key = {fds335729}
}

@article{fds335730,
   Author = {Seli, P and Risko, EF and Smilek, D},
   Title = {On the Necessity of Distinguishing Between Unintentional and
             Intentional Mind Wandering.},
   Journal = {Psychological Science},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {685-691},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797616634068},
   Abstract = {In recent years, there has been an enormous increase in the
             number of studies examining mind wandering. Although
             participants' reports of mind wandering are often assumed to
             largely reflect spontaneous, unintentional thoughts, many
             researchers' conceptualizations of mind wandering have left
             open the possibility that at least some of these reports
             reflect deliberate, intentional thought. Critically,
             however, in most investigations on the topic, researchers
             have not separately assessed each type of mind wandering;
             instead, they have measured mind wandering as a unitary
             construct, thereby conflating intentional and unintentional
             types. We report the first compelling evidence that an
             experimental manipulation can have qualitatively different
             effects on intentional and unintentional types of mind
             wandering. This result provides clear evidence that
             researchers interested in understanding mind wandering need
             to consider the distinction between unintentional and
             intentional occurrences of this phenomenon.},
   Doi = {10.1177/0956797616634068},
   Key = {fds335730}
}

@article{fds335731,
   Author = {Seli, P},
   Title = {The Attention-Lapse and Motor Decoupling accounts of SART
             performance are not mutually exclusive.},
   Journal = {Consciousness and Cognition},
   Volume = {41},
   Pages = {189-198},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2016.02.017},
   Abstract = {There is an ongoing debate about the mechanisms purported to
             underlie performance in the Sustained-Attention-to-Response
             Task (SART). Whereas the Attention-Lapse account posits that
             SART errors result from attentional disengagement, the Motor
             Decoupling account proposes that SART errors result from
             failures to inhibit a fast, prepotent motor response,
             despite adequate attention to the task. That SART
             performance might be fully accounted for by motor decoupling
             is problematic for a Attention-Lapse account, and for the
             use of the SART as an index of attention lapses. To test
             whether SART performance is in fact fully accounted for by
             motor decoupling, I examined the relation between SART
             performance and attention lapses while controlling for motor
             decoupling. The results were clear: The SART was associated
             with attention lapses independently of motor decoupling.
             Thus, the present study suggests that both accounts are
             correct and that the SART is a valid measure of attention
             lapses.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.concog.2016.02.017},
   Key = {fds335731}
}

@article{fds335732,
   Author = {Seli, P and Risko, EF and Smilek, D},
   Title = {Assessing the associations among trait and state levels of
             deliberate and spontaneous mind wandering.},
   Journal = {Consciousness and Cognition},
   Volume = {41},
   Pages = {50-56},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2016.02.002},
   Abstract = {Recent research has demonstrated that mind wandering can be
             subdivided into spontaneous and deliberate types, and this
             distinction has been found to hold at both the trait and
             state levels. However, to date, no attempts have been made
             to link trait-level spontaneous and deliberate mind
             wandering with state-level assessments of these two subtypes
             of mind wandering. Here we evaluated whether trait-level
             deliberate and spontaneous mind wandering map onto state
             levels of these subtypes of mind wandering. Results showed
             correspondence between trait-level reports of spontaneous
             and deliberate mind wandering and their state-level
             counterparts, indicating that people's reports on the
             intentionality of their mind wandering in the laboratory
             correspond to their reports of the intentionality of mind
             wandering in everyday life. Thus, the trait- and state-level
             scales of mind wandering were found to validate each other:
             Whereas the state-level measures provided some construct
             validity for the trait-level measures, the trait-level
             measures indicated that the state-level measures may be
             generalizable to everyday situations.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.concog.2016.02.002},
   Key = {fds335732}
}

@article{fds335733,
   Author = {Seli, P and Cheyne, JA and Xu, M and Purdon, C and Smilek,
             D},
   Title = {Motivation, intentionality, and mind wandering: Implications
             for assessments of task-unrelated thought.},
   Journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and
             Cognition},
   Volume = {41},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1417-1425},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xlm0000116},
   Abstract = {Researchers of mind wandering frequently assume that (a)
             participants are motivated to do well on the tasks they are
             given, and (b) task-unrelated thoughts (TUTs) that occur
             during task performance reflect unintentional, unwanted
             thoughts that occur despite participants' best intentions to
             maintain task-focus. Given the relatively boring and tedious
             nature of most mind-wandering tasks, however, there is the
             possibility that some participants have little motivation to
             do well on such tasks, and that this lack of motivation
             might in turn result in increases specifically in
             intentional TUTs. In the present study, we explored these
             possibilities, finding that individuals reporting lower
             motivation to perform well on a sustained-attention task
             reported more intentional relative to unintentional TUTs
             compared with individuals reporting higher motivation.
             Interestingly, our results indicate that the extent to which
             participants engage in intentional versus unintentional TUTs
             does not differentially relate to performance: both types of
             off-task thought were found to be equally associated with
             performance decrements. Participants with low levels of
             task-motivation also engaged in more overall TUTs, however,
             and this increase in TUTs was associated with greater
             performance decrements. We discuss these findings in the
             context of the literature on mind wandering, highlighting
             the importance of assessing the intentionality of TUTs and
             motivation to perform well on tasks assessing mind
             wandering.},
   Doi = {10.1037/xlm0000116},
   Key = {fds335733}
}

@article{fds335734,
   Author = {Seli, P and Carriere, JSA and Smilek, D},
   Title = {Not all mind wandering is created equal: dissociating
             deliberate from spontaneous mind wandering.},
   Journal = {Psychological Research},
   Volume = {79},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {750-758},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00426-014-0617-x},
   Abstract = {In two large samples we show a dissociation between
             trait-level tendencies to mind-wander spontaneously
             (unintentionally) and deliberately (intentionally).
             Participants completed online versions of the Mind Wandering
             Spontaneous (MW-S) and the Mind Wandering Deliberate (MW-D)
             self-report scales and the Five Facet Mindfulness
             Questionnaire (FFMQ). The results revealed that deliberate
             and spontaneous mind wandering were uniquely associated with
             some factors of the FFMQ. Notably, while the MW-D and the
             MW-S were positively associated with each other, the MW-D
             was uniquely positively associated with the 'Non-Reactivity
             to Inner Experience' factor of the FFMQ, whereas the MW-S
             was uniquely negatively associated with this factor. We also
             showed that conflating deliberate and spontaneous mind
             wandering can result in a misunderstanding of how mind
             wandering is related to other traits. We recommend that
             studies assessing individual differences in mind wandering
             should distinguish between deliberate and spontaneous
             subtypes of mind wandering to avoid possibly erroneous
             conclusions.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s00426-014-0617-x},
   Key = {fds335734}
}

@article{fds335735,
   Author = {Jonker, TR and Seli, P and MacLeod, CM},
   Title = {Retrieval-Induced Forgetting and Context},
   Journal = {Current Directions in Psychological Science},
   Volume = {24},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {273-278},
   Publisher = {SAGE Publications},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0963721415573203},
   Abstract = {© 2015, © The Author(s) 2015. Retrieving information can
             result in the forgetting of related information, a
             phenomenon referred to as retrieval-induced forgetting
             (RIF). To date, the dominant explanation of RIF has been an
             inhibition account, which emphasizes long-term suppression
             of interfering memories. As one alternative, some have
             advocated for a strength-based interference account, which
             emphasizes the role of strengthening associations. More
             recently, we have proposed a context account, which
             emphasizes the role of context change and context
             reinstatement. In this article, we outline these three
             accounts of RIF and demonstrate that there is substantial
             evidence that uniquely supports our context
             account.},
   Doi = {10.1177/0963721415573203},
   Key = {fds335735}
}

@article{fds335736,
   Author = {Seli, P and Jonker, TR and Cheyne, JA and Cortes, K and Smilek,
             D},
   Title = {Can research participants comment authoritatively on the
             validity of their self-reports of mind wandering and task
             engagement?},
   Journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and
             Performance},
   Volume = {41},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {703-709},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xhp0000029},
   Abstract = {The study of mind wandering rests upon the assumption that
             people are able to consistently and accurately introspect
             and report on these sorts of mental experiences. Although
             there is some initial evidence that people can indeed
             accurately report on the subjective experience of mind
             wandering, to date, no work has directly examined people's
             degree of confidence in their self-reports of mind wandering
             and the effects that confidence has on the accuracy of such
             reports. In the present study, participants completed a
             sustained-attention task during which they intermittently
             provided assessments of task engagement (i.e., whether they
             were focused on the task or mind wandering), as well as
             reports of confidence in the accuracy of their assessments.
             This study yielded 3 key findings: We found substantial
             between- and within-subject variability in both (a) reported
             mind wandering and (b) confidence in mind-wandering reports,
             and, most critically, (c) we found that the relation of
             reported mind wandering and task performance varied as a
             function of confidence. We discuss the implications of these
             findings in the context of the literature on mind
             wandering.},
   Doi = {10.1037/xhp0000029},
   Key = {fds335736}
}

@article{fds335737,
   Author = {Seli, P and Smallwood, J and Cheyne, JA and Smilek,
             D},
   Title = {On the relation of mind wandering and ADHD
             symptomatology.},
   Journal = {Psychonomic Bulletin & Review},
   Volume = {22},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {629-636},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13423-014-0793-0},
   Abstract = {Mind wandering seems to be a prototypical feature of
             attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, an
             important emerging distinction of mind-wandering types
             hinges on whether a given episode of mind wandering reflects
             a failure of executive control (spontaneous mind wandering)
             or the engagement of controlled processes for internal
             processing (deliberate mind wandering). Here we distinguish
             between spontaneous and deliberate mind wandering and test
             the hypothesis that symptoms of ADHD are associated with the
             former but not the latter. We assessed ADHD symptomatology
             and everyday levels of deliberate and spontaneous mind
             wandering in two large non-clinical samples (Ns = 1,354). In
             addition, to provide converging evidence, we examined rates
             of deliberate and spontaneous mind wandering in a clinically
             diagnosed ADHD sample. Results provide clear evidence that
             spontaneous, but not deliberate, mind wandering is a central
             feature of ADHD symptomatology at both the clinical and
             non-clinical level. We discuss the implications of these
             results for understanding both ADHD and mind
             wandering.},
   Doi = {10.3758/s13423-014-0793-0},
   Key = {fds335737}
}

@article{fds335738,
   Author = {Ralph, BCW and Thomson, DR and Seli, P and Carriere, JSA and Smilek,
             D},
   Title = {Media multitasking and behavioral measures of sustained
             attention.},
   Journal = {Attention, Perception & Psychophysics},
   Volume = {77},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {390-401},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13414-014-0771-7},
   Abstract = {In a series of four studies, self-reported media
             multitasking (using the media multitasking index; MMI) and
             general sustained-attention ability, through performance on
             three sustained-attention tasks: the metronome response task
             (MRT), the sustained-attention-to-response task (SART), and
             a vigilance task (here, a modified version of the SART). In
             Study 1, we found that higher reports of media multitasking
             were associated with increased response variability (i.e.,
             poor performance) on the MRT. However, in Study 2, no
             association between reported media multitasking and
             performance on the SART was observed. These findings were
             replicated in Studies 3a and 3b, in which we again assessed
             the relation between media multitasking and performance on
             both the MRT and SART in two large online samples. Finally,
             in Study 4, using a large online sample, we tested whether
             media multitasking was associated with performance on a
             vigilance task. Although standard vigilance decrements were
             observed in both sensitivity (A') and response times, media
             multitasking was not associated with the size of these
             decrements, nor was media multitasking associated with
             overall performance, in terms of either sensitivity or
             response times. Taken together, the results of the studies
             reported here failed to demonstrate a relation between
             habitual engagement in media multitasking in everyday life
             and a general deficit in sustained-attention
             processes.},
   Doi = {10.3758/s13414-014-0771-7},
   Key = {fds335738}
}

@article{fds335739,
   Author = {Thomson, DR and Seli, P and Besner, D and Smilek,
             D},
   Title = {On the link between mind wandering and task performance over
             time.},
   Journal = {Consciousness and Cognition},
   Volume = {27},
   Pages = {14-26},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2014.04.001},
   Abstract = {Here we test the hypothesis that fluctuations in subjective
             reports of mind wandering over time-on-task are associated
             with fluctuations in performance over time-on-task. In Study
             1, we employed a singleton search task and found that
             performance did not differ prior to on- and off-task
             reports, nor did individual differences in mind wandering
             predict differences in performance (so-called standard
             analytic methods). Importantly however, we find that
             fluctuations in mind wandering over time are strongly
             associated with fluctuations in behavior. In Study 2, we
             provide a replication of the relation between mind wandering
             and performance over time found in Study 1, using a Flanker
             interference task. These data indicate (1) a tight coupling
             between mind wandering and performance over time and (2)
             that a temporal-analytic approach can reveal effects of mind
             wandering on performance in tasks where standard analyses
             fail to do so. The theoretical and methodological
             implications of these findings are discussed.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.concog.2014.04.001},
   Key = {fds335739}
}

@article{fds335740,
   Author = {Seli, P and Carriere, JSA and Thomson, DR and Cheyne, JA and Martens,
             KAE and Smilek, D},
   Title = {Restless mind, restless body.},
   Journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and
             Cognition},
   Volume = {40},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {660-668},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0035260},
   Abstract = {In the present work, we investigate the hypothesis that
             failures of task-related executive control that occur during
             episodes of mind wandering are associated with an increase
             in extraneous movements (fidgeting). In 2 studies, we
             assessed mind wandering using thought probes while
             participants performed the metronome response task (MRT),
             which required them to synchronize button presses with
             tones. Participants performed this task while sitting on a
             Wii Balance Board providing us with an index of fidgeting.
             Results of Study 1 demonstrate that relative to on-task
             periods, mind wandering is indeed accompanied by increases
             in fidgeting, as well as increased response variability in
             the MRT. In Study 2, we observed that only deep mind
             wandering was associated with increases in fidgeting,
             whereas task-related response variability increased even
             during mild mind wandering. We interpret these findings in
             the context of current theories of mind wandering and
             suggest that (a) mind wandering is associated with costs not
             only to primary-task performance but also to secondary-task
             goals (e.g., controlling extraneous movements) and (b) these
             costs may depend on the degree to which task-related
             executive control processes are disengaged during mind
             wandering (i.e., depth of mind wandering).},
   Doi = {10.1037/a0035260},
   Key = {fds335740}
}

@article{fds335741,
   Author = {Ralph, BCW and Seli, P and Cheng, VOY and Solman, GJF and Smilek,
             D},
   Title = {Running the figure to the ground: figure-ground segmentation
             during visual search.},
   Journal = {Vision Research},
   Volume = {97},
   Pages = {65-73},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.visres.2014.02.005},
   Abstract = {We examined how figure-ground segmentation occurs across
             multiple regions of a visual array during a visual search
             task. Stimuli consisted of arrays of black-and-white
             figure-ground images in which roughly half of each image
             depicted a meaningful object, whereas the other half
             constituted a less meaningful shape. The colours of the
             meaningful regions of the targets and distractors were
             either the same (congruent) or different (incongruent). We
             found that incongruent targets took longer to locate than
             congruent targets (Experiments 1, 2, and 3) and that this
             segmentation-congruency effect decreased when the number of
             search items was reduced (Experiment 2). Furthermore, an
             analysis of eye movements revealed that participants spent
             more time scrutinising the target before confirming its
             identity on incongruent trials than on congruent trials
             (Experiment 3). These findings suggest that the distractor
             context influences target segmentation and detection during
             visual search.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.visres.2014.02.005},
   Key = {fds335741}
}

@article{fds335742,
   Author = {Jonker, TR and Seli, P and Cheyne, JA and Smilek,
             D},
   Title = {Performance reactivity in a continuous-performance task:
             implications for understanding post-error
             behavior.},
   Journal = {Consciousness and Cognition},
   Volume = {22},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1468-1476},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2013.10.005},
   Abstract = {Although there has been considerable interest in the effects
             of errors on subsequent performance, relatively few studies
             have considered the effects of non-error events that contain
             some performance-relevant information, such as correct
             performance on critical trials. In the present article, we
             propose and assess a hypothesis of performance reactivity.
             In support of this hypothesis, we provide evidence of
             performance decrements following both incorrect and correct
             responses but not following performance-irrelevant events.
             More specifically, in a continuous response task (Sustained
             Attention to Response Task), we (1) replicate previous
             findings that errors of commission on rare NOGO trials
             produce decrements in subsequent performance, and (2)
             observe that correct withholds to NOGO trials produce
             decrements in subsequent accuracy relative to
             task-irrelevant tones. These results corroborate a
             hypothesis that some error-related effects on subsequent
             performance are not unique, but are instead a particularly
             salient version of a more general performance-reactivity
             effect.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.concog.2013.10.005},
   Key = {fds335742}
}

@article{fds335743,
   Author = {Jonker, TR and Seli, P and MacLeod, CM},
   Title = {Putting retrieval-induced forgetting in context: an
             inhibition-free, context-based account.},
   Journal = {Psychological Review},
   Volume = {120},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {852-872},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0034246},
   Abstract = {We present a new theoretical account of retrieval-induced
             forgetting (RIF) together with new experimental evidence
             that fits this account and challenges the dominant
             inhibition account. RIF occurs when the retrieval of some
             material from memory produces later forgetting of related
             material. The inhibition account asserts that RIF is the
             result of an inhibition mechanism that acts during retrieval
             to suppress the representations of interfering competitors.
             This inhibition is enduring, such that the suppressed
             material is difficult to access on a later test and is,
             therefore, recalled more poorly than baseline material.
             Although the inhibition account is widely accepted, a
             growing body of research challenges its fundamental
             assumptions. Our alternative account of RIF instead
             emphasizes the role of context in remembering. According to
             this context account, both of 2 tenets must be met for RIF
             to occur: (a) A context change must occur between study and
             subsequent retrieval practice, and (b) the retrieval
             practice context must be the active context during the final
             test when testing practiced categories. The results of 3
             experiments, which directly test the divergent predictions
             of the 2 accounts, support the context account but cannot be
             explained by the inhibition account. In an extensive
             discussion, we survey the literature on RIF and apply our
             context account to the key findings, demonstrating the
             explanatory power of context.},
   Doi = {10.1037/a0034246},
   Key = {fds335743}
}

@article{fds335744,
   Author = {Seli, P and Jonker, TR and Solman, GJF and Cheyne, JA and Smilek,
             D},
   Title = {A methodological note on evaluating performance in a
             sustained-attention-to-response task.},
   Journal = {Behavior Research Methods},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {355-363},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-012-0266-1},
   Abstract = {We evaluated the influence of speed-accuracy trade-offs on
             performance in the sustained attention to response task
             (SART), a task often used to evaluate the effectiveness of
             techniques designed to improve sustained attention. In the
             present study, we experimentally manipulated response delay
             in a variation of the SART and found that commission errors,
             which are commonly used as an index of lapses in sustained
             attention, were a systematic function of manipulated
             differences in response delay. Delaying responses to roughly
             800 ms after stimulus onset reduced commission errors
             substantially. We suggest the possibility that any technique
             that affects response speed will indirectly alter error
             rates independently of improvements in sustained attention.
             Investigators therefore need to carefully explore, report,
             and correct for changes in response speed that accompany
             improvements in performance or, alternatively, to employ
             tasks that control for response speed.},
   Doi = {10.3758/s13428-012-0266-1},
   Key = {fds335744}
}

@article{fds335745,
   Author = {Carriere, JSA and Seli, P and Smilek, D},
   Title = {Wandering in both mind and body: individual differences in
             mind wandering and inattention predict fidgeting.},
   Journal = {Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology = Revue
             Canadienne De Psychologie Experimentale},
   Volume = {67},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {19-31},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0031438},
   Abstract = {Anecdotal reports suggest that during periods of inattention
             or mind wandering, people tend to experience increased
             fidgeting. In four studies, we examined whether individual
             differences in the tendency to be inattentive and to mind
             wander in everyday life are related to the tendency to make
             spontaneous and involuntary movements (i.e., to fidget). To
             do so, we developed self-report measures of spontaneous and
             deliberate mind wandering, as well as a self-report scale to
             index fidgeting. In addition, we used several existing
             self-report measures of inattentiveness, attentional
             control, and memory failures. Across our studies, a series
             of multiple regression analyses indicated that fidgeting was
             uniquely predicted by inattentiveness and spontaneous mind
             wandering but not by other related factors, including
             deliberate mind wandering, attentional control, and memory
             failures. As a result, we suggest that only spontaneously
             wandering thoughts are related to a wandering
             body.},
   Doi = {10.1037/a0031438},
   Key = {fds335745}
}

@article{fds335746,
   Author = {Seli, P and Cheyne, JA and Smilek, D},
   Title = {Wandering minds and wavering rhythms: linking mind wandering
             and behavioral variability.},
   Journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and
             Performance},
   Volume = {39},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {1-5},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0030954},
   Abstract = {Mind wandering is a pervasive feature of human cognition
             often associated with the withdrawal of task-related
             executive control processes. Here, we explore the
             possibility that, in tasks requiring executive control to
             sustain consistent responding, moments of mind wandering
             could be associated with moments of increased behavioral
             variability. To test this possibility, we developed and
             administered a novel task (the metronome response task) in
             which participants were instructed to respond synchronously
             (via button presses) with the continuous rhythmic
             presentation of tones. We provide evidence (replicated
             across 2 independent samples) that response variability
             during the 5 trials preceding probe-caught reports of mind
             wandering (tuned-out and zoned-out mind wandering) is
             significantly greater than during the 5 trials preceding
             reports of on-task performance. These results suggest that,
             at least in some tasks, behavioral variability is an online
             marker of mind wandering.},
   Doi = {10.1037/a0030954},
   Key = {fds335746}
}

@article{fds335747,
   Author = {Seli, P and Carriere, JSA and Levene, M and Smilek,
             D},
   Title = {How few and far between? Examining the effects of probe rate
             on self-reported mind wandering.},
   Journal = {Frontiers in Psychology},
   Volume = {4},
   Pages = {430},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00430},
   Abstract = {We examined whether the temporal rate at which thought
             probes are presented affects the likelihood that people will
             report periods of mind wandering. To evaluate this
             possibility, we had participants complete a
             sustained-attention task (the Metronome Response Task; MRT)
             during which we intermittently presented thought probes.
             Critically, we varied the average time between probes (i.e.,
             probe rate) across participants, allowing us to examine the
             relation between probe rate and mind-wandering rate. We
             observed a positive relation between these variables,
             indicating that people are more likely to report mind
             wandering as the time between probes increases. We discuss
             the methodological implications of this finding in the
             context of the mind-wandering literature, and suggest that
             researchers include a range of probe rates in future work to
             provide more insight into this methodological
             issue.},
   Doi = {10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00430},
   Key = {fds335747}
}

@article{fds335748,
   Author = {Seli, P and Jonker, TR and Cheyne, JA and Smilek,
             D},
   Title = {Enhancing SART Validity by Statistically Controlling
             Speed-Accuracy Trade-Offs.},
   Journal = {Frontiers in Psychology},
   Volume = {4},
   Pages = {265},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00265},
   Abstract = {Numerous studies focused on elucidating the correlates,
             causes, and consequences of inattention/attention-lapses
             employ the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART), a
             GO-NOGO task with infrequent withholds. Although the SART
             has become popular among inattention researchers, recent
             work has demonstrated its susceptibility to speed-accuracy
             trade-offs (SATOs), rendering its assessment of inattention
             problematic. Here, we propose and illustrate methods to
             statistically control for the occurrence of SATOs during
             SART performance. The statistical solutions presented here
             can be used to correct standard SART-error scores, including
             those of already-published data, thereby allowing
             researchers to re-examine existing data, and to more
             sensitively evaluate the validity of earlier
             conclusions.},
   Doi = {10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00265},
   Key = {fds335748}
}

@article{fds335749,
   Author = {Jonker, TR and Seli, P and Macleod, CM},
   Title = {Less we forget: retrieval cues and release from
             retrieval-induced forgetting.},
   Journal = {Memory & Cognition},
   Volume = {40},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {1236-1245},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13421-012-0224-2},
   Abstract = {Retrieving some items from memory can impair the subsequent
             recall of other related but not retrieved items, a
             phenomenon called retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF). The
             dominant explanation of RIF-the inhibition account-asserts
             that forgetting occurs because related items are suppressed
             during retrieval practice to reduce retrieval competition.
             This item inhibition persists, making it more difficult to
             recall the related items on a later test. In our set of
             experiments, each category was designed such that each
             exemplar belonged to one of two subcategories (e.g., each
             BIRD exemplar was either a bird of prey or a pet bird), but
             this subcategory information was not made explicit during
             study or retrieval practice. Practicing retrieval of items
             from only one subcategory led to RIF for items from the
             other subcategory when cued only with the overall category
             label (BIRD) at test. However, adapting the technique of
             Gardiner, Craik, and Birtwistle (Journal of Learning and
             Verbal Behavior 11:778-783, 1972), providing subcategory
             cues during the final test eliminated RIF. The results
             challenge the inhibition account's fundamental assumption of
             cue independence but are consistent with a cue-based
             interference account.},
   Doi = {10.3758/s13421-012-0224-2},
   Key = {fds335749}
}

@article{fds335750,
   Author = {Pennycook, G and Cheyne, JA and Seli, P and Koehler, DJ and Fugelsang,
             JA},
   Title = {Analytic cognitive style predicts religious and paranormal
             belief.},
   Journal = {Cognition},
   Volume = {123},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {335-346},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2012.03.003},
   Abstract = {An analytic cognitive style denotes a propensity to set
             aside highly salient intuitions when engaging in problem
             solving. We assess the hypothesis that an analytic cognitive
             style is associated with a history of questioning, altering,
             and rejecting (i.e., unbelieving) supernatural claims, both
             religious and paranormal. In two studies, we examined
             associations of God beliefs, religious engagement
             (attendance at religious services, praying, etc.),
             conventional religious beliefs (heaven, miracles, etc.) and
             paranormal beliefs (extrasensory perception, levitation,
             etc.) with performance measures of cognitive ability and
             analytic cognitive style. An analytic cognitive style
             negatively predicted both religious and paranormal beliefs
             when controlling for cognitive ability as well as religious
             engagement, sex, age, political ideology, and education.
             Participants more willing to engage in analytic reasoning
             were less likely to endorse supernatural beliefs. Further,
             an association between analytic cognitive style and
             religious engagement was mediated by religious beliefs,
             suggesting that an analytic cognitive style negatively
             affects religious engagement via lower acceptance of
             conventional religious beliefs. Results for types of God
             belief indicate that the association between an analytic
             cognitive style and God beliefs is more nuanced than mere
             acceptance and rejection, but also includes adopting less
             conventional God beliefs, such as Pantheism or Deism. Our
             data are consistent with the idea that two people who share
             the same cognitive ability, education, political ideology,
             sex, age and level of religious engagement can acquire very
             different sets of beliefs about the world if they differ in
             their propensity to think analytically.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.cognition.2012.03.003},
   Key = {fds335750}
}

@article{fds335751,
   Author = {Seli, P and Cheyne, JA and Barton, KR and Smilek,
             D},
   Title = {Consistency of sustained attention across modalities:
             comparing visual and auditory versions of the
             SART.},
   Journal = {Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology = Revue
             Canadienne De Psychologie Experimentale},
   Volume = {66},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {44-50},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0025111},
   Abstract = {We develop and assess an auditory version of an increasingly
             widely used measure of sustained attention, the Sustained
             Attention to Response Task (SART). In two separate studies,
             the auditory SART generated slower response times and fewer
             errors than the visual SART. Proportion of errors, response
             times, and response time variability were, however,
             significantly and strongly correlated across the two
             modalities. The cross-modality correlations were generally
             equivalent to split-half correlations within modalities,
             indicating a strong agreement of the assessment of
             individual differences in sustained attention in the visual
             and auditory modalities. The foregoing results plus the
             finding that errors on the auditory SART were reduced
             suggests that the auditory SART may be a preferred
             alternative for use with populations with deficits in
             sustained attention.},
   Doi = {10.1037/a0025111},
   Key = {fds335751}
}

@article{fds335752,
   Author = {Seli, P and Cheyne, JA and Smilek, D},
   Title = {Attention failures versus misplaced diligence: separating
             attention lapses from speed-accuracy trade-offs.},
   Journal = {Consciousness and Cognition},
   Volume = {21},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {277-291},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2011.09.017},
   Abstract = {In two studies of a GO-NOGO task assessing sustained
             attention, we examined the effects of (1) altering
             speed-accuracy trade-offs through instructions (emphasizing
             both speed and accuracy or accuracy only) and (2) auditory
             alerts distributed throughout the task. Instructions
             emphasizing accuracy reduced errors and changed the
             distribution of GO trial RTs. Additionally, correlations
             between errors and increasing RTs produced a U-function;
             excessively fast and slow RTs accounted for much of the
             variance of errors. Contrary to previous reports, alerts
             increased errors and RT variability. The results suggest
             that (1) standard instructions for sustained attention
             tasks, emphasizing speed and accuracy equally, produce
             errors arising from attempts to conform to the misleading
             requirement for speed, which become conflated with
             attention-lapse produced errors and (2) auditory alerts have
             complex, and sometimes deleterious, effects on attention. We
             argue that instructions emphasizing accuracy provide a more
             precise assessment of attention lapses in sustained
             attention tasks.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.concog.2011.09.017},
   Key = {fds335752}
}


%% Chapters in Books   
@misc{fds337196,
   Author = {Wammes, JD and Seli, P and Smilek, D},
   Title = {Mind-wandering in educational settings},
   Pages = {259-272},
   Booktitle = {The Oxford Handbook of Spontaneous Thought: Mind-Wandering,
             Creativity, and Dreaming},
   Publisher = {Oxford University Press},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {April},
   ISBN = {9780190464745},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780190464745.013.15},
   Abstract = {© Oxford University Press 2018. Recently, there has been a
             growing interest in exploring the influence of mind-
             wandering on learning in educational settings. In
             considering the available research on the topic, one might
             draw the following conclusions: the prevalence of
             unintentional mind- wandering in classroom settings is high;
             mindwandering rates increase over time in lectures; and
             mind- wandering interferes with learning. Although research
             in the extant literature provides ample support for these
             conclusions, much of this research was conducted in the
             laboratory, while participants viewed video- recorded
             lectures. More recently, however, researchers have examined
             the effects of intentional and unintentional mind- wandering
             in live- classroom settings, and, as this chapter reveals,
             such research has produced some results that are at odds
             with those produced in laboratory- based studies. The
             chapter discusses these recent findings in the context of
             the aforementioned potential conclusions, and concludes that
             findings from the laboratory do not readily generalize to
             real- world educational settings.},
   Doi = {10.1093/oxfordhb/9780190464745.013.15},
   Key = {fds337196}
}


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