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Publications of James A. Blumenthal    :chronological  alphabetical  combined listing:

%% Journal Articles   
@article{fds343522,
   Author = {Klinger, RY and Cooter, M and Bisanar, T and Terrando, N and Berger, M and Podgoreanu, MV and Stafford-Smith, M and Newman, MF and Mathew, JP and Neurologic Outcomes Research Group of the Duke Heart
             Center},
   Title = {Intravenous Lidocaine Does Not Improve Neurologic Outcomes
             after Cardiac Surgery: A Randomized Controlled
             Trial.},
   Journal = {Anesthesiology},
   Volume = {130},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {958-970},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000002668},
   Abstract = {WHAT WE ALREADY KNOW ABOUT THIS TOPIC: Preclinical and
             clinical studies suggest that lidocaine might be
             neuroprotective, which could benefit surgical patients at
             risk of neurologic compromise WHAT THIS ARTICLE TELLS US
             THAT IS NEW: This multicenter trial of intravenous lidocaine
             administered during and after cardiac surgery did not show
             an effect on cognition at 6 weeks postoperatively
             BACKGROUND:: Cognitive decline after cardiac surgery occurs
             frequently and persists in a significant proportion of
             patients. Preclinical studies and human trials suggest that
             intravenous lidocaine may confer protection in the setting
             of neurologic injury. It was hypothesized that lidocaine
             administration would reduce cognitive decline after cardiac
             surgery compared to placebo. METHODS: After institutional
             review board approval, 478 patients undergoing cardiac
             surgery were enrolled into this multicenter, prospective,
             randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel
             group trial. Subjects were randomized to lidocaine 1 mg/kg
             bolus after the induction of anesthesia followed by a
             continuous infusion (48 μg · kg · min for the first hour,
             24 μg · kg · min for the second hour, and 10 μg · kg ·
             min for the next 46 h) or saline with identical volume and
             rate changes to preserve blinding. Cognitive function was
             assessed preoperatively and at 6 weeks and 1 yr
             postoperatively using a standard neurocognitive test
             battery. The primary outcome was change in cognitive
             function between baseline and 6 weeks postoperatively,
             adjusting for age, years of education, baseline cognition,
             race, and procedure type. RESULTS: Among the 420 allocated
             subjects who returned for 6-week follow-up (lidocaine: N =
             211; placebo: N = 209), there was no difference in the
             continuous cognitive score change (adjusted mean difference
             [95% CI], 0.02 (-0.05, 0.08); P = 0.626). Cognitive deficit
             (greater than 1 SD decline in at least one cognitive domain)
             at 6 weeks occurred in 41% (87 of 211) in the lidocaine
             group versus 40% (83 of 209) in the placebo group (adjusted
             odds ratio [95% CI], 0.94 [0.63, 1.41]; P = 0.766). There
             were no differences in any quality of life outcomes between
             treatment groups. At the 1-yr follow-up, there continued to
             be no difference in cognitive score change, cognitive
             deficit, or quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous
             lidocaine administered during and after cardiac surgery did
             not reduce postoperative cognitive decline at 6
             weeks.},
   Doi = {10.1097/ALN.0000000000002668},
   Key = {fds343522}
}

@article{fds342567,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Zhu, Y and Koch, GG and Smith, PJ and Watkins, LL and Hinderliter, AL and Hoffman, BM and Rogers, JG and Chang, PP and O'Connor, C and Johnson, KS and Sherwood, A},
   Title = {The modifying effects of social support on psychological
             outcomes in patients with heart failure.},
   Journal = {Health Psychology},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {502-508},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/hea0000716},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: We examined the modifying effects of social
             support on depressive symptoms and health-related quality of
             life (QoL) in patients receiving coping skills training
             (CST). METHOD: We considered the modifying effects of social
             support in the Coping Effectively with Heart Failure
             clinical trial, which randomized 179 heart failure (HF)
             patients to either 4 months of CST or usual care enhanced by
             HF education (HFE). CST involved training in specific coping
             techniques, whereas HFE involved education about HF
             self-management. Social support was assessed by the
             Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease (ENRICHD)
             Social Support Inventory, QoL was assessed with the Kansas
             City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ), and depression was
             assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II).
             RESULTS: Linear regression models revealed a significant
             Intervention Group × Baseline Social Support interaction
             for change in KCCQ total scores (p = .006) and BDI-II scores
             (p < .001). Participants with low social support assigned to
             the CST intervention showed large improvements in KCCQ
             scores (M = 11.2, 95% CI [5.7, 16.8]), whereas
             low-social-support patients assigned to the HFE controls
             showed no significant change (M = -0.8, 95% CI [-7.2, 5.6]).
             Similarly, BDI-II scores in participants with low social
             support in the CST group showed large reductions (M = -8.7,
             95% CI [-11.3, -6.1]) compared with low-social-support HFE
             participants (M = -3.0, 95% CI [-6.0, -0.1]). CONCLUSIONS:
             HF patients with low social support benefit substantially
             from telephone-based CST interventions. Targeting HF
             patients with low social support for behavioral
             interventions could prove to be a cost-effective strategy
             for improving QoL and reducing depression. (PsycINFO
             Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights
             reserved).},
   Doi = {10.1037/hea0000716},
   Key = {fds342567}
}

@article{fds342506,
   Author = {Smith, PJ and Blumenthal, JA and Hinderliter, AL and Mabe, SM and Schwartz, JE and Avorgbedor, F and Sherwood, A},
   Title = {Neurocognition in treatment-resistant hypertension: profile
             and associations with cardiovascular biomarkers.},
   Journal = {J Hypertens},
   Volume = {37},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1040-1047},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000002002},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Hypertension in midlife has been associated with
             increased risk of stroke and neurocognitive decline. Few
             studies, however, have examined neurocognition among
             individuals with treatment-resistant hypertension or
             potential mechanisms by which treatment-resistant
             hypertension may impair neurocognition. METHODS: We examined
             the pattern of neurocognitive impairment and potential
             mechanisms in a sample of 96 overweight adults with
             treatment-resistant hypertension, aged 41-81 years.
             Neurocognitive function was assessed using a 45-min test
             battery consisting of executive function and memory.
             Vascular and metabolic mechanisms examined included
             cerebrovascular risk factors (CVRFs: Framingham Stroke Risk
             Profile), insulin sensitivity (homeostatic model assessment
             of insulin resistance), waist-to-hip ratio, microvascular
             function (hyperemic response), and peak oxygen consumption
             from an exercise treadmill test. Simple path analyses were
             used to assess the association between potential vascular
             and metabolic mechanisms and neurocognition. RESULTS:
             Neurocognitive impairments were common, with 70% of the
             sample exhibiting impaired performance on at least one
             executive function subtest and 38% on at least one measure
             of memory. Higher levels of aerobic fitness, greater insulin
             sensitivity, and better microvascular function, as well as
             lower CVRFs and waist-to-hip ratio were associated with
             better neurocognition. In path analyses, aerobic fitness,
             microvascular function, and CVRFs all were independently
             associated with neurocognitive performance. Insulin
             resistance associated with worse executive function but
             better memory performance among older participants.
             CONCLUSION: Neurocognitive impairments are common in adults
             with treatment-resistant hypertension, particularly on tests
             of executive function. Better neurocognition is
             independently associated with aerobic fitness, microvascular
             function, and CVRFs.},
   Doi = {10.1097/HJH.0000000000002002},
   Key = {fds342506}
}

@article{fds341059,
   Author = {Zhu, Y and Yu, X and Wu, Y and Shi, C and Zhang, A and Jiang, R and Li, S and Guo, G and Gao, R and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Association of Depression and Unhealthy Lifestyle Behaviors
             in Chinese Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes.},
   Journal = {J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HCR.0000000000000384},
   Abstract = {PURPOSE: This study sought to examine associations between
             depression and unhealthy lifestyle behaviors in Chinese
             patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). METHODS: This
             cross-sectional study included 4043 ACS patients from 16
             hospitals across China who participated in the I-Care
             (Integrating Depression Care in Acute Coronary Syndromes
             Patients) trial. Patients were enrolled between November
             2014 and January 2017. Depression was assessed with the
             Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Five lifestyle
             behaviors were assessed: smoking, drinking, body mass index
             (BMI), physical activity, and sleep quality. RESULTS: A
             total of 135 patients (3.3%) were considered clinically
             depressed (PHQ-9 ≥10). After adjusting for covariates,
             physical activity and sleep quality were inversely related
             to PHQ-9 scores. Adjusted logistic models showed that
             depressed patients were 1.7 times likely to be physically
             inactive (OR = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.15-2.64) and 4.6 times likely
             to have poor sleep quality (OR = 4.60; 95% CI, 3.07-6.88)
             compared with nondepressed patients. The association of
             depression with smoking, unhealthy drinking, and unhealthy
             BMI was not significant after adjustment for demographic
             characteristics. Higher depression scores were found to be
             associated with a greater number of unhealthy lifestyle
             behaviors (P for trend < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The association
             of depression and unhealthy lifestyles in post-ACS patients
             suggests that reducing depressive symptoms and improving
             healthy lifestyle behaviors could potentially improve
             clinical outcomes in this vulnerable patient
             population.},
   Doi = {10.1097/HCR.0000000000000384},
   Key = {fds341059}
}

@article{fds340610,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Smith, PJ and Mabe, S and Hinderliter, A and Lin,
             P-H and Liao, L and Welsh-Bohmer, KA and Browndyke, JN and Kraus, WE and Doraiswamy, PM and Burke, JR and Sherwood, A},
   Title = {Lifestyle and neurocognition in older adults with cognitive
             impairments: A randomized trial.},
   Journal = {Neurology},
   Volume = {92},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {e212-e223},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000006784},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To determine the independent and additive effects
             of aerobic exercise (AE) and the Dietary Approaches to Stop
             Hypertension (DASH) diet on executive functioning in adults
             with cognitive impairments with no dementia (CIND) and risk
             factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS: A 2-by-2
             factorial (exercise/no exercise and DASH diet/no DASH diet)
             randomized clinical trial was conducted in 160 sedentary men
             and women (age >55 years) with CIND and CVD risk factors.
             Participants were randomly assigned to 6 months of AE, DASH
             diet nutritional counseling, a combination of both AE and
             DASH, or health education (HE). The primary endpoint was a
             prespecified composite measure of executive function;
             secondary outcomes included measures of language/verbal
             fluency, memory, and ratings on the modified Clinical
             Dementia Rating Scale. RESULTS: Participants who engaged in
             AE (d = 0.32, p = 0.046) but not those who consumed the DASH
             diet (d = 0.30, p = 0.059) demonstrated significant
             improvements in the executive function domain. The largest
             improvements were observed for participants randomized to
             the combined AE and DASH diet group (d = 0.40, p = 0.012)
             compared to those receiving HE. Greater aerobic fitness (b =
             2.3, p = 0.049), reduced CVD risk (b = 2.6, p = 0.042), and
             reduced sodium intake (b = 0.18, p = 0.024) were associated
             with improvements in executive function. There were no
             significant improvements in the memory or language/verbal
             fluency domains. CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary findings
             show that AE promotes improved executive functioning in
             adults at risk for cognitive decline. CLINICALTRIALSGOV
             IDENTIFIER: NCT01573546. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This
             study provides Class I evidence that for adults with CIND,
             AE but not the DASH diet significantly improves executive
             functioning.},
   Doi = {10.1212/WNL.0000000000006784},
   Key = {fds340610}
}

@article{fds339901,
   Author = {Das, A and Roy, B and Schwarzer, G and Silverman, MG and Ziegler, O and Bandyopadhyay, D and Philpotts, LL and Sinha, S and Blumenthal, JA and Das, S},
   Title = {Comparison of treatment options for depression in heart
             failure: A network meta-analysis.},
   Journal = {J Psychiatr Res},
   Volume = {108},
   Pages = {7-23},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2018.10.007},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Depression independently predicts poor outcomes
             in heart failure (HF) patients, including increased
             mortality, morbidity and 30-day re-hospitalization. In this
             network meta-analysis, we compared different interventions
             designed to treat depression in HF. MATERIALS AND METHODS:
             Electronic searches were conducted using Ovid MEDLINE,
             EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, and PsycINFO up to November
             2016. Included randomized clinical trials (RCTs) compared
             interventions (Exercise therapy (ET), cognitive behavioral
             therapy (CBT) or antidepressant (AD) medications) for
             depression in heart failure patients. The primary outcome
             was change in depressive symptoms based on validated
             measures of depression. Network meta-analysis based on
             random effects model estimating standardized mean difference
             (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI), compared the
             effects of the 3 classes of interventions with respect to
             usual care or placebo control conditions. RESULTS: A total
             of 21 RCTs (including 4563 HF patients) reporting the
             effects of treating depression in HF patients were included
             in the analysis. In comparison to placebo or usual standard
             of care, ET (SMD -0.38; 95% CI -0.54 to -0.22) and CBT (SMD
             -0.29; 95% CI -0.58 to -0.01) were associated with reduction
             in depressive symptoms whereas AD (SMD -0.16; 95% CI -0.44
             to 0.11) was less effective. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis
             is suggestive of therapeutic benefit of ET and CBT in
             comparison to usual standard of care in treating depression
             in HF patients. However, comparison among the three
             interventions was not conclusive. Future randomized clinical
             trials are warranted to compare the therapeutic effects of
             ET, CBT and AD in such patients.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jpsychires.2018.10.007},
   Key = {fds339901}
}

@article{fds338215,
   Author = {Sherwood, A and Hill, LK and Blumenthal, JA and Hinderliter,
             AL},
   Title = {The Effects of Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring on Sleep
             Quality in Men and Women With Hypertension: Dipper vs.
             Nondipper and Race Differences.},
   Journal = {Am J Hypertens},
   Volume = {32},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {54-60},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajh/hpy138},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: The nondipping circadian blood pressure (BP)
             profile is associated with both poor sleep quality and
             increased cardiovascular risk. The present study aimed to
             clarify the potential confounding effects of 24-hour
             ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) used to
             characterize the circadian BP profile by assessing its
             impact on sleep quality. METHODS: Participants were 121
             middle-aged men and women with untreated hypertension (age =
             46 ± 8 years; 43% women; 45% African-American). Subjective
             sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep
             Quality Index. Wrist actigraphy was used to measure sleep
             quality objectively as sleep efficiency (SE) and total sleep
             time (TST) on 7 consecutive non-ABPM days (baseline) and 3
             subsequent 24-hour ABPM days. RESULTS: Average ambulatory BP
             was 137.2 ± 10.8/84.3 ± 8.5 mm Hg during the day and 119.6
             ± 12.4/69.5 ± 9.8 mm Hg at night. Using the criterion of
             <10% dip in systolic BP (SBP) to define nondippers, there
             were 40 nondippers (SBP dip = 7.3 ± 2.6%) and 81 dippers
             (SBP dip = 15.5 ± 3.4%). There was no effect of time on SE
             or TST over non-ABPM and ABPM days, suggesting that ABPM
             does not adversely affect sleep quality. Sleep quality was
             generally poorer (lower SE) in nondippers compared with
             dippers (P = 0.033), but differences were independent of
             whether or not participants were undergoing 24-hour ABPM.
             African-American race (P = 0.002) was also associated with
             lower SE. CONCLUSION: Sleep quality generally appears to be
             poor in men and women with untreated hypertension and
             especially among African-Americans. Importantly, for both
             dippers and nondippers, we found no evidence that ABPM had
             an adverse effect on sleep quality.},
   Doi = {10.1093/ajh/hpy138},
   Key = {fds338215}
}

@article{fds336047,
   Author = {Farquhar, JM and Stonerock, GL and Blumenthal,
             JA},
   Title = {When Something is Better Than Nothing: Response to Tully and
             Cosh.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatics},
   Volume = {60},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {98-99},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psym.2018.05.001},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.psym.2018.05.001},
   Key = {fds336047}
}

@article{fds341060,
   Author = {Avorgbedor, F and Silva, S and Merwin, E and Blumenthal, JA and Holditch-Davis, D},
   Title = {Health, Physical Growth, and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in
             Preterm Infants of Women With Hypertensive Disorders of
             Pregnancy.},
   Journal = {J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs},
   Volume = {48},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {69-77},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jogn.2018.10.003},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To compare the health, physical growth, and
             developmental outcomes in preterm infants of women with and
             without hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP). DESIGN:
             Cross-sectional analysis of health outcomes; physical growth
             (head circumference, height, and weight) collected at birth
             and 2 months, corrected for prematurity; and cognitive,
             language, and motor skills of preterm infants of women with
             and without HDP. SETTING: Four NICUs in the United States.
             PARTICIPANTS: Women (n = 221) and their preterm infants who
             weighed less than 1,750 g were enrolled in a multicenter,
             randomized trial of two interventions administered by each
             infant's mother when the infant was no longer critically
             ill. METHODS: Women and their preterm infants were
             categorized into groups with (n = 80) and without (control,
             n = 141) HDP. Data were extracted from infants' medical
             records, and the women completed questionnaires. RESULTS:
             The infants of women with HDP were more likely to be small
             for gestational age than the infants of women without HDP
             (31.7% vs. 10.6%, p < .002). The proportion of infants
             with greater neurologic risk, patent ductus arteriosus,
             intraventricular hemorrhage, and days on a ventilator did
             not differ between the groups. Although mean infant height
             at 2 months was less in the HDP group than the control
             group, other growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes did not
             differ between the groups. CONCLUSION: Among preterm infants
             admitted to NICUs, those born to women with HDP were more
             likely to be small for gestational age than those born to
             normotensive women. Additional research is needed to
             optimize care for infants born to women with
             HDP.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jogn.2018.10.003},
   Key = {fds341060}
}

@article{fds337029,
   Author = {Smith, PJ and Blumenthal, JA and Hinderliter, AL and Watkins, LL and Hoffman, BM and Sherwood, A},
   Title = {Microvascular Endothelial Function and Neurocognition Among
             Adults With Major Depressive Disorder.},
   Journal = {Am J Geriatr Psychiatry},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {1061-1069},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jagp.2018.06.011},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) and
             endothelial dysfunction have been associated independently
             with poorer neurocognition in middle-aged adults,
             particularly on tests of frontal lobe function. However, to
             our knowledge, no studies have examined markers of
             microvascular dysfunction on neurocognition or the potential
             interaction between macro- and microvascular biomarkers on
             neurocognition in middle-aged and older adults with major
             depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: Participants included
             202 adults with MDD who were not receiving mental health
             treatment. Microvascular endothelial function was assessed
             using a noninvasive marker of forearm reactive hyperemia
             velocity while macrovascular endothelial function was
             assessed using flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial
             artery. CVRFs were assessed using the Framingham Stroke Risk
             Profile and fasting lipid levels. A standardized
             neurocognitive assessment battery was used to assess three
             cognitive domains: executive function, working memory, and
             verbal memory. RESULTS: Greater microvascular dysfunction
             was associated with poorer neurocognition across all three
             domains. Microvascular function continued to predict verbal
             memory performance after accounting for background factors
             and CVRFs. Macro- and microvascular function interacted to
             predict working memory performance (F = 4.511, 178,
             p = 0.035), with a similar nonsignificant association
             for executive function (F = 2.731, 178, p = 0.095),
             with moderate associations observed between microvascular
             function and neurocognition in the presence of preserved FMD
             (r61 = 0.40, p = 0.001), but not when FMD was
             impaired (r63 = -0.05, p = 0.675). CONCLUSION:
             Greater microvascular dysfunction is associated with poorer
             neurocognition among middle-aged and older adults. This
             association was strongest in participants with preserved
             macrovascular function.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jagp.2018.06.011},
   Key = {fds337029}
}

@article{fds339902,
   Author = {Zhu, Y and Yu, X and Wu, Y and Shi, C and Zhang, A and Jiang, R and Li, S and Guo, G and Gao, R and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {GW29-e0593 Association of Depression and Unhealthy Lifestyle
             Behaviors in Chinese Patients with Acute Coronary
             Syndromes},
   Journal = {Journal of the American College of Cardiology},
   Volume = {72},
   Number = {16},
   Pages = {C189-C190},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2018.08.834},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jacc.2018.08.834},
   Key = {fds339902}
}

@article{fds339903,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {THE VALUE OF STRESS MANAGEMENT TRAINING IN EXERCISE-BASED
             CARDIAC REHABILITATION},
   Journal = {International Journal of Behavioral Medicine},
   Volume = {25},
   Pages = {S99-S100},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {October},
   Key = {fds339903}
}

@article{fds338569,
   Author = {Hayano, J and Yoshida, Y and Carbey, RM and Blumenthal, JA and Yuda,
             E},
   Title = {Blunted Cardiac Response to Sleep Apnea a Marker of
             Depression after Acute Myocardial Infarction},
   Journal = {2018 Ieee International Conference on Consumer Electronics
             Taiwan, Icce Tw 2018},
   Publisher = {IEEE},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {August},
   ISBN = {9781538663011},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICCE-China.2018.8448812},
   Abstract = {© 2018 IEEE. While depression is often overlooked in
             patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), it is an
             important risk of death among these patients. We examined if
             heart rate variability (HRV) particularly those related to
             sleep apnea can be a maker of depression after AMI.
             According to the prognosis of depression, 707 post-AMI
             patients were divided into 349 never, 138 remitting, 25
             newly onset, and 195 persistent depression. Regardless of
             future prognosis, currently depressed patients had higher
             heart rate, lower HRV, and blunted cyclic variation of heart
             rate to sleep apnea during the night.},
   Doi = {10.1109/ICCE-China.2018.8448812},
   Key = {fds338569}
}

@article{fds336044,
   Author = {Li, S and Blumenthal, JA and Shi, C and Millican, D and Li, X and Du, X and Patel, A and Gao, P and Delong, E and Maulik, PK and Gao, R and Yu, X and Wu,
             Y},
   Title = {I-CARE randomized clinical trial integrating depression and
             acute coronary syndrome care in low-resource hospitals in
             China: Design and rationale.},
   Journal = {American Heart Journal},
   Volume = {202},
   Pages = {109-115},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2018.05.004},
   Abstract = {Depression and acute coronary syndromes (ACS) are both
             common public health challenges. Patients with ACS often
             develop depression, which in turn adversely affects
             prognosis. Low-cost, sustainable, and effective service
             models that integrate depression care into the management of
             ACS patients to reduce depression and improve ACS outcomes
             are critically needed. Integrating Depression Care in ACS
             patients in Low Resource Hospitals in China (I-CARE) is a
             multicenter, randomized controlled trial to evaluate the
             efficacy of an 11-month integrated care (IC) intervention
             compared to usual care (UC) in management of ACS patients.
             Four thousand inpatients will be recruited and then
             randomized in a 1:1 ratio to an IC intervention consisting
             of nurse-led risk factor management, group-based counseling
             supplemented by individual problem-solving therapy, and
             antidepressant medications as needed, or to UC. The primary
             outcomes are depression symptoms measured by the Patient
             Health Questionnaire-9 at 6 and 12 months. Secondary
             endpoints include anxiety measured by the Generalized
             Anxiety Disorder-7; quality of life measured by the EQ-5D at
             6 and 12 months; and major adverse events including the
             combined end point of all-cause death, suicide attempts,
             nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, and
             all-cause rehospitalization at yearly intervals for a median
             follow-up of 2 years. Analyses of the cost-effectiveness
             and cost-utility of IC also will be performed. I-CARE trial
             will be the largest study to test the effectiveness of an
             integrated care model on depression and cardiovascular
             outcomes among ACS patients in resource-limited clinical
             settings.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.ahj.2018.05.004},
   Key = {fds336044}
}

@article{fds336045,
   Author = {Farquhar, JM and Stonerock, GL and Blumenthal,
             JA},
   Title = {Treatment of Anxiety in Patients With Coronary Heart
             Disease: A Systematic Review.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatics},
   Volume = {59},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {318-332},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psym.2018.03.008},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Anxiety is common in patients with coronary
             heart disease (CHD) and is associated with an increased risk
             for adverse outcomes. There has been a relative paucity of
             studies concerning treatment of anxiety in patients with
             CHD. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review to organize
             and assess research into the treatment of anxiety in
             patients with CHD. METHODS: We searched CCTR/CENTRAL,
             MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL for randomized
             clinical trials conducted before October 2016 that measured
             anxiety before and after an intervention for patients with
             CHD. RESULTS: A total of 475 articles were subjected to full
             text review, yielding 112 publications that met inclusion
             criteria plus an additional 7 studies from reference lists
             and published reviews, yielding 119 studies. Sample size,
             country of origin, study quality, and demographics varied
             widely among studies. Most studies were conducted with
             nonanxious patients. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression
             Scale and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were the most
             frequently used instruments to assess anxiety. Interventions
             included pharmacological, counseling, relaxation-based,
             educational, or "alternative" therapies. Forty (33% of
             total) studies reported that the interventions reduced
             anxiety; treatment efficacy varied by study and type of
             intervention. Elevated anxiety was an inclusion criterion in
             only 4 studies, with inconsistent results. CONCLUSION:
             Although there have been a number of randomized clinical
             trials of patients with CHD that assessed anxiety, in most
             cases anxiety was a secondary outcome, and only one-third
             found that symptoms of anxiety were reduced with treatment.
             Future studies need to target anxious patients and evaluate
             the effects of treatment on anxiety and relevant clinical
             endpoints.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.psym.2018.03.008},
   Key = {fds336045}
}

@article{fds332217,
   Author = {Smith, PJ and Sherwood, A and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Effects of aerobic exercise on white matter
             hyperintensities: An exploratory analysis.},
   Journal = {Gen Hosp Psychiatry},
   Volume = {53},
   Pages = {84-85},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2018.01.007},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2018.01.007},
   Key = {fds332217}
}

@article{fds336046,
   Author = {Zhu, Y and Blumenthal, JA and Shi, C and Jiang, R and Patel, A and Zhang,
             A and Yu, X and Gao, R and Wu, Y},
   Title = {Sedentary Behavior and the Risk of Depression in Patients
             With Acute Coronary Syndromes.},
   Journal = {Am J Cardiol},
   Volume = {121},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {1456-1460},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2018.02.031},
   Abstract = {Although there is good evidence that sedentary behavior is
             associated with poor health outcomes in healthy persons and
             patients with cardiovascular disease, the mental health
             consequences of sedentary behavior have not been widely
             studied. In this report, we conducted a cross-sectional
             analysis to examine the relation of self-reported sedentary
             behavior and depression in a sample of 4,043 hospitalized
             men and women with acute coronary syndrome enrolled in a
             randomized clinical trial in rural China. Sedentary behavior
             was assessed by self-report, and depression was assessed
             with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9); a subset of
             1,209 patients also completed the Beck Depression
             Inventory-II. Results revealed that greater sedentary
             behavior was associated with higher levels of depressive
             symptoms measured by both the PHQ-9 (p <0.001) and the
             Beck Depression Inventory-II (p <0.001). Compared with
             patients who reported that they were seldom sedentary,
             patients reporting that they were frequently sedentary were
             4.7 times (odds ratio 4.73, 95% confidence interval 2.71 to
             8.24) more likely to be clinically depressed defined as
             PHQ-9 scores ≥10 after adjusting for demographic factors,
             lifestyle behaviors, clinical characteristics, and
             in-hospital treatments. In conclusion, greater sedentary
             behavior is significantly related to greater depression in
             Chinese patients with acute coronary syndrome, independent
             of physical activity. These findings suggest that strategies
             to reduce sedentary behavior may improve medical outcomes
             and reduce risk for depression.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.amjcard.2018.02.031},
   Key = {fds336046}
}

@article{fds331180,
   Author = {Smith, PJ and Snyder, LD and Palmer, SM and Hoffman, BM and Stonerock,
             GL and Ingle, KK and Saulino, CK and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Depression, social support, and clinical outcomes following
             lung transplantation: a single-center cohort
             study.},
   Journal = {Transpl Int},
   Volume = {31},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {495-502},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tri.13094},
   Abstract = {Depressive symptoms are common among lung transplant
             candidates and have been associated with poorer clinical
             outcomes in some studies. Previous studies have been plagued
             by methodologic problems, including small sample sizes, few
             clinical events, and uncontrolled confounders, particularly
             perioperative complications. In addition, few studies have
             examined social support as a potential protective factor. We
             therefore examined the association between pretransplant
             depressive symptoms, social support, and mortality in a
             large sample of lung transplant recipients. As a secondary
             aim, we also examined the associations between psychosocial
             factors, perioperative outcomes [indexed by hospital length
             of stay (LOS)], and mortality. We hypothesized that
             depression would be associated with longer LOS and that the
             association between depression, social support, and
             mortality would be moderated by LOS. Participants included
             lung transplant recipients, transplanted at Duke University
             Medical Center from January 2009 to December 2014.
             Depressive symptoms were evaluated using the Beck Depression
             Inventory (BDI-II) and social support using the Perceived
             Social Support Scale (PSSS). Medical risk factors included
             forced vital capacity (FVC), partial pressure of carbon
             dioxide (PCO2 ), donor age, acute rejection, and transplant
             type. Functional status was assessed using six-minute walk
             distance (6MWD). We also controlled for demographic factors,
             including age, gender, and native disease. Transplant
             hospitalization LOS was examined as a marker of
             perioperative clinical outcomes. Participants included 273
             lung recipients (174 restrictive, 67 obstructive, 26 cystic
             fibrosis, and six "other"). Pretransplant depressive
             symptoms were common, with 56 participants (21%) exhibiting
             clinically elevated levels (BDI-II ≥ 14). Greater
             depressive symptoms were associated with longer LOS
             [adjusted b = 0.20 (2 days per 7-point higher BDI-II score),
             P < 0.01]. LOS moderated the associations between depressive
             symptoms (P = 0.019), social support (P < 0.001), and
             mortality, such that greater depressive symptoms and lower
             social support were associated with greater mortality only
             among individuals with longer LOS. For individuals with LOS
             ≥ 1 month, clinically elevated depressive symptoms (BDI-II
             ≥ 14) were associated with a threefold increased risk of
             mortality (HR = 2.97). Greater pretransplant depressive
             symptoms and lower social support may be associated with
             greater mortality among a subset of individuals with worse
             perioperative outcomes.},
   Doi = {10.1111/tri.13094},
   Key = {fds331180}
}

@article{fds333684,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Sherwood, A and Smith, PJ and Hinderliter,
             A},
   Title = {The Role of Salt Reduction in the Management of
             Hypertension.},
   Journal = {J Am Coll Cardiol},
   Volume = {71},
   Number = {14},
   Pages = {1597-1598},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2018.01.071},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jacc.2018.01.071},
   Key = {fds333684}
}

@article{fds336050,
   Author = {Smith, PJ and Stonerock, GL and Ingle, KK and Saulino, CK and Hoffman,
             B and Wasserman, B and Blumenthal, JA and Palmer, SM and Klapper, JA and Hartwig, MG and Esposito, VR and Snyder, LD},
   Title = {Neurological Sequelae and Clinical Outcomes After Lung
             Transplantation.},
   Journal = {Transplantation Direct},
   Volume = {4},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {e353},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TXD.0000000000000766},
   Abstract = {Background: Neurological complications are common after lung
             transplantation. However, no large cohort studies have
             examined the incidence, predictors, and clinical
             significance of neurological events sustained by lung
             transplant recipients. Methods: We conducted a retrospective
             cohort analysis of a consecutive series of lung transplant
             recipients, transplanted at Duke University Medical Center
             between May 2014 and February 2017 (n = 276). Early
             neurological complications (ie, occurring during the first
             week after transplant) were documented by transplant mental
             health specialists and included delirium, ischemic injury,
             and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. Analyses
             accounted for age, native disease, sex, type of transplant,
             lung allocation score, and primary graft dysfunction. The
             objectives of the study were to characterize the prevalence
             and predictors of early neurological sequelae (NSE),
             occurring during the first week posttransplant, and the
             association between NSE and subsequent clinical outcomes,
             including length of stay and mortality. Results:
             Neurological sequelae were common, occurring in 123 (45%)
             patients. Fifty-seven patients died over a follow-up
             interval of 2.1 years. The most common NSE were
             postoperative delirium (n = 110 [40%]) and posterior
             reversible encephalopathy syndrome (n = 12 [4%]), followed
             by stroke/transient ischemic attack and neurotoxicity.
             Higher lung allocation score was the strongest predictor of
             delirium. The presence of a NSE was associated with longer
             length of hospital stay (32 days vs 17 days, P < 0.001) and
             greater mortality (hazard ratio, 1.90; 95% confidence
             interval, 1.09-3.32], P = 0.024), with the greatest
             mortality risk occurring approximately 2 years after
             transplantation. Conclusions: Neurological events are
             relatively common after lung transplantation and associated
             with adverse clinical outcomes.},
   Doi = {10.1097/TXD.0000000000000766},
   Key = {fds336050}
}

@article{fds336048,
   Author = {Chu, MC and Smith, PJ and Stonerock, GL and Blumenthal,
             JA},
   Title = {DEPRESSION AND MEDICATION NONADHERENCE FOLLOWING LUNG
             TRANSPLANTATION},
   Journal = {Annals of Behavioral Medicine},
   Volume = {52},
   Pages = {S560-S560},
   Publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds336048}
}

@article{fds336049,
   Author = {Smith, PJ and Blumenthal, JA and Hinderliter, A and Sherwood,
             A},
   Title = {MICROVASCULAR FUNCTION AND COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE AMONG
             INDIVIDUALS WITH MAJOR DEPRESSION},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {80},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {A123-A124},
   Publisher = {LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds336049}
}

@article{fds330458,
   Author = {Smith, PJ and Blumenthal, JA and Hoffman, BM and Davis, RD and Palmer,
             SM},
   Title = {Postoperative cognitive dysfunction and mortality following
             lung transplantation.},
   Journal = {Am J Transplant},
   Volume = {18},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {696-703},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajt.14570},
   Abstract = {Preliminary evidence suggests that postoperative cognitive
             dysfunction (POCD) is common after lung transplantation. The
             impact of POCD on clinical outcomes has yet to be studied.
             The association between POCD and longer-term survival was
             therefore examined in a pilot study of posttransplantation
             survivors. Forty-nine participants from a prior randomized
             clinical trial underwent a neurocognitive assessment battery
             pretransplantation and 6 months posttransplantation,
             including assessments of the domains of Executive Function
             (Trail Making Test, Stroop, Digit Span), Processing Speed
             (Ruff 2 and 7 Test, Digit Symbol Substitution Test), and
             Verbal Memory (Verbal Paired Associates, Logical Memory,
             Animal Naming, and Controlled Oral Word Association Test).
             During a 13-year follow-up, 33 (67%) participants died.
             Greater neurocognition was associated with longer survival
             (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.49 [0.25-0.96], P = .039), and
             this association was strongest on tests assessing Processing
             Speed (HR = 0.58 [0.36-0.95], P = .03) and Executive
             Function (HR = 0.52 [0.28-0.97], P = .040). In addition,
             unadjusted analyses suggested an association between greater
             Memory performance and lower risk of CLAD (HR = 0.54
             [0.29-1.00], P = .050). Declines in Executive Function
             tended to be predictive of worse survival. These preliminary
             findings suggest that postoperative neurocognition is
             predictive of subsequent mortality among lung transplant
             recipients. Further research is needed to confirm these
             findings in a larger sample and to examine mechanisms
             responsible for this relationship.},
   Doi = {10.1111/ajt.14570},
   Key = {fds330458}
}

@article{fds329487,
   Author = {Sherwood, A and Hill, LK and Blumenthal, JA and Hinderliter,
             AL},
   Title = {Circadian hemodynamics in men and women with high blood
             pressure: dipper vs. nondipper and racial
             differences.},
   Journal = {J Hypertens},
   Volume = {36},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {250-258},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000001533},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: The 'nondipping' pattern of circadian blood
             pressure (BP) variation is an established independent
             predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Although this
             phenomenon has been widely studied, its underlying circadian
             hemodynamics of cardiac output and systemic vascular
             resistance (SVR) have not been well characterized. We
             evaluated the hypothesis that BP nondipping would be
             associated with a blunted night-time reduction in SVR in a
             biracial sample of 140 (63 African-American and 77 white)
             men and women with elevated clinic BP (130-159/85-99 mmHg).
             METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-four-hour ambulatory
             hemodynamics were assessed using standard ambulatory BP
             monitoring coupled with synchronized ambulatory impedance
             cardiography. Using the criterion of less than 10% dip in
             SBP, there were 51 nondippers (SBP dip = 7.3 ± 2.6%)
             and 89 dippers (SBP dip = 15.5 ± 3.4%). There was
             minimal change in cardiac output from daytime to night-time
             in both dippers and nondippers. However, SVR decreased from
             daytime to night-time, but nondippers compared with dippers
             exhibited a significantly attenuated decrease in SVR from
             daytime to night-time (7.8 vs. 16.1%, P < 0.001).
             Relative to their white counterparts, African-Americans also
             exhibited blunted SBP dipping (10.9 vs. 14.6%,
             P < 0.001) as well as an attenuated decrease in SVR
             (10.8 vs. 15.6%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Overall, these
             findings indicate that blunted night-time BP dipping is
             associated with impairment of the systemic vasodilation that
             is characteristic of the night-time sleep period and is
             especially prominent among African-Americans. In the context
             of high BP, these findings suggest that nondipping may be a
             manifestation, or marker, of more advanced vascular
             disease.},
   Doi = {10.1097/HJH.0000000000001533},
   Key = {fds329487}
}

@article{fds336051,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Sherwood, A},
   Title = {Missing ingredients for a lifestyle recipe to treat
             hypertension.},
   Journal = {Journal of Thoracic Disease},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {653-656},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd.2018.01.06},
   Doi = {10.21037/jtd.2018.01.06},
   Key = {fds336051}
}

@article{fds331882,
   Author = {Hill, LK and Sherwood, A and McNeilly, M and Anderson, NB and Blumenthal, JA and Hinderliter, AL},
   Title = {Impact of Racial Discrimination and Hostility on Adrenergic
             Receptor Responsiveness in African American
             Adults.},
   Journal = {Psychosom Med},
   Volume = {80},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {208-215},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0000000000000547},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: Racial discrimination is increasingly recognized
             as a contributor to increased cardiovascular disease (CVD)
             risk among African Americans. Previous research has shown
             significant overlap between racial discrimination and
             hostility, an established predictor of CVD risk including
             alterations in adrenergic receptor functioning. The present
             study examined the associations of racial discrimination and
             hostility with adrenergic receptor responsiveness. METHODS:
             In a sample (N = 57) of young to middle-aged African
             American adults (51% female) with normal and mildly elevated
             blood pressure, a standardized isoproterenol sensitivity
             test (CD25) was used to evaluate β-AR responsiveness,
             whereas the dose of phenylephrine required to increase mean
             arterial pressure by 25 mm Hg (PD25) was used to assess
             α1-AR responsiveness. Racial discrimination was measured
             using the Perceived Racism Scale and hostility was assessed
             using the Cook-Medley Hostility Scale. RESULTS: In
             hierarchical regression models, greater racial
             discrimination, but not hostility, emerged as a significant
             predictor of decreased β-adrenergic receptor responsiveness
             (β = .38, p = .004). However, moderation analysis revealed
             that the association between racial discrimination and
             blunted β-adrenergic receptor responsiveness was strongest
             among those with higher hostility (β = .49, 95% confidence
             interval = .17-.82, p = .004). In addition, hostility, but
             not racial discrimination, significantly predicted α1-AR
             responsiveness. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest racial
             discrimination was associated with blunted β-adrenergic
             receptor responsiveness, providing further evidence of the
             potential contribution of racial discrimination to increased
             CVD risk among African Americans. The adverse effects of
             discrimination on cardiovascular health may be enhanced in
             individuals with higher levels of hostility.},
   Doi = {10.1097/PSY.0000000000000547},
   Key = {fds331882}
}

@article{fds330457,
   Author = {Farquhar, JM and Smith, PJ and Snyder, L and Gray, AL and Reynolds, JM and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Patterns and predictors of pain following lung
             transplantation.},
   Journal = {Gen Hosp Psychiatry},
   Volume = {50},
   Pages = {125-130},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2017.11.007},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to examine variability in pain
             levels following lung transplantation, and examine
             individual biopsychosocial factors influencing changes in
             pain. METHOD: We performed a retrospective study of a cohort
             of 150 patients transplanted and discharged from Duke
             University Hospital between January 2015 and September 2016.
             During hospitalization and at clinic visits up to two months
             after discharge, subjective pain ratings were obtained using
             a 0-10 Numeric Rating Scale. Psychiatric diagnoses of
             anxiety and depression and Center for Epidemiological
             Studies - Depression (CES-D) scores collected after hospital
             discharge were examined as predictors of post-surgery pain.
             Medical and surgical variables were examined as covariates.
             RESULTS: During hospitalization, pain ratings decreased over
             time (p<0.001). Predictors of higher pain levels included
             pre-transplant history of depression (p=0.001) and anxiety
             (p=0.04), bilateral lung transplant (p=0.03), and lower
             six-minute walk distance (p=0.02). Two months after
             discharge, 18% of patients reported continued pain and 34%
             remained on opioid pain medications. Two months after
             discharge, more frequent post-operative complications
             predicted higher pain levels in a univariate analysis
             (p=0.02) although this relationship was attenuated after
             adjustment for depression. In a multivariate analysis,
             elevated CES-D scores (p=0.002), and greater opioid use
             (p=0.031) predicted higher pain levels 2-months
             post-discharge. CONCLUSION: We conclude that patients with
             psychiatric comorbidities may be at risk for greater pain,
             and may require additional strategies for more effective
             pain management.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2017.11.007},
   Key = {fds330457}
}

@article{fds330347,
   Author = {Nieuwsma, JA and Williams, JW and Namdari, N and Washam, JB and Raitz,
             G and Blumenthal, JA and Jiang, W and Yapa, R and McBroom, AJ and Lallinger, K and Schmidt, R and Kosinski, AS and Sanders,
             GD},
   Title = {Diagnostic Accuracy of Screening Tests and Treatment for
             Post-Acute Coronary Syndrome Depression: A Systematic
             Review.},
   Journal = {Ann Intern Med},
   Volume = {167},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {725-735},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/M17-1811},
   Abstract = {Background: Patients who have had an acute coronary syndrome
             (ACS) event have an increased risk for depression. Purpose:
             To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of depression screening
             instruments and to compare safety and effectiveness of
             depression treatments in adults within 3 months of an ACS
             event. Data Sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and
             Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from January 2003 to
             August 2017, and a manual search of citations from key
             primary and review articles. Study Selection:
             English-language studies of post-ACS patients that evaluated
             the diagnostic accuracy of depression screening tools or
             compared the safety and effectiveness of a broad range of
             pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic depression treatments.
             Data Extraction: 2 investigators independently screened each
             article for inclusion; abstracted the data; and rated the
             quality, applicability, and strength of evidence. Data
             Synthesis: Evidence from 6 of the 10 included studies showed
             that a range of depression screening instruments produces
             acceptable levels of diagnostic sensitivity, specificity,
             and negative predictive values (70% to 100%) but low
             positive predictive values (below 50%). The Beck Depression
             Inventory-II was the most studied tool. A large study found
             that a combination of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and
             antidepressant medication improved depression symptoms,
             mental health-related function, and overall life
             satisfaction more than usual care. Limitation: Few studies,
             no evaluation of the influence of screening on clinical
             outcomes, and no studies addressing several clinical
             interventions of interest. Conclusion: Depression screening
             instruments produce diagnostic accuracy metrics that are
             similar in post-ACS patients and other clinical populations.
             Depression interventions have an uncertain effect on
             cardiovascular outcomes, but CBT combined with
             antidepressant medication produces modest improvement in
             psychosocial outcomes. Primary Funding Source: Agency for
             Healthcare Research and Quality (PROSPERO:
             CRD42016047032).},
   Doi = {10.7326/M17-1811},
   Key = {fds330347}
}

@article{fds331883,
   Author = {Smith, PJ and Sherwood, A and Mabe, S and Watkins, L and Hinderliter, A and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Physical activity and psychosocial function following
             cardiac rehabilitation: One-year follow-up of the ENHANCED
             study.},
   Journal = {Gen Hosp Psychiatry},
   Volume = {49},
   Pages = {32-36},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2017.05.001},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To examine the long-term association between
             physical activity (PA) and psychosocial functioning
             following completion of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) among
             participants in the ENHANCED study. METHOD: ENHANCED was a
             3-month clinical trial examining standard CR with and
             without stress management training (SMT). Participants
             completed the Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (LTEQ),
             Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and the Spielberger
             State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) at baseline, 3- and
             12-months after randomization. Prospective associations
             between physical activity and psychosocial function, as well
             as treatment group differences, were examined using repeated
             measures mixed modeling. RESULTS: One hundred nineteen
             participants were available at 12month follow-up. During the
             12-month follow-up, PA remained higher compared to baseline
             (P<0.001), with the majority of participants reporting that
             they engaged in PA on a regular basis. Depressive and
             anxious symptoms continued to remain lower than baseline
             (Ps<0.001) Higher levels of PA at 12-month follow-up were
             associated with lower depressive (P=0.032) and anxious
             (P=0.003) symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Higher physical activity
             levels following CR are associated with lower depressive and
             anxious symptoms. Encouraging patients to sustain higher
             levels of PA may promote both cardiovascular and mental
             health.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2017.05.001},
   Key = {fds331883}
}

@article{fds330037,
   Author = {Tyson, CC and Smith, PJ and Sherwood, A and Mabe, S and Hinderliter, AL and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Association between normal or mildly reduced kidney
             function, cardiovascular risk and biomarkers for
             atherosclerosis: results from the ENCORE
             trial.},
   Journal = {Clinical Kidney Journal},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {666-671},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ckj/sfx025},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Moderate-to-severe kidney dysfunction is
             associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease
             (ASCVD). Gradations of normal or mildly reduced kidney
             function may also associate with ASCVD risk. METHODS: We
             conducted a secondary analysis using baseline data from the
             Exercise and Nutritional Interventions for Cardiovascular
             Health (ENCORE) trial. Participants were sedentary,
             overweight and obese adults with unmedicated
             pre-hypertension or Stage I hypertension and an estimated
             glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2.
             The Pooled Cohorts Equations were used to estimate a 10-year
             risk for first ASCVD event. Carotid artery intima-media
             thickness (IMT) and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation
             (FMD) were measured to assess subclinical atherosclerosis
             and vascular endothelial function, respectively. Using
             linear regression, we examined the association between eGFR
             and ASCVD risk, IMT and FMD. RESULTS: Participants
             (N = 139) were predominantly women (65%), white (60%),
             with a mean age of 52.0 ± 9.6 years and mean eGFR of
             89.1 ± 15.0 mL/min/1.73 m2. Lower eGFR of
             15 mL/min/1.73 m2 was associated with higher ASCVD risk
             [b = -2.7% (95% confidence interval: -3.7, -1.8%),
             P < 0.001], higher IMT [b = 0.05 mm (0.03,
             0.08 mm), P < 0.001] and lower FMD [b = -0.87%
             (-1.64, -0.11%), P = 0.026]. Compared with
             eGFR ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2, those with eGFR
             60-89 mL/min/1.73 m2 had higher mean ASCVD risk (7.6%
             versus 2.7%; P < 0.001), greater mean IMT (0.74 mm
             versus 0.66 mm; P < 0.001) and lower mean FMD (2.0%
             versus 3.7%; P = 0.026). After controlling for CVD risk
             factors, the association between eGFR and IMT remained
             significant (P < 0.001), and eGFR and FMD trended toward
             significance (P = 0.08). CONCLUSIONS: Among overweight
             and obese adults with unmedicated high blood pressure and
             eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2, lower eGFR is associated
             with a greater 10-year risk for first ASCVD event, higher
             IMT and relatively impaired FMD.},
   Doi = {10.1093/ckj/sfx025},
   Key = {fds330037}
}

@article{fds327848,
   Author = {Sherwood, A and Hill, LK and Blumenthal, JA and Adams, KF and Paine, NJ and Koch, GG and O'Connor, CM and Johnson, KS and Hinderliter,
             AL},
   Title = {Blood pressure reactivity to psychological stress is
             associated with clinical outcomes in patients with heart
             failure.},
   Journal = {American Heart Journal},
   Volume = {191},
   Pages = {82-90},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2017.07.003},
   Abstract = {INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular (CV) reactivity to
             psychological stress has been implicated in the development
             and exacerbation of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although
             high CV reactivity traditionally is thought to convey
             greater risk of CVD, the relationship between reactivity and
             clinical outcomes is inconsistent and may depend on the
             patient population under investigation. The present study
             examined CV reactivity in patients with heart failure (HF)
             and its potential association with long-term clinical
             outcomes. METHODS: One hundred ninety-nine outpatients
             diagnosed with HF, with ejection fraction ≤40%, underwent
             an evaluation of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate
             reactivity to a laboratory-based simulated public-speaking
             stressor. Cox proportional hazards regression models were
             used to examine the prospective association between BP and
             heart rate reactivity on a combined end point of death or CV
             hospitalization over a 5-year median follow-up period.
             RESULTS: Both systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic
             blood pressure (DBP) reactivity, quantified as continuous
             variables, were inversely related to risk of death or CV
             hospitalization (Ps < .01) after controlling for established
             risk factors, including HF disease severity and etiology. In
             similar models, heart rate reactivity was unrelated to
             outcome (P = .12). In models with tertiles of reactivity,
             high SBP reactivity, compared with intermediate SBP
             reactivity, was associated with lower risk (hazard ratio
             [HR] = .498, 95% CI .335-.742, P =.001), whereas low SBP
             reactivity did not differ from intermediate reactivity. For
             DBP, high reactivity was marginally associated with lower
             risk compared with intermediate DBP reactivity (HR = .767,
             95% CI .515-1.14, P =.193), whereas low DBP reactivity was
             associated with greater risk (HR = 1.49, 95% CI 1.027-2.155,
             P =.0359). No relationship of heart rate reactivity to
             outcome was identified. CONCLUSIONS: For HF patients with
             reduced ejection fraction, a robust increase in BP evoked by
             a laboratory-based psychological challenge was associated
             with lower risk for adverse CVD events and may be a novel
             and unique marker of left ventricular systolic reserve that
             is accompanied by a more favorable long-term
             prognosis.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.ahj.2017.07.003},
   Key = {fds327848}
}

@article{fds330038,
   Author = {Hayano, J and Yasuma, F and Watanabe, E and Carney, RM and Stein, PK and Blumenthal, JA and Arsenos, P and Gatzoulis, KA and Takahashi, H and Ishii, H and Kiyono, K and Yamamoto, Y and Yoshida, Y and Yuda, E and Kodama, I},
   Title = {Blunted cyclic variation of heart rate predicts mortality
             risk in post-myocardial infarction, end-stage renal disease,
             and chronic heart failure patients.},
   Journal = {Europace},
   Volume = {19},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {1392-1400},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/euw222},
   Abstract = {Aims: Cyclic variation of heart rate (CVHR) associated with
             sleep-disordered breathing is thought to reflect cardiac
             autonomic responses to apnoeic/hypoxic stress. We examined
             whether blunted CVHR observed in ambulatory ECG could
             predict the mortality risk. Methods and results: CVHR in
             night-time Holter ECG was detected by an automated
             algorithm, and the prognostic relationships of the frequency
             (FCV) and amplitude (ACV) of CVHR were examined in 717
             patients after myocardial infarction (post-MI 1, 6%
             mortality, median follow-up 25 months). The predictive power
             was prospectively validated in three independent cohorts: a
             second group of 220 post-MI patients (post-MI 2, 25.5%
             mortality, follow-up 45 months); 299 patients with end-stage
             renal disease on chronic haemodialysis (ESRD, 28.1%
             mortality, follow-up 85 months); and 100 patients with
             chronic heart failure (CHF, 35% mortality, follow-up 38
             months). Although CVHR was observed in ≥96% of the
             patients in all cohorts, FCV did not predict mortality in
             any cohort. In contrast, decreased ACV was a powerful
             predictor of mortality in the post-MI 1 cohort (hazard ratio
             [95% CI] per 1 ln [ms] decrement, 2.9 [2.2-3.7], P < 0.001).
             This prognostic relationship was validated in the post-MI 2
             (1.8 [1.4-2.2], P < 0.001), ESRD (1.5 [1.3-1.8], P < 0.001),
             and CHF (1.4 [1.1-1.8], P = 0.02) cohorts. The prognostic
             value of ACV was independent of age, gender, diabetes,
             β-blocker therapy, left ventricular ejection fraction,
             sleep-time mean R-R interval, and FCV. Conclusion: Blunted
             CVHR detected by decreased ACV in a night-time Holter ECG
             predicts increased mortality risk in post-MI, ESRD, and CHF
             patients.},
   Doi = {10.1093/europace/euw222},
   Key = {fds330038}
}

@article{fds326740,
   Author = {Tussing-Humphreys, L and Lamar, M and Blumenthal, JA and Babyak, M and Fantuzzi, G and Blumstein, L and Schiffer, L and Fitzgibbon,
             ML},
   Title = {Building research in diet and cognition: The BRIDGE
             randomized controlled trial.},
   Journal = {Contemp Clin Trials},
   Volume = {59},
   Pages = {87-97},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cct.2017.06.003},
   Abstract = {Obesity has been linked to cognitive impairment, cognitive
             decline and dementia. Given that 38.5% of U.S. adults
             60years and older are obese and these numbers are rapidly
             increasing, strategies to decouple obesity from cognitive
             decline are needed. Innovative lifestyle strategies that may
             postpone the onset of subclinical symptoms or even arrest
             the transition to overt dementia in at-risk individuals are
             critically needed. Poor diet is central to the development
             of obesity and diet may affect cognition. Adherence to a
             Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) is associated with reduced risk
             of cognitive impairment and dementia. Furthermore, weight
             loss through caloric restriction improves cognitive
             function. This paper describes the Building Research in Diet
             and CoGnition (BRIDGE) study, a randomized trial examining
             the effect of the MedDiet, with and without weight loss, on
             cognitive functioning in obese older adults. Obese (BMI≥30
             and ≤50kg/m2) older adults (≥55years) (n=180) will be
             randomized in a 2:2:1 allocation scheme to: Typical Diet
             Control; MedDiet alone, without weight loss; or MedDiet
             lifestyle intervention to promote weight loss and weight
             loss maintenance. Both MedDiet intervention groups will meet
             for one individual session and 27 group sessions over an
             8-month period. Individuals in the control group will not
             receive instruction on changing lifestyle habits. Outcomes
             will be assessed at baseline, 8 and 14months. The primary
             outcome is cognitive functioning; secondary outcomes will
             include changes in body weight, diet, cardiovascular,
             metabolic, and inflammatory biomarkers.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.cct.2017.06.003},
   Key = {fds326740}
}

@article{fds326855,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Smith, PJ and Mabe, S and Hinderliter, A and Welsh-Bohmer, K and Browndyke, JN and Lin, P-H and Kraus, W and Doraiswamy, PM and Burke, J and Sherwood, A},
   Title = {Lifestyle and Neurocognition in Older Adults With
             Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Cognitive
             Impairment.},
   Journal = {Psychosom Med},
   Volume = {79},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {719-727},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0000000000000474},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the
             relationship of lifestyle factors and neurocognitive
             functioning in older adults with vascular risk factors and
             cognitive impairment, no dementia (CIND). METHODS: One
             hundred sixty adults (M [SD] = 65.4 [6.8] years) with CIND
             completed neurocognitive assessments of executive function,
             processing speed, and memory. Objective measures of physical
             activity using accelerometry, aerobic capacity determined by
             exercise testing, and dietary habits quantified by the Food
             Frequency Questionnaire and 4-Day Food Diary to assess
             adherence to the Mediterranean and Dietary Approaches to
             Stop Hypertension (DASH) diets were obtained to assess
             direct effects with neurocognition. Potential indirect
             associations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and the
             Framingham Stroke Risk Profile also were examined. RESULTS:
             Greater aerobic capacity (β = 0.24) and daily physical
             activity (β = 0.15) were associated with better executive
             functioning/processing speed and verbal memory (βs = 0.24;
             0.16). Adherence to the DASH diet was associated with better
             verbal memory (β = 0.17). Greater high-sensitivity
             C-reactive protein (βs = -0.14; -0.21) and Framingham
             Stroke Risk Profile (β = -0.18; -0.18) were associated with
             poorer executive functioning/processing speed and verbal
             memory. Greater stroke risk partially mediated the
             association of aerobic capacity with executive
             functioning/processing speed, and verbal memory and greater
             inflammation partially mediated the association of physical
             activity and aerobic fitness, with verbal memory.
             CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of physical activity, aerobic
             fitness, and adherence to the DASH diet are associated with
             better neurocognitive performance in adults with CIND. These
             findings suggest that the adoption of healthy lifestyle
             habits could reduce the risk of neurocognitive decline in
             vulnerable older adults. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:
             NCT01573546.},
   Doi = {10.1097/PSY.0000000000000474},
   Key = {fds326855}
}

@article{fds326632,
   Author = {Hill, LK and Watkins, LL and Hinderliter, AL and Blumenthal, JA and Sherwood, A},
   Title = {Racial differences in the association between heart rate
             variability and left ventricular mass.},
   Journal = {Exp Physiol},
   Volume = {102},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {764-772},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP086228},
   Abstract = {NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study?
             Decreased heart rate variability (HRV) is associated with
             increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, including
             greater left ventricular mass (LVM). Despite their enhanced
             CVD risk profile, African Americans have been shown to
             exhibit higher HRV, relative to Whites; however, it is
             unclear whether this pattern extends to the association
             between HRV and LVM. What is the main finding and its
             importance? Using ECG and echocardiographic data, HRV was
             positively associated with LVM in a non-clinical sample of
             African Americans. These findings suggest that current
             assumptions regarding the meaning of higher HRV might not be
             universal, which might have implications for HRV as a risk
             marker among African Americans. Increased left ventricular
             mass (LVM) is an early precursor of target organ damage
             attributable to hypertension. Diminished parasympathetic
             cardiac control has been linked to both hypertension onset
             and left ventricular impairment; however, emerging evidence
             suggests that this pattern might be different in African
             Americans. The present study sought to determine whether
             race impacts the relationship between parasympathetic
             cardiac control and LVM. The LVM was assessed via
             echocardiography in a sample (n = 148) of African American
             and White adults (mean age 33.20 ± 5.71 years) with
             normal or mildly elevated blood pressure. Parasympathetic
             cardiac control was assessed by a measure of high-frequency
             heart rate variability (HF-HRV) determined from ECG
             recordings during 5 min of rest. In regression analysis,
             greater HF-HRV was associated with greater LVM among African
             Americans (P = 0.002) but was not related to LVM in Whites
             (P = 0.919). These are the first data to demonstrate that
             race moderates the relationship between HRV and LVM and
             further suggest that race might be an important factor in
             the association between parasympathetic cardiac control and
             other cardiovascular disease risk factors.},
   Doi = {10.1113/EP086228},
   Key = {fds326632}
}

@article{fds325510,
   Author = {Sherwood, A and Hill, LK and Blumenthal, JA and Johnson, KS and Hinderliter, AL},
   Title = {Race and sex differences in cardiovascular α-adrenergic and
             β-adrenergic receptor responsiveness in men and women with
             high blood pressure.},
   Journal = {J Hypertens},
   Volume = {35},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {975-981},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000001266},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: Hypertension is associated with unfavorable
             changes in adrenergic receptor responsiveness, but the
             relationship of race and sex to adrenergic receptor
             responsiveness in the development of cardiovascular disease
             is unclear. This study examined α-adrenergic and
             ß-adrenergic receptor responsiveness in African-American
             and white men and women with untreated high blood pressure
             (BP) (HBP) and with normal BP. METHODS AND RESULTS: The
             study sample comprised 161 African-American and white men
             and women in the age range 25-45 years. Isoproterenol, a
             nonselective ß-adrenergic receptor agonist, was
             administered intravenously to determine the bolus dose
             required to increase heart rate by 25 bpm, an index of
             β-adrenergic receptor responsiveness. Similarly,
             phenylephrine, an α1-adrenergic receptor agonist, was
             administered to determine the bolus dose required to
             increase BP by 25 mmHg, an index of vascular
             α1-adrenergic receptor responsiveness. HBP (P < 0.01),
             male sex (P = 0.04), and higher BMI (P < 0.01) were
             all associated with reduced β-adrenergic receptor
             responsiveness, with a similar trend observed for
             African-American race (P = 0.07). Conversely,
             α1-adrenergic receptor responsiveness was increased in
             association with HBP (P < 0.01), female sex
             (P < 0.01), and African-American race (P < 0.01).
             CONCLUSION: In the early stages of hypertension,
             cardiovascular β-adrenergic receptors demonstrate blunted
             responsiveness, whereas conversely α1-adrenergic receptors
             exhibit increased responsiveness. This pattern of receptor
             changes is especially evident in men and African-Americans,
             is exacerbated by obesity, and may contribute to the
             development of cardiovascular disease.},
   Doi = {10.1097/HJH.0000000000001266},
   Key = {fds325510}
}

@article{fds329488,
   Author = {Hill, LK and Sherwood, A and Blumenthal, JA and Hinderliter,
             AL},
   Title = {SYNERGISTIC IMPACT OF PERCEIVED DISCRIMINATION AND HOSTILITY
             ON ADRENERGIC RESPONSIVITY},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {79},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {A85-A85},
   Publisher = {LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {May},
   Key = {fds329488}
}

@article{fds321706,
   Author = {Stonerock, GL and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Role of Counseling to Promote Adherence in Healthy Lifestyle
             Medicine: Strategies to Improve Exercise Adherence and
             Enhance Physical Activity.},
   Journal = {Prog Cardiovasc Dis},
   Volume = {59},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {455-462},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pcad.2016.09.003},
   Abstract = {Although healthy lifestyles (HL) offer a number of health
             benefits, nonadherence to recommended lifestyle changes
             remains a frequent and difficult obstacle to realizing these
             benefits. Behavioral counseling can improve adherence to an
             HL. However, individuals' motivation for change and
             resistance to altering unhealthy habits must be considered
             when developing an effective approach to counseling. In the
             present article, we review psychological, behavioral, and
             environmental factors that may promote adherence and
             contribute to nonadherence. We discuss two established
             models for counseling, motivational interviewing and the
             transtheoretical model of behavior change, and provide an
             example of how these approaches can be used to counsel
             patients to exercise and increase their levels of physical
             activity.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.pcad.2016.09.003},
   Key = {fds321706}
}

@article{fds323315,
   Author = {Smith, PJ and Blumenthal, JA and Snyder, LD and Mathew, JP and Durheim,
             MT and Hoffman, BM and Rivelli, SK and Palmer, SM},
   Title = {Depressive symptoms and early mortality following lung
             transplantation: A pilot study.},
   Journal = {Clin Transplant},
   Volume = {31},
   Number = {2},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ctr.12874},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Impaired psychological function is common among
             lung transplant candidates and may affect clinical outcomes
             following transplantation. Although numerous studies have
             examined the relationship between pretransplant depression,
             quality of life (QoL), and post-transplant outcomes, few
             have examined the relationship between depression and QoL
             shortly following transplantation and subsequent clinical
             outcomes. We therefore examined the association between
             depression, QoL, and short-term mortality in a consecutive
             series of lung transplant recipients. METHODS: Depression
             (Patient Health Questionnaire-9; Hospital Anxiety and
             Depression Scale; Centers for Epidemiologic Studies
             Depression Scale) and QoL (UCSD Shortness of Breath
             Questionnaire; Pulmonary Quality of Life Scale) were
             assessed prior to transplantation (median 0.9 months
             [IQR=1.6]) and again approximately 2 weeks following
             transplantation (median=0.5 months [IQR=0.5]), in a series
             of 66 patients transplanted between March 2013 and April
             2014. The association between psychiatric diagnoses from
             participants' comprehensive pretransplant assessment and
             mortality also was examined. Cox proportional hazards models
             were used to examine the association between depression,
             QoL, and mortality. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of
             2.8 years (range 0.4-3.3), 21 patients died (32%). Greater
             depressive symptoms assessed shortly after transplant were
             associated with subsequent mortality (HR=2.17 [1.01, 4.67],
             P=.048), and this relationship persisted after controlling
             for primary graft dysfunction, duration of transplant
             hospitalization, and gender. In contrast, neither
             pretransplant depression, history of depression, nor QoL was
             associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Greater
             post-transplant depressive symptoms are independently
             associated with mortality among lung transplant
             recipients.},
   Doi = {10.1111/ctr.12874},
   Key = {fds323315}
}

@article{fds329489,
   Author = {Sherwood, A and Smith, PJ and Hinderliter, AL and Georgiades, A and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Effects of exercise and stress management training on
             nighttime blood pressure dipping in patients with coronary
             heart disease: A randomized, controlled trial.},
   Journal = {American Heart Journal},
   Volume = {183},
   Pages = {85-90},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2016.10.011},
   Abstract = {INTRODUCTION: Blunted nighttime blood pressure (BP) dipping
             is prognostic of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
             Patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) are often
             characterized by a blunted nighttime BP dipping pattern. The
             present study compared the effects of 2 behavioral
             intervention programs, aerobic exercise (EX) and stress
             management (SM) training, with a usual care (UC) control
             group on BP dipping in a sample of CHD patients. METHODS:
             This was a secondary analysis of a randomized, controlled
             trial with allocation concealment and blinded outcome
             assessment in 134 patients with stable CHD and
             exercise-induced myocardial ischemia. Nighttime BP dipping
             was assessed by 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring, at
             prerandomization baseline and after 16 weeks of one of the
             following treatments: usual medical care; UC plus supervised
             aerobic EX for 35 minutes, 3 times per week; UC plus weekly
             1.5-hour sessions of SM training. RESULTS: The EX and SM
             groups exhibited greater improvements in systolic BP dipping
             (P=.052) and diastolic BP dipping (P=.031) compared with UC.
             Postintervention systolic BP percent-dipping means were
             12.9% (SE=1.5) for SM, 11.1% (SE=1.4) for EX, and 8.6%
             (SE=1.4) for UC. Postintervention diastolic BP
             percent-dipping means were 13.3% (SE=1.9) for SM, 14.1%
             (SE=1.8) for EX, and 8.8% (1.8) for UC. CONCLUSIONS: For
             patients with stable CHD, EX or SM training resulted in
             improved nighttime BP dipping compared with usual medical
             care. These favorable effects of healthy lifestyle
             modifications may help reduce the risk of adverse clinical
             events.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.ahj.2016.10.011},
   Key = {fds329489}
}

@article{fds329490,
   Author = {Sherwood, A and Blumenthal, JA and Koch, GG and Hoffman, BM and Watkins,
             LL and Smith, PJ and O'Connor, CM and Adams, KF and Rogers, JG and Sueta,
             C and Chang, PP and Johnson, KS and Schwartz, J and Hinderliter,
             AL},
   Title = {Effects of Coping Skills Training on Quality of Life,
             Disease Biomarkers, and Clinical Outcomes in Patients With
             Heart Failure: A Randomized Clinical Trial.},
   Journal = {Circ Heart Fail},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {1},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.116.003410},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is a chronic disease that
             compromises patients' quality of life (QoL). Interventions
             designed to reduce distress and improve disease
             self-management are needed. We evaluated the efficacy of a
             telephone-based coping skills training (CST) intervention.
             METHODS AND RESULTS: This randomized clinical trial involved
             180 HF outpatients with reduced ejection fraction.
             Participants ranged in age from 29 to 87 years (mean=58
             years); 27% were women, and 47% were nonwhite. Participants
             were randomized to either a CST intervention or heart
             failure education, both delivered over 16 weeks. The primary
             outcomes were (1) postintervention effects on QoL and HF
             disease biomarkers (both with α=0.01), and (2) a composite
             measure of time to death or first hospitalization (with
             α=0.03) over a median follow-up period of 3 years. CST
             resulted in greater improvements in QoL compared with heart
             failure education (P<0.01), including the Kansas City
             Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (P=0.009), depressive symptoms
             (P=0.027), and the 6-minute walk test (P=0.012). However, it
             did not differentially improve HF disease biomarkers or
             reduce risk of all-cause hospitalizations or death (hazard
             ratio=0.84 [95% confidence interval, 0.59-1.12]).
             Interestingly, exploratory analyses showed that participants
             randomized to CST experienced a reduction in the composite
             end point of worsening HF hospitalization or death during
             the 3-year follow-up period (hazard ratio=0.65 [95%
             confidence interval, 0.44-0.98]; P=0.040). CONCLUSIONS: CST
             improved QoL in patients with HF. Monitoring and improving
             QoL is emerging as an important aspect of the clinical
             management of HF that can reduce disease burden and may help
             improve clinical outcomes in this vulnerable patient
             population. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL:
             https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier:
             NCT00873418.},
   Doi = {10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.116.003410},
   Key = {fds329490}
}

@article{fds329491,
   Author = {Tyson, CC and Smith, PJ and Sherwood, A and Mabe, S and Hinderliter, AL and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Influence of Kidney Function on Blood Pressure Response to
             Lifestyle Modifications: Secondary Analysis From the
             Exercise and Nutritional Interventions for Cardiovascular
             Health (ENCORE) Trial.},
   Journal = {J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich)},
   Volume = {18},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {1260-1267},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jch.12853},
   Abstract = {The kidney is an important regulator of blood pressure (BP).
             To determine whether BP response to lifestyle modification
             varies across normal ranges of kidney function, the authors
             examined the moderating role of estimated glomerular
             filtration rate (eGFR) on clinic and ambulatory systolic BP
             (SBP) response in overweight and obese adults with
             unmedicated high BP. Among 144 participants of the Exercise
             and Nutritional Interventions for Cardiovascular Health
             (ENCORE) trial, mean age was 52.0±9.6 years and median eGFR
             was 89.1 (53-146) mL/min/1.73m2 . After multivariable
             regression, the interaction between eGFR and weight loss was
             significant for clinic (P=.023) and ambulatory SBP (P=.041).
             Similarly, the interaction between eGFR and improved fitness
             was significant for clinic (P=.041) and ambulatory SBP
             (P=.044). The relationship between reduced dietary sodium
             and SBP was not moderated by eGFR. SBP findings were
             inconsistent for adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop
             Hypertension (DASH) diet. These findings suggest that the
             effects of lifestyle modifications on SBP may be influenced
             by eGFR, even when kidney function is preserved.},
   Doi = {10.1111/jch.12853},
   Key = {fds329491}
}

@article{fds325784,
   Author = {Hill, LK and Sherwood, A and Blumenthal, JA and Hinderliter,
             AL},
   Title = {Hemodynamics and Vascular Hypertrophy in African Americans
             and Caucasians With High Blood Pressure.},
   Journal = {Am J Hypertens},
   Volume = {29},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {1380-1385},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajh/hpw080},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Hypertension in African Americans is
             characterized by greater systemic vascular resistance (SVR)
             compared with Caucasian Americans, but the responsible
             mechanisms are not known. The present study sought to
             determine if peripheral vascular hypertrophy is a potential
             mechanism contributing to elevated SVR in African Americans
             with high blood pressure (BP). METHODS: In a biracial sample
             of 80 men and women between the ages of 25 and 45 years,
             with clinic BP in the range 130/85-160/99mm Hg, we assessed
             cardiac output and SVR, in addition to BP. Minimum forearm
             vascular resistance (MFVR), a marker of vascular
             hypertrophy, also was assessed. RESULTS: SVR was elevated in
             African Americans compared with Caucasians (P < 0.001).
             Regression models indicated that age, body mass index,
             24-hour diastolic BP, and ethnicity were significant
             predictors of SVR. There was also a significant interaction
             between ethnicity and MFVR in explaining SVR in the study
             sample. In particular, there was a significant positive
             association between MFVR and SVR among African Americans (P
             = 0.002), whereas the association was inverse and not
             statistically significant among Caucasians (P = 0.601).
             CONCLUSION: Hypertrophy of the systemic microvasculature may
             contribute to the elevated SVR that is characteristic of the
             early stages of hypertension in African American compared
             with Caucasians.},
   Doi = {10.1093/ajh/hpw080},
   Key = {fds325784}
}

@article{fds330039,
   Author = {Lavie, CJ and Menezes, AR and De Schutter and A and Milani, RV and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Impact of Cardiac Rehabilitation and Exercise Training on
             Psychological Risk Factors and Subsequent Prognosis in
             Patients With Cardiovascular Disease.},
   Journal = {Can J Cardiol},
   Volume = {32},
   Number = {10 Suppl 2},
   Pages = {S365-S373},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cjca.2016.07.508},
   Abstract = {The role of psychological risk factors has been
             under-recognized in most subspecialties of medicine, as well
             as in general medicine practices. However, considerable
             evidence indicates that psychosocial factors are involved in
             the pathogenesis and progression of cardiovascular disease
             (CVD). Emerging data from cardiac rehabilitation (CR)
             settings and CR exercise training (CRET) programs have
             demonstrated the value of comprehensive CRET to improve
             psychological functioning and reduce all-cause mortality.
             Recent evidence also supports the role of CRET and the added
             value of stress management training in the secondary
             prevention of CVD.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.cjca.2016.07.508},
   Key = {fds330039}
}

@article{fds315451,
   Author = {Huebner, JL and Landerman, LR and Somers, TJ and Keefe, FJ and Guilak,
             F and Blumenthal, JA and Caldwell, DS and Kraus, VB},
   Title = {Exploratory secondary analyses of a cognitive-behavioral
             intervention for knee osteoarthritis demonstrate reduction
             in biomarkers of adipocyte inflammation.},
   Journal = {Osteoarthritis Cartilage},
   Volume = {24},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {1528-1534},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {1063-4584},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joca.2016.04.002},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of pain coping skills
             training (PCST) and a lifestyle behavioral weight management
             (BWM) program on inflammatory markers and biomarker
             associations with pain and function in the OA LIFE study.
             METHOD: Serum samples were available from a subset
             (N = 169) of the overweight or obese knee OA participants
             in the OA LIFE study that evaluated: PCST, BWM, combined
             PCST + BWM, or standard care (SC). Inflammatory markers
             (hsCRP, IL-1ra, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, TNFRI, TNFRII,
             and hyaluronic acid (HA)), and adipokines (leptin and
             adiponectin) were measured before and after the 24-week
             treatment period. Biomarkers were assessed for effects of
             treatment and for associations with change in weight, pain
             and disability (unadjusted and adjusted for age, race, sex,
             baseline body mass index (BMI), and baseline biomarker
             concentration). RESULTS: PCST + BWM was associated with
             significant reductions in hsCRP (P = 0.0014), IL-6
             (P = 0.0075), and leptin (P = 0.0001). After adjustment,
             there was a significant effect of PCST + BWM on changes in
             leptin (b = -0.19, P = 0.01) and IL-6 (b = -0.25,
             P = 0.02) relative to SC. Reductions in leptin and IL-6
             were significantly correlated with reductions in weight, BMI
             and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis
             Index (WOMAC) pain; reductions in IL-6 were correlated with
             improvements in WOMAC and Arthritis Impact Measurement
             Scales (AIMS) physical function. By mediation analyses,
             weight loss was responsible for 54% of the change in IL-6
             and all of the change in leptin. CONCLUSIONS: OA-related
             inflammatory markers were reduced by a 24-week combined
             PCST + BWM intervention. This suggests that the
             inflammatory state can be successfully modified in the
             context of a readily instituted clinical intervention with a
             positive clinical outcome.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.joca.2016.04.002},
   Key = {fds315451}
}

@article{fds319597,
   Author = {Paine, NJ and Hinderliter, AL and Blumenthal, JA and Adams, KF and Sueta, CA and Chang, PP and O'Connor, CM and Sherwood,
             A},
   Title = {Reactive hyperemia is associated with adverse clinical
             outcomes in heart failure.},
   Journal = {American Heart Journal},
   Volume = {178},
   Pages = {108-114},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2016.05.008},
   Abstract = {INTRODUCTION: Impaired endothelial function, as assessed by
             brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), is an
             established risk factor for cardiovascular events. FMD is
             impaired in heart failure (HF) patients, but less is known
             about hyperemic brachial artery flow. We investigated the
             relationship between FMD and hyperemic flow with adverse
             clinical outcomes in HF patients. METHODS: Brachial artery
             FMD and hyperemic flow were assessed in 156 patients (70.5 %
             Male; 45.5% Caucasian; mean age (± SD) = 56.2 (±12.4)
             years) with HF and reduced left ventricular ejection
             fraction (LVEF). Cox proportional hazard models were used to
             assess the potential explanatory association of FMD and
             hyperemic flow with the composite outcome of death or
             cardiovascular hospitalization over a median 5-year
             follow-up period. RESULTS: Both FMD and hyperemic flow were
             negatively correlated with age, but unrelated to sex, race,
             body mass index, LVEF or N-terminal pro-B-Type natriuretic
             peptide (NT-ProBNP). Reduced hyperemic flow, but not FMD,
             was associated with an increased risk of death or cardiac
             hospitalization after controlling for traditional risk
             factors. CONCLUSION: The association of reduced hyperemic
             flow with increased risk of adverse clinical outcomes
             suggests that micro-vascular function may be an important
             prognostic marker in patients with HF.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.ahj.2016.05.008},
   Key = {fds319597}
}

@article{fds329492,
   Author = {Smith, PJ and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Response to "Does Sleep Play a Role in the Relationship
             Among Depression, Anxiety, and Mortality in Lung
             Transplanted Patients?".},
   Journal = {Am J Transplant},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {2495},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajt.13836},
   Doi = {10.1111/ajt.13836},
   Key = {fds329492}
}

@article{fds329493,
   Author = {Sherwood, A and Blumenthal, JA and Smith, PJ and Watkins, LL and Hoffman, BM and Hinderliter, AL},
   Title = {Effects of Exercise and Sertraline on Measures of Coronary
             Heart Disease Risk in Patients With Major Depression:
             Results From the SMILE-II Randomized Clinical
             Trial.},
   Journal = {Psychosom Med},
   Volume = {78},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {602-609},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0000000000000301},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of supervised and
             home-based aerobic exercise training, and antidepressant
             pharmacotherapy (sertraline) on coronary heart disease (CHD)
             risk factors in a sample of participants with major
             depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: The Standard Medical
             Intervention versus Long-term Exercise (SMILE)-II study
             randomized 202 adults (153 women, 49 men) diagnosed as
             having MDD to one of four interventions, each of 4-month
             duration: supervised exercise, home-based exercise,
             antidepressant medication (sertraline, 50-200 mg daily), or
             placebo pill. Patients underwent a structured clinical
             interview for depression and completed the Hamilton
             Depression Rating Scale. CHD risk factors included brachial
             artery flow-mediated dilation, carotid intima-media
             thickness, serum lipids, and 10-year atherosclerotic
             cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk. RESULTS: Compared with
             placebo, active treatment of depression (supervised
             exercise, home-based exercise, sertraline therapy) was
             associated with an improvement in CHD risk factors (improved
             flow-mediated dilation [p = .032], reduced progression of
             intima-media thickness [p = .037], and a reduction in
             10-year ASCVD [p = .049]). The active treatments did not
             differ from each other in their effects on the CHD risk
             outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Both exercise and antidepressant
             medication improved CHD risk factors and lowered ASCVD risk
             in patients with MDD. Because MDD is associated with
             increased risk for CHD events, treatment of depression with
             exercise or sertraline may reduce the risk of developing CHD
             in patients with MDD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials
             Government Identifier: NCT-00331305.},
   Doi = {10.1097/PSY.0000000000000301},
   Key = {fds329493}
}

@article{fds315450,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Feger, BJ and Smith, PJ and Watkins, LL and Jiang, W and Davidson, J and Hoffman, BM and Ashworth, M and Mabe, SK and Babyak, MA and Kraus, WE and Hinderliter, A and Sherwood, A},
   Title = {Treatment of anxiety in patients with coronary heart
             disease: Rationale and design of the UNderstanding the
             benefits of exercise and escitalopram in anxious patients
             WIth coroNary heart Disease (UNWIND) randomized clinical
             trial.},
   Journal = {American Heart Journal},
   Volume = {176},
   Pages = {53-62},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0002-8703},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2016.03.003},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Anxiety is highly prevalent among patients with
             coronary heart disease (CHD), and there is growing evidence
             that high levels of anxiety are associated with worse
             prognosis. However, few studies have evaluated the efficacy
             of treating anxiety in CHD patients for reducing symptoms
             and improving clinical outcomes. Exercise and selective
             serotonin reuptake inhibitors have been shown to be
             effective in treating patients with depression, but have not
             been studied in cardiac patients with high anxiety. METHODS:
             The UNWIND trial is a randomized clinical trial of patients
             with CHD who are at increased risk for adverse events
             because of comorbid anxiety. One hundred fifty participants
             with CHD and elevated anxiety symptoms and/or with a
             diagnosed anxiety disorder will be randomly assigned to 12
             weeks of aerobic exercise (3×/wk, 35 min, 70%-85% VO2peak),
             escitalopram (5-20 mg qd), or placebo. Before and after 12
             weeks of treatment, participants will undergo assessments of
             anxiety symptoms and CHD biomarkers of risk, including
             measures of inflammation, lipids, hemoglobin A1c, heart rate
             variability, and vascular endothelial function. Primary
             outcomes include post-intervention effects on symptoms of
             anxiety and CHD biomarkers. Secondary outcomes include
             clinical outcomes (cardiovascular hospitalizations and
             all-cause death) and measures of quality of life.
             CONCLUSIONS: The UNWIND trial (ClinicalTrials.gov
             NCT02516332) will evaluate the efficacy of aerobic exercise
             and escitalopram for improving anxiety symptoms and reducing
             risk for adverse clinical events in anxious CHD
             patients.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.ahj.2016.03.003},
   Key = {fds315450}
}

@article{fds315453,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Sherwood, A and Smith, PJ and Watkins, L and Mabe, S and Kraus, WE and Ingle, K and Miller, P and Hinderliter,
             A},
   Title = {Enhancing Cardiac Rehabilitation With Stress Management
             Training: A Randomized, Clinical Efficacy
             Trial.},
   Journal = {Circulation},
   Volume = {133},
   Number = {14},
   Pages = {1341-1350},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0009-7322},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.115.018926},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is the standard of
             care for patients with coronary heart disease. Despite
             considerable epidemiological evidence that high stress is
             associated with worse health outcomes, stress management
             training (SMT) is not included routinely as a component of
             CR. METHODS AND RESULTS: One hundred fifty-one outpatients
             with coronary heart disease who were 36 to 84 years of age
             were randomized to 12 weeks of comprehensive CR or
             comprehensive CR combined with SMT (CR+SMT), with
             assessments of stress and coronary heart disease biomarkers
             obtained before and after treatment. A matched sample of
             CR-eligible patients who did not receive CR made up the
             no-CR comparison group. All participants were followed up
             for up to 5.3 years (median, 3.2 years) for clinical events.
             Patients randomized to CR+SMT exhibited greater reductions
             in composite stress levels compared with those randomized to
             CR alone (P=0.022), an effect that was driven primarily by
             improvements in anxiety, distress, and perceived stress.
             Both CR groups achieved significant, and comparable,
             improvements in coronary heart disease biomarkers.
             Participants in the CR+SMT group exhibited lower rates of
             clinical events compared with those in the CR-alone group
             (18% versus 33%; hazard ratio=0.49; 95% confidence interval,
             0.25-0.95; P=0.035), and both CR groups had lower event
             rates compared with the no-CR group (47%; hazard ratio=0.44;
             95% confidence interval, 0.27-0.71; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS:
             CR enhanced by SMT produced significant reductions in stress
             and greater improvements in medical outcomes compared with
             standard CR. Our findings indicate that SMT may provide
             incremental benefit when combined with comprehensive CR and
             suggest that SMT should be incorporated routinely into CR.
             CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov.
             Unique identifier: NCT00981253.},
   Doi = {10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.115.018926},
   Key = {fds315453}
}

@article{fds329494,
   Author = {Smith, PJ and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Dietary Factors and Cognitive Decline.},
   Journal = {The Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer'S
             Disease},
   Volume = {3},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {53-64},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jpad.2015.71},
   Abstract = {Cognitive decline is an increasingly important public health
             problem, with more than 100 million adults worldwide
             projected to develop dementia by 2050. Accordingly, there
             has been an increased interest in preventive strategies that
             diminish this risk. It has been recognized that lifestyle
             factors including dietary patterns, may be important in the
             prevention of cognitive decline and dementia in later life.
             Several dietary components have been examined, including
             antioxidants, fatty acids, and B vitamins. In addition,
             whole dietary eating plans, including the Mediterranean diet
             (MeDi), and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension
             (DASH) diet, with and without weight loss, have become areas
             of increasing interest. Although prospective epidemiological
             studies have observed that antioxidants, fatty acids, and B
             vitamins are associated with better cognitive functioning,
             randomized clinical trials have generally failed to confirm
             the value of any specific dietary component in improving
             neurocognition. Several randomized trials have examined the
             impact of changing 'whole' diets on cognitive outcomes. The
             MeDi and DASH diets offer promising preliminary results, but
             data are limited and more research in this area is
             needed.},
   Doi = {10.14283/jpad.2015.71},
   Key = {fds329494}
}

@article{fds329495,
   Author = {Smith, PJ and Blumenthal, JA and Hoffman, BM and Rivelli, SK and Palmer,
             SM and Davis, RD and Mathew, JP},
   Title = {Reduced Cerebral Perfusion Pressure during Lung Transplant
             Surgery Is Associated with Risk, Duration, and Severity of
             Postoperative Delirium.},
   Journal = {Annals of the American Thoracic Society},
   Volume = {13},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {180-187},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1513/AnnalsATS.201507-454OC},
   Abstract = {RATIONALE: Delirium is common following lung transplant and
             is associated with poorer clinical outcomes. The extent to
             which intraoperative hemodynamic alterations may contribute
             to postoperative delirium among lung transplant recipients
             has not been examined. OBJECTIVES: To examine the impact of
             intraoperative hemodynamic changes on neurobehavioral
             outcomes among lung transplant recipients. METHODS:
             Intraoperative hemodynamic function during lung transplant
             was assessed in a consecutive series of patients between
             March and November 2013. Intraoperative cerebral perfusion
             pressure was assessed every minute in all patients.
             Following lung transplant, patients were monitored for the
             presence and severity of delirium using the Confusion
             Assessment Method and the Delirium Rating Scale until
             hospital discharge. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:
             Sixty-three patients received lung transplants, of whom 23
             (37%) subsequently developed delirium. Lower cerebral
             perfusion pressure was associated with increased risk of
             delirium (odds ratio [OR], 2.08 per 10-mm Hg decrease; 95%
             confidence interval [CI], 1.02-4.24; P = 0.043), longer
             duration of delirium (OR, 1.7 d longer per 10-mm Hg
             decrease; 95% CI, 1.1-2.7; P = 0.022), and greater
             delirium severity (b = -0.81; 95% CI, -1.47 to -0.15;
             P = 0.017). CONCLUSIONS: Poorer cerebral perfusion
             pressure during lung transplant is associated with greater
             risk for delirium following transplant, as well as greater
             duration and severity of delirium, independent of
             demographic and medical predictors.},
   Doi = {10.1513/AnnalsATS.201507-454OC},
   Key = {fds329495}
}

@article{fds315452,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Smith, PJ and Durheim, M and Mabe, S and Emery, CF and Martinu, T and Diaz, PT and Babyak, M and Welty-Wolf, K and Palmer,
             S},
   Title = {Biobehavioral Prognostic Factors in Chronic Obstructive
             Pulmonary Disease: Results From the INSPIRE-II
             Trial.},
   Journal = {Psychosom Med},
   Volume = {78},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {153-162},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0000000000000260},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To examine the prognostic value of select
             biobehavioral factors in patients with chronic obstructive
             pulmonary disease (COPD) in a secondary analysis of
             participants from the INSPIRE-II trial. METHODS: Three
             hundred twenty-six outpatients with COPD underwent
             assessments of pulmonary function, physical activity, body
             mass index, inflammation, pulmonary symptoms, depression,
             and pulmonary quality of life and were followed up for up to
             5.4 years for subsequent clinical events. The prognostic
             value of each biobehavioral factor, considered individually
             and combined, also was examined in the context of existing
             Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease
             (GOLD) 2011 risk stratification. RESULTS: Sixty-nine
             individuals experienced a hospitalization or died over a
             mean follow-up period of 2.4 (interquartile range = 1.6)
             years. GOLD classification was associated with an increased
             risk of clinical events (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.72 [95%
             confidence interval = 1.63-4.54], per stage); 6-minute walk
             (HR = 0.50 [0.34-0.73] per 500 ft), total steps (HR = 0.82
             [0.71-0.94] per 1000 steps), high-sensitivity C-reactive
             protein (HR = 1.44 [1.01-2.06] per 4.5 mg/l), depression (HR
             = 1.12 [1.01-1.25] per 4 points), and pulmonary quality of
             life (HR = 1.73 [1.14-2.63] per 25 points) were each
             predictive over and above the GOLD assessment. However, only
             GOLD group and 6-minute walk were predictive of all-cause
             mortality and COPD hospitalization when all biobehavioral
             variables were included together in a multivariable model.
             CONCLUSIONS: Biobehavioral factors provide added prognostic
             information over and above measures of COPD severity in
             predicting adverse events in patients with
             COPD.},
   Doi = {10.1097/PSY.0000000000000260},
   Key = {fds315452}
}

@article{fds270627,
   Author = {Smith, PJ and Blumenthal, JA and Trulock, EP and Freedland, KE and Carney, RM and Davis, RD and Hoffman, BM and Palmer,
             SM},
   Title = {Psychosocial Predictors of Mortality Following Lung
             Transplantation.},
   Journal = {Am J Transplant},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {271-277},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0883-6612},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000275841700151&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Abstract = {Lung transplantation has become an increasingly common
             treatment for patients with end-stage lung disease. Few
             studies have examined psychosocial risk factors for
             mortality in transplant recipients, despite evidence
             suggesting that elevated levels of negative affect are
             associated with greater mortality following major cardiac
             surgery. We therefore examined the relationship between
             negative affect early after lung transplantation and
             long-term survival in a sample of 132 lung transplant
             recipients (28 cystic fibrosis, 64 chronic obstructive
             pulmonary disease, 26 idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, 14
             other) followed for up to 13.5 years (median 7.4 years)
             following transplantation. Patients underwent both medical
             and psychosocial assessments 6 months following
             transplantation, which included the Beck Depression
             Inventory-II (BDI-II), Spielberger Anxiety Inventory, and
             General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Over the course of
             follow-up, 80 (61%) participants died. Controlling for
             demographic factors, native lung disease, disease severity,
             family income, education level, social support, and
             frequency of posttransplant rejection, elevated symptoms of
             depression (BDI-II: HR = 1.31, p = 0.011) and
             distress (GHQ: HR = 1.28, p = 0.003) were associated
             with increased mortality. Higher levels of depression and
             general distress, but not anxiety, measured 6 months
             following lung transplantation are associated with increased
             mortality, independent of background characteristics and
             medical predictors.},
   Doi = {10.1111/ajt.13447},
   Key = {fds270627}
}

@article{fds270585,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Sherwood, A and Smith, PJ and Mabe, S and Watkins, L and Lin, P-H and Craighead, LW and Babyak, M and Tyson, C and Young, K and Ashworth, M and Kraus, W and Liao, L and Hinderliter,
             A},
   Title = {Lifestyle modification for resistant hypertension: The
             TRIUMPH randomized clinical trial.},
   Journal = {American Heart Journal},
   Volume = {170},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {986-994.e5},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0002-8703},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2015.08.006},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Resistant hypertension (RH) is a growing health
             burden in this country affecting as many as 1 in 5 adults
             being treated for hypertension. Resistant hypertension is
             associated with increased risk of adverse cardiovascular
             disease (CVD) events and all-cause mortality. Strategies to
             reduce blood pressure (BP) in this high-risk population are
             a national priority. METHODS: TRIUMPH is a single-site,
             prospective, randomized clinical trial to evaluate the
             efficacy of a center-based lifestyle intervention consisting
             of exercise training, reduced sodium and calorie Dietary
             Approaches to Stop Hypertension eating plan, and weight
             management compared to standardized education and physician
             advice in treating patients with RH. Patients (n = 150) will
             be randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive either a 4-month
             supervised lifestyle intervention delivered in the setting
             of a cardiac rehabilitation center or to a standardized
             behavioral counseling session to simulate real-world medical
             practice. The primary end point is clinic BP; secondary end
             points include ambulatory BP and an array of CVD biomarkers
             including left ventricular hypertrophy, arterial stiffness,
             baroreceptor reflex sensitivity, insulin resistance, lipids,
             sympathetic nervous system activity, and inflammatory
             markers. Lifestyle habits, BP, and CVD risk factors also
             will be measured at 1-year follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The
             TRIUMPH randomized clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov
             NCT02342808) is designed to test the efficacy of an
             intensive, center-based lifestyle intervention compared to a
             standardized education and physician advice counseling
             session on BP and CVD biomarkers in patients with RH after 4
             months of treatment and will determine whether lifestyle
             changes can be maintained for a year.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.ahj.2015.08.006},
   Key = {fds270585}
}

@article{fds270587,
   Author = {Hoffman, BM and Stonerock, GL and Smith, PJ and O'Hayer, CVF and Palmer,
             S and Davis, RD and Kurita, K and Carney, RM and Freeland, K and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Development and psychometric properties of the
             Pulmonary-specific Quality-of-Life Scale in lung transplant
             patients.},
   Journal = {J Heart Lung Transplant},
   Volume = {34},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {1058-1065},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {1053-2498},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.healun.2015.03.005},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: The Pulmonary-specific Quality-of-Life Scale
             (PQLS) was developed to measure quality of life (QoL) among
             patients awaiting lung transplant. The objective of this
             study was to determine the psychometric properties of the
             PQLS, identify empirically derived sub-scales, and examine
             ability to detect changes in pulmonary-specific QoL scores
             after lung transplantation. METHODS: Data were derived from
             the INSPIRE trial, a dual-site randomized controlled trial
             of coping skills training in 389 lung transplant candidates
             (obstructive [48.3%], restrictive [24.2%], cystic fibrosis
             [13.6%], and other [13.9%]). Cronbach alpha was calculated
             to assess the internal reliability of the PQLS (n = 388).
             Test-retest reliability was assessed with correlation
             coefficients between baseline and 12-week post-baseline
             scores for the usual care control condition (n = 140).
             Convergent validity was assessed with correlation
             coefficients between the PQLS and established measures of
             QoL and emotional distress, 6-minute walk test distance,
             forced expiratory volume in 1 second, and use of
             supplemental oxygen at rest (n = 388). Change from baseline
             to 6 months post-transplantation was assessed with repeated
             measures analysis of variance (n = 133). RESULTS: The PQLS
             was internally reliable and stable across 12 weeks. The PQLS
             correlated strongly with QoL measures (e.g., Shortness of
             Breath Questionnaire, r = 0.78, p < 0.0001), moderately with
             mood and anxiety (e.g., Beck Depression Inventory-II, r =
             0.59, p < 0.0001), and modestly with lung disease severity
             (e.g., 6-minute walk test, r = -0.41, p < 0.0001). PQLS
             scores improved by nearly 2 SDs after transplant.
             CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrated the reliability,
             validity, and sensitivity to change of the PQLS for
             measuring pulmonary QoL among patients with advanced lung
             disease and the responsiveness of the PQLS to changes in QoL
             after lung transplantation.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.healun.2015.03.005},
   Key = {fds270587}
}

@article{fds270590,
   Author = {Stonerock, GL and Hoffman, BM and Smith, PJ and Blumenthal,
             JA},
   Title = {Exercise as Treatment for Anxiety: Systematic Review and
             Analysis.},
   Journal = {Annals of Behavioral Medicine : a Publication of the Society
             of Behavioral Medicine},
   Volume = {49},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {542-556},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0883-6612},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12160-014-9685-9},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Exercise has been shown to reduce symptoms of
             anxiety, but few studies have studied exercise in
             individuals preselected because of their high anxiety.
             PURPOSE: The objective of this study is to review and
             critically evaluate studies of exercise training in adults
             with either high levels of anxiety or an anxiety disorder.
             METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of randomized
             clinical trials (RCTs) in which anxious adults were
             randomized to an exercise or nonexercise control condition.
             Data were extracted concerning anxiety outcomes and study
             design. Existing meta-analyses were also reviewed. RESULTS:
             Evidence from 12 RCTs suggested benefits of exercise, for
             select groups, similar to established treatments and greater
             than placebo. However, most studies had significant
             methodological limitations, including small sample sizes,
             concurrent therapies, and inadequate assessment of adherence
             and fitness levels. CONCLUSIONS: Exercise may be a useful
             treatment for anxiety, but lack of data from rigorous,
             methodologically sound RCTs precludes any definitive
             conclusions about its effectiveness.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s12160-014-9685-9},
   Key = {fds270590}
}

@article{fds270595,
   Author = {Routledge, FS and Hinderliter, AL and McFetridge-Durdle, J and Blumenthal, JA and Paine, NJ and Sherwood, A},
   Title = {Endothelial function in postmenopausal women with nighttime
             systolic hypertension.},
   Journal = {Menopause},
   Volume = {22},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {857-863},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {1072-3714},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/GME.0000000000000405},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: Hypertension becomes more prevalent in women
             during their postmenopausal years. Nighttime systolic blood
             pressure (SBP) is especially predictive of adverse cardiac
             events, and the relationship between rising nighttime SBP
             and cardiovascular risk increases more rapidly in women
             compared with men. The reasons for the prognostic
             significance of nighttime SBP are not completely known but
             may involve vascular endothelial dysfunction. The purposes
             of this study were to examine the relationship between
             nighttime SBP and endothelial function, as assessed by
             brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and to
             determine whether postmenopausal women with nighttime
             hypertension (SBP ≥120 mm Hg) evidenced greater
             endothelial dysfunction compared with women with normal
             nighttime SBP. METHODS: One hundred postmenopausal women
             (mean [SD] age, 65.8 [7.5] y; mean [SD] body mass index,
             28.3 [4.7] kg/m; hypertension, 47%; coronary artery disease,
             51%; mean [SD] clinic SBP, 137 [17] mm Hg; mean [SD] clinic
             diastolic blood pressure, 67 [11] mm Hg; nighttime
             hypertension, 34 women) underwent 24-hour ambulatory blood
             pressure monitoring, actigraphy, and brachial artery FMD
             assessment. RESULTS: Multivariate regression models showed
             that higher nighttime SBP and larger baseline artery
             diameter were inversely related to FMD. Nighttime SBP and
             baseline artery diameter accounted for 23% of the variance
             in FMD. After adjustment for baseline artery diameter, women
             with nighttime hypertension had lower mean (SD) FMD than
             women with normal nighttime SBP (2.95% [0.65%] vs 5.52%
             [0.46%], P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Nighttime hypertension is
             associated with reduced endothelial function in
             postmenopausal women. Research examining the therapeutic
             benefits of nighttime hypertension treatment on endothelial
             function and future cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal
             women is warranted.},
   Doi = {10.1097/GME.0000000000000405},
   Key = {fds270595}
}

@article{fds270589,
   Author = {Mentz, RJ and Babyak, MA and Bittner, V and Fleg, JL and Keteyian, SJ and Swank, AM and Piña, IL and Kraus, WE and Whellan, DJ and O'Connor, CM and Blumenthal, JA and HF-ACTION Investigators},
   Title = {Prognostic significance of depression in blacks with heart
             failure: insights from Heart Failure: a Controlled Trial
             Investigating Outcomes of Exercise Training.},
   Journal = {Circ Heart Fail},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {497-503},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {1941-3289},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.114.001995},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Although studies have shown that depression is
             associated with worse outcomes in patients with heart
             failure, most studies have been in white patients. The
             impact of depression on outcomes in blacks with heart
             failure has not been studied. METHODS AND RESULTS: We
             analyzed 747 blacks and 1420 whites enrolled in Heart
             Failure: A Controlled Trial Investigating Outcomes of
             Exercise Training, which randomized 2331 patients with
             ejection fraction ≤35% to usual care with or without
             exercise training. We examined the association between
             depressive symptoms assessed by the Beck Depression
             Inventory-II (BDI-II) at baseline and after 3 months with
             all-cause mortality/hospitalization. A race by baseline
             BDI-II interaction was observed (P=0.003) in which elevated
             baseline scores were associated with worse outcomes in
             blacks versus whites. In blacks, the association was
             nonlinear with a hazard ratio of 1.44 (95% confidence
             interval, 1.24-1.68) when comparing the 75th and 25th
             percentile of BDI-II (score of 15 and 5, respectively). No
             race interaction was observed for mortality (P=0.34). There
             was no differential association between BDI-II change and
             outcomes in blacks versus whites. In blacks, an increase in
             BDI-II score from baseline to 3 months was associated with
             increased mortality/hospitalization (hazard ratio, 1.33; 95%
             confidence interval, 1.12-1.57 per 10 point increase),
             whereas a decrease was not related to outcomes. CONCLUSIONS:
             In blacks with heart failure, baseline symptoms of
             depression and worsening of symptoms over time are
             associated with increased all-cause mortality/hospitalization.
             Routine assessment of depressive symptoms in blacks with
             heart failure may help guide management. CLINICAL TRIAL
             REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique
             identifier: NCT00047437.},
   Doi = {10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.114.001995},
   Key = {fds270589}
}

@article{fds270593,
   Author = {Belsky, DW and Caspi, A and Israel, S and Blumenthal, JA and Poulton, R and Moffitt, TE},
   Title = {Cardiorespiratory fitness and cognitive function in midlife:
             neuroprotection or neuroselection?},
   Journal = {Annals of Neurology},
   Volume = {77},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {607-617},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0364-5134},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/9709 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {A study was undertaken to determine whether better cognitive
             functioning at midlife among more physically fit individuals
             reflects neuroprotection, by which fitness protects against
             age-related cognitive decline, or neuroselection, by which
             children with higher cognitive functioning select more
             active lifestyles.Children in the Dunedin Longitudinal Study
             (N = 1,037) completed the Wechsler Intelligence Scales
             and the Trail Making, Rey Delayed Recall, and Grooved
             Pegboard tasks as children and again at midlife
             (age = 38 years). Adult cardiorespiratory fitness was
             assessed using a submaximal exercise test to estimate
             maximum oxygen consumption adjusted for body weight in
             milliliters/minute/kilogram. We tested whether more fit
             individuals had better cognitive functioning than their less
             fit counterparts (which could be consistent with
             neuroprotection), and whether better childhood cognitive
             functioning predisposed to better adult cardiorespiratory
             fitness (neuroselection). Finally, we examined possible
             mechanisms of neuroselection.Participants with better
             cardiorespiratory fitness had higher cognitive test scores
             at midlife. However, fitness-associated advantages in
             cognitive functioning were already present in childhood.
             After accounting for childhood baseline performance on the
             same cognitive tests, there was no association between
             cardiorespiratory fitness and midlife cognitive functioning.
             Socioeconomic and health advantages in childhood and
             healthier lifestyles during young adulthood explained most
             of the association between childhood cognitive functioning
             and adult cardiorespiratory fitness.We found no evidence for
             a neuroprotective effect of cardiorespiratory fitness as of
             midlife. Instead, children with better cognitive functioning
             are selecting healthier lives. Fitness interventions may
             enhance cognitive functioning. However, observational and
             experimental studies testing neuroprotective effects of
             physical fitness should consider confounding by
             neuroselection.},
   Doi = {10.1002/ana.24356},
   Key = {fds270593}
}

@article{fds270594,
   Author = {Fan, L-B and Blumenthal, JA and Watkins, LL and Sherwood,
             A},
   Title = {Work and home stress: associations with anxiety and
             depression symptoms.},
   Journal = {Occup Med (Lond)},
   Volume = {65},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {110-116},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0962-7480},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/occmed/kqu181},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: In the evolving work environment of global
             competition, the associations between work and home stress
             and psychological well-being are not well understood. AIMS:
             To examine the impact of psychosocial stress at work and at
             home on anxiety and depression. METHODS: In medically
             healthy employed men and women (aged 30-60), serial
             regression analyses were used to determine the independent
             association of psychosocial stress at work and at home with
             depression symptoms, measured using the Beck Depression
             Inventory-II (BDI-II), and anxiety symptoms, measured using
             the Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Psychosocial
             stress at work was measured using the Job Content
             Questionnaire to assess job psychological demands, job
             control, job social support and job insecurity. Psychosocial
             stress at home was assessed by 12 questions including stress
             at home, personal problems, family demands and feelings
             about home life. RESULTS: Serial regression analyses in 129
             subjects revealed that job insecurity and home stress were
             most strongly associated with depression and anxiety
             symptoms. Job insecurity accounted for 9% of the variation
             both in BDI-II scores and in STAI scores. Home stress
             accounted for 13 and 17% of the variation in BDI-II scores
             and STAI scores, respectively. In addition, job social
             support was significantly and independently associated with
             STAI scores but not BDI-II scores. CONCLUSIONS: Work and
             home stress were associated with anxiety and depression
             symptoms in both men and women. Both work and home stress
             should be considered in studies evaluating anxiety and
             depression in working populations.},
   Doi = {10.1093/occmed/kqu181},
   Key = {fds270594}
}

@article{fds329496,
   Author = {Durheim, MT and Smith, PJ and Babyak, MA and Mabe, SK and Martinu, T and Welty-Wolf, KE and Emery, CF and Palmer, SM and Blumenthal,
             JA},
   Title = {Six-minute-walk distance and accelerometry predict outcomes
             in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease independent of
             Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease 2011
             Group.},
   Journal = {Annals of the American Thoracic Society},
   Volume = {12},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {349-356},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1513/AnnalsATS.201408-365OC},
   Abstract = {RATIONALE: The 2011 combined Global Initiative for Chronic
             Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) assessment incorporates
             symptoms, exacerbation history, and spirometry in
             discriminating risk of exacerbations in patients with
             chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
             Six-minute-walk distance (6MWD) and accelerometry also have
             been used to assess disease severity in COPD. The
             association between these measures and the risks of
             hospitalization and mortality in the context of GOLD 2011 is
             unknown. OBJECTIVES: To describe changes in exercise
             tolerance and physical activity over time in patients with
             COPD and to test the hypothesis that lower baseline 6MWD or
             accelerometry step count is associated with increased risk
             of COPD-related hospitalization or all-cause mortality,
             independent of GOLD 2011 group. METHODS: Physical function
             and medical outcomes were prospectively assessed in 326
             patients with moderate to severe COPD in INSPIRE-II, a
             randomized controlled trial of a coping skills training
             intervention. Cox models were used to determine if GOLD 2011
             group, 6MWD, or accelerometry steps were associated with
             risk of COPD-related hospitalization or all-cause mortality.
             MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Physical function declined
             over time in GOLD group D but remained stable in groups A,
             B, and C. GOLD classification was associated with time to
             death or first COPD-related hospitalization. Baseline 6MWD
             was more strongly associated with time to death or first
             COPD-related hospitalization (hazard ratio, 0.50 [95%
             confidence interval, 0.34, 0.73] per 150 m, P=0.0003) than
             GOLD 2011 classification. A similar relationship was
             observed for accelerometry steps (hazard ratio, 0.80 [95%
             confidence interval, 0.70, 0.92] per 1,000 steps, P=0.002).
             CONCLUSIONS: Exercise tolerance and daily physical activity
             are important predictors of hospitalization and mortality in
             COPD, independent of GOLD 2011 classification. Physical
             function may represent a modifiable risk factor that
             warrants increased attention as a target for interventions
             to improve clinically meaningful outcomes in
             COPD.},
   Doi = {10.1513/AnnalsATS.201408-365OC},
   Key = {fds329496}
}

@article{fds270591,
   Author = {Paine, NJ and Watkins, LL and Blumenthal, JA and Kuhn, CM and Sherwood,
             A},
   Title = {Association of depressive and anxiety symptoms with 24-hour
             urinary catecholamines in individuals with untreated high
             blood pressure.},
   Journal = {Psychosom Med},
   Volume = {77},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {136-144},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0000000000000144},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: Depression and anxiety are considered risk
             factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The explanatory
             mechanisms, however, are still to be characterized. One
             proposed pathophysiological pathway is dysregulation of the
             autonomic nervous system, including heightened sympathetic
             nervous system activity. This study examined the
             relationship between symptoms of depression, anxiety, and
             sympathetic nervous system activity in individuals with
             untreated high blood pressure. METHODS: A total of 140
             participants with untreated high blood pressure (55% white,
             38.5% female, mean [standard deviation] age = 45.5 [8.55]
             years) collected urine over a 24-hour period on 3 separate
             occasions. Urine samples were assayed for mean 24-hour
             epinephrine (EPI24) and norepinephrine excretion. Depressive
             symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory,
             with anxiety symptoms assessed using the Spielberger
             State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. RESULTS: Depression and
             anxiety scores were intercorrelated (r = 0.76, p < .001).
             EPI24 was positively correlated with anxiety (r = 0.20, p =
             .02) but not depression (r = 0.02, p = .77), whereas 24-hour
             urinary norepinephrine excretion was not correlated with
             anxiety (r = 0.10, p = .21) or with depression (r = 0.07, p
             = .39). Regression models, accounting for sex, age, body
             mass index, race, mean systolic ambulatory blood pressure,
             tobacco use, alcohol use, physical activity, and sleep
             efficiency confirmed that anxiety was associated with EPI24
             excretion (p = .023) and that depressive symptoms were not
             (p = .54). CONCLUSIONS: Anxiety was associated with
             heightened sympathoadrenal activity, suggesting a biological
             pathway through which anxiety could increase CVD risk.
             Anxiety and depression may confer increased CVD risk via
             different mechanisms.},
   Doi = {10.1097/PSY.0000000000000144},
   Key = {fds270591}
}

@article{fds270599,
   Author = {Smith, PJ and Rivelli, SK and Waters, AM and Hoyle, A and Durheim, MT and Reynolds, JM and Flowers, M and Davis, RD and Palmer, SM and Mathew, JP and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Delirium affects length of hospital stay after lung
             transplantation.},
   Journal = {J Crit Care},
   Volume = {30},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {126-129},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0883-9441},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrc.2014.09.010},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Delirium is relatively common after lung
             transplantation, although its prevalence and prognostic
             significance have not been systematically studied. The
             purpose of the present study was to examine pretransplant
             predictors of delirium and the short-term impact of delirium
             on clinical outcomes among lung transplant recipients.
             METHODS: Participants underwent pretransplant cognitive
             testing using the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of
             Neuropsychological Status and the Trail Making Test. After
             transplant, delirium was assessed using the Confusion
             Assessment Method until discharge. RESULTS: Sixty-three
             patients were transplanted between March and November 2013,
             of which 23 (37%) developed delirium. Among transplanted
             patients, 48 patients completed pretransplant cognitive
             testing. Better pretransplant cognitive function was
             associated with lower risk of delirium (odds ratio, 0.69
             [95% confidence interval 0.48, 0.99], P = .043); and
             demographic and clinical features including native disease
             (P = .236), the Charlson comorbidity index (P = .581), and
             the lung allocation score (P = .871) were unrelated to risk
             of delirium, although there was a trend for women to
             experience delirium less frequently (P = .071). The presence
             (P = .006) and duration (P = .027) of delirium were both
             associated with longer hospital stays. CONCLUSION: Delirium
             occurs in more than one-third of patients after lung
             transplantation. Delirium was associated with poorer
             pretransplant cognitive functioning and longer hospital
             stays, after accounting for other medical and demographic
             factors.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jcrc.2014.09.010},
   Key = {fds270599}
}

@article{fds270598,
   Author = {Smith, PJ and Rivelli, S and Waters, A and Reynolds, J and Hoyle, A and Flowers, M and Davis, RD and Palmer, SM and Mathew, J and Durheim, M and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Neurocognitive changes after lung transplantation.},
   Journal = {Annals of the American Thoracic Society},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {1520-1527},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {2329-6933},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1513/AnnalsATS.201406-232OC},
   Abstract = {RATIONALE: Neurocognitive impairments are associated with
             reduced quality of life and may adversely affect medical
             compliance, but their prevalence after lung transplantation
             has not been extensively studied. OBJECTIVES: To examine the
             frequency of neurocognitive impairment after lung
             transplantation and to examine perioperative factors
             affecting post-transplant neurocognitive function.
             MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We performed serial
             assessments of neurocognitive function in a consecutive
             series of 47 subjects who received transplants between March
             2013 and November 2013 (45% women; mean age,
             53.5 ± 17.2 yr). Neurocognitive function was assessed
             using a composite measure including the Repeatable Battery
             for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS)
             total score and Trail Making Test parts A and B obtained
             before transplant, at hospital discharge, and 3 months after
             discharge. The presence of neurocognitive impairment was
             assessed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Battery
             (MoCA), and in-hospital delirium was assessed using the
             Confusion Assessment Method. Results demonstrated that
             neurocognitive performance initially worsened among
             non-cystic fibrosis patients and improved over follow-up
             (P = 0.002). Time effects were strongest on Trail Making
             Test part B (P < 0.001) and the RBANS (P = 0.054).
             Participants who exhibited delirium during their
             hospitalization showed poorer performance during follow-up
             assessments (P = 0.006). Examination of cognitive
             impairment rates demonstrated that 21 participants (45%)
             exhibited neurocognitive impairment (MoCA < 26) before
             lung transplant, whereas 27 (57%) participants exhibited
             impairment after transplantation, and 19 (57%) participants
             continued to neurocognitive impairment during a 3-month
             follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Neurocognitive impairments are
             prevalent among lung transplant candidates and appear to
             worsen in some patients after transplant. Delirium during
             hospitalization is associated with worse neurocognitive
             function after transplant among patients without cystic
             fibrosis.},
   Doi = {10.1513/AnnalsATS.201406-232OC},
   Key = {fds270598}
}

@article{fds270596,
   Author = {Choi, KW and Somers, TJ and Babyak, MA and Sikkema, KJ and Blumenthal,
             JA and Keefe, FJ},
   Title = {The relationship between pain and eating among overweight
             and obese individuals with osteoarthritis: an ecological
             momentary study.},
   Journal = {Pain Res Manag},
   Volume = {19},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {e159-e163},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {1203-6765},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/598382},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) patients who are overweight
             or obese report higher levels of pain compared with their
             normal-weight OA counterparts. Evidence suggests that
             overweight or obese OA patients also experience pain relief
             from eating foods high in calories, fat or sugar. Eating to
             alleviate pain may be problematic because it can lead to
             additional weight gain, which may contribute to heightened
             pain. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between
             pain and food intake using ecological momentary assessments
             in a sample of 71 overweight and obese OA patients. METHODS:
             Participants completed two consecutive days of diary entries
             in which they recorded their levels of pain, mood and food
             intake throughout the day. Data were analyzed using
             generalized estimating equations that modelled pain as a
             predictor of calorie, fat and sugar intake. All models were
             adjusted for sex, body mass index, negative mood, time and
             treatment history. RESULTS: Pain significantly predicted
             calorie (Z=2.57; P=0.01) and fat intake (Z=1.99; P=0.05).
             CONCLUSIONS: Using ecological momentary assessments as a
             novel approach, the present study provides preliminary data
             supporting a relationship between pain and food intake among
             overweight and obese OA patients. Continued advances in our
             understanding of the relationship between pain and eating
             behaviour may help to optimize intervention strategies for
             these patients.},
   Doi = {10.1155/2014/598382},
   Key = {fds270596}
}

@article{fds270600,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Emery, CF and Smith, PJ and Keefe, FJ and Welty-Wolf,
             K and Mabe, S and Martinu, T and Johnson, JJ and Babyak, MA and O'Hayer,
             VF and Diaz, PT and Durheim, M and Baucom, D and Palmer,
             SM},
   Title = {The effects of a telehealth coping skills intervention on
             outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: primary
             results from the INSPIRE-II study.},
   Journal = {Psychosom Med},
   Volume = {76},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {581-592},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0000000000000101},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is
             associated with increased morbidity and mortality and
             reduced quality of life (QoL). Novel interventions are
             needed to improve outcomes in COPD patients. The present
             study assessed the effects of a telephone-based coping
             skills intervention on psychological and somatic QoL and on
             the combined medical end point of COPD-related
             hospitalizations and all-cause mortality. METHODS: We
             conducted a dual-site, randomized clinical trial with
             assessments at baseline and after 16 weeks of treatment. The
             study population comprised 326 outpatients with COPD aged 38
             to 81 years, randomized to coping skills training (CST) or
             to COPD education (COPD-ED). Patients completed a battery of
             QoL instruments, pulmonary function tests, and functional
             measures and were followed up for up to 4.4 years to assess
             medical outcomes. RESULTS: The CST group exhibited greater
             improvements in psychological QoL compared with controls (p
             = .001), including less depression (Cohen d = 0.22 [95%
             confidence interval, or CI = 0.08-0.36]) and anxiety (d =
             0.17 [95% CI = 0.02-0.33]), and better overall mental health
             (d = 0.17 [95% CI = 0.03-0.32]), emotional role functioning
             (d = 0.29 [95% CI = 0.10-0.48]), vitality (d = 0.27 [95% CI
             = 0.11, 0.42]), and social functioning (d = 0.21 [95% CI =
             0.03-0.38]). A significant baseline psychological QoL by
             treatment group interaction revealed that CST with lower QoL
             at baseline achieved even greater improvements in
             psychological QoL compared with COPD-ED. CST participants
             also exhibited greater improvements in somatic QoL (p =
             .042), including greater improvements in pulmonary QoL (d =
             0.13 [95% CI = 0.01-0.24]), less fatigue (d = 0.34 [95% CI =
             0.18-0.50]), and less shortness of breath (d = 0.11 [95% CI
             = -0.01 to 0.23]) and greater improvement in distance walked
             on the Six-Minute Walk test (d = 0.09 [95% CI = 0.01-0.16]).
             However, there was no significant difference in risk of time
             to COPD-related hospitalization or all-cause mortality
             between CST (34 events) and COPD-ED (32 events; p = 0.430).
             CONCLUSIONS: A telehealth CST intervention produced
             clinically meaningful improvements in QoL and functional
             capacity, but no overall improvement in risk of COPD-related
             hospitalization and all-cause mortality. TRIAL REGISTRATION:
             clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00736268.},
   Doi = {10.1097/PSY.0000000000000101},
   Key = {fds270600}
}

@article{fds270602,
   Author = {Somers, TJ and Wren, AA and Blumenthal, JA and Caldwell, D and Huffman,
             KM and Keefe, FJ},
   Title = {Pain, physical functioning, and overeating in obese
             rheumatoid arthritis patients: do thoughts about pain and
             eating matter?},
   Journal = {J Clin Rheumatol},
   Volume = {20},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {244-250},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {1076-1608},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RHU.0000000000000124},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Obese rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients have
             higher levels of pain, disability, and disease activity than
             do nonobese patients with RA. Patients' health-related
             thoughts about arthritis and weight may be important to
             consider in obese patients with RA who face the dual
             challenge of managing RA and weight. OBJECTIVES: The
             objective of this study was to examine the relationships of
             pain catastrophizing, self-efficacy (ie, confidence) for
             arthritis management and self-efficacy for weight management
             to important outcomes in obese patients with RA. We expected
             that after controlling for demographic and medical
             variables, higher levels of pain catastrophizing and lower
             levels of confidence would account for significant and
             unique variance in pain, physical functioning, and
             overeating. METHODS: Participants had a diagnosis of RA and
             a body mass index of 28 kg/m or greater and completed
             self-report questionnaires assessing pain, physical
             functioning, overeating, pain catastrophizing, self-efficacy
             for arthritis management, self-efficacy for weight
             management, and a 6-minute walk test. RESULTS: Pain
             catastrophizing, self-efficacy for arthritis, and
             self-efficacy for weight management were significantly and
             uniquely related to RA-related outcomes. Pain
             catastrophizing was a significant independent predictor of
             pain severity (β = 0.38); self-efficacy for arthritis was a
             significant independent predictor of self-report physical
             functioning (β = -0.37) and the 6-minute walk performance
             (β = 0.44), and self-efficacy for weight management was a
             significant independent predictor of overeating (β =
             -0.58). CONCLUSIONS: Pain catastrophizing, self-efficacy for
             arthritis, and self-efficacy for weight management each
             contributed uniquely to relate to key outcomes in obese
             patients with RA. Clinicians should consider assessment of
             thought processes when assessing and intervening with
             patients who face dual health challenges; unique
             intervention approaches may be needed for addressing the
             challenges of arthritis and weight.},
   Doi = {10.1097/RHU.0000000000000124},
   Key = {fds270602}
}

@article{fds270603,
   Author = {Carney, RM and Steinmeyer, B and Freedland, KE and Stein, PK and Hayano,
             J and Blumenthal, JA and Jaffe, AS},
   Title = {Nocturnal patterns of heart rate and the risk of mortality
             after acute myocardial infarction.},
   Journal = {American Heart Journal},
   Volume = {168},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {117-125},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0002-8703},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2014.04.012},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: The purposes of this study were to identify
             nocturnal patterns of heart rate (HR) in depressed and
             nondepressed patients after an acute myocardial infarction
             (MI) and to determine which patterns, if any, are associated
             with all-cause mortality or recurrent infarction. METHODS:
             Functional data analysis and model-based clustering methods
             were used to identify nocturnal HR patterns in 245 depressed
             and 247 nondepressed patients with a recent MI. All-cause
             mortality and recurrent infarctions were ascertained over a
             median follow-up of 24 months. RESULTS: Three HR activity
             patterns were identified. In the first, HR gradually
             declined during the nighttime and increased the next
             morning. The second pattern was similar, but with a higher
             overall HR during the recording interval. The third showed
             almost no decrease in HR at night (ie, "nondipping").
             All-cause mortality was higher among patients with pattern 3
             than pattern 1 (P = .007), and the combined end point of
             recurrent MI or all-cause mortality was higher in pattern 3
             than pattern 2 (P = .05). Patterns 2 and 3 were more common
             in the depressed than in the nondepressed patients.
             CONCLUSIONS: The nondipping nocturnal HR independently
             predicts all-cause mortality and recurrent MI. Future
             studies should examine the underlying causes of nondipping
             nocturnal HR and its association with depression and
             investigate the effects of treatment on survival.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.ahj.2014.04.012},
   Key = {fds270603}
}

@article{fds270605,
   Author = {Hinderliter, AL and Sherwood, A and Craighead, LW and Lin, P-H and Watkins, L and Babyak, MA and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {The long-term effects of lifestyle change on blood pressure:
             One-year follow-up of the ENCORE study.},
   Journal = {Am J Hypertens},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {734-741},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0895-7061},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajh/hpt183},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of data describing the
             sustained benefits of lifestyle interventions on health
             behaviors and blood pressure (BP). METHODS: We examined the
             persistence of changes in health habits and BP in the ENCORE
             study, a trial in which 144 overweight individuals with
             above-normal BP were randomized to one of the following
             16-week interventions: Dietary Approaches to Stop
             Hypertension (DASH) diet alone (DASH-A), DASH diet plus a
             behavioral weight management intervention (DASH-WM), or
             Usual Care. Follow-up assessments were conducted 8 months
             after the end of treatment. RESULTS: At 16 weeks, systolic
             BP was reduced by 16.1 (95% confidence interval (CI) =
             13.0-19.2) mm Hg in the DASH-WM group, 11.2 (95% CI =
             8.1-14.3) mm Hg in the DASH-A group, and 3.4 (95% CI =
             0.4-6.4) mm Hg in the Usual Care group. A decrease in BP
             persisted for 8 months, with systolic BP lower than baseline
             by 11.7 (95% CI = 8.1-15.3) mm Hg in the DASH-WM group, 9.5
             (95% CI = 6.7-12.1) mm Hg in the DASH-A group, and 3.9 (95%
             CI = 0.5-7.3) mm Hg in the Usual Care group (P < 0.001 for
             active treatments vs. Usual Care). DASH-WM subjects lost 8.7
             kg during the intervention and remained 6.3 kg lighter on
             follow-up examination. Changes in diet content were
             sustained in both DASH intervention groups. Among those who
             participated in DASH-WM, however, caloric intake was no
             longer lower, and only 21% reported still exercising
             regularly 8 months after completing the intervention.
             CONCLUSIONS: Changes in dietary habits, weight, and BP
             persisted for 8 months after completion of the 16-week
             ENCORE program, with some attenuation of the benefits.
             Additional research is needed to identify effective methods
             to promote long-term maintenance of the benefits of
             lifestyle modification programs. CLINICAL TRIAL
             REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier:
             NCT00571844.},
   Doi = {10.1093/ajh/hpt183},
   Key = {fds270605}
}

@article{fds316068,
   Author = {Smith, PJ and Blumenthal, JA and Rivelli, S and Hoyle, A and Waters, A and Flowers, M and Davis, D},
   Title = {NEUROPSYCHIATRIC OUTCOMES FOLLOWING LUNG
             TRANSPLANTATION},
   Journal = {Annals of Behavioral Medicine},
   Volume = {47},
   Pages = {S289-S289},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0883-6612},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000334408301365&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds316068}
}

@article{fds316056,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Emery, C and Smith, P and Keefe, F and Welty-Wolf, K and Mabe, S and Martinu, T and Johnson, J and Babyak, M and O'Hayer, V and Diaz, P and Baucom, D and Palmer, S},
   Title = {THE USE OF A TELEHEALTH INTERVENTION TO IMPROVE COPING WITH
             CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE},
   Journal = {Annals of Behavioral Medicine},
   Volume = {47},
   Pages = {S234-S234},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0883-6612},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000334408301149&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds316056}
}

@article{fds270606,
   Author = {Lichtman, JH and Froelicher, ES and Blumenthal, JA and Carney, RM and Doering, LV and Frasure-Smith, N and Freedland, KE and Jaffe, AS and Leifheit-Limson, EC and Sheps, DS and Vaccarino, V and Wulsin, L and American Heart Association Statistics Committee of the
             Council on Epidemiology and Prevention and the Council on
             Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing},
   Title = {Depression as a risk factor for poor prognosis among
             patients with acute coronary syndrome: systematic review and
             recommendations: a scientific statement from the American
             Heart Association.},
   Journal = {Circulation},
   Volume = {129},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {1350-1369},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0009-7322},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0000000000000019},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Although prospective studies, systematic
             reviews, and meta-analyses have documented an association
             between depression and increased morbidity and mortality in
             a variety of cardiac populations, depression has not yet
             achieved formal recognition as a risk factor for poor
             prognosis in patients with acute coronary syndrome by the
             American Heart Association and other health organizations.
             The purpose of this scientific statement is to review
             available evidence and recommend whether depression should
             be elevated to the status of a risk factor for patients with
             acute coronary syndrome. METHODS AND RESULTS: Writing group
             members were approved by the American Heart Association's
             Scientific Statement and Manuscript Oversight Committees. A
             systematic literature review on depression and adverse
             medical outcomes after acute coronary syndrome was conducted
             that included all-cause mortality, cardiac mortality, and
             composite outcomes for mortality and nonfatal events. The
             review assessed the strength, consistency, independence, and
             generalizability of the published studies. A total of 53
             individual studies (32 reported on associations with
             all-cause mortality, 12 on cardiac mortality, and 22 on
             composite outcomes) and 4 meta-analyses met inclusion
             criteria. There was heterogeneity across studies in terms of
             the demographic composition of study samples, definition and
             measurement of depression, length of follow-up, and
             covariates included in the multivariable models. Despite
             limitations in some individual studies, our review
             identified generally consistent associations between
             depression and adverse outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the
             heterogeneity of published studies included in this review,
             the preponderance of evidence supports the recommendation
             that the American Heart Association should elevate
             depression to the status of a risk factor for adverse
             medical outcomes in patients with acute coronary
             syndrome.},
   Doi = {10.1161/CIR.0000000000000019},
   Key = {fds270606}
}

@article{fds270607,
   Author = {Smith, PJ and Blumenthal, JA and Carney, RM and Freedland, KE and O'Hayer, CVF and Trulock, EP and Martinu, T and Schwartz, TA and Hoffman, BM and Koch, GG and Davis, RD and Palmer,
             SM},
   Title = {Neurobehavioral functioning and survival following lung
             transplantation.},
   Journal = {Chest},
   Volume = {145},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {604-611},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0012-3692},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1378/chest.12-2127},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Neurobehavioral functioning is widely recognized
             as being an important consideration in lung transplant
             candidates, but little is known about whether these factors
             are related to clinical outcomes. The present study examined
             the relationship of neurobehavioral functioning, including
             measures of executive function and memory, depression, and
             anxiety, to long-term survival among lung transplant
             recipients. METHODS: The sample was drawn from 201 patients
             who underwent transplantation at Duke University and
             Washington University who participated in a dual-site
             clinical trial investigating medical and psychosocial
             outcomes in transplant candidates with end-stage lung
             disease. All patients completed the Beck Depression
             Inventory-II (BDI-II) and Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety
             Inventory at baseline and again after 12 weeks, while a
             subset of 86 patients from Duke University also completed
             neurocognitive testing. Patients were followed for survival
             up to 12 years after completing baseline assessments.
             RESULTS: One hundred eleven patients died over a mean
             follow-up of 10.8 years (SD=0.8). Baseline depression,
             anxiety, and neurocognitive function were examined as
             predictors of posttransplant survival, controlling for age,
             6-min walk distance, FEV, and native disease; education and
             cardiovascular risk factors were also included in the model
             for neurocognition. Lower executive function (hazard ratio
             [HR]=1.09, P=.012) and memory performance (HR=1.11, P=.030)
             were independently associated with greater mortality
             following lung transplant. Although pretransplant depression
             and anxiety were not predictive of mortality, patients who
             scored>13 on the BDI-II at baseline and after 3 months
             pretransplant had greater mortality (HR=1.85 [95% CI, 1.04,
             3.28], P=.036). CONCLUSIONS: Neurobehavioral functioning,
             including persistently elevated depressive symptoms and
             lower neurocognitive performance, was associated with
             reduced survival after lung transplantation. TRIAL REGISTRY:
             ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT00113139; URL:
             www.clinicaltrials.gov.},
   Doi = {10.1378/chest.12-2127},
   Key = {fds270607}
}

@article{fds270609,
   Author = {Combs, K and Smith, PJ and Sherwood, A and Hoffman, B and Carney, RM and Freedland, K and Craighead, WE and Blumenthal,
             JA},
   Title = {Impact of sleep complaints and depression outcomes among
             participants in the standard medical intervention and
             long-term exercise study of exercise and pharmacotherapy for
             depression.},
   Journal = {J Nerv Ment Dis},
   Volume = {202},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {167-171},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0022-3018},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NMD.0000000000000085},
   Abstract = {The aim of this study was to examine the effects of exercise
             and sertraline on disordered sleep in patients with major
             depressive disorder (MDD). Methods The Standard Medical
             Intervention and Long-term Exercise study randomized the
             patients with MDD (n = 202) to one of four arms: a)
             supervised exercise, b) home-based exercise, c) sertraline
             therapy, and d) placebo pill. Sleep disturbance was assessed
             with three sleep-related items from the Hamilton Rating
             Scale for Depression (HAM-D) before and after 4 months of
             treatment. The patients were followed for 12 months to
             assess the prognostic value of sleep disturbance on MDD
             relapse and recovery.Results Comparison of the active
             treatment and placebo groups showed no treatment differences
             in HAM-D sleep complaints after 4 months (p = 0.758).
             However, residual insomnia symptoms after treatment were
             strongly associated with elevated depressive symptoms
             assessed by the HAM-D after 4 months (β = 0.342, p <
             0.0001) and MDD relapse (odds ratio, 1.55; 95% confidence
             interval, 1.15-2.10; p = 0.004) assessed at 1-year follow-up
             (16 months after randomization). Neither exercise nor
             sertraline was associated with greater improvements in sleep
             disturbance compared with the placebo controls. However,
             residual symptoms of insomnia after successful treatment of
             MDD predicted relapse, highlighting the clinical importance
             of addressing insomnia in patients with MDD.},
   Doi = {10.1097/NMD.0000000000000085},
   Key = {fds270609}
}

@article{fds270597,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Murali Doraiswamy and P},
   Title = {To the editor},
   Journal = {Jama},
   Volume = {312},
   Number = {20},
   Pages = {2166-2167},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0098-7484},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2014.14334},
   Doi = {10.1001/jama.2014.14334},
   Key = {fds270597}
}

@article{fds270612,
   Author = {Lavie, CJ and Milani, RV and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Exercise, cardiac rehabilitation, and post-acute coronary
             syndrome depression.},
   Journal = {Jama Internal Medicine},
   Volume = {174},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {165-166},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24394932},
   Doi = {10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.11112},
   Key = {fds270612}
}

@article{fds271022,
   Author = {Greenfield, JC and Rembert, JC},
   Title = {Letter to the editor.},
   Journal = {J Electrocardiol},
   Volume = {47},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {130},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2013.09.037},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2013.09.037},
   Key = {fds271022}
}

@article{fds270618,
   Author = {Mathew, JP and White, WD and Schinderle, DB and Podgoreanu, MV and Berger, M and Milano, CA and Laskowitz, DT and Stafford-Smith, M and Blumenthal, JA and Newman, MF and Neurologic Outcome Research
             Group (NORG) of The Duke Heart Center},
   Title = {Intraoperative magnesium administration does not improve
             neurocognitive function after cardiac surgery.},
   Journal = {Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation},
   Volume = {44},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {3407-3413},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24105697},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neurocognitive decline occurs
             frequently after cardiac surgery and persists in a
             significant number of patients. Magnesium is thought to
             provide neuroprotection by preservation of cellular energy
             metabolism, blockade of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor,
             diminution of the inflammatory response, and inhibition of
             platelet activation. We therefore hypothesized that
             intraoperative magnesium administration would decrease
             postoperative cognitive impairment. METHODS: After approval
             by the Duke University Health System Institutional Review
             Board, 389 patients undergoing cardiac surgery were enrolled
             in this prospective, randomized, double-blind,
             placebo-controlled clinical trial. Subjects were randomized
             to receive magnesium as a 50 mg/kg bolus followed by another
             50 mg/kg infusion for 3 hours or placebo bolus and infusion.
             Cognitive function was assessed preoperatively and again at
             6 weeks postoperatively using a standardized test battery.
             Mean CD11b fluorescence and percentage of platelets
             expressing CD62P, which are markers of leukocyte and
             platelet activation, respectively, were assessed by flow
             cytometry as a secondary outcome. The effect of magnesium on
             postoperative cognition was tested using multivariable
             regression modeling, adjusting for age, years of education,
             baseline cognition, sex, race, and weight. RESULTS: Among
             the 389 allocated subjects (magnesium: n=198; placebo:
             n=191), the incidence of cognitive deficit in the magnesium
             group was 44.4% compared with 44.9% in the placebo group
             (P=0.93). The cognitive change score and platelet and
             leukocyte activation were also not different between the
             groups. Multivariable analysis revealed a marginal
             interaction between treatment group and weight such that
             heavier subjects receiving magnesium were less likely to
             have cognitive deficit (P=0.06). CONCLUSIONS: Magnesium
             administered intravenously during cardiac surgery does not
             reduce postoperative cognitive dysfunction. CLINICAL TRIAL
             REGISTRATION URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique
             identifier: NCT00041392.},
   Doi = {10.1161/STROKEAHA.113.002703},
   Key = {fds270618}
}

@article{fds270614,
   Author = {Fleg, JL and Forman, DE and Berra, K and Bittner, V and Blumenthal, JA and Chen, MA and Cheng, S and Kitzman, DW and Maurer, MS and Rich, MW and Shen,
             W-K and Williams, MA and Zieman, SJ and American Heart Association
             Committees on Older Populations and Exercise Cardiac
             Rehabilitation and Prevention of the Council on Clinical
             Cardiology and Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing,
             Council on Lifestyle and Cardiometabolic
             He},
   Title = {Secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular
             disease in older adults: a scientific statement from the
             American Heart Association.},
   Journal = {Circulation},
   Volume = {128},
   Number = {22},
   Pages = {2422-2446},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0009-7322},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.cir.0000436752.99896.22},
   Doi = {10.1161/01.cir.0000436752.99896.22},
   Key = {fds270614}
}

@article{fds270619,
   Author = {Hinderliter, AL and Routledge, FS and Blumenthal, JA and Koch, G and Hussey, MA and Wohlgemuth, WK and Sherwood, A},
   Title = {Reproducibility of blood pressure dipping: relation to
             day-to-day variability in sleep quality.},
   Journal = {J Am Soc Hypertens},
   Volume = {7},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {432-439},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {1933-1711},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jash.2013.06.001},
   Abstract = {Previous studies of the reproducibility of blood pressure
             (BP) dipping have yielded inconsistent results. Few have
             examined factors that may influence day-to-day differences
             in dipping. Ambulatory BP monitoring was performed on three
             occasions, approximately 1 week apart, in 115 untreated
             adult subjects with elevated clinic BPs. The
             mean ± standard deviation BP dip was 18 ± 7/15 ± 5 mm
             Hg (sleep/awake BP ratio = 0.87 ± 0.05/0.82 ± 0.06),
             with a median (interquartile range) day-to-day variation of
             5.2 (3.1-8.1)/4.3 (2.8-5.6) mm Hg. There was no decrease in
             variability with successive measurements. The
             reproducibility coefficient (5.6 [95% confidence interval,
             5.1-6.1] mm Hg) was greater and the intraclass correlation
             coefficient (0.53 [95% confidence interval, 0.42-0.63]) was
             smaller for the systolic dip than for 24-hour or awake
             systolic BPs, suggesting greater day-to-day variability in
             dipping. Variability in systolic dipping was greater in
             subjects with higher awake BP, but was not related to age,
             gender, race, or body mass index. Within individuals,
             day-to-day variations in dipping were related to variations
             in the fragmentation index (P < .001), a measure of sleep
             quality. Although mean 24-hour and awake BPs were relatively
             stable over repeated monitoring days, our study confirms
             substantial variability in BP dipping. Day-to-day
             differences in dipping are related to sleep
             quality.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jash.2013.06.001},
   Key = {fds270619}
}

@article{fds270617,
   Author = {Smith, PJ and Potter, GG and McLaren, ME and Blumenthal,
             JA},
   Title = {Impact of aerobic exercise on neurobehavioral
             outcomes.},
   Journal = {Mental Health and Physical Activity},
   Volume = {6},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {139-153},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {1755-2966},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mhpa.2013.06.008},
   Abstract = {Numerous studies have examined the relationship between
             physical activity and cognitive function, demonstrating that
             greater physical activity is associated with lower incidence
             of cognitive impairment in later life. Due to an
             increasingly large number of older adults at risk for
             cognitive impairment, the relationship between physical
             activity and cognition has garnered increasing public health
             relevance and multiple randomized trials have demonstrated
             that exercise interventions among sedentary adults improve
             cognitive performance in multiple domains of function. This
             article will examine the relationship between physical
             activity and cognitive function by reviewing several
             different areas of literature, including the prevalence of
             cognitive impairment, assessment methods, observational
             studies examining physical activity and cognition, and
             intervention studies. The present review is intended to
             provide a historical tutorial of existing literature linking
             physical activity, exercise, and cognitive function among
             both healthy and clinical populations.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.mhpa.2013.06.008},
   Key = {fds270617}
}

@article{fds316067,
   Author = {Watkins, LL and Sherwood, A and Blumenthal, JA and Sketch,
             MH},
   Title = {ADDITIVE ASSOCIATION OF ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION WITH
             ALL-CAUSE MORTALITY IN INDIVIDUALS WITH CORONARY HEART
             DISEASE},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {75},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {A116-A116},
   Publisher = {LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000330467400371&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds316067}
}

@article{fds316057,
   Author = {Smith, PJ and Blumenthal, JA and Hinderliter, AL and Sherwood,
             A},
   Title = {OBESITY IS ASSOCIATED WITH POORER NEUROCOGNITIVE PERFORMANCE
             AMONG ADULTS WITH HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {75},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {A61-A61},
   Publisher = {LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000330467400195&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds316057}
}

@article{fds316066,
   Author = {Watkins, LL and Sherwood, A and Blumenthal, JA and Smith, PJ and Geordiades, A and Sketch, MH},
   Title = {NATURALISTIC STRESSORS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH REDUCED 24-HOUR
             HRV IN ACUTE POST-MI PATIENTS},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {75},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {A65-A65},
   Publisher = {LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000330467400208&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds316066}
}

@article{fds270626,
   Author = {Watkins, LL and Koch, GG and Sherwood, A and Blumenthal, JA and Davidson, JRT and O'Connor, C and Sketch, MH},
   Title = {Association of anxiety and depression with all-cause
             mortality in individuals with coronary heart
             disease.},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Heart Association},
   Volume = {2},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {e000068},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23537805},
   Abstract = {Depression has been related to mortality in coronary heart
             disease (CHD) patients, but few studies have evaluated the
             role of anxiety or the role of the co-occurrence of
             depression and anxiety. We examined whether anxiety is
             associated with increased risk of mortality after accounting
             for depression in individuals with established CHD.The
             cohort was composed of 934 men and women with confirmed CHD
             (mean age, 62±11 years) who completed the Hospital Anxiety
             and Depression scale (HADS) during hospitalization for
             coronary angiography. Over the 3-year follow-up period,
             there were 133 deaths. Elevated scores on the HADS anxiety
             subscale (HADS-A≥8) were associated with increased risk of
             mortality after accounting for established risk factors
             including age, congestive heart failure, left ventricular
             ejection fraction, 3-vessel disease, and renal disease
             (hazard ratio [HR], 2.27; 95% CI, 1.55 to 3.33; P<0.001).
             Elevated scores on the HADS depression subscale (HADS-D≥8)
             were also associated with increased risk of mortality (HR,
             2.18; 95% CI, 1.47 to 3.22; P<0.001). When both psychosocial
             factors were included in the model, each maintained an
             association with mortality (anxiety, HR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.18
             to 2.83; P=0.006; depression, HR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.06 to
             2.58; P=0.025). Estimation of the HR for patients with both
             anxiety and depression versus those with neither revealed a
             larger HR than for patients with either factor alone (HR,
             3.10; 95% CI, 1.95 to 4.94; P<0.001).Anxiety is associated
             with increased risk of mortality in CHD patients,
             particularly when comorbid with depression. Future studies
             should focus on the co-occurrence of these psychosocial
             factors as markers of increased mortality
             risk.},
   Doi = {10.1161/JAHA.112.000068},
   Key = {fds270626}
}

@article{fds270625,
   Author = {Kisohara, M and Stein, PK and Yoshida, Y and Suzuki, M and Iizuka, N and Carney, RM and Watkins, LL and Freedland, KE and Blumenthal, JA and Hayano, J},
   Title = {Multi-scale heart rate dynamics detected by phase-rectified
             signal averaging predicts mortality after acute myocardial
             infarction.},
   Journal = {Europace},
   Volume = {15},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {437-443},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {1099-5129},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000316537800027&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Abstract = {AIMS: Acceleration and deceleration capacity (AC and DC) for
             beat-to-beat short-term heart rate dynamics are powerful
             predictors of mortality after acute myocardial infarction
             (AMI). We examined if AC and DC for minute-order long-term
             heart rate dynamics also have independent predictive value.
             METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 24-hr Holter
             electrcardiograms in 708 post-AMI patients who were followed
             up for up to 30 months thereafter. Acceleration capacity and
             DC was calculated with the time scales of T (window size
             defining heart rate) and s (wavelet scale) from 1 to 500 s
             and compared their prognostic values with conventional
             measures (AC(conv) and DC(conv)) that were calculated with
             (T,s) = [1,2 (beat)]. During the follow-up, 47 patients
             died. Both increased AC(conv) and decreased DC(conv)
             predicted mortality (C statistic, 0.792 and 0.797).
             Concordantly, sharp peaks of C statistics were observed at
             (T,s) = [2,7 (sec)] for both increased AC and decreased DC
             (0.762 and 0.768), but there were larger peaks of C
             statistics at around [30,60 (sec)] for both (0.783 and
             0.796). The C statistic was greater for DC than AC at
             (30,60) (P = 0.0012). Deceleration capacity at (30,60) was a
             significant predictor even after adjusted for AC(conv) (P =
             0.020) and DC(conv) (P = 0.028), but the predictive power of
             AC at (30,60) was no longer significant. CONCLUSION: A
             decrease in DC for minute-order long-term heart rate
             dynamics is a strong predictor for post-AMI mortality and
             the predictive power is independent of AC(conv) and DC(conv)
             for beat-to-beat short-term heart rate dynamics.},
   Doi = {10.1093/europace/eus409},
   Key = {fds270625}
}

@article{fds329497,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Babyak, MA and O'Connor, C and Keteyian, S and Landzberg, J and Howlett, J and Kraus, W and Gottlieb, S and Blackburn,
             G and Swank, A and Whellan, D},
   Title = {DEPRESSION AND EXERCISE TRAINING IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC
             HEART FAILURE},
   Journal = {Annals of Behavioral Medicine},
   Volume = {45},
   Pages = {S86-S86},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds329497}
}

@article{fds329498,
   Author = {Smith, PJ and Blumenthal, JA and Freedland, K and Carney, R and Schwartz, TA and Hoffman, BM and Koch, G and O'Hayer, VF and Trulock, E and Davis, RD and Palmer, S},
   Title = {NEUROBEHAVIORAL FUNCTIONING AND SURVIVAL FOLLOWING LUNG
             TRANSPLANTATION},
   Journal = {Annals of Behavioral Medicine},
   Volume = {45},
   Pages = {S251-S251},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds329498}
}

@article{fds270628,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Targeting lifestyle change in patients with
             depression.},
   Journal = {J Am Coll Cardiol},
   Volume = {61},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {631-634},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23290546},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jacc.2012.11.029},
   Key = {fds270628}
}

@article{fds270679,
   Author = {Smith, P and Tuomisto, MT and Blumenthal, J and Sherwood, A and Parkkinen, L and Kähönen, M and Pörsti, I and Majahalme, S and Turjanmaa, V},
   Title = {Psychosocial correlates of atrial natriuretic peptide: a
             marker of vascular health.},
   Journal = {Annals of Behavioral Medicine : a Publication of the Society
             of Behavioral Medicine},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {99-109},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22996638},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Psychosocial factors have been associated with
             cardiovascular outcomes, but few studies have examined the
             association between psychosocial function and natriuretic
             peptides. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to determine
             the predictive value of hostility, anger, and social support
             in relation to atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), a marker of
             vascular health, among middle-aged men. METHODS: One hundred
             twenty-one men (mean age = 39.8 years, SD = 4.1) underwent
             assessments of ANP and completed the Cook-Medley Hostility
             Scale, the Spielberger State-Trait Anger Scale, and the
             Interview Schedule for Social Interaction. RESULTS: Higher
             levels of hostility (β = 0.22 [95 % CI 0.04, 0.40], P =
             0.032) and trait anger (β = 0.18 [95 % CI 0.01, 0.37], P =
             0.044) were associated with greater ANP levels. In contrast,
             higher perceived social support was also associated with
             lower ANP levels, (β = -0.19 [95 % CI -0.05, -0.41], P =
             0.010). CONCLUSIONS: Psychosocial factors, including
             hostility, anger, and social support, are associated with
             varying ANP levels among middle-aged men, independent of
             cardiovascular and behavioral risk factors.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s12160-012-9414-1},
   Key = {fds270679}
}

@article{fds270629,
   Author = {Fan, L-B and Blumenthal, JA and Hinderliter, AL and Sherwood,
             A},
   Title = {The effect of job strain on nighttime blood pressure dipping
             among men and women with high blood pressure.},
   Journal = {Scand J Work Environ Health},
   Volume = {39},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {112-119},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22460541},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVES: Blunted nighttime blood pressure dipping is an
             established cardiovascular risk factor. This study examined
             the effect of job strain on nighttime blood pressure dipping
             among men and women with high blood pressure. METHODS: The
             sample consisted of 122 blue- and white collar workers
             (men=72, women=50). The Job Content Questionnaire was used
             to measure job psychological demands, job control, and
             social support. The ratio of job demands to job control was
             used to assess job strain. Nighttime blood pressure dipping
             was evaluated from 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure
             monitoring performed on three workdays. RESULTS: Men with
             high job strain had a 5.4 mm Hg higher sleep systolic blood
             pressure (P=0.03) and 3.5 mm Hg higher sleep pulse pressure
             (P=0.02) compared to men with low job strain. Men with high
             job strain had a smaller fall in systolic blood pressure and
             pulse pressure from awake to sleep state than those with low
             job strain (P<0.05). Hierarchical analyses showed that job
             strain was an independent determinant of systolic blood
             pressure dipping (P=0.03) among men after adjusting for
             ethnicity, body mass index, anxiety and depression symptoms,
             current smoking status, and alcohol consumption. Further
             exploratory analyses indicated that job control was the
             salient component of job strain associated with blood
             pressure dipping (P=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: High job strain is
             associated with a blunting of the normal diurnal variation
             in blood pressure and pulse pressure, which may contribute
             to the relationship between job strain and cardiovascular
             disease.},
   Doi = {10.5271/sjweh.3294},
   Key = {fds270629}
}

@article{fds270725,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Smith, PJ and Welsh-Bohmer, K and Babyak, MA and Browndyke, J and Lin, P-H and Doraiswamy, PM and Burke, J and Kraus, W and Hinderliter, A and Sherwood, A},
   Title = {Can lifestyle modification improve neurocognition? Rationale
             and design of the ENLIGHTEN clinical trial.},
   Journal = {Contemp Clin Trials},
   Volume = {34},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {60-69},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23000080},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD)
             not only increase the risk for clinical CVD events, but also
             are associated with a cascade of neurophysiologic and
             neuroanatomic changes that increase the risk of cognitive
             impairment and dementia. Although epidemiological studies
             have shown that exercise and diet are associated with lower
             CVD risk and reduced incidence of dementia, no randomized
             controlled trial (RCT) has examined the independent effects
             of exercise and diet on neurocognitive function among
             individuals at risk for dementia. The ENLIGHTEN trial is a
             RCT of patients with CVD risk factors who also are
             characterized by subjective cognitive complaints and
             objective evidence of neurocognitive impairment without
             dementia (CIND) STUDY DESIGN: A 2 by 2 design will examine
             the independent and combined effects of diet and exercise on
             neurocognition. 160 participants diagnosed with CIND will be
             randomly assigned to 6 months of aerobic exercise, the DASH
             diet, or a combination of both exercise and diet; a
             (control) group will receive health education but otherwise
             will maintain their usual dietary and activity habits.
             Participants will complete comprehensive assessments of
             neurocognitive functioning along with biomarkers of CVD risk
             including measures of blood pressure, glucose, endothelial
             function, and arterial stiffness. CONCLUSION: The ENLIGHTEN
             trial will (a) evaluate the effectiveness of aerobic
             exercise and the DASH diet in improving neurocognitive
             functioning in CIND patients with CVD risk factors; (b)
             examine possible mechanisms by which exercise and diet
             improve neurocognition; and (c) consider potential
             moderators of treatment, including subclinical
             CVD.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.cct.2012.09.004},
   Key = {fds270725}
}

@article{fds270608,
   Author = {Dunbar, SB and Clark, PC and Reilly, CM and Gary, RA and Smith, A and McCarty, F and Higgins, M and Grossniklaus, D and Kaslow, N and Frediani, J and Dashiff, C and Ryan, R},
   Title = {A trial of family partnership and education interventions in
             heart failure},
   Journal = {Journal of Cardiac Failure},
   Volume = {19},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {829-841},
   Year = {2013},
   ISSN = {1071-9164},
   Abstract = {Background: Lowering dietary sodium and adhering to
             medication regimens are difficult for persons with heart
             failure (HF). Because these behaviors often occur within the
             family context, this study evaluated the effects of family
             education and partnership interventions on dietary sodium
             (Na) intake and medication adherence (MA). Methods and
             Results: HF patient and family member (FM) dyads (n = 117)
             were randomized to: usual care (UC), patient-FM education
             (PFE), or family partnership intervention (FPI). Dietary Na
             (3-day food record), urinary Na (24-hour urine), and MA
             (Medication Events Monitoring System) were measured at
             baseline (BL) before randomization, and at 4 and 8 months.
             FPI and PFE reduced urinary Na at 4 months, and FPI differed
             from UC at 8 months (P=016). Dietary Na decreased from BL to
             4 months, with both PFE (P=04) and FPI (P=.018) lower than
             UC. The proportion of subjects adherent to Na intake
             (≤2,500 mg/d) was higher at 8 months in PFE and FPI than
             in UC (c2 (2)=7.076; P=029).MAdid not differ among groups
             across time. Both FPI and PFE groups increased HF knowledge
             immediately after intervention. Conclusions: Dietary Na
             intake, but not MA, was improved by PFE and FPI compared
             with UC. The UC group was less likely to be adherent with
             dietary Na. Greater efforts to study and incorporate
             family-focused education and support interventions into HF
             care are warranted. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights
             reserved.},
   Key = {fds270608}
}

@article{fds270610,
   Author = {Dunbar, SB and Clark, PC and Reilly, CM and Gary, RA and Smith, A and McCarty, F and Higgins, M and Grossniklaus, D and Kaslow, N and Frediani, J and al, E},
   Title = {A trial of family partnership and education interventions in
             heart failure},
   Journal = {Journal of Cardiac Failure},
   Volume = {19},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {829-841},
   Year = {2013},
   ISSN = {1071-9164},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cardfail.2013.10.007},
   Abstract = {Background Lowering dietary sodium and adhering to
             medication regimens are difficult for persons with heart
             failure (HF). Because these behaviors often occur within the
             family context, this study evaluated the effects of family
             education and partnership interventions on dietary sodium
             (Na) intake and medication adherence (MA). Methods and
             Results HF patient and family member (FM) dyads (n = 117)
             were randomized to: usual care (UC), patient-FM education
             (PFE), or family partnership intervention (FPI). Dietary Na
             (3-day food record), urinary Na (24-hour urine), and MA
             (Medication Events Monitoring System) were measured at
             baseline (BL) before randomization, and at 4 and 8 months.
             FPI and PFE reduced urinary Na at 4 months, and FPI differed
             from UC at 8 months (P =.016). Dietary Na decreased from BL
             to 4 months, with both PFE (P =.04) and FPI (P =.018) lower
             than UC. The proportion of subjects adherent to Na intake
             (≤2,500 mg/d) was higher at 8 months in PFE and FPI than
             in UC (χ2(2) = 7.076; P =.029). MA did not differ among
             groups across time. Both FPI and PFE groups increased HF
             knowledge immediately after intervention. Conclusions
             Dietary Na intake, but not MA, was improved by PFE and FPI
             compared with UC. The UC group was less likely to be
             adherent with dietary Na. Greater efforts to study and
             incorporate family-focused education and support
             interventions into HF care are warranted. © 2013 Elsevier
             Inc. All rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.cardfail.2013.10.007},
   Key = {fds270610}
}

@article{fds270613,
   Author = {Dunbar, SB and Butts, B and Reilly, CM and Gary, RA and Higgins, MK and Ferranti, EP and Culler, SD and Butler, J},
   Title = {A pilot test of an integrated self-care intervention for
             persons with heart failure and concomitant
             diabetes},
   Journal = {Nursing Outlook},
   Year = {2013},
   ISSN = {0029-6554},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.outlook.2013.09.003},
   Abstract = {Studies show 30% to 47% of people with heart failure (HF)
             have concomitant diabetes mellitus (DM). Self-care for
             persons with both of these chronic conditions is
             conflicting, complex, and often inadequate. This pilot study
             tested an integrated self-care program for its effects on HF
             and DM knowledge, self-care efficacy, self-care behaviors,
             and quality of life (QOL). Hospitalized HF-DM participants
             (N = 71) were randomized to usual care or intervention using
             a 1:2 allocation and followed at 30 and 90 days after
             intervention. Intervention was an integrated education and
             counseling program focused on HF-DM self-care. Variables
             included demographic and clinical data, knowledge about HF
             and DM, HF- and DM-specific self-efficacy, standard HF and
             DM QOL scales, and HF and DM self-care behaviors. Analysis
             included descriptive statistics, multilevel longitudinal
             models for group and time effects, post hoc testing, and
             effect size calculations. Sidak adjustments were used to
             control for type 1 error inflation. The integrated HF-DM
             self-care intervention conferred effects on improved HF
             knowledge (30 days, p = .05), HF self-care maintenance (30
             and 90 days, p &lt; .001), HF self-care management
             (90 days, p = .05), DM self-efficacy (30 days, p = .03;
             90 days, p = .004), general diet (30 days, p = .05), HF
             physical QOL (p = .04), and emotional QOL scores (p = .05)
             at 90 days within the intervention group. The participants
             in the usual care group also reported increased total and
             physical QOL. Greater percentages of participants in the
             intervention group improved self reported exercise between 0
             and 30 days (p = .005 and moderate effect size ES = .47)
             and foot care between 0 and 90 days (p = .03, small ES =
             .36). No group differences or improvements in DM-specific
             QOL were observed. An integrated HF-DM self-care
             intervention was effective in improving essential components
             of self-care and had sustained (90 day) effects on selected
             self-care behaviors. Future studies testing HF-DM integrated
             self-care interventions in larger samples with longer
             follow-up and on other outcomes such as hospitalization and
             clinical markers are warranted. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All
             rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.outlook.2013.09.003},
   Key = {fds270613}
}

@article{fds270620,
   Author = {Doyle, T and Palmer, S and Johnson, J and Babyak, MA and Smith, P and Mabe,
             S and Welty-Wolf, K and Martinu, T and Blumenthal,
             JA},
   Title = {Association of anxiety and depression with
             pulmonary-specific symptoms in chronic obstructive pulmonary
             disease.},
   Journal = {International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {189-202},
   Year = {2013},
   ISSN = {0091-2174},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/PM.45.2.g},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of anxiety and
             depression with pulmonary-specific symptoms of Chronic
             Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and to determine the
             extent to which disease severity and functional capacity
             modify this association. METHOD: Patients (N = 162) enrolled
             in the INSPIRE-II study, an ongoing randomized, clinical
             trial of COPD patients and their caregivers who received
             either telephone-based coping skills training or education
             and symptom monitoring. Patients completed a psychosocial
             test battery including: Brief Fatigue Inventory, St.
             George's Respiratory Questionnaire, UCSD Shortness of Breath
             Questionnaire, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Beck
             Depression Inventory. Measures of disease severity and
             functional capacity (i.e., FEV1 and six-minute walk test)
             were also obtained. RESULTS: After covariate adjustment,
             higher anxiety and depression levels were associated with
             greater fatigue levels (ps < .001, deltaR2 = 0.16 and 0.29,
             respectively), shortness of breath (ps < .001, deltaR2 =
             0.12 and 0.10), and frequency of COPD symptoms (ps < .001,
             deltaR2 = 0.11 and 0.13). In addition, functional capacity
             was a moderator of anxiety and pulmonary-specific COPD
             symptoms. The association between anxiety and shortness of
             breath (p = 0.009) and frequency of COPD symptoms (p = 0.02)
             was greater among patients with lower functional capacity.
             CONCLUSIONS: Anxiety and depression were associated with
             higher levels of fatigue, shortness of breath, and frequency
             of COPD symptoms. It is important for clinicians to be aware
             of the presence of anxiety and depression in COPD patients,
             which appears to correlate with pulmonary-specific COPD
             symptoms, especially in patients with lower functional
             capacity. Prospective design studies are needed to elucidate
             the causal relationships between anxiety and depression and
             pulmonary-specific symptoms in COPD patients.},
   Doi = {10.2190/PM.45.2.g},
   Key = {fds270620}
}

@article{fds270621,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Babyak, MA and O'Connor, C},
   Title = {Aerobic exercise reduces depressive symptoms in patients
             with chronic heart failure},
   Journal = {Evidence Based Mental Health},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {42-},
   Year = {2013},
   ISSN = {1362-0347},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/eb-2012-101036},
   Doi = {10.1136/eb-2012-101036},
   Key = {fds270621}
}

@article{fds270686,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Sherwood, A and Watkins, LL and Hinderliter,
             A},
   Title = {Reply},
   Journal = {Journal of the American College of Cardiology},
   Volume = {60},
   Number = {23},
   Pages = {2425-2426},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0735-1097},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2012.09.009},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jacc.2012.09.009},
   Key = {fds270686}
}

@article{fds270678,
   Author = {Bacon, SL and Sherwood, A and Hinderliter, A and Plourde, A and Pierson,
             L and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {The influence of endothelial function and myocardial
             ischemia on peak oxygen consumption in patients with
             coronary artery disease},
   Journal = {International Journal of Vascular Medicine},
   Volume = {2012},
   Pages = {1-6},
   Publisher = {Hindawi Limited},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {2090-2824},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/274381},
   Abstract = {Impaired endothelial function has been shown to limit
             exercise in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients and has
             been implicated in myocardial ischemia. However, the
             association of endothelial function and ischemia on peak
             exercise oxygen consumption (VO2) has not been previously
             reported. A total of 116 CAD patients underwent standard
             exercise stress testing, during which VO2 was measured. On a
             separate day, endothelial-dependent and -independent
             function were assessed by ultrasound using flow-mediated
             arterial vasodilation (FMD) and sublingual glyceryl
             trinitrate administration (GTNMD) of the brachial artery.
             Patients with exercise-induced myocardial ischemia had lower
             FMD than nonischemic patients (3.64 ± 0.57 versus 4.98 ±
             0.36, P =. 050), but there was no difference in GTNMD (14.11
             ± 0.99 versus 15.47 ± 0.63, P =. 249). Analyses revealed
             that both FMD (P =. 006) and GTNMD (P =. 019) were related
             to peak VO2. However, neither the presence of ischemia (P =.
             860) nor the interaction of ischemia with FMD (P =. 382) and
             GTNMD (P =. 151) was related to peak VO2. These data suggest
             that poor endothelial function, potentially via impaired NO
             production and smooth muscle dysfunction, may be an
             important determinant of exercise capacity in patients with
             CAD, independent of myocardial ischemia. © 2012 Simon L.
             Bacon et al.},
   Doi = {10.1155/2012/274381},
   Key = {fds270678}
}

@article{fds270724,
   Author = {Sossai, P and Sponga, B},
   Title = {Physical activity to combat depression in chronic heart
             failure.},
   Journal = {Jama},
   Volume = {308},
   Number = {17},
   Pages = {1738},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0098-7484},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2012.14095},
   Doi = {10.1001/jama.2012.14095},
   Key = {fds270724}
}

@article{fds270684,
   Author = {Keteyian, SJ and Leifer, ES and Houston-Miller, N and Kraus, WE and Brawner, CA and O'Connor, CM and Whellan, DJ and Cooper, LS and Fleg,
             JL and Kitzman, DW and Cohen-Solal, A and Blumenthal, JA and Rendall,
             DS and Piña, IL and HF-ACTION Investigators},
   Title = {Relation between volume of exercise and clinical outcomes in
             patients with heart failure.},
   Journal = {J Am Coll Cardiol},
   Volume = {60},
   Number = {19},
   Pages = {1899-1905},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23062530},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVES: This study determined whether greater volumes of
             exercise were associated with greater reductions in clinical
             events. BACKGROUND: The HF-ACTION (Heart Failure: A
             Controlled Trial Investigating Outcomes of Exercise
             Training) trial showed that among patients with heart
             failure (HF), regular exercise confers a modest reduction in
             the adjusted risk for all-cause mortality or
             hospitalization. METHODS: Patients randomized to the
             exercise training arm of HF-ACTION who were event-free at 3
             months after randomization were included (n = 959). Median
             follow-up was 28.2 months. Clinical endpoints were all-cause
             mortality or hospitalization and cardiovascular mortality or
             HF hospitalization. RESULTS: A reverse J-shaped association
             was observed between exercise volume and adjusted clinical
             risk. On the basis of Cox regression, exercise volume was
             not a significant linear predictor but was a logarithmic
             predictor (p = 0.03) for all-cause mortality or
             hospitalization. For cardiovascular mortality or HF
             hospitalization, exercise volume was a significant (p =
             0.001) linear and logarithmic predictor. Moderate exercise
             volumes of 3 to <5 metabolic equivalent (MET)-h and 5 to <7
             MET-h per week were associated with reductions in subsequent
             risk that exceeded 30%. Exercise volume was positively
             associated with the change in peak oxygen uptake at 3 months
             (r = 0.10; p = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with chronic
             systolic HF, volume of exercise is associated with the risk
             for clinical events, with only moderate levels (3 to 7 MET-h
             per week) of exercise needed to observe a clinical benefit.
             Although further study is warranted to confirm the
             relationship between volume of exercise completed and
             clinical events, our findings support the use of regular
             exercise in the management of these patients.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jacc.2012.08.958},
   Key = {fds270684}
}

@article{fds270723,
   Author = {Epstein, DE and Sherwood, A and Smith, PJ and Craighead, L and Caccia,
             C and Lin, P-H and Babyak, MA and Johnson, JJ and Hinderliter, A and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Determinants and consequences of adherence to the dietary
             approaches to stop hypertension diet in African-American and
             white adults with high blood pressure: results from the
             ENCORE trial.},
   Journal = {Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics},
   Volume = {112},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {1763-1773},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {2212-2672},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23000025},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Although the Dietary Approaches to Stop
             Hypertension (DASH) diet is an accepted nonpharmacologic
             treatment for hypertension, little is known about what
             patient characteristics affect dietary adherence and what
             level of adherence is needed to reduce blood pressure (BP).
             OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to determine what factors predict
             dietary adherence and the extent to which dietary adherence
             is necessary to produce clinically meaningful BP reductions.
             DESIGN: Ancillary study of the ENCORE (Exercise and
             Nutrition Interventions for Cardiovascular Health) trial--a
             16-week randomized clinical trial of diet and exercise.
             PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: Participants included 144 sedentary,
             overweight, or obese adults (body mass index 25 to 39.9)
             with high BP (systolic 130 to 159 mm Hg and/or diastolic 85
             to 99 mm Hg). INTERVENTION: Patients were randomized to one
             of three groups: DASH diet alone, DASH diet plus weight
             management, and Usual Diet Controls. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES:
             Our primary outcomes were a composite index of adherence to
             the DASH diet and clinic BP. STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED:
             General linear models were used to compare treatment groups
             on post-treatment adherence to the DASH diet. Linear
             regression was used to examine potential predictors of
             post-treatment DASH adherence. Analysis of covariance was
             used to examine the relation of adherence to the DASH diet
             and BP. RESULTS: Participants in the DASH diet plus weight
             management (16.1 systolic BP [SBP]; 95% CI 13.0 to 19.2 mm
             Hg and 9.9 diastolic BP [DBP]; 95% CI 8.1 to 11.6 mm Hg) and
             DASH diet alone (11.2 SBP; 95% CI 8.1 to 14.3 mm Hg and 7.5
             DBP; 95% CI 5.8 to 9.3 mm Hg) groups showed significant
             reductions in BP in comparison with Usual Diet Controls
             participants (3.4 SBP; 95% CI 0.4 to 6.4 mm Hg and DBP 3.8;
             95% CI 2.2 to 5.5 mm Hg). Greater post-treatment consumption
             of DASH foods was noted in both the DASH diet alone (mean =
             6.20; 95% CI 5.83 to 6.57) and DASH diet plus weight
             management groups (mean = 6.23; 95% CI 5.88 to 6.59)
             compared with Usual Diet Controls (mean = 3.66; 95% CI 3.30
             to 4.01; P<0.0001), and greater adherence to the DASH diet
             was associated with larger reductions in clinic SBP and DBP
             (P ≤ 0.01). Only ethnicity predicted dietary adherence,
             with African Americans less adherent to the DASH diet
             compared with whites (4.68; 95% CI 4.34 to 5.03 vs 5.83; 95%
             CI 5.50 to 6.11; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Greater adherence to
             the DASH diet was associated with larger BP reductions
             independent of weight loss. African Americans were less
             likely to be adherent to the DASH dietary eating plan
             compared with whites, suggesting that culturally sensitive
             dietary strategies might be needed to improve adherence to
             the DASH diet.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jand.2012.07.007},
   Key = {fds270723}
}

@article{fds270683,
   Author = {Sherwood, A and Bower, JK and Routledge, FS and Blumenthal, JA and McFetridge-Durdle, JA and Newby, LK and Hinderliter,
             AL},
   Title = {Nighttime blood pressure dipping in postmenopausal women
             with coronary heart disease.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Hypertension},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {1077-1082},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22785406},
   Abstract = {Blunted nighttime blood pressure (BP) dipping is prognostic
             of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This relationship
             may be stronger among women than men. The present study
             hypothesized that coronary artery disease (CAD) and
             advancing age would be associated with reduced BP dipping in
             postmenopausal women. The effects of daytime physical
             activity and nighttime sleep quality on BP dipping were also
             examined.54 postmenopausal women with CAD (≥50% occlusion
             of at least one major coronary vessel) and 48 age-matched
             (range 50-80 years) postmenopausal women without CAD
             (non-CAD) underwent 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring and
             actigraphic evaluations of daytime physical activity and
             nighttime sleep efficiency.Women with CAD evidenced higher
             nighttime systolic BP (SBP) (P = 0.05) and blunted SBP
             dipping (P = 0.017), blunted diastolic BP (DBP) dipping (P =
             0.047), and blunted pulse pressure dipping (P = 0.01),
             compared to non-CAD women. Multivariable regression models
             showed that the presence of CAD, age, daytime physical
             activity, and nighttime sleep efficiency were independently
             related to the magnitude of SBP dipping, together accounting
             for 25% of its variability. DBP dipping showed similar
             associations.For postmenopausal women, the presence of CAD
             and advancing age are accompanied by blunted nighttime BP
             dipping, which may increase the risk of adverse
             cardiovascular events. Lifestyle changes that increase
             daytime physical activity and improve nighttime sleep
             quality may help improve cardiovascular risk by enhancing
             nighttime BP dipping.},
   Doi = {10.1038/ajh.2012.95},
   Key = {fds270683}
}

@article{fds270685,
   Author = {Hayano, J and Carney, RM and Watanabe, E and Kawai, K and Kodama, I and Stein, PK and Watkins, LL and Freedland, KE and Blumenthal,
             JA},
   Title = {Interactive associations of depression and sleep apnea with
             adverse clinical outcomes after acute myocardial
             infarction.},
   Journal = {Psychosom Med},
   Volume = {74},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {832-839},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0b013e31826d2c81},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: Depression and sleep apnea (SA) are common among
             patients with a recent acute myocardial infarction (AMI),
             and both are associated with increased risk for adverse
             outcomes. We tested the hypothesis that there is an
             interaction between them in relation to post-AMI prognosis.
             METHODS: Participants were patients with a recent AMI, 337
             of them were depressed and 379 were nondepressed, who
             participated in a substudy of the Enhancing Recovery in
             Coronary Heart Disease (ENRICHD) clinical trial. SA was
             identified from Holter electrocardiogram by an algorithm
             that detects cyclic variation of heart rate. RESULTS: During
             a median follow-up of 25 months, 83 (11.6%) patients either
             died or experienced a recurrent AMI and 43 (6.0%) patients
             died. Among 94 patients with both depression and SA, these
             end points occurred in 25 (26.6%) and 20 (21.3%) at 3.9- and
             6.9-times higher prevalence than predicted probabilities by
             ENRICHD clinical risk scores (p <.001 for both). In the
             patients with depression alone, SA alone, or neither, the
             prevalence was similar to the predicted probability.
             Depression and SA showed significant interactions in
             prediction of these end points (p = .02 and p = .03). SA
             independently predicted these end points in patients with
             depression (p = .001 and p <.001) but not in those without
             depression (p = .84 and p = .73). Similarly, depression
             independently predicted these end points in patients with SA
             (p <.001 for both) but not in those without SA (p = .12 and
             p = .61). CONCLUSIONS: Depression and SA are interactively
             associated with adverse clinical outcomes after AMI. TRIAL
             REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier:
             NCT00313573.},
   Doi = {10.1097/PSY.0b013e31826d2c81},
   Key = {fds270685}
}

@article{fds270722,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Sherwood, A and Babyak, MA and Watkins, LL and Smith,
             PJ and Hoffman, BM and O'Hayer, CVF and Mabe, S and Johnson, J and Doraiswamy, PM and Jiang, W and Schocken, DD and Hinderliter,
             AL},
   Title = {Exercise and pharmacological treatment of depressive
             symptoms in patients with coronary heart disease: results
             from the UPBEAT (Understanding the Prognostic Benefits of
             Exercise and Antidepressant Therapy) study.},
   Journal = {J Am Coll Cardiol},
   Volume = {60},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {1053-1063},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22858387},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy
             of exercise and antidepressant medication in reducing
             depressive symptoms and improving cardiovascular biomarkers
             in depressed patients with coronary heart disease.
             BACKGROUND: Although there is good evidence that clinical
             depression is associated with poor prognosis, optimal
             therapeutic strategies are currently not well defined.
             METHODS: One hundred one outpatients with coronary heart
             disease and elevated depressive symptoms underwent
             assessment of depression, including a psychiatric interview
             and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. Participants
             were randomized to 4 months of aerobic exercise (3
             times/week), sertraline (50-200 mg/day), or placebo.
             Additional assessments of cardiovascular biomarkers included
             measures of heart rate variability, endothelial function,
             baroreflex sensitivity, inflammation, and platelet function.
             RESULTS: After 16 weeks, all groups showed improvement on
             Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression scores. Participants in
             both the aerobic exercise (mean -7.5; 95% confidence
             interval: -9.8 to -5.0) and sertraline (mean -6.1; 95%
             confidence interval: -8.4 to -3.9) groups achieved larger
             reductions in depressive symptoms compared with those
             receiving placebo (mean -4.5; 95% confidence interval: -7.6
             to -1.5; p = 0.034); exercise and sertraline were equally
             effective at reducing depressive symptoms (p = 0.607).
             Exercise and medication tended to result in greater
             improvements in heart rate variability compared with placebo
             (p = 0.052); exercise tended to result in greater
             improvements in heart rate variability compared with
             sertraline (p = 0.093). CONCLUSIONS: Both exercise and
             sertraline resulted in greater reductions in depressive
             symptoms compared to placebo in patients with coronary heart
             disease. Evidence that active treatments may also improve
             cardiovascular biomarkers suggests that they may have a
             beneficial effect on clinical outcomes as well as on quality
             of life. (Exercise to Treat Depression in Individuals With
             Coronary Heart Disease; NCT00302068).},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jacc.2012.04.040},
   Key = {fds270722}
}

@article{fds270721,
   Author = {Hoffman, BM and Blumenthal, JA and Carney, RC and O'Hayer, CVF and Freedland, K and Smith, PJ and Babyak, MA and Davis, RD and Mathew, JP and Martinu, T and Palmer, S},
   Title = {Changes in neurocognitive functioning following lung
             transplantation.},
   Journal = {Am J Transplant},
   Volume = {12},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {2519-2525},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22548872},
   Abstract = {Although neurocognitive impairment is relatively common
             among patients with advanced lung disease, little is known
             regarding changes in neurocognition following lung
             transplantation. We therefore administered 10 tests of
             neurocognitive functioning before and 6 months following
             lung transplantation and sought to identify predictors of
             change. Among the 49 study participants, native diseases
             included chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n = 22),
             cystic fibrosis (n = 12), nonfibrotic diseases (n = 11) and
             other (n = 4). Although composite measures of executive
             function and verbal memory scores were generally within
             normal limits both before and after lung transplantation,
             verbal memory performance was slightly better posttransplant
             compared to baseline (p < 0.0001). Executive function scores
             improved in younger patients but worsened in older patients
             (p = 0.03). A minority subset of patients (29%) exhibited
             significant cognitive decline (i.e. >1 standard deviations
             on at least 20% of tests) from baseline to posttransplant.
             Patients who declined were older (p < 0.004) and tended to
             be less educated (p = 0.07). Lung transplantation, like
             cardiac revascularization procedures, appears to be
             associated with cognitive decline in a subset of older
             patients, which could impact daily functioning
             posttransplant.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1600-6143.2012.04072.x},
   Key = {fds270721}
}

@article{fds270720,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Babyak, MA and O'Connor, C and Keteyian, S and Landzberg, J and Howlett, J and Kraus, W and Gottlieb, S and Blackburn,
             G and Swank, A and Whellan, DJ},
   Title = {Effects of exercise training on depressive symptoms in
             patients with chronic heart failure: the HF-ACTION
             randomized trial.},
   Journal = {Jama},
   Volume = {308},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {465-474},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22851113},
   Abstract = {CONTEXT: Depression is common in patients with cardiac
             disease, especially in patients with heart failure, and is
             associated with increased risk of adverse health outcomes.
             Some evidence suggests that aerobic exercise may reduce
             depressive symptoms, but to our knowledge the effects of
             exercise on depression in patients with heart failure have
             not been evaluated. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether exercise
             training will result in greater improvements in depressive
             symptoms compared with usual care among patients with heart
             failure. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Multicenter,
             randomized controlled trial involving 2322 stable patients
             treated for heart failure at 82 medical clinical centers in
             the United States, Canada, and France. Patients who had a
             left ventricular ejection fraction of 35% or lower, had New
             York Heart Association class I to IV heart failure, and had
             completed the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) score
             were randomized (1:1) between April 2003 and February 2007.
             Depressive scores ranged from 0 to 59; scores of 14 or
             higher are considered clinically significant. INTERVENTIONS:
             Participants were randomized either to supervised aerobic
             exercise (goal of 90 min/wk for months 1-3 followed by home
             exercise with a goal of ≥120 min/wk for months 4-12) or to
             education and usual guideline-based heart failure care. MAIN
             OUTCOME MEASURES: Composite of death or hospitalization due
             to any cause and scores on the BDI-II at months 3 and 12.
             RESULTS: Over a median follow-up period of 30 months, 789
             patients (68%) died or were hospitalized in the usual care
             group compared with 759 (66%) in the aerobic exercise group
             (hazard ratio [HR], 0.89; 95% CI, 0.81 to 0.99; P = .03).
             The median BDI-II score at study entry was 8, with 28% of
             the sample having BDI-II scores of 14 or higher. Compared
             with usual care, aerobic exercise resulted in lower mean
             BDI-II scores at 3 months (aerobic exercise, 8.95; 95% CI,
             8.61 to 9.29 vs usual care, 9.70; 95% CI, 9.34 to 10.06;
             difference, -0.76; 95% CI,-1.22 to -0.29; P = .002) and at
             12 months (aerobic exercise, 8.86; 95% CI, 8.67 to 9.24 vs
             usual care, 9.54; 95% CI, 9.15 to 9.92; difference, -0.68;
             95% CI, -1.20 to -0.16; P = .01). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with
             guideline-based usual care, exercise training resulted in a
             modest reduction in depressive symptoms, although the
             clinical significance of this improvement is unknown. TRIAL
             REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier:
             NCT00047437.},
   Doi = {10.1001/jama.2012.8720},
   Key = {fds270720}
}

@article{fds270682,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Smith, PJ and Hoffman, BM},
   Title = {Is Exercise a Viable Treatment for Depression?},
   Journal = {Acsm'S Health & Fitness Journal},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {14-21},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {1091-5397},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/01.FIT.0000416000.09526.eb},
   Abstract = {Depression is a common disorder that is associated with
             compromised quality of life, increased health care costs,
             and greater risk for a variety of medical conditions,
             particularly coronary heart disease. This review examines
             methods for assessing depression and discusses current
             treatment approaches. Traditional treatments include
             psychotherapy and antidepressant medications, but such
             treatments are not effective for all patients and
             alternative approaches have recently received increased
             attention, especially the use of aerobic exercise. This
             review examines evidence that exercise is effective in
             improving depressive symptoms among patients with major
             depression and offers practical suggestions for helping
             patients initiate and maintain exercise in their daily
             lives.},
   Doi = {10.1249/01.FIT.0000416000.09526.eb},
   Key = {fds270682}
}

@article{fds270689,
   Author = {Belsky, DW and Moffitt, TE and Houts, R and Bennett, GG and Biddle, AK and Blumenthal, JA and Evans, JP and Harrington, H and Sugden, K and Williams, B and Poulton, R and Caspi, A},
   Title = {Polygenic risk, rapid childhood growth, and the development
             of obesity: evidence from a 4-decade longitudinal
             study.},
   Journal = {Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med},
   Volume = {166},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {515-521},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22665028},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To test how genomic loci identified in
             genome-wide association studies influence the development of
             obesity. DESIGN: A 38-year prospective longitudinal study of
             a representative birth cohort. SETTING: The Dunedin
             Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, Dunedin, New
             Zealand. PARTICIPANTS: One thousand thirty-seven male and
             female study members. MAIN EXPOSURES: We assessed genetic
             risk with a multilocus genetic risk score. The genetic risk
             score was composed of single-nucleotide polymorphisms
             identified in genome-wide association studies of
             obesity-related phenotypes. We assessed family history from
             parent body mass index data collected when study members
             were 11 years of age. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Body mass index
             growth curves, developmental phenotypes of obesity, and
             adult obesity outcomes were defined from anthropometric
             assessments at birth and at 12 subsequent in-person
             interviews through 38 years of age. RESULTS: Individuals
             with higher genetic risk scores were more likely to be
             chronically obese in adulthood. Genetic risk first
             manifested as rapid growth during early childhood. Genetic
             risk was unrelated to birth weight. After birth, children at
             higher genetic risk gained weight more rapidly and reached
             adiposity rebound earlier and at a higher body mass index.
             In turn, these developmental phenotypes predicted adult
             obesity, mediating about half the genetic effect on adult
             obesity risk. Genetic associations with growth and obesity
             risk were independent of family history, indicating that the
             genetic risk score could provide novel information to
             clinicians. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variation linked with
             obesity risk operates, in part, through accelerating growth
             in the early childhood years after birth. Etiological
             research and prevention strategies should target early
             childhood to address the obesity epidemic.},
   Doi = {10.1001/archpediatrics.2012.131},
   Key = {fds270689}
}

@article{fds270719,
   Author = {Somers, TJ and Blumenthal, JA and Guilak, F and Kraus, VB and Schmitt,
             DO and Babyak, MA and Craighead, LW and Caldwell, DS and Rice, JR and McKee, DC and Shelby, RA and Campbell, LC and Pells, JJ and Sims, EL and Queen, R and Carson, JW and Connelly, M and Dixon, KE and Lacaille, LJ and Huebner, JL and Rejeski, WJ and Keefe, FJ},
   Title = {Pain coping skills training and lifestyle behavioral weight
             management in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a
             randomized controlled study.},
   Journal = {Pain},
   Volume = {153},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1199-1209},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22503223},
   Abstract = {Overweight and obese patients with osteoarthritis (OA)
             experience more OA pain and disability than patients who are
             not overweight. This study examined the long-term efficacy
             of a combined pain coping skills training (PCST) and
             lifestyle behavioral weight management (BWM) intervention in
             overweight and obese OA patients. Patients (n=232) were
             randomized to a 6-month program of: 1) PCST+BWM; 2)
             PCST-only; 3) BWM-only; or 4) standard care control.
             Assessments of pain, physical disability (Arthritis Impact
             Measurement Scales [AIMS] physical disability, stiffness,
             activity, and gait), psychological disability (AIMS
             psychological disability, pain catastrophizing, arthritis
             self-efficacy, weight self-efficacy), and body weight were
             collected at 4 time points (pretreatment, posttreatment, and
             6 months and 12 months after the completion of treatment).
             Patients randomized to PCST+BWM demonstrated significantly
             better treatment outcomes (average of all 3 posttreatment
             values) in terms of pain, physical disability, stiffness,
             activity, weight self-efficacy, and weight when compared to
             the other 3 conditions (Ps<0.05). PCST+BWM also did
             significantly better than at least one of the other
             conditions (ie, PCST-only, BWM-only, or standard care) in
             terms of psychological disability, pain catastrophizing, and
             arthritis self-efficacy. Interventions teaching overweight
             and obese OA patients pain coping skills and weight
             management simultaneously may provide the more comprehensive
             long-term benefits.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.pain.2012.02.023},
   Key = {fds270719}
}

@article{fds270680,
   Author = {Routledge, FS and Hinderliter, AL and Blumenthal, JA and Sherwood,
             A},
   Title = {Sex differences in the endothelial function of untreated
             hypertension.},
   Journal = {Journal of Clinical Hypertension (Greenwich,
             Conn.)},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {228-235},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22458744},
   Abstract = {Vascular endothelial dysfunction is associated with
             increased risk for adverse cardiovascular (CV) events.
             However, less is known about sex differences in the
             endothelial function of untreated hypertensive individuals.
             The purpose of this study was to assess endothelial function
             in women and men with untreated hypertension. Ninety
             participants (35 women, 55 men), aged 40 to 60 years (mean
             age, 46.1±8.2 years), with untreated stage 1 hypertension
             (systolic blood pressure 140-159 mm Hg and/or diastolic
             blood pressure 90-99 mm Hg) underwent brachial artery
             endothelial-dependent flow-mediated dilation and
             endothelial-independent glyceryl trinitrate dilation. Women
             had a smaller flow-mediated dilation response than men
             (adjusted mean±standard error of the mean [SEM]; 1.8±0.6%
             vs 3.9±0.4%, P=.036), adjusting for baseline arterial
             diameter (P=.004), age (P=.596), ethnicity (P=.496), log
             shear stress ratio (P<.001), body mass index (P=.009),
             24-hour diastolic blood pressure (P=.169), high-density
             lipoprotein (P=.225), log creatinine (P=.927), and log
             physical activity (P=.682). Glyceryl trinitrate dilation did
             not differ by sex in adjusted models. Women between the ages
             of 40 and 60 years with untreated stage 1 hypertension
             exhibited a greater impairment of endothelial function
             compared with their male counterparts. These findings raise
             the possibility that female sex may impart a greater risk of
             CV events in patients with untreated stage 1 hypertension
             potentially due to poorer endothelial function.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1751-7176.2012.00593.x},
   Key = {fds270680}
}

@article{fds316058,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {EXERCISE AS A TREATMENT FOR DEPRESSION: EVIDENCE FROM
             RANDOMIZED, CONTROLLED TRIALS},
   Journal = {Annals of Behavioral Medicine},
   Volume = {43},
   Pages = {S168-S168},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0883-6612},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000302092400650&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds316058}
}

@article{fds316064,
   Author = {Freedland, KE and Blumenthal, JA and Lavie, CJ and Milani, RV and Carney, RM and Sheps, DS},
   Title = {THE ROLE OF EXERCISE IN THE SECONDARY PREVENTION OF
             DEPRESSION AND HEART DISEASE},
   Journal = {Annals of Behavioral Medicine},
   Volume = {43},
   Pages = {S167-S167},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0883-6612},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000302092400649&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds316064}
}

@article{fds270584,
   Author = {Rosenberg, EL and Ekman, P and Jiang, W and Babyak, M and Coleman, RE and Hanson, M and O'Connor, C and Waugh, R and Blumenthal,
             JA},
   Title = {Linkages Between Facial Expressions of Anger and Transient
             Myocardial Ischemia in Men with Coronary Artery
             Disease},
   Pages = {567-580},
   Publisher = {Oxford University Press},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195179644.003.0028},
   Abstract = {© 1997, 2005 by Oxford University Press, Inc. All rights
             reserved. This chapter examines linkages between spontaneous
             facial expressions of emotion and ischemia and examines the
             relative contributions of hostility and anger to a coronary
             heart disease-relevant outcome. The dynamic linkages between
             facial expressions of anger and a clinically significant
             measure of coronary dysfunction are shown. The results
             contribute to the understanding of the differential
             influences of hostility and anger on coronary heart disease
             outcomes.},
   Doi = {10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195179644.003.0028},
   Key = {fds270584}
}

@article{fds270681,
   Author = {Ingle, KK and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Should stress management be incorporated into cardiac
             rehabilitation?},
   Journal = {Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {135-137},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {1477-9072},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1586/erc.11.195},
   Doi = {10.1586/erc.11.195},
   Key = {fds270681}
}

@article{fds270718,
   Author = {Goetzinger, AM and Blumenthal, JA and O'Hayer, CV and Babyak, MA and Hoffman, BM and Ong, L and Davis, RD and Smith, SR and Rogers, JG and Milano, CA and Smith, AD and Kuo, PC and Palmer, SM},
   Title = {Stress and coping in caregivers of patients awaiting solid
             organ transplantation.},
   Journal = {Clin Transplant},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {97-104},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21395692},
   Abstract = {Caregivers for patients undergoing solid organ
             transplantation play an essential role in the process of
             transplantation. However, little is known about stress and
             coping among these caregivers. Six hundred and twenty-one
             primary caregivers of potential candidates for lung (n =
             317), liver (n = 147), heart (n = 115), and/or kidney (n =
             42) transplantation completed a psychometric test battery at
             the time of the candidate's initial pre-transplant
             psychosocial evaluation. Caregivers were generally well
             adjusted, with only 17% exhibiting clinical symptoms of
             depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II score >13) and 13%
             reporting clinical levels of anxiety (State Trait Anxiety
             Inventory score >48). Greater caregiver burden and negative
             coping styles were associated with higher levels of
             depression. Greater objective burden and avoidant coping
             were associated with higher levels of anxiety. Caregivers
             evidenced a high degree of socially desirable (i.e.,
             defensive) responding, which may reflect a deliberate effort
             to minimize fears or worries so as to not jeopardize
             patients' listing status.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1399-0012.2011.01431.x},
   Key = {fds270718}
}

@article{fds270677,
   Author = {Prather, AA and Blumenthal, JA and Hinderliter, AL and Sherwood,
             A},
   Title = {Ethnic differences in the effects of the DASH diet on
             nocturnal blood pressure dipping in individuals with high
             blood pressure.},
   Journal = {Am J Hypertens},
   Volume = {24},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {1338-1344},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21866183},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Ethnic differences in nocturnal blood pressure
             (BP) dipping may contribute to the increased risk for
             adverse cardiovascular events noted in African Americans
             (AAs). The DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension)
             diet has been shown to be efficacious in lowering clinic and
             ambulatory BP; however, the effect of the DASH diet on BP
             dipping is unclear. METHODS: One hundred and eighteen men
             and women with high clinic BP (systolic BP (SBP) 130-159;
             diastolic BP 85-99) and above ideal body weight were
             randomized to a DASH diet intervention or to a usual diet
             control (UC) condition. Measures of 24-h ambulatory BP were
             obtained at baseline and at the end of the 4-month
             intervention period. RESULTS: At baseline, AAs (n = 43)
             displayed blunted nocturnal SBP dipping compared to
             Caucasians (CAs; n = 75) and were more likely to be
             categorized as nondippers (<10% nocturnal decline in SBP,
             AAs: 51% vs. CAs: 27%). AAs randomized to the DASH diet
             intervention showed a significant improvement in SBP dipping
             postintervention compared to AAs in the UC condition (P =
             0.04), whereas there was no appreciable change in SBP
             dipping in CAs (P = 0.72). Following the intervention,
             ethnic differences in SBP dipping were no longer
             statistically significant (nondipper status: AAs: 44% vs.
             CAs: 32%; P = 0.19). CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides
             preliminary evidence suggesting that in overweight men and
             women with high BP, AAs may be especially likely to benefit
             from augmented SBP dipping associated with consumption of
             the DASH diet.},
   Doi = {10.1038/ajh.2011.152},
   Key = {fds270677}
}

@article{fds270675,
   Author = {Smith, PJ and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {[Psychiatric and behavioral aspects of cardiovascular
             disease: epidemiology, mechanisms, and treatment].},
   Journal = {Revista Espanola De Cardiologia},
   Volume = {64},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {924-933},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0300-8932},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21889253},
   Abstract = {Psychosocial and behavioral factors, including mood
             (depression, anxiety, anger, and stress), personality (Type
             A, Type D, and hostility), and social support, are
             associated with both the development and progression of
             cardiovascular disease. "Negative" emotions have been
             associated with increased rates of cardiovascular death and
             recurrent cardiac events, although the mechanisms
             responsible for this association remain unclear. A number of
             pathophysiological mechanisms have been proposed to explain
             these relationships, including hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal
             axis dysregulation, platelet activation, and inflammation.
             Behavioral factors also have been implicated, such as
             nonadherence to prescribed medical therapies and physical
             inactivity. Several randomized trials of patients with
             cardiovascular disease have examined the impact of
             pharmacologic and behavioral treatments on hard
             cardiovascular disease events as well as on cardiovascular
             disease biomarkers of risk. Although psychological
             treatments generally have been shown to improve quality of
             life and psychological functioning among cardiac patients,
             the benefit of psychological interventions with respect to
             improving clinical outcomes has not been conclusively
             demonstrated.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.recesp.2011.06.003},
   Key = {fds270675}
}

@article{fds329499,
   Author = {Smith, PJ and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Psychiatric and behavioral aspects of cardiovascular
             disease: epidemiology, mechanisms, and treatment.},
   Journal = {Revista Espanola De Cardiologia (English
             Ed.)},
   Volume = {64},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {924-933},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rec.2011.06.003},
   Abstract = {Psychosocial and behavioral factors, including mood
             (depression, anxiety, anger, and stress), personality (Type
             A, Type D, and hostility), and social support, are
             associated with both the development and progression of
             cardiovascular disease. "Negative" emotions have been
             associated with increased rates of cardiovascular death and
             recurrent cardiac events, although the mechanisms
             responsible for this association remain unclear. A number of
             pathophysiological mechanisms have been proposed to explain
             these relationships, including hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal
             axis dysregulation, platelet activation, and inflammation.
             Behavioral factors also have been implicated, such as
             nonadherence to prescribed medical therapies and physical
             inactivity. Several randomized trials of patients with
             cardiovascular disease have examined the impact of
             pharmacologic and behavioral treatments on hard
             cardiovascular disease events as well as on cardiovascular
             disease biomarkers of risk. Although psychological
             treatments generally have been shown to improve quality of
             life and psychological functioning among cardiac patients,
             the benefit of psychological interventions with respect to
             improving clinical outcomes has not been conclusively
             demonstrated.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.rec.2011.06.003},
   Key = {fds329499}
}

@article{fds270676,
   Author = {Sherwood, A and Routledge, FS and Wohlgemuth, WK and Hinderliter, AL and Kuhn, CM and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Blood pressure dipping: ethnicity, sleep quality, and
             sympathetic nervous system activity.},
   Journal = {Am J Hypertens},
   Volume = {24},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {982-988},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21633397},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Blunted blood pressure (BP) dipping is an
             established predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcomes.
             Although blunted BP dipping is more common in African
             Americans than whites, the factors contributing to this
             ethnic difference are not well understood. This study
             examined the relationships of BP dipping to ethnicity, body
             mass index (BMI), sleep quality, and fall in sympathetic
             nervous system (SNS) activity during the sleep-period.
             METHODS: On three occasions, 128 participants with untreated
             high clinic BP (130-159/85-99 mm Hg) underwent assessments
             of 24-h ambulatory BP (ABP), sleep quality, (evaluated by
             sleep interview, self-report, actigraphy) and sleep-period
             fall in sympathetic activity (measured by waking/sleep
             urinary catecholamine excretion). RESULTS: Compared to
             whites (n = 72), African Americans (n = 56) exhibited higher
             sleep-period systolic (SBP) (P = 0.01) and diastolic BP
             (DBP) (P < 0.001), blunted SBP dipping (P = 0.01), greater
             BMI (P = 0.049), and poorer sleep quality (P = 0.02). SBP
             dipping was correlated with BMI (r = -0.32, P < 0.001),
             sleep quality (r = 0.30, P < 0.001), and sleep-period fall
             in sympathetic activity (r = 0.30, P < 0.001). Multiple
             regression analyses indicated that these three factors were
             independent determinants of sleep-period SBP dipping; ethnic
             differences in dipping were attenuated when controlling for
             these factors. CONCLUSIONS: Blunted BP dipping was related
             to higher BMI, poorer sleep quality, and a lesser decline in
             sleep-period SNS activity. Although African-American
             ethnicity also was associated with blunted dipping compared
             to whites in unadjusted analyses, this ethnic difference was
             diminished when BMI, sleep quality, and sympathetic activity
             were taken into account.},
   Doi = {10.1038/ajh.2011.87},
   Key = {fds270676}
}

@article{fds270736,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {New frontiers in cardiovascular behavioral medicine:
             comparative effectiveness of exercise and medication in
             treating depression.},
   Journal = {Cleve Clin J Med},
   Volume = {78 Suppl 1},
   Pages = {S35-S43},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21972328},
   Abstract = {Exercise, considered a mainstay of cardiac rehabilitation,
             has been shown to reduce cardiac risk factors such as
             hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Growing evidence also
             suggests that exercise has beneficial effects on mental
             health, which is relevant for cardiac patients because of
             the prognostic significance of depression in patients with
             coronary heart disease (CHD). Depression has been associated
             with increased mortality and nonfatal cardiac events in
             patients with CHD; it is also associated with worse outcomes
             in patients who undergo coronary artery bypass graft surgery
             and those who have heart failure. The standard therapy for
             depression is pharmacologic treatment, often with
             second-generation antidepressants such as selective
             serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Despite their widespread use,
             antidepressants have only modest effects on depression for
             many patients compared with placebo controls. Exercise
             therapy, already an established component of cardiac
             rehabilitation, has potential efficacy as a treatment for
             depression in cardiac disease patients. Randomized
             controlled trials are needed to determine the clinical
             effects of exercise in this population and to compare the
             effects of exercise with those of antidepressants.},
   Doi = {10.3949/ccjm.78.s1.06},
   Key = {fds270736}
}

@article{fds270674,
   Author = {Park, SB and Blumenthal, JA and Lee, SY and Georgiades,
             A},
   Title = {Association of cortisol and the metabolic syndrome in Korean
             men and women.},
   Journal = {J Korean Med Sci},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {914-918},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21738345},
   Abstract = {Obesity and the metabolic syndrome are closely related and
             have become increasingly prevalent in Korea. The
             cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors comprising the
             metabolic syndrome have previously been associated with
             increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA)
             activity, but the associations have not been extensively
             examined in non-Caucasian populations. The aim of the
             present study was to investigate the relationships between
             cortisol, adiposity and the metabolic syndrome in a Korean
             population. A total of 1,881 adults participated in the
             study between January 2001 and February 2008.
             Sociodemographic data were assessed by questionnaires. Body
             composition, clinic blood pressures as well as metabolic
             variables including glucose, insulin, and lipid profile were
             assessed and analyzed in relation to cortisol levels. Mean
             age of the participants was 58.7 ± 10.8 yr. Higher levels
             of cortisol was associated with elevated blood pressure,
             fasting glucose and total cholesterol in men, and between
             cortisol and systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose and
             total cholesterol in women. There was an increased risk for
             the metabolic syndrome associated with higher cortisol
             levels in both men (P < 0.001) and women (P = 0.040)
             adjusting for age and body mass index. Higher cortisol
             levels are associated with several CVD risk factors and the
             metabolic syndrome, independent of overall of adiposity
             level, in Korean men and women.},
   Doi = {10.3346/jkms.2011.26.7.914},
   Key = {fds270674}
}

@article{fds270717,
   Author = {Smith, PJ and Blumenthal, JA and Babyak, MA and Hinderliter, A and Sherwood, A},
   Title = {Association of vascular health and neurocognitive
             performance in overweight adults with high blood
             pressure.},
   Journal = {J Clin Exp Neuropsychol},
   Volume = {33},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {559-566},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21229433},
   Abstract = {The relationship between vascular health--including
             flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and intima medial thickness
             (IMT)--and neurocognitive performance was examined in a
             sample of 124 sedentary, middle-aged adults with high blood
             pressure (systolic blood pressure, SBP, 130-159 mmHg or
             diastolic blood pressure, DBP, 85-99 mmHg) who were
             overweight or obese (body mass index 25.0-39.99 kg/m²).
             Patients completed a neuropsychological test battery,
             including measures of executive function and psychomotor
             speed, and measures of IMT and FMD were obtained.
             Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to
             investigate the association between vascular measures and
             neurocognitive performance after controlling for demographic
             factors and cerebrovascular risk factors. Higher levels of
             FMD predicted better executive function (b = 0.90, p =
             .045). Greater IMT tended to be associated with slower
             psychomotor speed (b = -0.82, p = .084), with the effect
             attenuated after controlling for FMD. Impaired FMD is
             associated with worse neurocognitive functioning among
             overweight adults with high blood pressure.},
   Doi = {10.1080/13803395.2010.537648},
   Key = {fds270717}
}

@article{fds270726,
   Author = {Swaminathan, M and Nicoara, A and Phillips-Bute, BG and Aeschlimann,
             N and Milano, CA and Mackensen, GB and Podgoreanu, MV and Velazquez, EJ and Stafford-Smith, M and Mathew, JP and Cardiothoracic Anesthesia
             Research Endeavors (CARE) Group},
   Title = {Utility of a simple algorithm to grade diastolic dysfunction
             and predict outcome after coronary artery bypass graft
             surgery.},
   Journal = {The Annals of Thoracic Surgery},
   Volume = {91},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1844-1850},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21492828},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Inclusion of a measure of left ventricular
             diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) may improve risk prediction
             after cardiac surgery. Current LVDD grading guidelines rely
             on echocardiographic variables that are not always available
             or aligned to allow grading. We hypothesized that a
             simplified algorithm involving fewer variables would enable
             more patients to be assigned a LVDD grade compared with a
             comprehensive algorithm, and also be valid in identifying
             patients at risk of long-term major adverse cardiac events
             (MACE). METHODS: Intraoperative transesophageal
             echocardiography data were gathered on 905 patients
             undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery, including
             flow and tissue Doppler-based measurements. Two algorithms
             were constructed to categorize LVDD: a comprehensive
             four-variable algorithm, A, was compared with a simplified
             version, B, with only two variables-transmitral early flow
             velocity and early mitral annular tissue velocity-for ease
             of grading and association with MACE. RESULTS: Using
             algorithm A, only 563 patients (62%) could be graded,
             whereas 895 patients (99%) received a grade with algorithm
             B. Over the median follow-up period of 1,468 days, Cox
             modeling showed that LVDD was significantly associated with
             MACE when graded with algorithm B (p=0.013), but not
             algorithm A (p=0.79). Patients with the highest incidence of
             MACE could not be graded with algorithm A. CONCLUSIONS: We
             found that an LVDD algorithm with fewer variables enabled
             grading of a significantly greater number of coronary artery
             bypass graft patients, and was valid, as evidenced by
             worsening grades being associated with MACE. This simplified
             algorithm could be extended to similar populations as a
             valid method of characterizing LVDD.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.athoracsur.2011.02.008},
   Key = {fds270726}
}

@article{fds270688,
   Author = {Keefe, FJ and Shelby, RA and Somers, TJ and Varia, I and Blazing, M and Waters, SJ and McKee, D and Silva, S and She, L and Blumenthal, JA and O'Connor, J and Knowles, V and Johnson, P and Bradley,
             L},
   Title = {Effects of coping skills training and sertraline in patients
             with non-cardiac chest pain: a randomized controlled
             study.},
   Journal = {Pain},
   Volume = {152},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {730-741},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21324590},
   Abstract = {Non-cardiac chest pain (NCCP) is a common and distressing
             condition. Prior studies suggest that psychotropic
             medication or pain coping skills training (CST) may benefit
             NCCP patients. To our knowledge, no clinical trials have
             examined the separate and combined effects of CST and
             psychotropic medication in the management of NCCP. This
             randomized clinical trial examined the separate and combined
             effects of CST and antidepressant medication (sertraline) in
             participants with non-cardiac chest pain. A sample of
             individuals diagnosed with NCCP was randomly assigned to one
             of four treatments: (1) CST plus sertraline
             (CST+sertraline), (2) CST plus placebo (CST+placebo), (3)
             sertraline alone, or (4) placebo alone. Assessments of pain
             intensity, pain unpleasantness, anxiety, pain
             catastrophizing, depression, and physical disability were
             collected prior to treatment, and at 10- and 34-weeks
             following randomization. Data analyses revealed that CST and
             sertraline either alone or in combination significantly
             reduced pain intensity and pain unpleasantness. The
             combination of CST plus sertraline may have the greatest
             promise in that, when compared to placebo alone, it not only
             significantly reduced pain but also pain catastrophizing and
             anxiety. Overall, these findings support the importance of
             further research on the effects of CST and sertraline for
             non-cardiac chest pain.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.pain.2010.08.040},
   Key = {fds270688}
}

@article{fds316060,
   Author = {Stoney, CM and Blumenthal, JA and Spring, B and Johnston, DW and Bonds,
             D},
   Title = {COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS RESEARCH IN CARDIOVASCULAR
             BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE},
   Journal = {Annals of Behavioral Medicine},
   Volume = {41},
   Pages = {S131-S131},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0883-6612},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000289297701002&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds316060}
}

@article{fds270716,
   Author = {Sherwood, A and O'Connor, CM and Routledge, FS and Hinderliter, AL and Watkins, LL and Babyak, MA and Koch, GG and Adams, KF and Dupree, CS and Chang, PP and Hoffman, BM and Johnson, J and Bowers, M and Johnson, KS and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Coping effectively with heart failure (COPE-HF): design and
             rationale of a telephone-based coping skills
             intervention.},
   Journal = {Journal of Cardiac Failure},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {201-207},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21362527},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Coping Effectively with Heart Failure (COPE-HF)
             is an ongoing randomized clinical trial funded by the
             National Institutes of Health to evaluate if a coping skills
             training (CST) intervention will result in improved health
             status and quality of life as well as reduced mortality and
             hospitalizations compared with a heart failure education
             (HFE) intervention. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two hundred heart
             failure (HF) patients recruited from the Duke University
             Medical Center and the University of North Carolina Hospital
             system will be randomized to a CST intervention (16 weekly
             30-minute telephone counseling sessions including
             motivational interviewing and individually tailored
             cognitive behavioral therapy) or to an HFE intervention (16
             weekly 30-minute telephone sessions including education and
             symptom monitoring). Primary outcomes will include
             postintervention effects on HF biomarkers (B-type
             natriuretic peptide, ejection fraction) and quality of life,
             as well as long-term clinical outcomes (hospitalizations and
             death). Secondary analyses will include an evaluation of
             treatment effects across subpopulations, and potential
             mechanisms by which CST may improve clinical outcomes.
             CONCLUSIONS: COPE-HF is a proof-of-concept study that should
             provide important insights into the health benefits of a CST
             intervention designed to enhance HF self-management, improve
             health behaviors, and reduce psychologic
             distress.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.cardfail.2010.11.001},
   Key = {fds270716}
}

@article{fds270673,
   Author = {Thurston, RC and Sherwood, A and Matthews, KA and Blumenthal,
             JA},
   Title = {Household responsibilities, income, and ambulatory blood
             pressure among working men and women.},
   Journal = {Psychosom Med},
   Volume = {73},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {200-205},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21217097},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that a greater perceived
             responsibility for household tasks and a greater number of
             hours spent doing these tasks would be associated with
             elevated ambulatory systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood
             pressure (DBP). The connection between job characteristics
             and cardiovascular outcomes has been widely studied.
             However, less is known about links between household work
             characteristics and cardiovascular health. METHODS: A total
             of 113 employed unmedicated hypertensive men and women
             underwent 1 day of ambulatory blood pressure (ABP)
             monitoring. Participants provided information on 1) the
             number of hours spent doing; and 2) their degree of
             responsibility for seven household tasks (child care; pet
             care; caring for ill/elderly; household chores; house/car
             repair; yard work; finances). Associations between task
             hours and responsibility ratings in relation to SBP and DBP
             were estimated, using generalized estimating equations, with
             covariates age, race, gender, body mass index, location, and
             posture. Interactions with gender and socioeconomic position
             were assessed. RESULTS: A greater perceived responsibility
             for household tasks, but not the hours spent doing these
             tasks, was associated with higher ambulatory SBP (b (95%
             confidence interval [CI]), 0.93 (0.29-1.56), p = .004) and
             DBP (b (95% CI), 0.30 (0.10-0.51), p = .003). Significant
             interactions with income indicated that associations between
             household responsibilities and ABP were most pronounced
             among low income participants (SBP: b (95% CI), 1.40
             (0.58-2.21), p < .001; DBP: b (95% CI), 0.48 (0.18-0.78), p
             < .01). The task associated most strongly with BP was
             household chores. No interactions with gender were observed.
             CONCLUSIONS: Greater perceived responsibility for household
             tasks was associated with elevated ABP, particularly for
             lower income participants. Household obligations may have
             important implications for cardiovascular health, meriting
             further empirical attention.},
   Doi = {10.1097/PSY.0b013e3182080e1a},
   Key = {fds270673}
}

@article{fds270714,
   Author = {Hinderliter, AL and Babyak, MA and Sherwood, A and Blumenthal,
             JA},
   Title = {The DASH diet and insulin sensitivity.},
   Journal = {Curr Hypertens Rep},
   Volume = {13},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {67-73},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21058045},
   Abstract = {Lifestyle modifications, including adoption of the Dietary
             Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern,
             weight loss in individuals who are overweight or obese, and
             physical activity, are effective in the prevention and
             treatment of hypertension. A healthy lifestyle may also have
             beneficial effects on metabolic abnormalities, such as
             insulin resistance, that are associated with high blood
             pressure. This review examines the independent and combined
             effects of the DASH diet and weight loss plus exercise on
             blood pressure and insulin sensitivity, with a focus on
             recently published results from the ENCORE study. Our data
             suggest that the DASH eating plan alone lowers blood
             pressure in overweight individuals with higher than optimal
             blood pressure, but significant improvements in insulin
             sensitivity are observed only when the DASH diet is
             implemented as part of a more comprehensive lifestyle
             modification program that includes exercise and weight
             loss.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s11906-010-0168-5},
   Key = {fds270714}
}

@article{fds270715,
   Author = {Hoffman, BM and Babyak, MA and Craighead, WE and Sherwood, A and Doraiswamy, PM and Coons, MJ and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Exercise and pharmacotherapy in patients with major
             depression: one-year follow-up of the SMILE
             study.},
   Journal = {Psychosom Med},
   Volume = {73},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {127-133},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21148807},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To examine a 1-year follow-up of a 4-month,
             controlled clinical trial of exercise and antidepressant
             medication in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD).
             METHODS: In the original study, 202 sedentary adults with
             MDD were randomized to: a) supervised exercise; b)
             home-based exercise; c) sertraline; or d) placebo pill. We
             examined two outcomes measured at 1-year follow-up (i.e., 16
             months post randomization): 1) continuous Hamilton
             Depression Rating Scale score; and 2) MDD status (depressed;
             partial remission; full remission) in 172 available
             participants (85% of the original cohort). Regression
             analyses were performed to examine the effects of treatment
             group assignment, as well as follow-up antidepressant
             medication use and self-reported exercise (Godin
             Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire), on the two outcomes.
             RESULTS: In the original study, patients receiving exercise
             achieved similar benefits compared with those receiving
             sertraline. At the time of the 1-year follow-up, rates of
             MDD remission increased from 46% at post treatment to 66%
             for participants available for follow-up. Neither initial
             treatment group assignment nor antidepressant medication use
             during the follow-up period were significant predictors of
             MDD remission at 1 year. However, regular exercise during
             the follow-up period predicted both Hamilton Depression
             Rating Scale scores and MDD diagnosis at 1 year. This
             relationship was curvilinear, with the association
             concentrated between 0 minute and 180 minutes of weekly
             exercise. CONCLUSION: The effects of aerobic exercise on MDD
             remission seem to be similar to sertraline after 4 months of
             treatment; exercise during the follow-up period seems to
             extend the short-term benefits of exercise and may augment
             the benefits of antidepressant use. TRIAL REGISTRATION:
             clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00331305.},
   Doi = {10.1097/PSY.0b013e31820433a5},
   Key = {fds270715}
}

@article{fds270671,
   Author = {Sherwood, A and Blumenthal, JA and Hinderliter, AL and Koch, GG and Adams, KF and Dupree, CS and Bensimhon, DR and Johnson, KS and Trivedi,
             R and Bowers, M and Christenson, RH and O'Connor,
             CM},
   Title = {Worsening depressive symptoms are associated with adverse
             clinical outcomes in patients with heart
             failure.},
   Journal = {J Am Coll Cardiol},
   Volume = {57},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {418-423},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21251581},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the
             impact of changes in symptoms of depression over a 1-year
             period on subsequent clinical outcomes in heart failure (HF)
             patients. BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence shows that clinical
             depression, which is prevalent among patients with HF, is
             associated with a poor prognosis. However, it is uncertain
             how changes in depression symptoms over time may relate to
             clinical outcomes. METHODS: One-hundred forty-seven HF
             outpatients with ejection fraction of less than 40% were
             assessed for depressive symptoms using the Beck Depression
             Inventory (BDI) at baseline and again 1 year later. Cox
             proportional hazards regression analyses, controlling for
             established risk factors, were used to evaluate how changes
             in depressive symptoms were related to a combined primary
             end point of death or cardiovascular hospitalization over a
             median follow-up period of 5 years (with a range of 4 to 7
             years and no losses to follow-up). RESULTS: The 1-year
             change in symptoms of depression, as indicated by higher BDI
             scores over a 1-year interval (1-point BDI change hazard
             ratio [HR]: 1.07, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02 to
             1.12, p = 0.007), was associated with death or
             cardiovascular hospitalization after controlling for
             baseline depression (baseline BDI HR: 1.1, 95% CI: 1.06 to
             1.14, p < 0.001) and established risk factors, including HF
             cause, age, ejection fraction, plasma N-terminal pro-B-type
             natriuretic peptide level, and prior hospitalizations.
             CONCLUSIONS: Worsening symptoms of depression are associated
             with a poorer prognosis in HF patients. Routine assessment
             of symptoms of depression in HF patients may help to guide
             appropriate medical management of these patients who are at
             increased risk for adverse clinical outcomes.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jacc.2010.09.031},
   Key = {fds270671}
}

@article{fds270670,
   Author = {Wang, JT and Hoffman, B and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Management of depression in patients with coronary heart
             disease: association, mechanisms, and treatment implications
             for depressed cardiac patients.},
   Journal = {Expert Opin Pharmacother},
   Volume = {12},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {85-98},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20715885},
   Abstract = {IMPORTANCE OF THE FIELD: Coronary heart disease (CHD) and
             depression are two leading causes of death and disability in
             the United States and worldwide. Depression is especially
             common in cardiac patients, and there is growing evidence
             that depression is a risk factor for fatal and nonfatal
             events in CHD patients. AREAS COVERED IN THIS REVIEW: This
             paper reviews current literature of depression as a risk
             factor for CHD along with pharmacologic and
             non-pharmacologic treatments for depression in cardiac
             patients. WHAT THE READER WILL GAIN: Readers will gain
             knowledge about the importance of depression as a CHD risk
             factor and learn the results of efforts to treat depressed
             CHD patients. TAKE HOME MESSAGE: Although randomized
             clinical trials (RCTs) of medication and non-pharmacologic
             therapies have not demonstrated that treating depression
             improves survival, there is evidence that treating depressed
             patients can reduce depressive symptoms and improve quality
             of life. Additional RCTs are needed, including evaluation of
             non-pharmacologic therapies such as exercise, to examine the
             effects of treatment of depression on medical and
             psychosocial outcomes.},
   Doi = {10.1517/14656566.2010.513701},
   Key = {fds270670}
}

@article{fds270672,
   Author = {Hayano, J and Kiyono, K and Struzik, ZR and Yamamoto, Y and Watanabe, E and Stein, PK and Watkins, LL and Blumenthal, JA and Carney,
             RM},
   Title = {Increased non-gaussianity of heart rate variability predicts
             cardiac mortality after an acute myocardial
             infarction.},
   Journal = {Frontiers in Physiology},
   Volume = {2},
   Pages = {65},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {1664-042X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2011.00065},
   Abstract = {Non-Gaussianity index (λ) is a new index of heart rate
             variability (HRV) that characterizes increased probability
             of the large heart rate deviations from its trend. A
             previous study has reported that increased λ is an
             independent mortality predictor among patients with chronic
             heart failure. The present study examined predictive value
             of λ in patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI).
             Among 670 post-AMI patients, we performed 24-h Holter
             monitoring to assess λ and other HRV predictors, including
             SD of normal-to-normal interval, very-low frequency power,
             scaling exponent α(1) of detrended fluctuation analysis,
             deceleration capacity, and heart rate turbulence (HRT). At
             baseline, λ was not correlated substantially with other HRV
             indices (|r| < 0.4 with either indices) and was
             decreased in patients taking β-blockers (P = 0.04).
             During a median follow-up period of 25 months, 45 (6.7%)
             patients died (32 cardiac and 13 non-cardiac) and 39
             recurrent non-fatal AMI occurred among survivors. While all
             of these HRV indices but λ were significant predictors of
             both cardiac and non-cardiac deaths, increased λ predicted
             exclusively cardiac death (RR [95% CI], 1.6 [1.3-2.0] per 1
             SD increment, P < 0.0001). The predictive power of
             increased λ was significant even after adjustments for
             clinical risk factors, such as age, diabetes, left
             ventricular function, renal function, prior AMI, heart
             failure, and stroke, Killip class, and treatment ([95% CI],
             1.4 [1.1-2.0] per 1 SD increment, P = 0.01). The
             prognostic power of increased λfor cardiac death was also
             independent of all other HRV indices and the combination of
             increased λ and abnormal HRT provided the best predictive
             model for cardiac death. Neither λ nor other HRV indices
             was an independent predictor of AMI recurrence. Among
             post-AMI patients, increased λ is associated exclusively
             with increased cardiac mortality risk and its predictive
             power is independent of clinical risk factors and of other
             HRV predictors.},
   Doi = {10.3389/fphys.2011.00065},
   Key = {fds270672}
}

@article{fds270669,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Smith, PJ},
   Title = {Risk factors: Anxiety and risk of cardiac
             events.},
   Journal = {Nat Rev Cardiol},
   Volume = {7},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {606-608},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20975657},
   Doi = {10.1038/nrcardio.2010.139},
   Key = {fds270669}
}

@article{fds270711,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Babyak, MA and Smith, PJ and Sherwood, A and Hinderliter, A},
   Title = {Response to does the improvement in insulin sensitivity
             mediate the beneficial effects of weight loss on cognitive
             function?},
   Journal = {Hypertension},
   Volume = {56},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {e31},
   Publisher = {Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0194-911X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.110.156935},
   Doi = {10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.110.156935},
   Key = {fds270711}
}

@article{fds270712,
   Author = {Smith, PJ and Blumenthal, JA and Babyak, MA and Watkins, LL and Hinderliter, A and Hoffman, BM and Steffens, DC and Sherwood, A and Doraiswamy, PM},
   Title = {Cerebrovascular risk factors and cerebral hyperintensities
             among middle-aged and older adults with major
             depression.},
   Journal = {Am J Geriatr Psychiatry},
   Volume = {18},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {848-852},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20808104},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between cerebral
             hyperintensities and cerebrovascular risk factors (CVRF)
             among middle-aged and older adults with major depressive
             disorder (MDD). METHODS: Thirty patients (aged 55-77 years)
             with MDD and no history of stroke participated in a magnetic
             resonance imaging assessment to assess for the presence of
             cerebral hyperintensities and underwent a physical
             examination to assess stroke risk as indexed by the
             Framingham Stroke Risk Profile (FSRP). In addition, intima
             medial thickness (IMT) was measured in the left and right
             carotid arteries. RESULTS: Higher FSRP levels were
             associated with total greater cerebral hyperintensities (r =
             0.64), as well as greater subependymal hyperintensities (r =
             0.47), confluent periventricular changes (r = 0.46), and
             tended to be associated with subcortical gray matter
             hyperintensities (r = 0.34). A quadratic relationship was
             observed between IMT and total cerebral hyperintensities (b
             = 4.84), and higher IMT levels were associated with greater
             subependymal hyperintensities (r = 0.40). CONCLUSIONS:
             Higher levels of CVRF are associated with graded increases
             in cerebral hyperintensities among middle-aged and older
             adults with MDD.},
   Doi = {10.1097/JGP.0b013e3181dba0fa},
   Key = {fds270712}
}

@article{fds270713,
   Author = {Watkins, LL and Blumenthal, JA and Babyak, MA and Davidson, JRT and McCants, CB and O'Connor, C and Sketch, MH},
   Title = {Phobic anxiety and increased risk of mortality in coronary
             heart disease.},
   Journal = {Psychosom Med},
   Volume = {72},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {664-671},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20639390},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether phobic anxiety is associated
             with increased risk of cardiac mortality in individuals with
             established coronary heart disease (CHD) and to examine the
             role of reduced heart rate variability (HRV) in mediating
             this risk. Previous findings suggest that phobic anxiety may
             pose increased risk of cardiac mortality in medically
             healthy cohorts. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort
             study in 947 CHD patients recruited during hospitalization
             for coronary angiography. At baseline, supine recordings of
             heart rate for HRV were collected, and participants
             completed the Crown-Crisp phobic anxiety scale. Fatal
             cardiac events were identified over an average period of 3
             years. RESULTS: Female CHD patients reported significantly
             elevated levels of phobic anxiety when compared with male
             patients (p < .001), and survival analysis showed an
             interaction between gender and phobic anxiety in the
             prediction of cardiac mortality (p = .058) and sudden
             cardiac death (p = .03). In women, phobic anxiety was
             associated with a 1.6-fold increased risk of cardiac
             mortality (hazard ratio, 1.56; 95% confidence interval,
             1.15-2.11; p = .004) and a 2.0-fold increased risk of sudden
             cardiac death (hazard ratio, 2.02; 95% confidence interval,
             1.16-3.52; p = .01) and was unassociated with increased
             mortality risk in men (p = .56). Phobic anxiety was weakly
             associated with reduced high-frequency HRV in female
             patients (r = -.14, p = .02), but reduced HRV did not alter
             the association between phobic anxiety on mortality.
             CONCLUSIONS: Phobic anxiety levels are high in women with
             CHD and may be a risk factor for cardiac-related mortality
             in women diagnosed with CHD. Reduced HRV measured during
             rest does not seem to mediate phobic anxiety-related
             risk.},
   Doi = {10.1097/PSY.0b013e3181e9f357},
   Key = {fds270713}
}

@article{fds270710,
   Author = {Smith, PJ and Blumenthal, JA and Babyak, MA and Craighead, L and Welsh-Bohmer, KA and Browndyke, JN and Strauman, TA and Sherwood,
             A},
   Title = {Effects of the dietary approaches to stop hypertension diet,
             exercise, and caloric restriction on neurocognition in
             overweight adults with high blood pressure.},
   Journal = {Hypertension},
   Volume = {55},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1331-1338},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20305128},
   Abstract = {High blood pressure increases the risks of stroke, dementia,
             and neurocognitive dysfunction. Although aerobic exercise
             and dietary modifications have been shown to reduce blood
             pressure, no randomized trials have examined the effects of
             aerobic exercise combined with dietary modification on
             neurocognitive functioning in individuals with high blood
             pressure (ie, prehypertension and stage 1 hypertension). As
             part of a larger investigation, 124 participants with
             elevated blood pressure (systolic blood pressure 130 to 159
             mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure 85 to 99 mm Hg) who were
             sedentary and overweight or obese (body mass index: 25 to 40
             kg/m(2)) were randomized to the Dietary Approaches to Stop
             Hypertension (DASH) diet alone, DASH combined with a
             behavioral weight management program including exercise and
             caloric restriction, or a usual diet control group.
             Participants completed a battery of neurocognitive tests of
             executive function-memory-learning and psychomotor speed at
             baseline and again after the 4-month intervention.
             Participants on the DASH diet combined with a behavioral
             weight management program exhibited greater improvements in
             executive function-memory-learning (Cohen's D=0.562;
             P=0.008) and psychomotor speed (Cohen's D=0.480; P=0.023),
             and DASH diet alone participants exhibited better
             psychomotor speed (Cohen's D=0.440; P=0.036) compared with
             the usual diet control. Neurocognitive improvements appeared
             to be mediated by increased aerobic fitness and weight loss.
             Also, participants with greater intima-medial thickness and
             higher systolic blood pressure showed greater improvements
             in executive function-memory-learning in the group on the
             DASH diet combined with a behavioral weight management
             program. In conclusion, combining aerobic exercise with the
             DASH diet and caloric restriction improves neurocognitive
             function among sedentary and overweight/obese individuals
             with prehypertension and hypertension.},
   Doi = {10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.109.146795},
   Key = {fds270710}
}

@article{fds270709,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Babyak, MA and Sherwood, A and Craighead, L and Lin,
             P-H and Johnson, J and Watkins, LL and Wang, JT and Kuhn, C and Feinglos,
             M and Hinderliter, A},
   Title = {Effects of the dietary approaches to stop hypertension diet
             alone and in combination with exercise and caloric
             restriction on insulin sensitivity and lipids.},
   Journal = {Hypertension},
   Volume = {55},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1199-1205},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20212264},
   Abstract = {This study examined the effects of the Dietary Approaches to
             Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet on insulin sensitivity and
             lipids. In a randomized control trial, 144 overweight (body
             mass index: 25 to 40) men (n=47) and women (n=97) with high
             blood pressure (130 to 159/85 to 99 mm Hg) were randomly
             assigned to one of the following groups: (1) DASH diet
             alone; (2) DASH diet with aerobic exercise and caloric
             restriction; or (3) usual diet controls (UC). Body
             composition, fitness, insulin sensitivity, and fasting
             lipids were measured before and after 4 months of treatment.
             Insulin sensitivity was estimated on the basis of glucose
             and insulin levels in the fasting state and after an oral
             glucose load. Participants in the DASH diet with aerobic
             exercise and caloric restriction condition lost weight (-8.7
             kg [95% CI: -2.0 to -9.7 kg]) and exhibited a significant
             increase in aerobic capacity, whereas the DASH diet alone
             and UC participants maintained their weight (-0.3 kg [95%
             CI: -1.2 to 0.5 kg] and +0.9 kg [95% CI: 0.0 to 1.7 kg],
             respectively) and had no improvement in exercise capacity.
             DASH diet with aerobic exercise and caloric restriction
             demonstrated lower glucose levels after the oral glucose
             load, improved insulin sensitivity, and lower total
             cholesterol and triglycerides compared with both DASH diet
             alone and UC, as well as lower fasting glucose and
             low-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with UC. DASH
             diet alone participants generally did not differ from UC in
             these measures. Combining the DASH diet with exercise and
             weight loss resulted in significant improvements in insulin
             sensitivity and lipids. Despite clinically significant
             reductions in blood pressure, the DASH diet alone, without
             caloric restriction or exercise, resulted in minimal
             improvements in insulin sensitivity or lipids.},
   Doi = {10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.109.149153},
   Key = {fds270709}
}

@article{fds270667,
   Author = {Jones, LW and Eves, ND and Kraus, WE and Potti, A and Crawford, J and Blumenthal, JA and Peterson, BL and Douglas, PS},
   Title = {The lung cancer exercise training study: a randomized trial
             of aerobic training, resistance training, or both in
             postsurgical lung cancer patients: rationale and
             design.},
   Journal = {Bmc Cancer},
   Volume = {10},
   Pages = {155},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20409311},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: The Lung Cancer Exercise Training Study
             (LUNGEVITY) is a randomized trial to investigate the
             efficacy of different types of exercise training on
             cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak), patient-reported
             outcomes, and the organ components that govern VO2peak in
             post-operative non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients.
             METHODS/DESIGN: Using a single-center, randomized design,
             160 subjects (40 patients/study arm) with histologically
             confirmed stage I-IIIA NSCLC following curative-intent
             complete surgical resection at Duke University Medical
             Center (DUMC) will be potentially eligible for this trial.
             Following baseline assessments, eligible participants will
             be randomly assigned to one of four conditions: (1) aerobic
             training alone, (2) resistance training alone, (3) the
             combination of aerobic and resistance training, or (4)
             attention-control (progressive stretching). The ultimate
             goal for all exercise training groups will be 3 supervised
             exercise sessions per week an intensity above 70% of the
             individually determined VO2peak for aerobic training and an
             intensity between 60 and 80% of one-repetition maximum for
             resistance training, for 30-45 minutes/session. Progressive
             stretching will be matched to the exercise groups in terms
             of program length (i.e., 16 weeks), social interaction
             (participants will receive one-on-one instruction), and
             duration (30-45 mins/session). The primary study endpoint is
             VO2peak. Secondary endpoints include: patient-reported
             outcomes (PROs) (e.g., quality of life, fatigue, depression,
             etc.) and organ components of the oxygen cascade (i.e.,
             pulmonary function, cardiac function, skeletal muscle
             function). All endpoints will be assessed at baseline and
             postintervention (16 weeks). Substudies will include genetic
             studies regarding individual responses to an exercise
             stimulus, theoretical determinants of exercise adherence,
             examination of the psychological mediators of the exercise -
             PRO relationship, and exercise-induced changes in gene
             expression. DISCUSSION: VO2peak is becoming increasingly
             recognized as an outcome of major importance in NSCLC.
             LUNGEVITY will identify the optimal form of exercise
             training for NSCLC survivors as well as provide insight into
             the physiological mechanisms underlying this effect.
             Overall, this study will contribute to the establishment of
             clinical exercise therapy rehabilitation guidelines for
             patients across the entire NSCLC continuum. TRIAL
             REGISTRATION: NCT00018255.},
   Doi = {10.1186/1471-2407-10-155},
   Key = {fds270667}
}

@article{fds270668,
   Author = {Smith, PJ and Blumenthal, JA and Hoffman, BM and Cooper, H and Strauman,
             TA and Welsh-Bohmer, K and Browndyke, JN and Sherwood,
             A},
   Title = {Aerobic exercise and neurocognitive performance: a
             meta-analytic review of randomized controlled
             trials.},
   Journal = {Psychosom Med},
   Volume = {72},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {239-252},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20223924},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of aerobic exercise
             training on neurocognitive performance. Although the effects
             of exercise on neurocognition have been the subject of
             several previous reviews and meta-analyses, they have been
             hampered by methodological shortcomings and are now outdated
             as a result of the recent publication of several
             large-scale, randomized, controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS:
             We conducted a systematic literature review of RCTs
             examining the association between aerobic exercise training
             on neurocognitive performance between January 1966 and July
             2009. Suitable studies were selected for inclusion according
             to the following criteria: randomized treatment allocation;
             mean age > or =18 years of age; duration of treatment >1
             month; incorporated aerobic exercise components; supervised
             exercise training; the presence of a nonaerobic-exercise
             control group; and sufficient information to derive effect
             size data. RESULTS: Twenty-nine studies met inclusion
             criteria and were included in our analyses, representing
             data from 2049 participants and 234 effect sizes.
             Individuals randomly assigned to receive aerobic exercise
             training demonstrated modest improvements in attention and
             processing speed (g = 0.158; 95% confidence interval [CI];
             0.055-0.260; p = .003), executive function (g = 0.123; 95%
             CI, 0.021-0.225; p = .018), and memory (g = 0.128; 95% CI,
             0.015-0.241; p = .026). CONCLUSIONS: Aerobic exercise
             training is associated with modest improvements in attention
             and processing speed, executive function, and memory,
             although the effects of exercise on working memory are less
             consistent. Rigorous RCTs are needed with larger samples,
             appropriate controls, and longer follow-up
             periods.},
   Doi = {10.1097/PSY.0b013e3181d14633},
   Key = {fds270668}
}

@article{fds316059,
   Author = {Green, MR and Fenwick, CV and Babyak, MA and Palmer, SM and Martinu, T and Carney, RM and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {SPIRITUALITY, DEPRESSION, AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN PATIENTS
             FOLLOWING LUNG TRANSPLANTATION},
   Journal = {Annals of Behavioral Medicine},
   Volume = {39},
   Pages = {107-107},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0883-6612},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000275841700417&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds316059}
}

@article{fds316062,
   Author = {Mabe, SK and Babyak, M and Johnson, J and Fenwick, CV and Palmer, S and Martinu, T and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {SIX MINUTE WALK TEST PREDICTS DAILY ACTIVITY IN PATIENTS
             WITH COPD},
   Journal = {Annals of Behavioral Medicine},
   Volume = {39},
   Pages = {29-29},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0883-6612},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000275841700112&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds316062}
}

@article{fds270666,
   Author = {Sherwood, A and Park, SB and Hughes, JW and Blumenthal, JA and Hinderliter, A and Trivedi, R and McFetridge-Durdle,
             J},
   Title = {Cardiovascular hemodynamics during stress in premenopausal
             versus postmenopausal women.},
   Journal = {Menopause},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {403-409},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19770780},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: After menopause, women are at an increased risk
             of cardiovascular disease. The present study assessed
             cardiovascular hemodynamics in premenopausal versus
             postmenopausal women, with a focus on systemic vascular
             resistance (SVR) at rest and during stress. Sympathetic
             nervous system activity and cardiovascular adrenergic
             receptor (AR) function were also examined. METHODS: A total
             of 90 women (45 premenopausal and 45 postmenopausal)
             completed a laboratory protocol composed of a resting
             baseline and four mental stress tasks. Measurements included
             blood pressure, cardiac output, SVR, and plasma
             catecholamine level. In addition, alpha- and beta-AR
             responsiveness to the infusion of selective pharmacological
             agonists was assessed. RESULTS: Compared with premenopausal
             women, postmenopausal women were characterized by similar
             blood pressure but lower cardiac output and higher SVR, both
             at rest and during stress (Ps < 0.05). Postmenopausal women
             also had higher baseline plasma norepinephrine levels (P =
             0.007) and reduced beta-AR responsiveness (P = 0.02),
             although differences in beta-AR responsiveness may have been
             confounded by aging effects. CONCLUSIONS: After menopause,
             women exhibit altered sympathetic nervous system activity
             and a sustained increase in hemodynamic load that may
             contribute to pathological structural and functional changes
             in the heart and blood vessels.},
   Doi = {10.1097/gme.0b013e3181b9b061},
   Key = {fds270666}
}

@article{fds270708,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Wang, JT and Babyak, M and Watkins, L and Kraus, W and Miller, P and Hinderliter, A and Sherwood, A},
   Title = {Enhancing standard cardiac rehabilitation with stress
             management training: background, methods, and design for the
             enhanced study.},
   Journal = {J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev},
   Volume = {30},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {77-84},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20216360},
   Abstract = {PURPOSE: Enhancing Standard Cardiac Rehabilitation with
             Stress Management Training in Patients with Heart Disease
             (ENHANCED) is a randomized clinical trial funded by the
             National Heart Lung and Blood Institute to evaluate the
             effects of stress management training (SMT) on changes in
             biomarkers of risk and quality of life for patients enrolled
             in traditional exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR).
             METHODS: One hundred fifty cardiac patients recruited from
             Duke University and the University of North Carolina will be
             evaluated and randomized to CR enhanced by SMT (including
             sessions devoted to relaxation training, cognitive
             restructuring, communication skills, and problem solving) or
             to standard exercise-based CR. Before and after 12 weeks of
             treatment, patients will undergo a battery of psychometric
             questionnaires and evaluation of cardiovascular biomarkers,
             including measures of flow-mediated dilation, heart rate
             variability, baroreflex sensitivity, platelet function and
             inflammation, and ischemia during laboratory mental stress
             testing. The primary outcomes include a composite measure of
             stress (distress, depression, anxiety, and hostility and
             24-hour urinary catecholamines and cortisol) and a composite
             measure of cardiac biomarkers of risk (vascular endothelial
             function, cardiac vagal control, inflammation, platelet
             function, and mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia).
             Secondary outcomes include measures of quality of life as
             well as clinical events, including death, hospitalizations,
             myocardial infarction, and revascularization procedures.
             RESULTS: This article reviews prior studies in the area and
             describes the design of the ENHANCED study. Several key
             methodological issues are discussed including the assessment
             of biomarkers of risk and barriers to the integration of SMT
             into traditional CR. CONCLUSIONS: The ENHANCED study will
             provide important information by determining to what extent
             SMT combined with exercise-based CR may improve prognosis
             and quality of life in vulnerable cardiac
             patients.},
   Doi = {10.1097/HCR.0b013e3181d0c1d3},
   Key = {fds270708}
}

@article{fds270664,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and O'Connor, C},
   Title = {No laughing matter.},
   Journal = {J Am Coll Cardiol},
   Volume = {55},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {836},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0735-1097},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2009.09.048},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jacc.2009.09.048},
   Key = {fds270664}
}

@article{fds270665,
   Author = {Smith, PJ and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Diet and neurocognition: review of evidence and
             methodological considerations.},
   Journal = {Curr Aging Sci},
   Volume = {3},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {57-66},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20298171},
   Abstract = {The relationship between diet and cognitive function has
             been a topic of increasing interest, as numerous studies
             have shown that variations in dietary practices and nutrient
             intake may protect against age-related cognitive decline, as
             well as the development of dementia and Alzheimer's Disease
             (AD). Various dietary practices and specific nutrient
             components of these diets have been examined in relation to
             cognitive performance including 1) dietary fatty acids
             (including fish oil) and the Mediterranean diet, 2)
             antioxidants (including vitamins E and C) and fruits and
             vegetables, 3) vitamins B6, B12 (cobolamine), and folate,
             and, more recently, 4) caloric restriction. Although
             observational studies have generally reported significant
             associations between dietary practices and reduced incidence
             of cognitive dysfunction, randomized trials of dietary
             interventions have yielded mixed findings, with many trials
             yielding small gains or equivocal findings. In addition,
             findings appear to vary based on sample characteristics,
             methods of dietary assessment, and length of study
             follow-up. The influence of dietary practices on cognitive
             function in middle aged and older adults remains uncertain,
             and further research is needed to clarify the nature of this
             relationship and identify mechanisms by which diet may
             affect neurocognition.},
   Doi = {10.2174/1874609811003010057},
   Key = {fds270665}
}

@article{fds270706,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Babyak, MA and Hinderliter, A and Watkins, LL and Craighead, L and Lin, P-H and Caccia, C and Johnson, J and Waugh, R and Sherwood, A},
   Title = {Effects of the DASH diet alone and in combination with
             exercise and weight loss on blood pressure and
             cardiovascular biomarkers in men and women with high blood
             pressure: the ENCORE study.},
   Journal = {Arch Intern Med},
   Volume = {170},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {126-135},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20101007},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Although the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop
             Hypertension) diet has been shown to lower blood pressure
             (BP) in short-term feeding studies, it has not been shown to
             lower BP among free-living individuals, nor has it been
             shown to alter cardiovascular biomarkers of risk. OBJECTIVE:
             To compare the DASH diet alone or combined with a weight
             management program with usual diet controls among
             participants with prehypertension or stage 1 hypertension
             (systolic BP, 130-159 mm Hg; or diastolic BP, 85-99 mm Hg).
             DESIGN AND SETTING: Randomized, controlled trial in a
             tertiary care medical center with assessments at baseline
             and 4 months. Enrollment began October 29, 2003, and ended
             July 28, 2008. PARTICIPANTS: Overweight or obese,
             unmedicated outpatients with high BP (N = 144).
             INTERVENTIONS: Usual diet controls, DASH diet alone, and
             DASH diet plus weight management. OUTCOME MEASURES: The main
             outcome measure is BP measured in the clinic and by
             ambulatory BP monitoring. Secondary outcomes included pulse
             wave velocity, flow-mediated dilation of the brachial
             artery, baroreflex sensitivity, and left ventricular mass.
             RESULTS: Clinic-measured BP was reduced by 16.1/9.9 mm Hg
             (DASH plus weight management); 11.2/7.5 mm (DASH alone); and
             3.4/3.8 mm (usual diet controls) (P < .001). A similar
             pattern was observed for ambulatory BP (P < .05). Greater
             improvement was noted for DASH plus weight management
             compared with DASH alone for pulse wave velocity, baroreflex
             sensitivity, and left ventricular mass (all P < .05).
             CONCLUSION: For overweight or obese persons with
             above-normal BP, the addition of exercise and weight loss to
             the DASH diet resulted in even larger BP reductions, greater
             improvements in vascular and autonomic function, and reduced
             left ventricular mass. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:
             clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00571844.},
   Doi = {10.1001/archinternmed.2009.470},
   Key = {fds270706}
}

@article{fds270705,
   Author = {Babyak, MA and Blumenthal, JA and Hinderliter, A and Hoffman, B and Waugh, RA and Coleman, RE and Sherwood, A},
   Title = {Prognosis after change in left ventricular ejection fraction
             during mental stress testing in patients with stable
             coronary artery disease.},
   Journal = {Am J Cardiol},
   Volume = {105},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {25-28},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20102885},
   Abstract = {Previous studies of patients with stable coronary artery
             disease have demonstrated that decreases in the left
             ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) during acute mental
             stress are predictive of adverse clinical outcomes. The aim
             of the present study was to examine the prospective relation
             of mental stress on clinical outcomes in a sample of 138
             patients with stable coronary artery disease. Patients
             underwent mental stress testing and were followed for a
             median of 5.9 years to assess the occurrence of the combined
             end point of myocardial infarction or all-cause mortality.
             There were 32 events (17 nonfatal myocardial infarctions and
             15 deaths) over the follow-up period. Of the 26 patients who
             exhibited myocardial ischemia during mental stress testing,
             11 (42%) sustained subsequent clinical events, compared to
             21 of the 112 patients (19%) who showed no mental
             stress-induced ischemia. LVEF change during mental stress
             was also related to the clinical events in a graded,
             continuous fashion, with each 4% decrease from the LVEF at
             rest associated with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.7, (95%
             confidence interval 1.1 to 2.6, p = 0.011). In conclusion,
             reductions in the LVEF during mental stress are
             prospectively associated with adverse clinical
             outcomes.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.amjcard.2009.08.647},
   Key = {fds270705}
}

@article{fds270707,
   Author = {Hoffman, BM and Sherwood, A and Smith, PJ and Babyak, MA and Doraiswamy,
             PM and Hinderliter, A and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Cardiovascular disease risk, vascular health and erectile
             dysfunction among middle-aged, clinically depressed
             men.},
   Journal = {Int J Impot Res},
   Volume = {22},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {30-35},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19776749},
   Abstract = {Erectile dysfunction (ED) is especially common in men with
             major depressive disorder (MDD). This study examined the
             extent to which risk factors for cardiovascular disease
             (CVD) and vascular endothelial dysfunction were associated
             with ED severity in MDD patients. The sample included 46
             middle-aged [M (s.d.)=53 (7) years], sedentary men diagnosed
             with MDD. ED severity was assessed by the Arizona Sexual
             Experiences Scale (ASEX), item 3. Depression severity was
             measured by the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI). The
             Framingham risk score was calculated as a composite measure
             of CVD risk factors. Vascular endothelial function was
             measured by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial
             artery. Regression analysis showed that ASEX scores were
             predicted by the greater Framingham risk score (beta=0.41,
             P=0.008) and lower FMD (beta=-0.38, P=0.01), but not by BDI
             scores (beta=0.00, P=0.99). When FMD was included in the
             regression model, the relationship between Framingham risk
             and ASEX scores was partially attenuated (beta=0.27,
             P=0.08). ED was associated with greater CVD risk and
             impaired vascular endothelial function in depressed men. CVD
             risk factors may affect ED through impairment of vascular
             endothelial function.},
   Doi = {10.1038/ijir.2009.43},
   Key = {fds270707}
}

@article{fds270704,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Babyak, MA and Sherwood, A},
   Title = {Diet, exercise habits, and risk of Alzheimer
             disease.},
   Journal = {Jama},
   Volume = {302},
   Number = {22},
   Pages = {2431},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19996394},
   Doi = {10.1001/jama.2009.1790},
   Key = {fds270704}
}

@article{fds270663,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Ong, L},
   Title = {A commentary on 'Exercise and Depression' (): And the
             Verdict Is…},
   Journal = {Mental Health and Physical Activity},
   Volume = {2},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {97-99},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {1755-2966},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20161362},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.mhpa.2009.08.001},
   Key = {fds270663}
}

@article{fds270662,
   Author = {Trivedi, RB and Blumenthal, JA and O'Connor, C and Adams, K and Hinderliter, A and Dupree, C and Johnson, K and Sherwood,
             A},
   Title = {Coping styles in heart failure patients with depressive
             symptoms.},
   Journal = {Journal of Psychosomatic Research},
   Volume = {67},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {339-346},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19773027},
   Abstract = {Elevated depressive symptoms have been linked to poorer
             prognosis in heart failure (HF) patients. Our objective was
             to identify coping styles associated with depressive
             symptoms in HF patients.A total of 222 stable HF patients
             (32.75% female, 45.4% non-Hispanic black) completed multiple
             questionnaires. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) assessed
             depressive symptoms, Life Orientation Test (LOT-R) assessed
             optimism, ENRICHD Social Support Inventory (ESSI) and
             Perceived Social Support Scale (PSSS) assessed social
             support, and COPE assessed coping styles. Linear regression
             analyses were employed to assess the association of coping
             styles with continuous BDI scores. Logistic regression
             analyses were performed using BDI scores dichotomized into
             BDI<10 vs. BDI> or =10, to identify coping styles
             accompanying clinically significant depressive symptoms.In
             linear regression models, higher BDI scores were associated
             with lower scores on the acceptance (beta=-.14), humor
             (beta=-.15), planning (beta=-.15), and emotional support
             (beta=-.14) subscales of the COPE, and higher scores on the
             behavioral disengagement (beta=.41), denial (beta=.33),
             venting (beta=.25), and mental disengagement (beta=.22)
             subscales. Higher PSSS and ESSI scores were associated with
             lower BDI scores (beta=-.32 and -.25, respectively). Higher
             LOT-R scores were associated with higher BDI scores
             (beta=.39, P<.001). In logistical regression models, BDI> or
             =10 was associated with greater likelihood of behavioral
             disengagement (OR=1.3), denial (OR=1.2), mental
             disengagement (OR=1.3), venting (OR=1.2), and pessimism
             (OR=1.2), and lower perceived social support measured by
             PSSS (OR=.92) and ESSI (OR=.92).Depressive symptoms in HF
             patients are associated with avoidant coping, lower
             perceived social support, and pessimism. Results raise the
             possibility that interventions designed to improve coping
             may reduce depressive symptoms.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jpsychores.2009.05.014},
   Key = {fds270662}
}

@article{fds270687,
   Author = {Shelby, RA and Somers, TJ and Keefe, FJ and Silva, SG and McKee, DC and She, L and Waters, SJ and Varia, I and Riordan, YB and Knowles, VM and Blazing, M and Blumenthal, JA and Johnson, P},
   Title = {Pain catastrophizing in patients with noncardiac chest pain:
             relationships with pain, anxiety, and disability.},
   Journal = {Psychosom Med},
   Volume = {71},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {861-868},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19737857},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To examine the contributions of chest pain,
             anxiety, and pain catastrophizing to disability in 97
             patients with noncardiac chest pain (NCCP) and to test
             whether chest pain and anxiety were related indirectly to
             greater disability via pain catastrophizing. METHODS:
             Participants completed daily diaries measuring chest pain
             for 7 days before completing measures of pain
             catastrophizing, trait anxiety, and disability. Linear path
             model analyses examined the contributions of chest pain,
             trait anxiety, and catastrophizing to physical disability,
             psychosocial disability, and disability in work, home, and
             recreational activities. RESULTS: Path models accounted for
             a significant amount of the variability in disability scales
             (R(2) = 0.35 to 0.52). Chest pain and anxiety accounted for
             46% of the variance in pain catastrophizing. Both chest pain
             (beta = 0.18, Sobel test Z = 2.58, p < .01) and trait
             anxiety (beta = 0.14, Sobel test Z = 2.11, p < .05)
             demonstrated significant indirect relationships with
             physical disability via pain catastrophizing. Chest pain
             demonstrated a significant indirect relationship with
             psychosocial disability via pain catastrophizing (beta =
             0.12, Sobel test Z = 1.96, p = .05). After controlling for
             the effects of chest pain and anxiety, pain catastrophizing
             was no longer related to disability in work, home, and
             recreational activities. CONCLUSIONS: Chest pain and anxiety
             were directly related to greater disability and indirectly
             related to physical and psychosocial disability via pain
             catastrophizing. Efforts to improve functioning in patients
             with NCCP should consider addressing pain
             catastrophizing.},
   Doi = {10.1097/PSY.0b013e3181b49584},
   Key = {fds270687}
}

@article{fds270702,
   Author = {Hoffman, BM and Babyak, MA and Sherwood, A and Hill, EE and Patidar, SM and Doraiswamy, PM and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Effects of aerobic exercise on sexual functioning in
             depressed adults},
   Journal = {Mental Health and Physical Activity},
   Volume = {2},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {23-28},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {1755-2966},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mhpa.2008.12.001},
   Abstract = {Objective: Exercise appears to be generally comparable to
             antidepressant medication in reducing depressive symptoms.
             The current study examines the effects of aerobic exercise,
             compared to antidepressant medication and placebo pill, on
             sexual function among depressed adults. Methods: Two hundred
             clinically depressed adults, aged 40 years and over, who
             were sedentary and generally overweight, were randomized to
             4 months of Aerobic Exercise, Sertraline (Zoloft), or
             Placebo pill, for the treatment of depression. Exercise
             condition participants engaged in walking, running, or
             biking, 30 min/day, 3 days/week, to 70-85% of their heart
             rate reserve, in either a supervised group setting or
             independently at home. Before and following treatment,
             participants completed the Arizona Sexual Experiences
             Questionnaire (ASEX) and the Hamilton Rating Scale for
             Depression (HAM-D). An ANCOVA was performed to test the
             effects of treatment on post-treatment sexual function,
             controlling for age, sex, body mass index, diabetes,
             hypertension, pretreatment HAM-D scores, and pretreatment
             ASEX scores. Results: The treatment group main effect was
             significant (p = .02); exercisers had better post-treatment
             ASEX scores (adjusted ASEX M = 16.6) compared to the placebo
             group (adjusted ASEX M = 18.3; p = .01). Exercisers had
             post-treatment ASEX scores that were marginally better
             compared to the sertraline group, but this difference did
             not reach statistical significance (adjusted ASEX M = 17.9;
             p = .05). Conclusion: Aerobic exercise, which has been
             associated with reduced symptoms of depression comparable to
             antidepressant medication, appears to result in greater
             improvement in sexual function compared to placebo pill. A
             nonsignificant trend towards better sexual function among
             exercisers compared to antidepressant medication may be
             attributable to medication-related sexual side effects. ©
             2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.mhpa.2008.12.001},
   Key = {fds270702}
}

@article{fds270659,
   Author = {Gottlieb, SS and Kop, WJ and Ellis, SJ and Binkley, P and Howlett, J and O'Connor, C and Blumenthal, JA and Fletcher, G and Swank, AM and Cooper,
             L and HF-ACTION Investigators},
   Title = {Relation of depression to severity of illness in heart
             failure (from Heart Failure And a Controlled Trial
             Investigating Outcomes of Exercise Training
             [HF-ACTION]).},
   Journal = {Am J Cardiol},
   Volume = {103},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {1285-1289},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0002-9149},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2009.01.025},
   Abstract = {Depression is common in patients with heart failure (HF),
             prognostic for adverse outcomes and purportedly related to
             disease severity. Psychological and physiologic factors
             relevant to HF were assessed in HF-ACTION, a large
             randomized study of aerobic exercise training in patients
             with systolic HF. The relation of objective and subjective
             parameters was compared with scores on the Beck Depression
             Inventory (BDI) to examine the hypothesis that depressive
             symptoms are better associated with perception of disease
             severity than with objective markers of HF severity. At
             baseline, 2,322 of 2,331 subjects entered into HF-ACTION
             completed questionnaires to assess depression (BDI) and
             quality of life (Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire
             [KCCQ]). Objective markers of HF severity included ejection
             fraction, B-type natriuretic peptide, and peak oxygen
             consumption (using cardiopulmonary exercise testing, with
             evaluation of duration and respiratory exchange ratio also
             performed). Measures more likely to be affected by perceived
             functional status included New York Heart Association (NYHA)
             classification and the 6-minute walk test. Objective
             assessments of disease severity were slightly related (peak
             oxygen consumption) or not related (B-type natriuretic
             peptide and ejection fraction) to BDI scores. Using
             multivariate analysis (KCCQ not included), only age, gender,
             cardiopulmonary exercise testing duration, NYHA class,
             6-minute walk distance, and peak respiratory exchange ratio
             independently correlated with BDI scores. In conclusion,
             depression was minimally related to objective assessments of
             severity of disease in patients with HF, but was associated
             with patient (and clinician) perceptions of disease
             severity. Addressing depression might improve symptoms in
             patients with HF.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.amjcard.2009.01.025},
   Key = {fds270659}
}

@article{fds270661,
   Author = {Somers, TJ and Keefe, FJ and Pells, JJ and Dixon, KE and Waters, SJ and Riordan, PA and Blumenthal, JA and McKee, DC and LaCaille, L and Tucker,
             JM and Schmitt, D and Caldwell, DS and Kraus, VB and Sims, EL and Shelby,
             RA and Rice, JR},
   Title = {Pain catastrophizing and pain-related fear in osteoarthritis
             patients: relationships to pain and disability.},
   Journal = {J Pain Symptom Manage},
   Volume = {37},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {863-872},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19041218},
   Abstract = {This study examined the degree to which pain catastrophizing
             and pain-related fear explain pain, psychological
             disability, physical disability, and walking speed in
             patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Participants
             in this study were 106 individuals diagnosed as having OA of
             at least one knee, who reported knee pain persisting for six
             months or longer. Results suggest that pain catastrophizing
             explained a significant proportion (all Ps < or = 0.05) of
             variance in measures of pain (partial r(2) [pr(2)] = 0.10),
             psychological disability (pr(2) = 0.20), physical disability
             (pr(2) = 0.11), and gait velocity at normal (pr(2) = 0.04),
             fast (pr(2) = 0.04), and intermediate speeds (pr(2) = 0.04).
             Pain-related fear explained a significant proportion of the
             variance in measures of psychological disability (pr(2) =
             0.07) and walking at a fast speed (pr(2) = 0.05). Pain
             cognitions, particularly pain catastrophizing, appear to be
             important variables in understanding pain, disability, and
             walking at normal, fast, and intermediate speeds in knee OA
             patients. Clinicians interested in understanding variations
             in pain and disability in this population may benefit by
             expanding the focus of their inquiries beyond traditional
             medical and demographic variables to include an assessment
             of pain catastrophizing and pain-related
             fear.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2008.05.009},
   Key = {fds270661}
}

@article{fds270699,
   Author = {Smith, PJ and Blumenthal, JA and Babyak, MA and Georgiades, A and Sherwood, A and Sketch, MH and Watkins, LL},
   Title = {Association between n-3 fatty acid consumption and
             ventricular ectopy after myocardial infarction.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition},
   Volume = {89},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1315-1320},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19321564},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: n-3 (omega-3) Fatty acids are associated with a
             reduced risk of cardiovascular disease; however, the
             relation between dietary intake of n-3 fatty acids and
             ventricular arrhythmias has not been investigated among
             acute post-myocardial infarction (AMI) patients-a group at
             elevated risk of malignant arrhythmias. OBJECTIVE: The
             objective was to examine the association between n-3 fatty
             acid consumption and ventricular ectopy among AMI patients.
             DESIGN: In 260 AMI patients, dietary intake of n-3 fatty
             acids was assessed by using the Harvard food-frequency
             questionnaire, and ventricular ectopy was estimated from
             24-h electrocardiograph recordings. RESULTS: A greater
             intake of n-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid +
             docosahexaenoic acid + docosapentaenoic acid +
             alpha-linolenic acid) was associated with lower ventricular
             ectopy (beta = -0.35, P = 0.011), and this effect remained
             after cardiovascular comorbidities were controlled for (beta
             = -0.47, P = 0.003). Higher concentrations of both
             marine-based (eicosapentaenoic acid + docosahexaenoic acid)
             (beta = -0.21, P = 0.060) and plant-based (alpha-linolenic
             acid) (beta = -0.33, P = 0.024) fatty acids remained
             associated with lower ventricular ectopy after
             cardiovascular comorbidities were controlled for.
             CONCLUSION: These findings extend existing evidence linking
             n-3 fatty acid consumption to a reduced risk of ventricular
             arrhythmias by showing that a greater intake of n-3 fatty
             acids may be associated with low ventricular ectopy among
             AMI patients.},
   Doi = {10.3945/ajcn.2008.26829},
   Key = {fds270699}
}

@article{fds270701,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Waldman, S and Babyak, MA and Sherwood, A and Sketch,
             M and Watkins, LL},
   Title = {TREATING DEPRESSION IN PATIENTS WITH HEART DISEASE: Is the
             Glass Half Empty or Half Full?},
   Journal = {American Heart Journal},
   Volume = {157},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {e35-e37},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20706603},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.ahj.2009.03.006},
   Key = {fds270701}
}

@article{fds270658,
   Author = {O'Connor, CM and Whellan, DJ and Lee, KL and Keteyian, SJ and Cooper,
             LS and Ellis, SJ and Leifer, ES and Kraus, WE and Kitzman, DW and Blumenthal, JA and Rendall, DS and Miller, NH and Fleg, JL and Schulman,
             KA and McKelvie, RS and Zannad, F and Piña, IL and HF-ACTION
             Investigators},
   Title = {Efficacy and safety of exercise training in patients with
             chronic heart failure: HF-ACTION randomized controlled
             trial.},
   Journal = {Jama},
   Volume = {301},
   Number = {14},
   Pages = {1439-1450},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19351941},
   Abstract = {CONTEXT: Guidelines recommend that exercise training be
             considered for medically stable outpatients with heart
             failure. Previous studies have not had adequate statistical
             power to measure the effects of exercise training on
             clinical outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To test the efficacy and
             safety of exercise training among patients with heart
             failure. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: Multicenter,
             randomized controlled trial of 2331 medically stable
             outpatients with heart failure and reduced ejection
             fraction. Participants in Heart Failure: A Controlled Trial
             Investigating Outcomes of Exercise Training (HF-ACTION) were
             randomized from April 2003 through February 2007 at 82
             centers within the United States, Canada, and France; median
             follow-up was 30 months. INTERVENTIONS: Usual care plus
             aerobic exercise training, consisting of 36 supervised
             sessions followed by home-based training, or usual care
             alone. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Composite primary end point of
             all-cause mortality or hospitalization and prespecified
             secondary end points of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular
             mortality or cardiovascular hospitalization, and
             cardiovascular mortality or heart failure hospitalization.
             RESULTS: The median age was 59 years, 28% were women, and
             37% had New York Heart Association class III or IV symptoms.
             Heart failure etiology was ischemic in 51%, and median left
             ventricular ejection fraction was 25%. Exercise adherence
             decreased from a median of 95 minutes per week during months
             4 through 6 of follow-up to 74 minutes per week during
             months 10 through 12. A total of 759 patients (65%) in the
             exercise training group died or were hospitalized compared
             with 796 patients (68%) in the usual care group (hazard
             ratio [HR], 0.93 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.84-1.02];
             P = .13). There were nonsignificant reductions in the
             exercise training group for mortality (189 patients [16%] in
             the exercise training group vs 198 patients [17%] in the
             usual care group; HR, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.79-1.17]; P = .70),
             cardiovascular mortality or cardiovascular hospitalization
             (632 [55%] in the exercise training group vs 677 [58%] in
             the usual care group; HR, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.83-1.03]; P =
             .14), and cardiovascular mortality or heart failure
             hospitalization (344 [30%] in the exercise training group vs
             393 [34%] in the usual care group; HR, 0.87 [95% CI,
             0.75-1.00]; P = .06). In prespecified supplementary analyses
             adjusting for highly prognostic baseline characteristics,
             the HRs were 0.89 (95% CI, 0.81-0.99; P = .03) for all-cause
             mortality or hospitalization, 0.91 (95% CI, 0.82-1.01; P =
             .09) for cardiovascular mortality or cardiovascular
             hospitalization, and 0.85 (95% CI, 0.74-0.99; P = .03) for
             cardiovascular mortality or heart failure hospitalization.
             Other adverse events were similar between the groups.
             CONCLUSIONS: In the protocol-specified primary analysis,
             exercise training resulted in nonsignificant reductions in
             the primary end point of all-cause mortality or
             hospitalization and in key secondary clinical end points.
             After adjustment for highly prognostic predictors of the
             primary end point, exercise training was associated with
             modest significant reductions for both all-cause mortality
             or hospitalization and cardiovascular mortality or heart
             failure hospitalization. TRIAL REGISTRATION:
             clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00047437.},
   Doi = {10.1001/jama.2009.454},
   Key = {fds270658}
}

@article{fds270660,
   Author = {Flynn, KE and Piña, IL and Whellan, DJ and Lin, L and Blumenthal, JA and Ellis, SJ and Fine, LJ and Howlett, JG and Keteyian, SJ and Kitzman, DW and Kraus, WE and Miller, NH and Schulman, KA and Spertus, JA and O'Connor,
             CM and Weinfurt, KP and HF-ACTION Investigators},
   Title = {Effects of exercise training on health status in patients
             with chronic heart failure: HF-ACTION randomized controlled
             trial.},
   Journal = {Jama},
   Volume = {301},
   Number = {14},
   Pages = {1451-1459},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19351942},
   Abstract = {CONTEXT: Findings from previous studies of the effects of
             exercise training on patient-reported health status have
             been inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: To test the effects of
             exercise training on health status among patients with heart
             failure. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: Multicenter,
             randomized controlled trial among 2331 medically stable
             outpatients with heart failure with left ventricular
             ejection fraction of 35% or less. Patients were randomized
             from April 2003 through February 2007. INTERVENTIONS: Usual
             care plus aerobic exercise training (n = 1172), consisting
             of 36 supervised sessions followed by home-based training,
             vs usual care alone (n = 1159). Randomization was stratified
             by heart failure etiology, which was a covariate in all
             models. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Kansas City Cardiomyopathy
             Questionnaire (KCCQ) overall summary scale and key subscales
             at baseline, every 3 months for 12 months, and annually
             thereafter for up to 4 years. The KCCQ is scored from 0 to
             100 with higher scores corresponding to better health
             status. Treatment group effects were estimated using linear
             mixed models according to the intention-to-treat principle.
             RESULTS: Median follow-up was 2.5 years. At 3 months, usual
             care plus exercise training led to greater improvement in
             the KCCQ overall summary score (mean, 5.21; 95% confidence
             interval, 4.42 to 6.00) compared with usual care alone
             (3.28; 95% confidence interval, 2.48 to 4.09). The
             additional 1.93-point increase (95% confidence interval,
             0.84 to 3.01) in the exercise training group was
             statistically significant (P < .001). After 3 months, there
             were no further significant changes in KCCQ score for either
             group (P = .85 for the difference between slopes), resulting
             in a sustained, greater improvement overall for the exercise
             group (P < .001). Results were similar on the KCCQ
             subscales, and no subgroup interactions were detected.
             CONCLUSIONS: Exercise training conferred modest but
             statistically significant improvements in self-reported
             health status compared with usual care without training.
             Improvements occurred early and persisted over time. TRIAL
             REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier:
             NCT00047437.},
   Doi = {10.1001/jama.2009.457},
   Key = {fds270660}
}

@article{fds270655,
   Author = {Allison, DB and Newcomer, JW and Dunn, AL and Blumenthal, JA and Fabricatore, AN and Daumit, GL and Cope, MB and Riley, WT and Vreeland,
             B and Hibbeln, JR and Alpert, JE},
   Title = {Obesity among those with mental disorders: a National
             Institute of Mental Health meeting report.},
   Journal = {Am J Prev Med},
   Volume = {36},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {341-350},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0749-3797},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2008.11.020},
   Abstract = {The National Institute of Mental Health convened a meeting
             in October 2005 to review the literature on obesity,
             nutrition, and physical activity among those with mental
             disorders. The findings of this meeting and subsequent
             update of the literature review are summarized here. Levels
             of obesity are higher in those with schizophrenia and
             depression, as is mortality from obesity-related conditions
             such as coronary heart disease. Medication side effects,
             particularly the metabolic side effects of antipsychotic
             medications, contribute to the high levels of obesity in
             those with schizophrenia, but increased obesity and visceral
             adiposity have been found in some but not all samples of
             drug-naïve patients as well. Many of the weight-management
             strategies used in the general population may be applicable
             to those with mental disorders, but little is known about
             the effects of these strategies on this patient population
             or how these strategies may need to be adapted for the
             unique needs of those with mental disorders. The minimal
             research on weight-management programs for those with mental
             disorders indicates that meaningful changes in dietary
             intake and physical activity are possible. Physical activity
             is an important component of any weight-management program,
             particularly for those with depression, for which a
             substantial body of research indicates both mental and
             physical health benefits. Obesity among those with mental
             disorders has not received adequate research attention, and
             empirically-based interventions to address the increasing
             prevalence of obesity and risk of cardiovascular and
             metabolic diseases in this population are
             lacking.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.amepre.2008.11.020},
   Key = {fds270655}
}

@article{fds270657,
   Author = {Carney, RM and Freedland, KE and Steinmeyer, B and Blumenthal, JA and de
             Jonge, P and Davidson, KW and Czajkowski, SM and Jaffe,
             AS},
   Title = {History of depression and survival after acute myocardial
             infarction.},
   Journal = {Psychosom Med},
   Volume = {71},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {253-259},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0b013e31819b69e3},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To compare survival in post-myocardial (MI)
             participants from the Enhancing Recovery In Coronary Heart
             Disease (ENRICHD) clinical trial with a first episode of
             major depression (MD) and those with recurrent MD, which is
             a risk factor for mortality after acute MI. Recent reports
             suggest that the level of risk may depend on whether the
             comorbid MD is a first or a recurrent episode. METHODS:
             Survival was compared over a median of 29 months in 370
             patients with an initial episode of MD, 550 with recurrent
             MD, and 408 who were free of depression. RESULTS: After
             adjusting for an all-cause mortality risk score, initial
             Beck Depression Inventory score, and the use of selective
             serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants, patients with
             a first episode of MD had poorer survival (18.4% all-cause
             mortality) than those with recurrent MD (11.8%) (hazard
             ratio (HR) = 1.4; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.0-2.0; p
             = .05). Both first depression (HR = 3.1; 95% CI = 1.6-6.1; p
             = .001) and recurrent MD (HR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.1-4.4; p =
             .03) had significantly poorer survival than did the
             nondepressed patients (3.4%). A secondary analysis of deaths
             classified as probably due to a cardiovascular cause
             resulted in similar HRs, but the difference between
             depression groups was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Both
             initial and recurrent episodes of MD predict shorter
             survival after acute MI, but initial MD episodes are more
             strongly predictive than recurrent episodes. Exploratory
             analyses suggest that this cannot be explained by more
             severe heart disease at index, poorer response to depression
             treatment, or a higher risk of cerebrovascular disease in
             patients with initial MD episodes.},
   Doi = {10.1097/PSY.0b013e31819b69e3},
   Key = {fds270657}
}

@article{fds270698,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Keefe, FJ and Babyak, MA and Fenwick, CV and Johnson,
             JM and Stott, K and Funk, RK and McAdams, MJ and Palmer, S and Martinu, T and Baucom, D and Diaz, PT and Emery, CF},
   Title = {Caregiver-assisted coping skills training for patients with
             COPD: background, design, and methodological issues for the
             INSPIRE-II study.},
   Journal = {Clinical Trials},
   Volume = {6},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {172-184},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {1740-7745},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19342470},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is
             a progressive illness characterized by airflow obstruction
             and dyspnea that afflicts over 12 million people and
             represents a leading cause of death in the United States.
             Not surprisingly, COPD is often associated with emotional
             distress and reduced psychosocial adjustment, which can
             negatively impact physical functioning and impair quality of
             life. However, the psychosocial consequences of COPD remain
             largely untreated. A previous randomized trial from our
             research team demonstrated that coping skills training (CST)
             can improve pulmonary-specific quality of life among
             pulmonary patients awaiting lung transplant (the INSPIRE
             study). To date, however, no studies have examined the
             effects of a caregiver-assisted CST intervention in patients
             with COPD with less severe disease. PURPOSE: INSPIRE II is a
             randomized clinical trial (RCT) funded by the NHLBI to
             evaluate the effects of telephone-based enhanced CST for
             patients with COPD and their caregivers compared to
             standardized medical care (SMC) including COPD education and
             symptom monitoring on medical outcomes, physical
             functioning, and quality of life. METHODS: Six hundred COPD
             patients and their respective caregivers recruited from Duke
             University and Ohio State University will be evaluated and
             randomized (in a 1:1 ratio) to enhanced CST (including
             sessions promoting physical activity, relaxation, cognitive
             restructuring, communication skills, and problem solving) or
             to SMC. The primary outcomes include all-cause mortality,
             COPD-related hospitalizations/ physician visits, and quality
             of life. These endpoints will be measured through
             self-report questionnaires, behavioral measures of
             functional capacity (i.e., accelerometer and six minute walk
             test) and pulmonary function tests (e.g., FEV(1)). RESULTS:
             This article reviews prior studies in the area and describes
             the design of INSPIRE-II. Several key methodological issues
             are discussed including the delivery of CST over the
             telephone, encouraging physical activity, and inclusion of
             caregivers as patient coaches to enhance the effectiveness
             of the intervention. LIMITATIONS: We recognize that SMC does
             not adequately control for attention, support, and
             non-specific factors, and that, in theory, non-specific
             effects of the intervention could account for some, or all,
             of the observed benefits. However, our fundamental question
             is whether the telephone intervention produces benefits
             over-and-above the usual care that patients typically
             receive. The SMC condition will provide education and
             additional weekly telephone contact, albeit less than the
             attention received by the CST group. We recognize that this
             attention control condition may not provide equivalent
             patient contact, but it will minimize group differences due
             to attention. We considered several alternative designs
             including adding a third usual care only arm as well as an
             education only control arm. However, these alternatives
             would require more patients, reduce the power to detect
             significant effects of our primary medical endpoints, and
             add a significant additional expense to the cost of the
             study that would make such an undertaking neither
             scientifically or financially viable. CONCLUSIONS: We
             believe that this novel approach to patient care in which
             caregivers are used to assist in the delivery of coping
             skills training to patients with COPD has the potential to
             change the way in which COPD patients are routinely managed
             in order to reduce distress, enhance quality of life, and
             potentially improve medical outcomes.},
   Doi = {10.1177/1740774509102565},
   Key = {fds270698}
}

@article{fds270654,
   Author = {Lichtman, JH and Bigger, JT and Blumenthal, JA and Frasure-Smith, N and Kaufmann, PG and Lespérance, F and Mark, DB and Sheps, DS and Taylor,
             CB and Froelicher, ES},
   Title = {AHA science advisory. Depression and coronary heart disease.
             Recommendations for screening, referral, and treatment. A
             science advisory from the American Heart Association
             Prevention Committee to the Council on Cardiovascular
             Nursing, Council on Clinical Cardiology, Council on
             Epidemiology and Prevention, and Interdisciplinary Council
             on Quality of Care Outcomes Research. Endorsed by the
             American Psychiatric Association.},
   Journal = {Progress in Cardiovascular Nursing},
   Volume = {24},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {19-26},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0889-7204},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19261139},
   Abstract = {Depression is commonly present in patients with coronary
             heart disease (CHD) and is independently associated with
             increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Screening
             tests for depressive symptoms should be applied to identify
             patients who may require further assessment and treatment.
             This multispecialty consensus document reviews the evidence
             linking depression with CHD and provides recommendations for
             healthcare providers for the assessment, referral, and
             treatment of depression.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1751-7117.2009.00028.x},
   Key = {fds270654}
}

@article{fds270656,
   Author = {Mathew, JP and Mackensen, GB and Phillips-Bute, B and Grocott, HP and Glower, DD and Laskowitz, DT and Blumenthal, JA and Newman, MF and Neurologic Outcome Research Group (NORG) of the Duke Heart
             Center},
   Title = {Randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled study of
             neuroprotection with lidocaine in cardiac
             surgery.},
   Journal = {Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation},
   Volume = {40},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {880-887},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19164788},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cognitive decline after cardiac
             surgery remains common and diminishes patients' quality of
             life. Based on experimental and clinical evidence, this
             study assessed the potential of intravenously administered
             lidocaine to reduce postoperative cognitive dysfunction
             after cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass. METHODS:
             After IRB approval, 277 patients undergoing cardiac surgery
             were enrolled into this prospective, randomized,
             double-blinded placebo controlled clinical trial. Subjects
             were randomized to receive: (1) Lidocaine as a 1 mg/kg bolus
             followed by a continuous infusion through 48 hours
             postoperatively, or (2) Placebo bolus and infusion.
             Cognitive function was assessed preoperatively and again at
             6 weeks and 1 year postoperatively. The effect of lidocaine
             on postoperative cognition was tested using multivariable
             regression modeling; P<0.05 was considered significant.
             RESULTS: Among the 241 allocated subjects (Lidocaine: n=114;
             Placebo: n=127), the incidence of cognitive deficit in the
             lidocaine group was 45.5% versus 45.7% in the placebo group
             (P=0.97). Multivariable analysis revealed a significant
             interaction between treatment group and diabetes, such that
             diabetic subjects receiving lidocaine were more likely to
             suffer cognitive decline (P=0.004). Secondary analysis
             identified total lidocaine dose (mg/kg) as a significant
             predictor of cognitive decline and also revealed a
             protective effect of lower dose lidocaine in nondiabetic
             subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Lidocaine administered during and
             after cardiac surgery does not reduce the high rate of
             postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Higher doses of
             lidocaine and diabetic status were independent predictors of
             cognitive decline. Protective effects of lower dose
             lidocaine in nondiabetic subjects need to be further
             evaluated.},
   Doi = {10.1161/STROKEAHA.108.531236},
   Key = {fds270656}
}

@article{fds270700,
   Author = {Smith, PJ and Blumenthal, JA and Babyak, MA and Doraiswamy, PM and Hinderliter, A and Hoffman, BM and Waugh, R and Sherwood,
             A},
   Title = {Intima-media thickness and age of first depressive
             episode.},
   Journal = {Biol Psychol},
   Volume = {80},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {361-364},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19041688},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Late life depression, including patients with
             vascular depression, has been associated with higher levels
             of intima-media thickness (IMT). Although individuals with
             vascular depression tend to report a later onset of
             depression, the relationship of IMT and age of first
             depressive episode is uncertain in younger adults. We
             therefore investigated the relationship between IMT and age
             of first depressive episode in a sample of 202 adults (age
             range 40-81 years) with major depression (MDD). METHODS:
             Depression status was assessed using the Structured Clinical
             Interview Schedule and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale.
             Patients underwent a physical examination in which a medical
             history was obtained. IMT was measured from the left and
             right common carotid arteries. Simple regression analyses
             were used to investigate the association between IMT and
             self-reported age of first depressive episode. RESULTS: IMT
             was associated with a later onset of first major depressive
             episode (b=.225, P=.0005) and this association remained
             significant after controlling for age, Framingham Stroke
             Risk Profile, smoking pack years, physical activity, high-
             and low-density lipoprotein, body mass index, triglyceride
             levels, and history of chronic medical conditions (b=.142,
             P=.028). Each .10mm increase in IMT was associated with a
             2.6-year later reported occurrence of first major depressive
             episode (MDE). Similarly, higher levels of IMT were
             associated with fewer previous MDEs (b=-.149, P=.020) and
             this effect remained significant in our multivariate model
             (b=-.140, P=.030). In contrast, IMT was not associated with
             current depressive severity (b=-.024, P=.720). CONCLUSIONS:
             Greater levels of IMT are associated with a later onset of
             depression and fewer previous depressive episodes among
             middle-aged and older adults, independent of cardiovascular
             co-morbidities. These findings provide preliminary evidence
             that increased vascular burden may be associated with a
             later onset of depression.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.biopsycho.2008.11.001},
   Key = {fds270700}
}

@article{fds270697,
   Author = {Waldman, SV and Blumenthal, JA and Babyak, MA and Sherwood, A and Sketch, M and Davidson, J and Watkins, LL},
   Title = {Ethnic differences in the treatment of depression in
             patients with ischemic heart disease.},
   Journal = {American Heart Journal},
   Volume = {157},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {77-83},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19081400},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to examine ethnic
             differences in depressive symptoms and antidepressant
             treatment in a cohort of patients undergoing diagnostic
             coronary angiography. BACKGROUND: Coronary heart disease
             (CHD) is the leading cause of mortality in the United
             States, with an excess of mortality in African Americans.
             Traditional risk factors occur more frequently among African
             Americans but do not fully account for this increased risk.
             Elevated depressive symptoms have been shown to be
             associated with higher morbidity and mortality in patients
             with CHD. METHODS: A consecutive series of 864 patients (727
             whites, 137 African Americans) completed the Beck Depression
             Inventory to assess depressive symptoms. Data describing
             cardiovascular risk factors and type of medications
             including antidepressants were obtained from chart review at
             the time of study enrollment. RESULTS: There was no
             difference in the severity of depressive symptoms between
             whites (P = .50); the prevalence of elevated depressive
             symptoms also was similar for African Americans (35%) and
             whites (27%) (P = .20). However, the rate of antidepressant
             use was 21% for whites but only 11.7% for African Americans
             (P = .016). The odds ratio for ethnicity (African American
             vs whites) in predicting antidepressant use was 0.43 (95%
             confidence interval 0.24-0.76, P = .004) after adjustment
             for Beck Depression Inventory scores. CONCLUSIONS: African
             Americans with CHD are less likely to be treated with
             antidepressant medications compared with whites despite
             having similar levels of depression. The ethnic differences
             in the psychopharmacological management of depression
             suggests that more careful assessment of depression,
             especially in African Americans, is necessary to optimize
             care of patients with CHD.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.ahj.2008.08.013},
   Key = {fds270697}
}

@article{fds270703,
   Author = {Lett, HS and Blumenthal, JA and Babyak, MA and Catellier, DJ and Carney,
             RM and Berkman, LF and Burg, MM and Mitchell, P and Jaffe, AS and Schneiderman, N},
   Title = {Dimensions of social support and depression in patients at
             increased psychosocial risk recovering from myocardial
             infarction.},
   Journal = {International Journal of Behavioral Medicine},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {248-258},
   Year = {2009},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19288205},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: There is considerable evidence that depression
             and low social support are associated with increased
             morbidity and mortality for patients with coronary heart
             disease (CHD). However, there is a lack of consensus
             regarding the measurement of social support and its relation
             to depression. PURPOSE: The primary purpose of the present
             study was to identify key dimensions of existing social
             support and depression measures for patients with CHD using
             factor analysis. METHOD: Seven hundred-five patients with a
             recent acute myocardial infarction and either depression,
             low social support, or both, completed measures of several
             types of social support and depression. Exploratory and
             confirmatory factor analysis were used to examine the
             underlying dimensions of the existing social support and
             depression measures, and to compare theoretically plausible
             models specifying the relation between the social support
             and depression factors. RESULTS: Confirmatory factor
             analysis indicated that an approach in which smaller facets
             of depression are measured (somatic, cognitive/affective,
             anxious) and social support (perceived emotional support
             from intimate relationships; perceived tangible support from
             peripheral contacts; and the number of children, relatives,
             and friends in a patient's support network), may be the most
             optimal way to measure social support and depression in this
             population RMSEA = 0.05; CFI = 0.81; TLI = 0.88).
             CONCLUSION: Efforts to identify patients at increased
             psychosocial risk may be improved by screening for these
             subcomponents of social support and depression.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s12529-009-9040-x},
   Key = {fds270703}
}

@article{fds270653,
   Author = {Hinderliter, AL and Blumenthal, JA and O'Conner, C and Adams, KF and Dupree, CS and Waugh, RA and Bensimhon, D and Christenson, RH and Sherwood, A},
   Title = {Independent prognostic value of echocardiography and
             N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide in patients with
             heart failure.},
   Journal = {American Heart Journal},
   Volume = {156},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1191-1195},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19033018},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Echocardiographic indices of cardiac structure
             and function and natriuretic peptide levels are strong
             predictors of mortality in patients with heart failure.
             Whether cardiac ultrasound and natriuretic peptides provide
             independent prognostic information is uncertain. METHODS:
             Echocardiograms and measurements of N-terminal pro-brain
             natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were prospectively performed
             in 211 patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction
             who were followed for a median of 4 years. Echocardiographic
             variables and NT-proBNP were examined as predictors of
             all-cause mortality in univariable and multivariable
             proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Participants averaged
             57 years old (SD 12 years) and had a mean left ventricular
             ejection fraction of 32% (SD 11%). A total of 71 patients
             (34%) died during the follow-up period. N-terminal pro-brain
             natriuretic peptide was a strong predictor of mortality (P <
             .001) as were multiple echocardiographic measures. In models
             that included age and NT-proBNP, with other clinical
             variables eligible for entry by stepwise selection,
             significant predictors of death included left ventricular
             ejection fraction (P = .013) and end-diastolic volume (P <
             .001), left atrial volume index (P = .005), right atrial
             volume index (P = .003), and tricuspid regurgitation area (P
             = .015). In models that also included left ventricular
             ejection fraction, end-diastolic volume of the left
             ventricle (P = .019), left atrial volume (P = .026), and
             right atrial volume (P = .020) remained significant
             predictors of mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Left ventricular size
             and function and left atrial and right atrial sizes are
             significant predictors of all-cause mortality in patients
             with heart failure, independent of NT-proBNP levels and
             other clinical variables.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.ahj.2008.07.022},
   Key = {fds270653}
}

@article{fds270652,
   Author = {Phillips-Bute, B and Mathew, JP and Blumenthal, JA and Morris, RW and Podgoreanu, MV and Smith, M and Stafford-Smith, M and Grocott, HP and Schwinn, DA and Newman, MF and Perioperative Genetics and Safety
             Outcomes Investigative Team},
   Title = {Relationship of genetic variability and depressive symptoms
             to adverse events after coronary artery bypass graft
             surgery.},
   Journal = {Psychosom Med},
   Volume = {70},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {953-959},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19005081},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To assess genetic variability in two
             serotonin-related gene polymorphisms (MAOA-uVNTR and
             5HTTLPR) and their relationships to depression and adverse
             cardiac events in a sample of patients undergoing coronary
             artery bypass surgery. METHODS: A total of 427 coronary
             artery bypass graft (CABG) patients were genotyped for two
             polymorphisms and assessed for depressive symptoms at three
             time points, in accordance with the Center for
             Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D): preoperative
             baseline; 6 months postoperative; and 1 year postoperative.
             Logistic regression was used to assess the association
             between depressive symptoms (CES-D = >16), genotype
             differences, and cardiac events. Because MAOA-uVNTR is
             sex-linked, males and females were analyzed separately for
             this polymorphism; sexes were combined for the 5HTTLPR
             analysis. RESULTS: Depressed patients were more likely than
             nondepressed patients to have a new cardiac event within 2
             years of surgery (p < .0001); depressed patients who carry
             the long (L) allele of the 5HTTLPR polymorphism were more
             likely than the short/short (S/S carriers to have an event
             (p = .0002). Genetic associations with 6-month and 1-year
             postoperative depressive symptoms do not survive adjustment
             for baseline depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: A
             serotonin-related gene polymorphism--5HTTLPR--was associated
             with adverse cardiac events post CABG, in combination with
             depressive symptoms. Because depressed patients with the L
             allele of the 5HTTLPR polymorphism were more likely to have
             an event compared with the S/S carriers, combining genetic
             and psychiatric profiling may prove useful in identifying
             patients at the highest risk for adverse outcomes post
             CABG.},
   Doi = {10.1097/PSY.0b013e318187aee6},
   Key = {fds270652}
}

@article{fds270651,
   Author = {Lichtman, JH and Bigger, JT and Blumenthal, JA and Frasure-Smith, N and Kaufmann, PG and Lespérance, F and Mark, DB and Sheps, DS and Taylor,
             CB and Froelicher, ES and American Heart Association Prevention
             Committee of the Council on Cardiovascular Nursing, and American Heart Association Council on Clinical Cardiology, and American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, and American Heart Association Interdisciplinary
             Council on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research, and American
             Psychiatric Association},
   Title = {Depression and coronary heart disease: recommendations for
             screening, referral, and treatment: a science advisory from
             the American Heart Association Prevention Committee of the
             Council on Cardiovascular Nursing, Council on Clinical
             Cardiology, Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, and
             Interdisciplinary Council on Quality of Care and Outcomes
             Research: endorsed by the American Psychiatric
             Association.},
   Journal = {Circulation},
   Volume = {118},
   Number = {17},
   Pages = {1768-1775},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18824640},
   Abstract = {Depression is commonly present in patients with coronary
             heart disease (CHD) and is independently associated with
             increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Screening
             tests for depressive symptoms should be applied to identify
             patients who may require further assessment and treatment.
             This multispecialty consensus document reviews the evidence
             linking depression with CHD and provides recommendations for
             healthcare providers for the assessment, referral, and
             treatment of depression.},
   Doi = {10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.190769},
   Key = {fds270651}
}

@article{fds270649,
   Author = {Shelby, RA and Somers, TJ and Keefe, FJ and Pells, JJ and Dixon, KE and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Domain specific self-efficacy mediates the impact of pain
             catastrophizing on pain and disability in overweight and
             obese osteoarthritis patients.},
   Journal = {J Pain},
   Volume = {9},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {912-919},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18602871},
   Abstract = {UNLABELLED: This study examined whether self-efficacy
             mediated the relationship between pain catastrophizing and
             pain and disability. Participants were 192 individuals
             diagnosed with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knees who were
             overweight or obese. Multiple mediator analyses were
             conducted to simultaneously test self-efficacy for pain
             control, physical function, and emotional symptoms as
             mediators while controlling for demographic and medical
             status variables. Higher pain catastrophizing was associated
             with lower self-efficacy in all 3 domains (Ps < .05).
             Self-efficacy for pain control fully mediated the
             relationship between pain catastrophizing and pain (beta =
             .08, Sobel test Z = 1.97, P < .05). The relationship between
             pain catastrophizing and physical disability was fully
             mediated by self-efficacy for physical function (beta = .06,
             Sobel test Z = 1.95, P = .05). Self-efficacy for emotional
             symptoms partially mediated the relationship between pain
             catastrophizing and psychological disability (beta = .12,
             Sobel test Z = 2.92, P < .05). These results indicate that
             higher pain catastrophizing contributed to greater pain and
             disability via lower domain-specific self-efficacy. Efforts
             to reduce pain and improve functioning in OA patients should
             consider addressing pain catastrophizing and domain specific
             self-efficacy. Pain catastrophizing may be addressed through
             cognitive therapy techniques and self-efficacy may be
             enhanced through practice of relevant skills and personal
             accomplishments. PERSPECTIVE: This study found that higher
             pain catastrophizing contributed to greater pain and
             disability via domain specific self-efficacy. These results
             suggest that treatment efforts to reduce pain and improve
             functioning in OA patients who are overweight or obese
             should consider addressing both pain catastrophizing and
             self-efficacy.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jpain.2008.05.008},
   Key = {fds270649}
}

@article{fds270650,
   Author = {Carney, RM and Steinmeyer, B and Freedland, KE and Blumenthal, JA and Stein, PK and Steinhoff, WA and Howells, WB and Berkman, LF and Watkins,
             LL and Czajkowski, SM and Domitrovich, PP and Burg, MM and Hayano, J and Jaffe, AS},
   Title = {Nighttime heart rate and survival in depressed patients post
             acute myocardial infarction.},
   Journal = {Psychosom Med},
   Volume = {70},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {757-763},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0b013e3181835ca3},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVES: To determine if: 1) depressed patients with a
             recent acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have higher
             nighttime heart rate (HR) than nondepressed patients, and 2)
             elevated nighttime HR is associated with decreased survival
             post AMI. Depression is a risk factor for mortality post
             AMI. It is also associated with sleep disturbances and with
             elevated HR, which may be more pronounced at night. Resting
             and 24-hour HR have been found to predict mortality in
             patient and community samples. METHODS: Ambulatory
             electrocardiographic data were obtained from 333 depressed
             patients and 383 nondepressed patients with recent AMI. They
             were followed for up to 30 months (median = 24 months).
             RESULTS: Depressed patients had higher nighttime HR (70.7
             +/- 0.7 versus 67.7 +/- 0.6 beats per minute (bpm); p =
             .001), and daytime HR (76.4 +/- 0.7 versus 74.2 +/- 0.6 bpm;
             p = .02) than nondepressed patients, even after adjusting
             for potential confounds. Depression (hazard ratio (Haz R) =
             2.19; p = .02) and nighttime HR (Haz R = 1.03; p = .004),
             but not daytime HR, predicted survival after adjusting for
             other major predictors and for each other. The interaction
             between nighttime HR and depression on survival approached,
             but did not achieve, significance (p = .08). CONCLUSIONS:
             Mean day and nighttime HR values are higher in depressed
             patients than in nondepressed patients post AMI. Depression
             and elevated nighttime HR, but not daytime HR, are
             independent predictors of survival in these patients.
             Although depressed patients have a higher nighttime HR than
             nondepressed patients, nighttime HR predicts mortality in
             both depressed and nondepressed patients.},
   Doi = {10.1097/PSY.0b013e3181835ca3},
   Key = {fds270650}
}

@article{fds270693,
   Author = {Hoffman, BM and Blumenthal, JA and Babyak, MA and Smith, PJ and Rogers,
             SD and Doraiswamy, PM and Sherwood, A},
   Title = {Exercise fails to improve neurocognition in depressed
             middle-aged and older adults.},
   Journal = {Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise},
   Volume = {40},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {1344-1352},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0195-9131},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18580416},
   Abstract = {PURPOSE: Although cross-sectional studies have demonstrated
             an association between higher levels of aerobic fitness and
             improved neurocognitive function, there have been relatively
             few interventional studies investigating this relationship,
             and results have been inconsistent. We assessed the effects
             of aerobic exercise on neurocognitive function in a
             randomized controlled trial of patients with major
             depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: Two-hundred and two
             sedentary men (n = 49) and women (n = 153), aged 40 yr and
             over and who met diagnostic criteria for MDD, were randomly
             assigned to the following: a) supervised exercise, b)
             home-based exercise, c) sertraline, or d) placebo pill.
             Before and after 4 months of treatment, participants
             completed measures of: Executive Function (Trail Making Test
             B-A difference score, Stroop Color-Word, Ruff 2 & 7 Test,
             Digit Symbol), Verbal Memory (Logical Memory, Verbal Paired
             Associates), and Verbal Fluency/Working Memory (Animal
             Naming, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, Digit Span).
             Multivariate analyses of covariance were performed to test
             the effects of treatment on posttreatment neuropsychological
             test scores, with baseline neuropsychological test scores,
             age, education, and change in depression scores entered as
             covariates. RESULTS: The performance of exercise
             participants was no better than participants receiving
             placebo across all neuropsychological tests. Exercise
             participants performed better than participants receiving
             sertraline on tests of executive function but not on tests
             of verbal memory or verbal fluency/working memory.
             CONCLUSIONS: We found little evidence to support the
             benefits of an aerobic exercise intervention on
             neurocognitive performance in patients with
             MDD.},
   Doi = {10.1249/MSS.0b013e31816b877c},
   Key = {fds270693}
}

@article{fds270695,
   Author = {Martinu, T and Babyak, MA and O'Connell, CF and Carney, RM and Trulock,
             EP and Davis, RD and Blumenthal, JA and Palmer, SM and INSPIRE
             Investigators},
   Title = {Baseline 6-min walk distance predicts survival in lung
             transplant candidates.},
   Journal = {Am J Transplant},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {1498-1505},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18510641},
   Abstract = {In a large, prospectively followed, two-center cohort of
             patients listed for lung transplantation (n = 376), we used
             Cox proportional hazards models to determine the importance
             of baseline 6-min walk distance (6MWD) in predicting patient
             survival. 6MWD used as a continuous variable was a
             significant predictor of survival after adjusting for other
             important covariates when transplant was considered as a
             time-varying covariate (HR for each 500 ft increase in 6MWD
             = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.43-0.77, p = 0.0002). 6MWD remained an
             important predictor of survival in models that considered
             only survival to transplant (HR for each 500 ft increase in
             6MWD = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.27-0.62, p < 0.0001) or survival only
             after transplant (HR for each 500 ft increase in 6MWD =
             0.40, 95% CI: 0.22-0.72, p = 0.002). Unadjusted Kaplan-Meier
             analysis demonstrates significantly different survival by
             6MWD tertiles (<900, 900-1200, or >1200 ft, p-value =
             0.0001). In the overall model, 6MWD prediction of survival
             was relatively homogeneous across disease category (6MWD by
             disease interaction term, p-value = 0.63). Our results
             demonstrate a significant relationship between baseline 6MWD
             and survival among patients listed for lung transplantation
             that exists across all native disease categories and extends
             through transplantation. The 6MWD is thus a useful measure
             of both urgency and utility among patients awaiting lung
             transplantation.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1600-6143.2008.02264.x},
   Key = {fds270695}
}

@article{fds270696,
   Author = {Taylor, JL and Smith, PJ and Babyak, MA and Barbour, KA and Hoffman, BM and Sebring, DL and Davis, RD and Palmer, SM and Keefe, FJ and Carney, RM and Csik, I and Freedland, KE and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Coping and quality of life in patients awaiting lung
             transplantation.},
   Journal = {Journal of Psychosomatic Research},
   Volume = {65},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {71-79},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0022-3999},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18582615},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: Patients with end-stage lung disease (ESLD)
             experience significant decrements in quality of life (QOL).
             Although coping strategies are related to QOL in patients
             with ESLD, the extent to which specific native lung disease
             moderates this relationship is unknown. METHODS: We
             investigated the relationship between coping, native lung
             disease, and QOL among 187 patients awaiting lung
             transplantation, including 139 patients with chronic
             obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and 48 with cystic
             fibrosis (CF). Participants completed a psychosocial battery
             assessing psychological QOL, physical QOL, and coping
             strategies. RESULTS: For both COPD and CF patients, higher
             levels of Active Coping (P< .0001) and lower levels of
             Disengagement (P< .0001) were associated with better
             psychological QOL. For physical QOL, we observed a Native
             Disease x Coping interaction (P=.01) such that Active Coping
             was associated with better physical QOL in patients with
             COPD but not in patients with CF. CONCLUSIONS: The
             relationship between coping and QOL may vary as a function
             of native lung disease. Patients' native disease may need to
             be considered in order to develop effective interventions to
             help patients cope successfully with ESLD.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jpsychores.2008.04.009},
   Key = {fds270696}
}

@article{fds270799,
   Author = {Carney, RM and Freedland, KE and Steinmeyer, B and Blumenthal, JA and Berkman, LF and Watkins, LL and Czajkowski, SM and Burg, MM and Jaffe,
             AS},
   Title = {Depression and five year survival following acute myocardial
             infarction: a prospective study.},
   Journal = {Journal of Affective Disorders},
   Volume = {109},
   Number = {1-2},
   Pages = {133-138},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0165-0327},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18191208},
   Abstract = {Depression has been shown to be a risk factor for mortality
             during the 12 months following an acute myocardial
             infarction (MI), but few studies have examined whether it is
             associated with increased risk over longer periods. Most of
             the existing studies utilized depression questionnaires
             rather than diagnostic interviews, the gold standard for
             clinical depression diagnosis. The purpose of this study was
             to determine whether interview-diagnosed clinical depression
             affects survival for at least 5 years after an acute MI.
             Vital status was determined for 163 patients with major
             depression, 195 with minor depression or dysthymia, and 408
             nondepressed patients, during a median follow-up period of
             60 months after an acute MI. Survival analysis was used to
             model time from the index MI to death. There were 106 deaths
             during the follow-up. After adjusting for other risk factors
             for mortality, patients with either major or minor
             depression (HR=1.76; 95% CI: 1.19 to 2.60), major depression
             alone (HR=1.87; 95% CI: 1.17 to 2.98), or minor depression
             alone (HR=1.67; 95% CI: 1.06 to 2.64) were at higher risk
             for all-cause mortality compared to the nondepressed
             patients. Depression is an independent risk factor for death
             5 years after an acute MI. Even minor depression is
             associated with an increased risk. Although it is not known
             whether treating depression can improve survival, patients
             with depression should be recognized as being at increased
             risk long after their acute MI.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jad.2007.12.005},
   Key = {fds270799}
}

@article{fds270800,
   Author = {Pells, JJ and Shelby, RA and Keefe, FJ and Dixon, KE and Blumenthal, JA and Lacaille, L and Tucker, JM and Schmitt, D and Caldwell, DS and Kraus,
             VB},
   Title = {Arthritis self-efficacy and self-efficacy for resisting
             eating: relationships to pain, disability, and eating
             behavior in overweight and obese individuals with
             osteoarthritic knee pain.},
   Journal = {Pain},
   Volume = {136},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {340-347},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {1872-6623},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17764844},
   Keywords = {Arthralgia • Comorbidity • Disability Evaluation
             • Employment • Feeding Behavior* • Female
             • Humans • Male • Middle Aged • North
             Carolina • Obesity • Osteoarthritis, Knee •
             Overweight • Prevalence • Prognosis • Risk
             Assessment • Self Efficacy* • epidemiology •
             epidemiology* • methods* • prevention & control
             • statistics & numerical data},
   Abstract = {This study examined arthritis self-efficacy and
             self-efficacy for resisting eating as predictors of pain,
             disability, and eating behaviors in overweight or obese
             patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Patients
             (N=174) with a body mass index between 25 and 42 completed
             measures of arthritis-related self-efficacy, weight-related
             self-efficacy, pain, physical disability, psychological
             disability, overeating, and demographic and medical
             information. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were
             conducted to examine whether arthritis self-efficacy
             (efficacy for pain control, physical function, and other
             symptoms) and self-efficacy for resisting eating accounted
             for significant variance in pain, disability, and eating
             behaviors after controlling for demographic and medical
             characteristics. Analyses also tested whether the
             contributions of self-efficacy were domain specific. Results
             showed that self-efficacy for pain accounted for 14% (p=.01)
             of the variance in pain, compared to only 3% accounted for
             by self-efficacy for physical function and other symptoms.
             Self-efficacy for physical function accounted for 10%
             (p=.001) of the variance in physical disability, while
             self-efficacy for pain and other symptoms accounted for 3%.
             Self-efficacy for other (emotional) symptoms and resisting
             eating accounted for 21% (p<.05) of the variance in
             psychological disability, while self-efficacy for pain
             control and physical function were not significant
             predictors. Self-efficacy for resisting eating accounted for
             28% (p=.001) of the variance in eating behaviors. Findings
             indicate that self-efficacy is important in understanding
             pain and behavioral adjustment in overweight or obese OA
             patients. Moreover, the contributions of self-efficacy were
             domain specific. Interventions targeting both arthritis
             self-efficacy and self-efficacy for resisting eating may be
             helpful in this population.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.pain.2007.07.012},
   Key = {fds270800}
}

@article{fds270648,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Depression and coronary heart disease: association and
             implications for treatment.},
   Journal = {Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine},
   Volume = {75 Suppl 2},
   Pages = {S48-S53},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0891-1150},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18540147},
   Abstract = {Growing evidence indicates that depression is an important
             primary and secondary risk factor for coronary heart disease
             (CHD). Depression is quite common among patients with CHD:
             prevalence estimates are 14% or higher, and an additional
             20% of patients have subclinical or minor depression. This
             review summarizes evidence that depression is a risk factor
             for cardiac events in patients with established CHD,
             suggests potential mechanisms underlying the relationship
             between depression and adverse cardiac outcomes, and
             provides evidence for the efficacy of exercise in improving
             both depression and clinical outcomes in depressed patients
             with CHD.},
   Key = {fds270648}
}

@article{fds270801,
   Author = {Trivedi, R and Sherwood, A and Strauman, TJ and Blumenthal,
             JA},
   Title = {Laboratory-based blood pressure recovery is a predictor of
             ambulatory blood pressure.},
   Journal = {Biological Psychology},
   Volume = {77},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {317-323},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0301-0511},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18096293},
   Abstract = {The recovery phase of the stress response is an individual
             difference characteristic that may predict cardiovascular
             risk. The purpose of this study was to examine whether
             laboratory-based blood pressure (BP) recovery predicts
             ambulatory BP (ABP). One hundred and eighty-two participants
             underwent a standard laboratory stress protocol, involving a
             20-min baseline rest period, and four stressors presented in
             a counterbalanced order, each followed by a 10-min recovery
             period. Participants also wore an ABP monitor for 24h during
             a typical workday. Hierarchical regression analyses showed
             that BP recovery accounted for significant additional
             variance for daytime SBP (p<0.001), nighttime SBP (p<0.001),
             daytime DBP (p<0.001), and nighttime DBP (p<0.001), after
             controlling for baseline and reactivity BP. Results suggest
             that persistence of the BP response following stress may be
             a more salient characteristic of the stress response in
             understanding its potential impact on longer term
             cardiovascular regulation.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.biopsycho.2007.11.004},
   Key = {fds270801}
}

@article{fds270694,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Sherwood, A and Babyak, MA and Doraiswamy, PM and Hoffman, BM},
   Title = {Response to letters to the editor [3]},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {70},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {264-265},
   Publisher = {Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.psy.0000311332.34779.56},
   Doi = {10.1097/01.psy.0000311332.34779.56},
   Key = {fds270694}
}

@article{fds270756,
   Author = {Lett, HS and Blumenthal, JA and Babyak, MA and Catellier, DJ and Carney,
             RM and Berkman, LF and Burg, MM and Mitchell, P and Jaffe, AS and Schneiderman, N},
   Title = {In Response},
   Journal = {Health Psychology : Official Journal of the Division of
             Health Psychology, American Psychological
             Association},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {1-3},
   Publisher = {American Psychological Association (APA)},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0278-6133},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000252604800002&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Abstract = {Replies to comments by B. D. Thombs on the original article
             by H. S. Lett et al on social support and prognosis in
             patients at increased psychosocial risk following myocardial
             infarction. Lett et al agree that there is no "gold
             standard" for how to best assess social support but disagree
             with the premises that we should not screen what we cannot
             treat and that low social support is not modifiable. They
             believe that the limited time and mental health resources
             busy cardiology practices have to devote to psychosocial
             assessment is not a legitimate reason not to assess for risk
             factors and comorbidities such as depression and low social
             support. They indicate that there is now compelling evidence
             for the prognostic importance of both depression and low
             social support. Currently, organizations such as the
             American Heart Association and the American College of
             Cardiology recognize this clinical need and are working with
             psychologists and other mental health professionals to
             develop clinical guidelines for assessing and treating
             depression and determining when to refer patients for more
             formal assessment and treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record
             (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).},
   Doi = {10.1037/0278-6133.27.1.1b},
   Key = {fds270756}
}

@article{fds270802,
   Author = {Lett, HS and Blumenthal, JA and Babyak, MA and Catellier, DJ and Carney,
             RM and Berkman, LF and Burg, MM and Mitchell, P and Jaffe, AS and Schneiderman, N},
   Title = {Response: Perceived social support predicts outcomes
             following myocardial infarction: A call for
             screening?},
   Journal = {Health Psychology},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {1-3},
   Year = {2008},
   Key = {fds270802}
}

@article{fds316055,
   Author = {Smith, PJ and Blumenthal, JA and Doraiswamy, M and Hoffman, B and Hinderliter, A and Babyak, MA and Sherwood, A},
   Title = {CEREBROVASCULAR RISK FACTORS, VASCULAR FUNCTIONING, AND
             NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL OUTCOMES AMONG INDIVIDUALS WITH MAJOR
             DEPRESSION},
   Journal = {Annals of Behavioral Medicine},
   Volume = {33},
   Pages = {S100-S100},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0883-6612},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000261185300390&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds316055}
}

@article{fds316063,
   Author = {Taylor, JL and Smith, PJ and Babyak, MA and Barbour, KA and Hoffman, BM and Sebring, DL and Davis, D and Palmer, SM and Blumenthal,
             JA},
   Title = {GENDER AND NATIVE DISEASE MODERATE THE RELATION BETWEEN
             COPING AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN PATIENTS AWAITING LUNG
             TRANSPLANT},
   Journal = {Annals of Behavioral Medicine},
   Volume = {33},
   Pages = {S59-S59},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0883-6612},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000261185300228&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds316063}
}

@article{fds270803,
   Author = {Barbour, KA and Edenfield, TM and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Exercise as a treatment for depression and other psychiatric
             disorders: a review.},
   Journal = {Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and
             Prevention},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {359-367},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {1932-7501},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18197069},
   Abstract = {This article reviews evidence supporting exercise as a
             treatment for psychiatric disorders. Although data from
             randomized trials are limited, results of studies included
             in this review generally support use of exercise as an
             alternative or adjunctive treatment. Discussion of practical
             issues regarding exercise, potential mechanisms for the
             beneficial effects of exercise, and recommendations for
             future research are provided.},
   Doi = {10.1097/01.HCR.0000300262.69645.95},
   Key = {fds270803}
}

@article{fds270806,
   Author = {Smith, PJ and Blumenthal, JA and Babyak, MA and Georgiades, A and Hinderliter, A and Sherwood, A},
   Title = {Effects of exercise and weight loss on depressive symptoms
             among men and women with hypertension.},
   Journal = {Journal of Psychosomatic Research},
   Volume = {63},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {463-469},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0022-3999},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17980217},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate changes in
             depressive symptoms in hypertensive individuals
             participating in an exercise and weight loss intervention.
             METHODS: This study involved 133 sedentary men and women
             with high blood pressure (BP; 130-180 mmHg systolic BP
             and/or 85-110 mmHg diastolic BP) who participated in a
             6-month intervention consisting of three groups: aerobic
             exercise, aerobic exercise and weight loss, and a waiting
             list control. RESULTS: Participants in both treatment groups
             demonstrated significant improvements in aerobic capacity
             and lower BP compared with participants in the control
             group. Participants in the active treatment groups who had
             mild to moderate depressive symptoms at baseline also
             exhibited greater reductions in depressive symptoms compared
             with participants in the control group. CONCLUSION: Results
             from the present study suggest that exercise, alone or
             combined with weight management, may reduce self-reported
             depressive symptoms among patients with hypertension.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jpsychores.2007.05.011},
   Key = {fds270806}
}

@article{fds270691,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Babyak, MA and Ironson, G and Thoresen, C and Powell,
             L and Czajkowski, S and Burg, M and Keefe, FJ and Steffen, P and Catellier,
             D},
   Title = {Spirituality, religion, and clinical outcomes in patients
             recovering from an acute myocardial infarction
             (Psychosomatic Medicine (2007) 69, (501-508))},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {69},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {826},
   Publisher = {Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0b013e31815adb80},
   Keywords = {Depressive Disorder • Female • Humans • Male
             • Middle Aged • Mortality • Myocardial
             Infarction • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
             • Recurrence • Religion • Risk • Social
             Support* • Spirituality* • Treatment Outcome
             • United States • complications* •
             epidemiology • psychology* • rehabilitation*},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To assess the prospective relationship between
             spiritual experiences and health in a sample of patients
             surviving an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with
             depression or low social support. METHODS: A subset of 503
             patients participating in the enhancing recovery in coronary
             heart disease (ENRICHD) trial completed a Daily Spiritual
             Experiences (DSE) questionnaire within 28 days from the time
             of their AMI. The questionnaire assessed three spirituality
             variables-worship service/church attendance,
             prayer/meditation, and total DSE score. Patients also
             completed the Beck Depression Inventory to assess depressive
             symptoms and the ENRICHD Social Support Inventory to
             determine perceived social support. The sample was
             subsequently followed prospectively every 6 months for an
             average of 18 months to assess all-cause mortality and
             recurrent AMI. RESULTS: Of the 503 participants who
             completed the DSE questionnaire at the time of index AMI, 61
             (12%) participants either died or sustained a recurrent MI
             during the follow-up period. After adjustment for gender,
             education level, ethnicity, and a composite medical
             prognosis risk score derived specifically for the ENRICHD
             trial, we observed no relationship between death or nonfatal
             AMI and total spirituality as measured by the DSE (p =
             .446), worship service attendance (p = .120), or frequency
             of prayer/meditation (p = .679). CONCLUSIONS: We found
             little evidence that self-reported spirituality, frequency
             of church attendance, or frequency of prayer is associated
             with cardiac morbidity or all-cause mortality post AMI in
             patients with depression and/or low perceived
             support.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1097/PSY.0b013e31815adb80},
   Key = {fds270691}
}

@article{fds270805,
   Author = {Mathew, JP and Mackensen, GB and Phillips-Bute, B and Stafford-Smith,
             M and Podgoreanu, MV and Grocott, HP and Hill, SE and Smith, PK and Blumenthal, JA and Reves, JG and Newman, MF and Neurologic Outcome
             Research Group (NORG) of the Duke Heart Center},
   Title = {Effects of extreme hemodilution during cardiac surgery on
             cognitive function in the elderly.},
   Journal = {Anesthesiology},
   Volume = {107},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {577-584},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0003-3022},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17893453},
   Keywords = {Aged • Anesthesia, General • Blood Transfusion
             • Cardiac Surgical Procedures • Cognition •
             Cognition Disorders • Female • Hematocrit •
             Hemodilution • Humans • Logistic Models •
             Male • Treatment Outcome • adverse effects •
             drug effects • etiology • physiology* •
             psychology • psychology*},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Strategies for neuroprotection including
             hypothermia and hemodilution have been routinely practiced
             since the inception of cardiopulmonary bypass. Yet
             postoperative neurocognitive deficits that diminish the
             quality of life of cardiac surgery patients are frequent.
             Because there is uncertainty regarding the impact of
             hemodilution on perioperative organ function, the authors
             hypothesized that extreme hemodilution during cardiac
             surgery would increase the frequency and severity of
             postoperative neurocognitive deficits. METHODS: Patients
             undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery were
             randomly assigned to either moderate hemodilution
             (hematocrit on cardiopulmonary bypass >or=27%) or profound
             hemodilution (hematocrit on cardiopulmonary bypass of
             15-18%). Cognitive function was measured preoperatively and
             6 weeks postoperatively. The effect of hemodilution on
             postoperative cognition was tested using multivariable
             modeling accounting for age, years of education, and
             baseline levels of cognition. RESULTS: After randomization
             of 108 patients, the trial was terminated by the Data Safety
             and Monitoring Board due to the significant occurrence of
             adverse events, which primarily involved pulmonary
             complications in the moderate hemodilution group.
             Multivariable analysis revealed an interaction between
             hemodilution and age wherein older patients in the profound
             hemodilution group experienced greater neurocognitive
             decline (P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: In this prospective,
             randomized study of hemodilution during cardiac surgery with
             cardiopulmonary bypass in adults, the authors report an
             early termination of the study because of an increase in
             adverse events. They also observed greater neurocognitive
             impairment among older patients receiving extreme
             hemodilution.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1097/01.anes.0000281896.07256.71},
   Key = {fds270805}
}

@article{fds270807,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Babyak, MA and Doraiswamy, PM and Watkins, L and Hoffman, BM and Barbour, KA and Herman, S and Craighead, WE and Brosse,
             AL and Waugh, R and Hinderliter, A and Sherwood, A},
   Title = {Exercise and pharmacotherapy in the treatment of major
             depressive disorder.},
   Journal = {Psychosom Med},
   Volume = {69},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {587-596},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17846259},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To assess whether patients receiving aerobic
             exercise training performed either at home or in a
             supervised group setting achieve reductions in depression
             comparable to standard antidepressant medication
             (sertraline) and greater reductions in depression compared
             to placebo controls. METHODS: Between October 2000 and
             November 2005, we performed a prospective, randomized
             controlled trial (SMILE study) with allocation concealment
             and blinded outcome assessment in a tertiary care teaching
             hospital. A total of 202 adults (153 women; 49 men)
             diagnosed with major depression were assigned randomly to
             one of four conditions: supervised exercise in a group
             setting; home-based exercise; antidepressant medication
             (sertraline, 50-200 mg daily); or placebo pill for 16 weeks.
             Patients underwent the structured clinical interview for
             depression and completed the Hamilton Depression Rating
             Scale (HAM-D). RESULTS: After 4 months of treatment, 41% of
             the participants achieved remission, defined as no longer
             meeting the criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD) and
             a HAM-D score of <8. Patients receiving active treatments
             tended to have higher remission rates than the placebo
             controls: supervised exercise = 45%; home-based exercise =
             40%; medication = 47%; placebo = 31% (p = .057). All
             treatment groups had lower HAM-D scores after treatment;
             scores for the active treatment groups were not
             significantly different from the placebo group (p = .23).
             CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy of exercise in patients seems
             generally comparable with patients receiving antidepressant
             medication and both tend to be better than the placebo in
             patients with MDD. Placebo response rates were high,
             suggesting that a considerable portion of the therapeutic
             response is determined by patient expectations, ongoing
             symptom monitoring, attention, and other nonspecific
             factors.},
   Doi = {10.1097/PSY.0b013e318148c19a},
   Key = {fds270807}
}

@article{fds270812,
   Author = {Sherwood, A and Bower, JK and McFetridge-Durdle, J and Blumenthal,
             JA and Newby, LK and Hinderliter, AL},
   Title = {Age moderates the short-term effects of transdermal
             17beta-estradiol on endothelium-dependent vascular function
             in postmenopausal women.},
   Journal = {Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {1782-1787},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17541023},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: We evaluated age and coronary heart disease (CHD)
             as potential moderators of the effects of 17beta-estradiol
             on vascular endothelial function in postmenopausal women.
             METHODS AND RESULTS: In a double-blind crossover design, 100
             postmenopausal women aged 50 to 80 years were randomized to
             each of 3 transdermal patches, releasing 17beta-estradiol
             (0.05 mg/d), 17beta-estradiol (0.05 mg/d) + norethindrone
             acetate (NETA, 0.14 mg/d), and placebo. Flow-mediated
             dilation (FMD) and response to 400 microg sublingual
             glyceryl trinitrate (GTN-D) were assessed approximately 18
             hours after patch placement. Age, but not CHD, moderated the
             FMD response to treatment (P=0.01). For women in their
             fifties, the estradiol patch was associated with improved
             FMD (7.69+/-4.79%) compared with placebo (4.81+/-5.97%,
             P<0.05), but the estradiol+norethindrone patch response
             (5.81+/-4.85%) was not significantly different from placebo.
             Women in their sixties and seventies showed no alterations
             in FMD response to either active patch. GTN-D response
             declined with advancing age (P<0.01), with women in their
             seventies exhibiting blunted GTN-D response compared with
             younger women. CONCLUSIONS: The cardiovascular benefits of
             natural estrogen supplementation on vascular endothelial
             function may be dependent on postmenopausal age, with
             improved vascular function evident only in the early
             postmenopausal years. Short-term FMD response to estradiol
             might help stratify individual differences in risks versus
             benefits of HRT.},
   Doi = {10.1161/ATVBAHA.107.145383},
   Key = {fds270812}
}

@article{fds270808,
   Author = {Smith, PJ and Blumenthal, JA and Babyak, MA and Hoffman, BM and Doraiswamy, PM and Waugh, R and Hinderliter, A and Sherwood,
             A},
   Title = {Cerebrovascular risk factors, vascular disease, and
             neuropsychological outcomes in adults with major
             depression.},
   Journal = {Psychosom Med},
   Volume = {69},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {578-586},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17634564},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship of
             cerebrovascular risk factors (CVRFs), endothelial function,
             carotid artery intima medial thickness (IMT), and
             neuropsychological performance in a sample of 198
             middle-aged and older individuals with major depressive
             disorder (MDD). Neuropsychological deficits are common among
             adults with MDD, particularly among those with CVRFs and
             potentially persons with subclinical vascular disease.
             METHODS: CVRFs were indexed by the Framingham Stroke Risk
             Profile (FSRP) and serum cholesterol levels obtained by
             medical history and physical examination. Patients completed
             a neuropsychological test battery including measures of
             executive functioning, working memory, and verbal recall.
             Vascular function was indexed by carotid artery IMT and
             brachial artery flow mediated dilation (FMD). Hierarchical
             multiple regression analyses were used to investigate the
             association between CVRFs, vascular disease, and
             neurocognitive performance. RESULTS: Greater FSRP scores
             were associated with poorer executive functioning (b =
             -0.86; p = .041) and working memory (b = -0.90; p = .024).
             Lower high-density lipoprotein levels also were associated
             with poorer executive functioning (b = 1.03; p = .035).
             Higher IMT (b = -0.83; p = .028) and lower FMD (b = 1.29; p
             = .032) were associated with poorer executive functioning
             after controlling for CVRFs. Lower FMD was also associated
             with poorer working memory (b = 1.58; p = .015).
             CONCLUSIONS: Greater CVRFs were associated with poorer
             neuropsychological performance. Vascular dysfunction also
             was associated with neuropsychological decrements
             independent of traditional CVRFs.},
   Doi = {10.1097/PSY.0b013e31812f7b8e},
   Key = {fds270808}
}

@article{fds270809,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Babyak, MA and Ironson, G and Thoresen, C and Powell,
             L and Czajkowski, S and Burg, M and Keefe, FJ and Steffen, P and Catellier,
             D and ENRICHD Investigators},
   Title = {Spirituality, religion, and clinical outcomes in patients
             recovering from an acute myocardial infarction.},
   Journal = {Psychosom Med},
   Volume = {69},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {501-508},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17636153},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To assess the prospective relationship between
             spiritual experiences and health in a sample of patients
             surviving an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with
             depression or low social support. METHODS: A subset of 503
             patients participating in the enhancing recovery in coronary
             heart disease (ENRICHD) trial completed a Daily Spiritual
             Experiences (DSE) questionnaire within 28 days from the time
             of their AMI. The questionnaire assessed three spirituality
             variables-worship service/church attendance,
             prayer/meditation, and total DSE score. Patients also
             completed the Beck Depression Inventory to assess depressive
             symptoms and the ENRICHD Social Support Inventory to
             determine perceived social support. The sample was
             subsequently followed prospectively every 6 months for an
             average of 18 months to assess all-cause mortality and
             recurrent AMI. RESULTS: Of the 503 participants who
             completed the DSE questionnaire at the time of index AMI, 61
             (12%) participants either died or sustained a recurrent MI
             during the follow-up period. After adjustment for gender,
             education level, ethnicity, and a composite medical
             prognosis risk score derived specifically for the ENRICHD
             trial, we observed no relationship between death or nonfatal
             AMI and total spirituality as measured by the DSE (p =
             .446), worship service attendance (p = .120), or frequency
             of prayer/meditation (p = .679). CONCLUSION: We found little
             evidence that self-reported spirituality, frequency of
             church attendance, or frequency of prayer is associated with
             cardiac morbidity or all-cause mortality post AMI in
             patients with depression and/or low perceived
             support.},
   Doi = {10.1097/PSY.0b013e3180cab76c},
   Key = {fds270809}
}

@article{fds270811,
   Author = {Lett, HS and Blumenthal, JA and Babyak, MA and Catellier, DJ and Carney,
             RM and Berkman, LF and Burg, MM and Mitchell, P and Jaffe, AS and Schneiderman, N},
   Title = {Social support and prognosis in patients at increased
             psychosocial risk recovering from myocardial
             infarction.},
   Journal = {Health Psychology : Official Journal of the Division of
             Health Psychology, American Psychological
             Association},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {418-427},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0278-6133},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17605561},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To compare the impact of network support and
             different types of perceived functional support on all-cause
             mortality or nonfatal reinfarction for patients with a
             recent acute myocardial infarction (AMI). DESIGN:
             Participants were recruited from the Enhancing Recovery in
             Coronary Heart Disease (ENRICHD) trial; 2,481 AMI patients
             with depression or low social support were randomized to a
             cognitive-behavioral intervention or to a usual care control
             group. Data collection for certain measures of social
             support was limited: 2,466 participants completed the
             ENRICHD Social Support Inventory; 2,457 completed the
             Perceived Social Support Scale; 1,296 completed the Social
             Network Questionnaire; and 707 completed the Interpersonal
             Support and Evaluation List, Tangible Support subscale.
             Patients also completed the Beck Depression Inventory and
             were followed for up to 4.5 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:
             Time to death or nonfatal reinfarction. RESULTS: Over the
             follow-up period, 599 patients (24%) died or had a nonfatal
             AMI. Survival models controlling age, sex, race,
             socioeconomic status, smoking, antidepressant use, and a
             composite measure of increased risk revealed that higher
             levels of perceived social support were associated with
             improved outcome for patients without elevated depression
             but not for patients with high levels of depression. Neither
             perceived tangible support nor network support were
             associated with more frequent adverse events. CONCLUSION:
             AMI patients should be assessed for multiple dimensions of
             perceived functional support and depression to identify
             those at increased psychosocial risk who may benefit from
             treatment.},
   Doi = {10.1037/0278-6133.26.4.418},
   Key = {fds270811}
}

@article{fds270814,
   Author = {Mathew, JP and Podgoreanu, MV and Grocott, HP and White, WD and Morris,
             RW and Stafford-Smith, M and Mackensen, GB and Rinder, CS and Blumenthal, JA and Schwinn, DA and Newman, MF and PEGASUS
             Investigative Team},
   Title = {Genetic variants in P-selectin and C-reactive protein
             influence susceptibility to cognitive decline after cardiac
             surgery.},
   Journal = {Journal of the American College of Cardiology},
   Volume = {49},
   Number = {19},
   Pages = {1934-1942},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17498578},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that candidate gene
             polymorphisms in biologic pathways regulating inflammation,
             cell matrix adhesion/interaction, coagulation-thrombosis,
             lipid metabolism, and vascular reactivity are associated
             with postoperative cognitive deficit (POCD). BACKGROUND:
             Cognitive decline is a common complication of coronary
             artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery and is associated with a
             reduced quality of life. METHODS: In a prospective cohort
             study of 513 patients (86% European American) undergoing
             CABG surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, a panel of 37
             single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was genotyped by mass
             spectrometry. Association between these SNPs and cognitive
             deficit at 6 weeks after surgery was tested using multiple
             logistic regression accounting for age, level of education,
             baseline cognition, and population structure. Permutation
             analysis was used to account for multiple testing. RESULTS:
             We found that minor alleles of the CRP 1059G/C SNP (odds
             ratio [OR] 0.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16 to 0.78;
             p = 0.013) and the SELP 1087G/A SNP (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.30 to
             0.85; p = 0.011) were associated with a reduction in
             cognitive deficit in European Americans (n = 443). The
             absolute risk reduction in the observed incidence of POCD
             was 20.6% for carriers of the CRP 1059C allele and 15.2% for
             carriers of the SELP 1087A allele. Perioperative serum
             C-reactive protein (CRP) and degree of platelet activation
             were also significantly lower in patients with a copy of the
             minor alleles, providing biologic support for the observed
             allelic association. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest a
             contribution of P-selectin and CRP genes in modulating
             susceptibility to cognitive decline after cardiac surgery,
             with potential implications for identifying populations at
             risk who might benefit from targeted perioperative
             antiinflammatory strategies.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jacc.2007.01.080},
   Key = {fds270814}
}

@article{fds270777,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Psychosocial training and cardiac rehabilitation.},
   Journal = {Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and
             Prevention},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {104-106},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {1932-7501},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17558248},
   Doi = {10.1097/01.HCR.0000265038.69898.b0},
   Key = {fds270777}
}

@article{fds270815,
   Author = {Sherwood, A and Blumenthal, JA and Trivedi, R and Johnson, KS and O'Connor, CM and Adams, KF and Dupree, CS and Waugh, RA and Bensimhon,
             DR and Gaulden, L and Christenson, RH and Koch, GG and Hinderliter,
             AL},
   Title = {Relationship of depression to death or hospitalization in
             patients with heart failure.},
   Journal = {Archives of Internal Medicine},
   Volume = {167},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {367-373},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0003-9926},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17325298},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Depression is widely recognized as a risk factor
             in patients with coronary heart disease. However, patients
             with heart failure (HF) have been less frequently studied,
             and the effect of depression on prognosis, independent of
             disease severity, is uncertain. METHODS: Two hundred four
             outpatients having a diagnosis of HF, with a ventricular
             ejection fraction of 40% or less, underwent baseline
             assessments including evaluation of depressive symptoms
             using the Beck Depression Inventory and of HF severity
             determined by plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic
             peptide. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were
             used to examine the effects of depressive symptoms on a
             combined primary end point of death and hospitalizations
             because of cardiovascular disease (hereafter referred to as
             cardiovascular hospitalization) during a median follow-up of
             3 years. RESULTS: Symptoms of depression (Beck Depression
             Inventory score) were associated with risk of death or
             cardiovascular hospitalization (P<.001) after controlling
             for established risk factors including HF disease severity,
             ejection fraction, HF etiology, age, and medications.
             Clinically significant symptoms of depression (Beck
             Depression Inventory score >/=10) were associated with a
             hazard ratio of 1.56 (95% confidence interval, 1.07-2.29)
             for the combined end point of death or cardiovascular
             hospitalization. Contrary to our expectation, antidepressant
             medication use was associated with increased likelihood of
             death or cardiovascular hospitalization (hazard ratio, 1.75;
             95% confidence interval,1.14-2.68, P =.01) after controlling
             for severity of depressive symptoms and for established risk
             factors. CONCLUSIONS: Symptoms of depression were associated
             with an adverse prognosis in patients with HF after
             controlling for HF severity. The unexpected association of
             antidepressant medications with worse clinical outcome
             suggests that patients with HF requiring an antidepressant
             medication may need to be monitored more
             closely.},
   Doi = {10.1001/archinte.167.4.367},
   Key = {fds270815}
}

@article{fds270816,
   Author = {Whellan, DJ and O'Connor, CM and Lee, KL and Keteyian, SJ and Cooper,
             LS and Ellis, SJ and Leifer, ES and Kraus, WE and Kitzman, DW and Blumenthal, JA and Rendall, DS and Houston-Miller, N and Fleg, JL and Schulman, KA and Piña, IL and HF-ACTION Trial
             Investigators},
   Title = {Heart failure and a controlled trial investigating outcomes
             of exercise training (HF-ACTION): design and
             rationale.},
   Journal = {American Heart Journal},
   Volume = {153},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {201-211},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17239677},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Although there are limited clinical data to
             support the use of exercise training as a means to reduce
             mortality and morbidity in patients with heart failure,
             current guidelines state that exercise is beneficial. TRIAL
             DESIGN: The objective of this trial is to determine whether
             exercise training reduces all-cause mortality or all-cause
             hospitalization for patients with left ventricular systolic
             dysfunction and heart failure symptoms. After undergoing
             baseline assessments to determine whether they can safely
             exercise, patients are randomized to either usual care or
             exercise training. Patients in the exercise training arm
             attend 36 supervised facility-based exercise training
             sessions. Exercise modalities are cycling or walking. After
             completing 18 sessions, patients initiate home-based
             exercise and then transition to solely home-based exercise
             after completing all 36 sessions. Patients return for
             facility-based training every 3 months to reinforce their
             exercise training program. Patients are followed for up to 4
             years. Physiologic, quality-of-life, and economic end points
             that characterize the effect of exercise training in this
             patient population will be measured at baseline and at
             intervals throughout the trial. Blood samples will be
             collected to examine biomarkers such as brain natriuretic
             peptide, tumor necrosis factor, and C-reactive protein.
             CONCLUSIONS: Because of its relatively low cost, high
             availability, and ease of use, exercise training is an
             intervention that could be accessible to most patients with
             heart failure. The HF-ACTION trial is designed to
             definitively assess the effect of exercise training on the
             clinically relevant end points of mortality,
             hospitalization, and quality of life in patients with heart
             failure.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.ahj.2006.11.007},
   Key = {fds270816}
}

@article{fds270616,
   Author = {Khatri, P and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Exercise},
   Pages = {983-986},
   Publisher = {Elsevier},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-012373947-6.00153-7},
   Abstract = {Regular physical exercise improves muscle strength and
             cardiorespiratory endurance. In addition, exercise reduces
             symptoms of depression and anxiety, attenuates
             cardiovascular and neurohumoral stress responses, and may
             also improve neurocognition. A number of plausible
             psychological and physiological mechanisms responsible for
             the mental health benefits of exercise are discussed. ©
             2007 Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights
             reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/B978-012373947-6.00153-7},
   Key = {fds270616}
}

@article{fds270810,
   Author = {Carney, RM and Howells, WB and Blumenthal, JA and Freedland, KE and Stein, PK and Berkman, LF and Watkins, LL and Czajkowski, SM and Steinmeyer, B and Hayano, J and Domitrovich, PP and Burg, MM and Jaffe,
             AS},
   Title = {Heart rate turbulence, depression, and survival after acute
             myocardial infarction.},
   Journal = {Psychosom Med},
   Volume = {69},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {4-9},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17167127},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: Depression is a risk factor for mortality after
             acute myocardial infarction (AMI), possibly as a result of
             altered autonomic nervous system (ANS) modulation of heart
             rate (HR) and rhythm. The purposes of this study were to
             determine: a) whether depressed patients are more likely to
             have an abnormal HR response (i.e., abnormal turbulence) to
             premature ventricular contractions (VPCs), and b) whether
             abnormal HR turbulence accounts for the effect of depression
             on increased mortality after AMI. METHODS: Ambulatory
             electrocardiographic data were obtained from 666 (316
             depressed, 350 nondepressed) patients with a recent AMI; 498
             had VPCs with measurable HR turbulence. Of these, 260 had
             normal, 152 had equivocal, and 86 had abnormal HR
             turbulence. Patients were followed for up to 30 (median =
             24) months. RESULTS: Depressed patients were more likely to
             have abnormal HR turbulence (risk factor adjusted odds ratio
             = 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-3.0; p = .03) and
             have worse survival (odds ratio = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.2-4.6; p =
             .02) than nondepressed patients. When HR turbulence was
             added to the model, the adjusted hazard ratio for depression
             decreased to 1.9 (95% CI = 0.9-3.8; p = .08), and to 1.6
             (95% CI = 0.8-3.4; p = .18) when a measure of HR variability
             (LnVLF) was added. The hazard was found to differ over time
             with depression posing little risk for mortality in year 1
             but greater risk in years 2 and 3 of the follow up.
             CONCLUSION: ANS dysregulation may partially mediate the
             increased risk for mortality in depressed patients with
             frequent VPCs after an AMI.},
   Doi = {10.1097/01.psy.0000249733.33811.00},
   Key = {fds270810}
}

@article{fds270817,
   Author = {Smith, PJ and Blumenthal, JA and Babyak, MA and Georgiades, A and Sherwood, A and Sketch, MH and Watkins, LL},
   Title = {Ventricular ectopy: impact of self-reported stress after
             myocardial infarction.},
   Journal = {American Heart Journal},
   Volume = {153},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {133-139},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17174651},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Although psychologic stress has been implicated
             in the pathogenesis of ventricular arrhythmias, the
             relationship between self-reported stress and ventricular
             ectopy has not been evaluated under naturalistic conditions
             in acute post-myocardial infarction (MI) patients, a group
             at elevated risk for arrhythmias. MATERIALS AND METHODS:
             Diary-reported stress was measured during 24-hour Holter
             monitoring in 80 patients (52 men and 28 women)
             approximately 12 weeks after their MI. In addition, state
             and trait anxiety were measured using the Spielberger State
             and Trait Anxiety Inventory, which was administered at the
             beginning of the 24-hour Holter monitoring session. The
             relationships between diary-reported stress, anxiety, and
             ventricular ectopy were evaluated. RESULTS: Mean
             diary-reported stress was associated with total ventricular
             ectopy (beta = .29, P = .01). State anxiety was also
             associated with 24-hour ectopy (beta = .24, P = .04);
             however, trait anxiety was not significantly associated with
             ectopy. Temporal analyses of the relationship between stress
             and ectopy showed that diary-reported stress was associated
             with an increase in the number of ventricular premature
             beats occurring in the following hour (beta = .74, P <
             .0001). CONCLUSIONS: These findings extend existing evidence
             linking psychologic factors to ventricular arrhythmias by
             demonstrating that psychologic stress predicts increased
             arrhythmic activity during routine daily activities in
             post-MI patients.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.ahj.2006.10.016},
   Key = {fds270817}
}

@article{fds70774,
   Author = {Mathew, J.P. and Mackensen, G.B. and Phillips-Bute, B. and Stafford-Smith, M. and Podgoreanu, M.V. and Grocott, H.P. and Hill, S.E. and Smith, P.K. and Blumenthal, J.A. and Reves, J.G. and Newman, M.F. and for the Neurologic Outcome Research Group (NORG) of
             the Duke Heart Center.},
   Title = {Effects of extreme hemodilution during cardiac surgery on
             cognitive function in the elderly.},
   Journal = {Anesthesiology},
   Volume = {107},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {577-584},
   Year = {2007},
   Key = {fds70774}
}

@article{fds143719,
   Author = {Pells, J.J. and Shelby, R.A. and Keefe, F.K. and Dixon, K.E. and Blumenthal, J.A. and LaCaille, L. and Tucker, J.M. and Schmitt, D. and Caldwell, D.S. and Kraus, V.B.},
   Title = {Arthritis self-efficacy and self-efficacy for resisting
             eating: Relationships to pain, disability, and eating
             behavior in overweight and obese individuals with
             osteoarthritic knee pain},
   Journal = {Pain},
   Year = {2007},
   Key = {fds143719}
}

@article{fds270804,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Sherwood, A and Rogers, SD and Babyak, MA and Doraiswamy, PM and Watkins, L and Hoffman, BM and O'Connell, C and Johnson, JJ and Patidar, SM and Waugh, R and Hinderliter,
             A},
   Title = {Understanding prognostic benefits of exercise and
             antidepressant therapy for persons with depression and heart
             disease: the UPBEAT study--rationale, design, and
             methodological issues.},
   Journal = {Clinical Trials},
   Volume = {4},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {548-559},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {1740-7745},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17942470},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Depression is relatively common in patients with
             coronary heart disease (CHD) and is associated with worse
             prognosis. Recently there has been interest in evaluating
             the impact of treating depression on clinical outcomes.
             Anti-depressant medications have been shown to be safe and
             efficacious for many patients; exercise also may be
             effective for treating depression and may also improve
             cardiopulmonary functioning. However, methodological
             limitations of previous studies have raised questions about
             the value of exercise, and no study has compared the effects
             of exercise with standard anti-depressant medication in
             depressed cardiac patients. PURPOSE: UPBEAT is a randomized
             clinical trial (RCT) funded by NHLBI to evaluate the effects
             of sertraline or exercise compared to placebo on depression
             and biomarkers of cardiovascular risk in patients with CHD
             and elevated depressive symptoms. METHODS: The UPBEAT study
             includes 200 stable CHD patients with scores on the Beck
             Depression Inventory (BDI) > or =9 randomized to 4 months of
             treatment with aerobic exercise, sertraline, or placebo. The
             primary outcomes include depressive symptoms determined by
             clinical ratings on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression
             (HAM-D) and measures of heart rate variability (HRV),
             baroreflex control (BRC), vascular function (i.e.,
             flow-mediated dilation (FMD)), and measures of inflammation
             and platelet aggregation. RESULTS: This article reviews the
             rationale and design of UPBEAT and addresses several key
             methodologic issues that were carefully considered in the
             development of this protocol: the use of a placebo control
             condition in depressed cardiac patients, study design, and
             selection of intermediate endpoints or biomarkers of
             cardiovascular risk. LIMITATIONS: This study is not powered
             to assess treatment group differences in CHD morbidity and
             mortality. Intermediate endpoints are not equivalent to
             'hard' clinical events and further studies are needed to
             determine the clinical significance of these biomarkers.
             CONCLUSIONS: The UPBEAT study is designed to assess the
             efficacy of exercise in treating depression in cardiac
             patients and evaluates the impact of treating depression on
             important biomarkers of cardiovascular risk.},
   Doi = {10.1177/1740774507083388},
   Key = {fds270804}
}

@article{fds270813,
   Author = {Doraiswamy, PM and Babyak, MA and Hennig, T and Trivedi, R and White,
             WD and Mathew, JP and Newman, MF and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Donepezil for cognitive decline following coronary artery
             bypass surgery: a pilot randomized controlled
             trial.},
   Journal = {Psychopharmacology Bulletin},
   Volume = {40},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {54-62},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {0048-5764},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17514186},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of donepezil in treating
             patients with cognitive decline following coronary artery
             bypass graft (CABG) surgery. METHODS: Forty-four patients,
             with at least a 0.5 SD decline at 1 year post-CABG on at
             least one cognitive domain compared to their pre-CABG
             baseline score, were randomized to treatment with donepezil
             (titrated to 10 mg daily) or placebo in a 12-week
             double-blind, single center, randomized study. A composite
             cognitive change score served as the primary outcome.
             Secondary outcome measures included tests of memory,
             attention, psychomotor speed, and executive function.
             RESULTS: The composite cognitive outcome did not show
             significant treatment effects. Secondary measures varied in
             their sensitivity to donepezil effects with the largest
             effects seen on the Wechsler Visual Memory Scale-Delayed and
             Immediate recall tests. More than twice (52% vs. 22%) as
             many donepezil-treated patients showed a significant
             improvement compared with placebo patients on Delayed
             recall. Tests with weak effect sizes and minimal trends
             favoring donepezil were the Boston Naming and Digit Symbol.
             However, most of the other instruments (e.g., Digit Span,
             Trails B, and Controlled Word Association) showed no
             treatment benefits. More donepezil-treated than
             placebo-treated patients experienced diarrhea, but other
             adverse effects and safety measures did not differ between
             groups. CONCLUSION: In the post-CABG mild cognitive decline
             setting, donepezil did not improve composite cognitive
             performance but improved some aspects of memory. Donepezil
             was well tolerated and had no significant effects on EKG
             parameters. Because of limitations such as small sample size
             and multiplicity of tests, these findings are preliminary
             but add to our knowledge of cholinergic effects in vascular
             mild cognitive decline.},
   Key = {fds270813}
}

@article{fds270818,
   Author = {Watkins, LL and Blumenthal, JA and Davidson, JRT and Babyak, MA and McCants, CB and Sketch, MH},
   Title = {Phobic anxiety, depression, and risk of ventricular
             arrhythmias in patients with coronary heart
             disease.},
   Journal = {Psychosom Med},
   Volume = {68},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {651-656},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17012517},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: Findings of an association between phobic anxiety
             and elevated risks of sudden cardiac death suggest that
             phobic anxiety may be related to increased risk of
             ventricular arrhythmias. The purpose of this study was to
             examine whether phobic anxiety is associated with
             ventricular arrhythmias in patients with documented coronary
             artery disease (CAD). METHODS: Phobic anxiety level was
             measured using the Crown-Crisp phobic anxiety scale in 940
             patients (660 men, 280 women) hospitalized for diagnostic
             cardiac catheterization between April 1999 and June 2002.
             Depressive symptomatology was assessed using the Beck
             Depression Inventory. Patients were followed for a median
             follow-up period of 3 years, and the occurrence of
             ventricular arrhythmias was determined through review of
             medical records. RESULTS: Ventricular arrhythmias occurred
             in 97 patients and were significantly related to higher
             phobic anxiety after statistical adjustment for established
             medical and demographic determinants of arrhythmias (odds
             ratio = 1.40; p = .012). Depressive symptomatology was
             significantly correlated with phobic anxiety (r = 0.44, p <
             .001) and was also related to ventricular arrhythmias (odds
             ratio = 1.40; p = .006). The composite of depression and
             phobic anxiety predicted ventricular arrhythmias with a
             larger effect size than either depression or phobic anxiety
             score alone (odds ratio = 1.6, 95% confidence interval,
             1.2-2.1, p = .002). CONCLUSIONS: Both phobic anxiety and
             depressive symptomatology predict ventricular arrhythmias in
             patients with CAD and may share a common factor predictive
             of ventricular arrhythmias.},
   Doi = {10.1097/01.psy.0000228342.53606.b3},
   Key = {fds270818}
}

@article{fds270821,
   Author = {Newman, MF and Mathew, JP and Grocott, HP and Mackensen, GB and Monk, T and Welsh-Bohmer, KA and Blumenthal, JA and Laskowitz, DT and Mark,
             DB},
   Title = {Central nervous system injury associated with cardiac
             surgery.},
   Journal = {Lancet},
   Volume = {368},
   Number = {9536},
   Pages = {694-703},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {1474-547X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16920475},
   Keywords = {Cognition Disorders • Coronary Artery Bypass* •
             Coronary Disease • Humans • Intraoperative
             Complications • Quality of Life • Risk Factors
             • Stroke • economics • epidemiology* •
             etiology* • surgery*},
   Abstract = {Millions of individuals with coronary artery or valvular
             heart disease have been given a new chance at life by heart
             surgery, but the potential for neurological injury is an
             Achilles heel. Technological advancements and innovations in
             surgical and anaesthetic technique have allowed us to offer
             surgical treatment to patients at the extremes of age and
             infirmity-the group at greatest risk for neurological
             injury. Neurocognitive dysfunction is a complication of
             cardiac surgery that can restrict the improved quality of
             life that patients usually experience after heart surgery.
             With a broader understanding of the frequency and effects of
             neurological injury from cardiac surgery and its
             implications for patients in both the short term and the
             long term, we should be able to give personalised treatments
             and thus preserve both their quantity and quality of life.
             We describe these issues and the controversies that merit
             continued investigation.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69254-4},
   Key = {fds270821}
}

@article{fds270822,
   Author = {Bacon, SL and Sherwood, A and Hinderliter, AL and Coleman, RE and Waugh,
             R and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Changes in plasma volume associated with mental stress
             ischemia in patients with coronary artery
             disease.},
   Journal = {International Journal of Psychophysiology : Official Journal
             of the International Organization of Psychophysiology},
   Volume = {61},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {143-148},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0167-8760},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16253364},
   Abstract = {Psychological stress has been shown to trigger angina and
             myocardial ischemia in patients with coronary artery
             disease. However, the mechanisms by which stress may trigger
             cardiac events has yet to be fully elucidated. Twenty five
             patients underwent radionuclide ventriculography during a
             multiple stress challenge. Plasma volume was assessed during
             rest and at the end of the stress task. Flow-mediated
             dilatation was also measured. Controlling for endothelial
             function and medications, patients with ischemia had greater
             reductions in plasma volume than non-ischemic patients.
             Reduced plasma volume may be one mechanism by which mental
             stress may increase the risk for acute coronary
             events.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2005.09.001},
   Key = {fds270822}
}

@article{fds270824,
   Author = {Jaffe, AS and Krumholz, HM and Catellier, DJ and Freedland, KE and Bittner, V and Blumenthal, JA and Calvin, JE and Norman, J and Sequeira,
             R and O'Connor, C and Rich, MW and Sheps, D and Wu, C and Enhancing
             Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease Patients (ENRICHD) Trial
             Investigators},
   Title = {Prediction of medical morbidity and mortality after acute
             myocardial infarction in patients at increased psychosocial
             risk in the Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease
             Patients (ENRICHD) study.},
   Journal = {American Heart Journal},
   Volume = {152},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {126-135},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16824842},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Patients with myocardial infarction (MI) are at
             further increased risk for untoward events when patients
             also exhibit low social support and/or depression. The
             ENRICHD study was the largest controlled trial in post-MI
             patients attempting to treat these psychological
             comorbidities and provides an opportunity to examine the
             medical and psychological characteristics that may affect
             risk in this population. METHODS: We analyzed the baseline
             characteristics and their relationship to the primary end
             point of long-term mortality and recurrent infarction and to
             the secondary end points of overall mortality and
             cardiovascular mortality in 2481 post-MI patients. Cox
             proportional hazards models were used to predict the risk of
             these outcomes over a mean of 2.5 years of follow-up.
             RESULTS: Death or nonfatal MI occurred in 24.1%, all-cause
             mortality in 13.7%, and cardiovascular mortality in 8.4% of
             the sample (62% of the total). Age, heart failure, pulmonary
             disease, Killip class, ejection fraction, an elevated
             creatinine, the use of non-angiotensin-coverting enzyme
             asodilators, prior MI, diabetes, depression, and bypass
             surgery after acute MI were all significant multivariable
             predictors. CONCLUSIONS: The medical predictors of adverse
             events in post-MI patients with low social support and/or
             depression were similar to those of patients with MI in
             other clinical trials.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.ahj.2005.10.004},
   Key = {fds270824}
}

@article{fds270778,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Babyak, MA and Keefe, FJ and Davis, RD and Lacaille,
             RA and Carney, RM and Freedland, KE and Trulock, E and Palmer,
             SM},
   Title = {Telephone-based coping skills training for patients awaiting
             lung transplantation.},
   Journal = {Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology},
   Volume = {74},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {535-544},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0022-006X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16822110},
   Abstract = {Impaired quality of life is associated with increased
             mortality in patients with advanced lung disease. Using a
             randomized controlled trial with allocation concealment and
             blinded outcome assessment at 2 tertiary care teaching
             hospitals, the authors randomly assigned 328 patients with
             end-stage lung disease awaiting lung transplantation to 12
             weeks of telephone-based coping skills training (CST) or to
             usual medical care (UMC). Patients completed a battery of
             quality of life instruments and were followed for up to 3.4
             years to assess all-cause mortality. Compared with UMC, CST
             produced lower scores on perceived stress, anxiety,
             depressive symptoms, and negative affect and improved scores
             on mental health functioning, optimism, vitality, and
             perceived social support. There were 29 deaths (9%) over a
             mean follow-up period of 1.1 year. Survival analyses
             revealed that there was no difference in survival between
             the 2 groups. The authors conclude that a telephone-based
             CST intervention can be effectively delivered to patients
             awaiting lung transplantation. Despite the severity of
             pulmonary disease in this patient population, significant
             improvements in quality of life, but not somatic measures or
             survival to transplant, were achieved.},
   Doi = {10.1037/0022-006X.74.3.535},
   Key = {fds270778}
}

@article{fds270819,
   Author = {Barbour, KA and Blumenthal, JA and Palmer, SM},
   Title = {Psychosocial issues in the assessment and management of
             patients undergoing lung transplantation.},
   Journal = {Chest},
   Volume = {129},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1367-1374},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0012-3692},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16685030},
   Abstract = {This review examines psychosocial issues among lung
             transplant patients from the time of assessment through the
             posttransplant period. Although psychological factors are
             recognized as being important in the transplant evaluation,
             no standard approach to psychological assessment currently
             exists. Lung transplant candidates often experience high
             levels of psychological distress while awaiting transplant,
             and both pretransplant and posttransplant psychological
             functioning have been found to predict posttransplant
             quality of life, adherence to treatment, and, in some cases,
             medical outcomes. Given the limited long-term survival
             following transplantation, improving psychosocial
             functioning is essential for enhancing outcomes among lung
             transplant recipients. This review summarizes the extant
             literature on the psychosocial factors in lung
             transplantation and highlights several innovative efforts to
             improve psychological outcomes in this challenging patient
             population.},
   Doi = {10.1378/chest.129.5.1367},
   Key = {fds270819}
}

@article{fds270820,
   Author = {Phillips-Bute, B and Mathew, JP and Blumenthal, JA and Grocott, HP and Laskowitz, DT and Jones, RH and Mark, DB and Newman,
             MF},
   Title = {Association of neurocognitive function and quality of life 1
             year after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
             surgery.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {68},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {369-375},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16738066},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: Although coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)
             has been shown to improve quality of life and functional
             capacity for many patients, recent studies have demonstrated
             that a significant number of patients exhibit impairment in
             cognitive function immediately following surgery and beyond.
             We sought to determine the impact of this postoperative
             cognitive dysfunction on quality of life (QOL) and to
             characterize the dysfunction from the patient's perspective.
             METHODS: With Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval and
             written informed consent, 732 patients at Duke University
             Hospital undergoing CABG were enrolled. Five hundred
             fifty-one (75%) completed baseline, 6-week, and 1-year
             neurocognitive tests and psychometric measures designed to
             assess QOL. Neurocognitive status was assessed by a
             composite cognitive index score representing the mean of the
             scores in four cognitive domains. Change in QOL was assessed
             by subtracting baseline from 1-year scores for each of 10
             QOL measures. The association between QOL and cognitive
             dysfunction was investigated using multivariable linear
             regression analysis. RESULTS: Cognitive decline limited
             improvement in QOL, with substantial correlation between
             change in cognition and change in QOL. One-year QOL measures
             are associated with both 6-week and 1-year change in
             cognition (Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, p <
             .0001; Duke Activity Status Index, p < .02; Cognitive
             Difficulties, p < .0001; Symptom Limitations, p = .0001;
             Center for Epidemiologic Study Depression, p < .0001;
             General Health Perception, p = .0001). CONCLUSIONS:
             Postoperative cognitive decline may diminish improvements in
             QOL. Strategies to reduce cognitive decline may allow
             patients to achieve the maximum improvement in QOL afforded
             by CABG, as even short-term cognitive dysfunction has
             implications for QOL 1 year later.},
   Doi = {10.1097/01.psy.0000221272.77984.e2},
   Key = {fds270820}
}

@article{fds270826,
   Author = {Palmer, SM and Davis, RD and Simsir, SA and Lin, SS and Hartwig, M and Reidy, MF and Steele, MP and Eu, PC and Blumenthal, JA and Babyak,
             MA},
   Title = {Successful bilateral lung transplant outcomes in recipients
             61 years of age and older.},
   Journal = {Transplantation},
   Volume = {81},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {862-865},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0041-1337},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16570009},
   Keywords = {Age Factors • Aged • Bronchiolitis Obliterans
             • Case-Control Studies • Female • Humans
             • Lung Transplantation* • Male • Middle Aged
             • adverse effects • etiology •
             mortality},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Controversy exists regarding the optimal use of
             bilateral lung transplant (BLT) in older recipients in
             diseases where either single or bilateral transplant is
             appropriate. International Society for Heart and Lung
             Transplant (ISHLT) guidelines suggest an upper age limit of
             60 for BLT, despite limited data regarding outcomes with BLT
             in patients over 60. We hypothesize that BLT offers
             comparable, if not superior, clinical outcomes to SLT in all
             patients independent of recipient age. METHODS: In order to
             test our hypothesis, we conducted a case-control study to
             compare the effect of transplant operation on survival and
             the onset of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) in
             consecutive lung transplant recipients 61 years of age or
             older using Kaplan- Meier analysis and Cox proportional
             hazard models. RESULTS: We identified 107 consecutive lung
             transplant recipients 61 or older at the time of transplant.
             Patients received SLT (n=46) or BLT (n=61) based on donor
             organ availability. Comparable survival was achieved with
             BLT in older patients vs. SLT P=0.19). One-, two-, and
             five-year survival estimates in BLT were 82%, 75% and 68%,
             respectively, vs. in SLT 78%, 70% and 44%, respectively. A
             comparable onset of BOS was also observed in the patients
             who received BLT vs. SLT (P=0.23). CONCLUSION: Successful
             short- and medium-term outcomes are achieved with BLT in
             older recipients and are comparable to those achieved with
             SLT. Our results suggest that age over 60 should not exclude
             patients from consideration of BLT.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1097/01.tp.0000203298.00475.0d},
   Key = {fds270826}
}

@article{fds270647,
   Author = {Lavie, CJ and Milani, RV},
   Title = {Cardiac rehabilitation, exercise training, and psychosocial
             risk factors.},
   Journal = {J Am Coll Cardiol},
   Volume = {47},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {212},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0735-1097},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2005.10.002},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jacc.2005.10.002},
   Key = {fds270647}
}

@article{fds270761,
   Author = {Mendes de Leon and CF and Czajkowski, SM and Freedland, KE and Bang, H and Powell, LH and Wu, C and Burg, MM and DiLillo, V and Ironson, G and Krumholz, HM and Mitchell, P and Blumenthal, JA and ENRICHD
             investigators},
   Title = {The effect of a psychosocial intervention and quality of
             life after acute myocardial infarction: the Enhancing
             Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease (ENRICHD) clinical
             trial.},
   Journal = {Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {9-13},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0883-9212},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16617220},
   Keywords = {Cognitive Therapy • Depression • Female •
             Follow-Up Studies • Humans • Male • Middle
             Aged • Myocardial Infarction • Quality of Life*
             • Retrospective Studies • Treatment Outcome •
             complications • etiology • methods* •
             psychology • rehabilitation* •
             therapy},
   Abstract = {PURPOSE: The Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease
             Patients (ENRICHD) clinical trial was designed to test
             whether intervening on depression or low perceived social
             support reduces mortality and reinfarction in patients with
             acute myocardial infarction (MI). This report analyzes the
             effect of the intervention on quality of life (QOL), which
             was an important secondary outcome. METHODS: ENRICHD was a
             randomized controlled clinical trial comparing a
             psychosocial intervention based on cognitive behavioral
             therapy to usual medical care in 2,481 patients from 8
             clinical centers. Patients with acute MI were included if
             they met criteria for depression, low perceived social
             support, or both. QOL was assessed at the 6-month clinic
             visit in the first 1,296 patients. QOL measures included the
             Medical Outcomes Study Short Form summary measures of
             physical functioning (SF12-PCS) and mental functioning
             (SF12-MCS), a Life Satisfaction Scale (LSS), and a measure
             of overall QOL based on the ladder of life (LOL) technique.
             RESULTS: There were significant treatment differences on the
             SF12-MCS (difference 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]
             1.2-3.2), the LSS (difference 1.0, 95% CI 0.5-1.5), and the
             LOL (difference 0.3, 95% CI 0.1-0.6), but not on the
             SF12-PCS (difference 0.8; 95% CI = -0.5-2.0). Effect sizes
             for the intervention on QOL outcomes were modest.
             CONCLUSIONS: Psychosocial interventions of limited duration
             confer modest QOL benefits in post-MI patients who are
             depressed or have low perceived social support.
             Interventions of longer duration or greater intensity may be
             required to produce more substantial improvements in QOL in
             these patients.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1097/00008483-200601000-00002},
   Key = {fds270761}
}

@article{fds316061,
   Author = {Bacon, SL and Sherwood, A and Hinderliter, A and Babyak, M and Waugh, R and Georgiades, A and Coleman, RE and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {The effects of exercise training on mental stress-induced
             ischemia},
   Journal = {Psychophysiology},
   Volume = {43},
   Pages = {S8-S9},
   Publisher = {BLACKWELL PUBLISHING},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0048-5772},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000239965400031&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds316061}
}

@article{fds316065,
   Author = {Bacon, SL and Sherwood, A and Hinderliter, A and Babyak, M and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {The effects of behavioral interventions on stress-induced
             cardiovascular changes},
   Journal = {Psychophysiology},
   Volume = {43},
   Pages = {S22-S22},
   Publisher = {BLACKWELL PUBLISHING},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0048-5772},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000239965400097&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds316065}
}

@article{fds51797,
   Author = {Palmer, S.M. and Davis, R.D. and Simsir, S.A. and Lin, S.S. and Harwig, M. and Reidy, M.F. and Steele, M.P. and Eu, P.C. and Blumenthal, J.A. and Babyak, M.A},
   Title = {Successful bilateral lung transplant outcomes in recipients
             61 years of age and older},
   Journal = {Transplantation},
   Volume = {81},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {862-865},
   Year = {2006},
   Key = {fds51797}
}

@article{fds51804,
   Author = {Newman, M.F. and Mathew, J.P. and Grocott, H.P. and Mackensen, G.B. and Monk, T. and Welsh-Bohmer, K.A. and Blumenthal, J.A. and Laskowitz, D.T. and Mark, D.B.},
   Title = {Central nervous system injury associated with cardiac
             surgery},
   Journal = {Lancet},
   Volume = {368},
   Pages = {694-703},
   Year = {2006},
   Key = {fds51804}
}

@article{fds270823,
   Author = {Thurston, RC and Blumenthal, JA and Babyak, MA and Sherwood,
             A},
   Title = {Association between hot flashes, sleep complaints, and
             psychological functioning among healthy menopausal
             women.},
   Journal = {International Journal of Behavioral Medicine},
   Volume = {13},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {163-172},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {1070-5503},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16712434},
   Abstract = {Self-report data suggest that sleep hot flashes among
             menopausal women are associated with sleep problems and in
             turn impaired psychological functioning. However, few
             studies have examined these relations with physiologic hot
             flash measures. A total of 41 perimenopausal and
             postmenopausal women with daily hot flashes underwent
             nighttime sternal skin conductance monitoring to quantify
             hot flashes. Participants completed sleep diaries; the
             Sleep-Wake Experience List (van Diest, 1990); and
             depression, anxiety, and daily stress measures. Participants
             experienced a median of 2 physiologically monitored and 1
             reported sleep hot flash nightly. Although sleep complaints
             were significantly and positively associated with
             psychological functioning, neither sleep complaints nor
             psychological functioning was significantly related to
             frequency of physiologically monitored sleep hot flashes.
             Conversely, results indicate an association between reported
             sleep hot flashes and acute sleep problems. The frequency of
             physiologically monitored sleep hot flashes, as opposed to
             reported sleep hot flashes, may be independent of problems
             with sleep and mood among menopausal women.},
   Doi = {10.1207/s15327558ijbm1302_8},
   Key = {fds270823}
}

@article{fds270825,
   Author = {Leon, MD and Czajkowski, and Freedland, and Bang, and Powell, and Wu, and Burg, and DiLillo, and Ironson, and Krumholz, and Mitchell, and Blumenthal, and Investigators, JAFTENRICHD},
   Title = {The effect of a psychosocial intervention and quality of
             life after acute myocardial infarction},
   Journal = {Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation},
   Volume = {26},
   Pages = {9-13},
   Year = {2006},
   Key = {fds270825}
}

@article{fds270827,
   Author = {Barbour, KA and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Exercise training and depression in older
             adults.},
   Journal = {Neurobiology of Aging},
   Volume = {26 Suppl 1},
   Pages = {119-123},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0197-4580},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16223547},
   Abstract = {This article provides a review of the evidence supporting
             exercise as an effective treatment of depression in older
             adults. Depression is prevalent among older adults and is
             associated with significant morbidity, increased risk of
             mortality, and economic burden. Although effective
             treatments for depression exist (e.g., antidepressant
             medication, cognitive-behavioral therapy), the disorder
             remains inadequately treated for many older individuals.
             Recently, the use of exercise as a treatment for depression
             has received increased attention. Results of these studies
             suggest that exercise leads to a reduction in depressive
             symptoms when compared to wait list, social contact
             controls, and antidepressant medication. However, many
             studies have significant methodological limitations. In the
             present article, we include discussion of these limitations
             and provide suggestions for future research.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2005.09.007},
   Key = {fds270827}
}

@article{fds270764,
   Author = {Feeney, JM and Goldberg, R and Blumenthal, JA and Wallack,
             MK},
   Title = {September 11, 2001, revisited: a review of the
             data.},
   Journal = {Archives of Surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)},
   Volume = {140},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {1068-1073},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0004-0010},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16301442},
   Keywords = {Academic Medical Centers • Emergency Service, Hospital
             • Humans • New York City • September 11
             Terrorist Attacks* • Triage • Wounds and Injuries
             • economics • etiology* • organization &
             administration • organization & administration* •
             therapy*},
   Abstract = {HYPOTHESIS: The September 11, 2001, World Trade Center (WTC)
             attack was a disaster of epic proportion in New York City,
             NY. It was unprecedented in terms of the number of people
             who were killed in the bombings, as well as in terms of the
             volume of patients received at local (New York City)
             hospitals. The strain on local emergency medical services,
             hospitals, and the citywide trauma system is still felt
             today as the hospitals, physicians, and agencies involved
             struggle to train for similar events that may occur in the
             future, cope with the psychological and social aftermath,
             and even pay for the response to the bombing. The objective
             of this review of the data was to determine the major causes
             of morbidity (ie, hospital visits) during the hours
             immediately after the September 11, 2001, WTC attack, as
             well as to detail the costs involved in the medical response
             to a disaster of this scale and to identify some lessons
             learned with respect to the hospital's response to an event
             of this magnitude. DESIGN: Review of records and cost data
             submitted by Saint Vincent's Hospital, Manhattan, NY, to the
             state of New York and federal sources for financial relief
             from the September 11, 2001, WTC attack. SETTING: Saint
             Vincent's Hospital is an academic medical center of New York
             Medical College and a New York City-designated level I
             trauma center. PATIENTS: All medical records for the
             patients registered at Saint Vincent's Hospital on September
             11, 2001, after 8:50 am were reviewed. RESULTS: The major
             cause of morbidity for the September 11, 2001, patients was
             smoke inhalation (30.0%); followed closely by chemical
             conjunctivitis and corneal abrasions (16%); lacerations,
             abrasions, and soft-tissue injuries (15.5%); isolated
             orthopedic complaints (12%); and psychiatric complaints
             (10%). Multiple-trauma patients were 3% of the patients
             seen. There were 5 fatalities at Saint Vincent's Hospital.
             CONCLUSIONS: The WTC disaster was a source of major
             morbidity and mortality to the people of New York City. The
             possibility that Saint Vincent's will again serve in that
             role is in the forefront of the minds of everyone involved
             in updating our contingency plan.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1001/archsurg.140.11.1068},
   Key = {fds270764}
}

@article{fds270835,
   Author = {Lett, HS and Blumenthal, JA and Babyak, MA and Strauman, TJ and Robins,
             C and Sherwood, A},
   Title = {Social support and coronary heart disease: epidemiologic
             evidence and implications for treatment.},
   Journal = {Psychosom Med},
   Volume = {67},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {869-878},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16314591},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: The present paper reviews theories of social
             support and evidence for the role of social support in the
             development and progression of coronary heart disease (CHD).
             METHODS: Articles for the primary review of social support
             as a risk factor were identified with MEDLINE (1966-2004)
             and PsychINFO (1872-2004). Reviews of bibliographies also
             were used to identify relevant articles. RESULTS: In
             general, evidence suggests that low social support confers a
             risk of 1.5 to 2.0 in both healthy populations and in
             patients with established CHD. However, there is substantial
             variability in the manner in which social support is
             conceptualized and measured. In addition, few studies have
             simultaneously compared differing types of support.
             CONCLUSIONS: Although low levels of support are associated
             with increased risk for CHD events, it is not clear what
             types of support are most associated with clinical outcomes
             in healthy persons and CHD patients. The development of a
             consensus in the conceptualization and measurement of social
             support is needed to examine which types of support are most
             likely to be associated with adverse CHD outcomes. There
             also is little evidence that improving low social support
             reduces CHD events.},
   Doi = {10.1097/01.psy.0000188393.73571.0a},
   Key = {fds270835}
}

@article{fds270830,
   Author = {Sherwood, A and Hinderliter, AL and Watkins, LL and Waugh, RA and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Impaired endothelial function in coronary heart disease
             patients with depressive symptomatology.},
   Journal = {Journal of the American College of Cardiology},
   Volume = {46},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {656-659},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0735-1097},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16098431},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess whether
             depressive symptomatology was associated with vascular
             endothelial dysfunction in patients with coronary heart
             disease (CHD). BACKGROUND: In patients with CHD, the
             presence of depression is associated with a two to four
             times increased risk of mortality, but the disease pathways
             involved are uncertain. Endothelial dysfunction is an
             established risk factor for cardiovascular events in
             patients with CHD. METHODS: Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of
             the brachial artery, a measure of endothelial function, was
             assessed in 143 patients (99 men, 44 women), ages 40 to 84
             years (mean age, 63 +/- 10 years), with documented CHD.
             RESULTS: Patients with significant depressive
             symptomatology, as indicated by a Beck Depression Inventory
             (BDI) score > or = 10 (n = 47) showed attenuated FMD (p =
             0.001) compared with patients that were not depressed (BDI <
             10; n = 96). The use of antidepressant medication was
             associated with improved FMD (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The
             increased risk of cardiovascular events in CHD patients with
             elevated symptoms of depression may be mediated, in part, by
             endothelial dysfunction.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jacc.2005.05.041},
   Key = {fds270830}
}

@article{fds270829,
   Author = {Carney, RM and Blumenthal, JA and Freedland, KE and Stein, PK and Howells, WB and Berkman, LF and Watkins, LL and Czajkowski, SM and Hayano, J and Domitrovich, PP and Jaffe, AS},
   Title = {Low heart rate variability and the effect of depression on
             post-myocardial infarction mortality.},
   Journal = {Archives of Internal Medicine},
   Volume = {165},
   Number = {13},
   Pages = {1486-1491},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0003-9926},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16009863},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Depression is associated with an increased risk
             for mortality after acute myocardial infarction (MI). The
             purpose of this study was to determine whether low heart
             rate variability (HRV) mediates the effect of depression on
             mortality. METHODS: Twenty-four-hour ambulatory
             electrocardiograms were obtained from 311 depressed patients
             with a recent acute MI who were enrolled in the Enhancing
             Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease (ENRICHD) clinical trial
             and from 367 nondepressed patients who met the ENRICHD
             medical inclusion criteria. Standard HRV indexes were
             extracted from the recordings. RESULTS: The log of very
             low-frequency (LnVLF) power, an index of HRV derived from
             power spectral analysis of the electrocardiogram signal
             (0.0033-0.04 Hz [in milliseconds squared]), was lower in the
             depressed than in the nondepressed patients (P<.001). There
             were 47 deaths (6.1%) during a 30-month follow-up. After
             adjusting for potential confounders, the depressed patients
             remained at higher risk for all-cause mortality compared
             with the nondepressed patients (hazard ratio, 2.8; 95%
             confidence interval [CI], 1.4-5.4; P<.003). When LnVLF power
             was entered into the model, the hazard ratio for depression
             dropped to 2.1 (95% CI, 1.1-4.2; P = .03). The proportion of
             the risk for depression attributable to LnVLF power was 0.27
             (95% CI, 0.23-0.31; P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: Low HRV partially
             mediates the effect of depression on survival after acute
             MI. This finding helps to clarify the physiological
             mechanisms underlying depression's role as a risk factor for
             mortality in patients with coronary heart disease. It also
             raises the possibility that treatments that improve both
             depression and HRV might also improve survival in these
             patients.},
   Doi = {10.1001/archinte.165.13.1486},
   Key = {fds270829}
}

@article{fds270828,
   Author = {Taylor, CB and Youngblood, ME and Catellier, D and Veith, RC and Carney,
             RM and Burg, MM and Kaufmann, PG and Shuster, J and Mellman, T and Blumenthal, JA and Krishnan, R and Jaffe, AS and ENRICHD
             Investigators},
   Title = {Effects of antidepressant medication on morbidity and
             mortality in depressed patients after myocardial
             infarction.},
   Journal = {Archives of General Psychiatry},
   Volume = {62},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {792-798},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0003-990X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15997021},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Depression after myocardial infarction (MI) is
             associated with higher morbidity and mortality. Although
             antidepressants are effective in reducing depression, their
             use in patients with cardiovascular disease remains
             controversial. OBJECTIVE: To undertake a secondary analysis
             to determine the effects of using antidepressants on
             morbidity and mortality in post-MI patients who participated
             in the Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease study.
             DESIGN: Observational secondary analysis. SETTING: Eight
             academic sites. PATIENTS: The Enhancing Recovery in Coronary
             Heart Disease clinical trial randomized 2481 depressed
             and/or socially isolated patients from October 1, 1996, to
             October 31, 1999. Depression was diagnosed using a
             structured clinical interview. This analysis was conducted
             on the 1834 patients enrolled with depression (849 women and
             985 men). INTERVENTION: Use of antidepressant medication.
             MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Event-free survival was defined as
             the absence of death or recurrent MI. All-cause mortality
             was also examined. To relate exposure to antidepressants to
             subsequent morbidity and mortality, the data were analyzed
             using a time-dependent covariate model. RESULTS: During a
             mean follow-up of 29 months, 457 fatal and nonfatal
             cardiovascular events occurred. The risk of death or
             recurrent MI was significantly lower in patients taking
             selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (adjusted hazard
             ratio [HR], 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38-0.84),
             as were the risk of all-cause mortality (adjusted HR, 0.59;
             95% CI, 0.37-0.96) and recurrent MI (adjusted HR, 0.53; 95%
             CI, 0.32-0.90), compared with patients who did not use
             selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. For patients taking
             non-selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants,
             the comparable HRs (95% CIs) were 0.72 (0.44-1.18), 0.64
             (0.34-1.22), and 0.73 (0.38-1.38) for risk of death or
             recurrent MI, all-cause mortality, or recurrent MI,
             respectively, compared with nonusers. CONCLUSIONS: Use of
             selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in depressed
             patients who experience an acute MI might reduce subsequent
             cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A controlled trial
             is needed to examine this important issue.},
   Doi = {10.1001/archpsyc.62.7.792},
   Key = {fds270828}
}

@article{fds270837,
   Author = {Claar, RL and Parekh, PI and Palmer, SM and Lacaille, RA and Davis, RD and Rowe, SK and Babyak, MA and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Emotional distress and quality of life in caregivers of
             patients awaiting lung transplant.},
   Journal = {Journal of Psychosomatic Research},
   Volume = {59},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {1-6},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0022-3999},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16126089},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study are to characterize the
             levels of emotional distress and quality of life among
             caregivers of lung transplant candidates and to examine the
             relation of coping styles and perceived caregiver burden to
             caregivers' self-reported emotional distress. METHODS: A
             consecutive series of primary caregivers of potential lung
             transplant candidates completed a battery of psychosocial
             measures, including the Beck Depression Inventory-II
             (BDI-II), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Medical Coping
             Modes Questionnaire (MCMQ), Scale for Caregiver Burden
             (SCB), and Medical Outcomes Survey, Short Form-36 (SF-36).
             RESULTS: Only 12 of the 82 caregivers (14.6%) who
             volunteered for the study reported clinically significant
             levels of depression (BDI-II > or =14), and only 2
             caregivers (2.4%) reported clinically significant levels of
             anxiety (STAI > or =60). Passive coping strategies were
             associated with higher levels of emotional distress;
             specifically, resignation was associated with increased
             depression (r=.27, P<.04), while avoidance was associated
             with increased anxiety (r=.29, P<.04). In addition,
             caregivers who reported greater perceived caregiver burden
             experienced higher levels of depression (r=.45, P<.001) and
             anxiety (r=.43, P<.01). Moreover, the social functioning of
             caregivers of lung transplant patients was more than one
             standard deviation from a normative sample of the population
             (Cohen's d=1.16), indicating that caregivers of transplant
             patients experienced greater impairment in this area.
             DISCUSSION: Although most caregivers of transplant patients
             do not report significant impairment in functioning,
             assessing caregivers' coping strategies and caregiving
             burden may identify those caregivers who experience
             increased emotional distress.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jpsychores.2005.03.007},
   Key = {fds270837}
}

@article{fds270831,
   Author = {Lett, HS and Davidson, J and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Nonpharmacologic treatments for depression in patients with
             coronary heart disease.},
   Journal = {Psychosom Med},
   Volume = {67 Suppl 1},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {S58-S62},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15953803},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVES: We review nonpharmacologic treatments for
             depression in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD),
             including psychological therapies such as cognitive behavior
             therapy (CBT) and interpersonal therapy (IPT), aerobic
             exercise, St. John's wort (SJW), essential fatty acids
             (EFAs), S-Adenosylmethionine (SAMe), acupuncture, and
             chromium picolinate (CP). METHOD: Medline searches and
             reviews of bibliographies were used to identify relevant
             articles. Each treatment was reviewed with particular
             attention paid to empirical support, as well as to potential
             mechanisms of action that might affect not only depression
             but also CHD endpoints. RESULTS: Nearly all randomized
             controlled trials (RCTs) of depression treatments have been
             conducted with non-CHD patients. These studies have provided
             the most support for psychological treatments, particularly
             CBT and IPT. Aerobic exercise, SJW, and SAMe also have
             considerable empirical support in otherwise healthy persons,
             but SJW may have undesirable side effects for CHD patients.
             Data for EFAs, CP, and acupuncture are limited; however, the
             use of aerobic exercise shows considerable promise for
             cardiac patients. CONCLUSIONS: There are few RCTs of
             patients with clinical depression and CHD, and those that
             exist have significant methodological limitations.
             Nonetheless, there is preliminary evidence that
             nonpharmacologic treatments are effective for cardiac
             patients with depression. In terms of reducing depression,
             the most evidence exists for psychological treatments,
             particularly CBT and IPT. However, there is little evidence
             that such treatment would also improve CHD risk factors.
             Aerobic exercise offers more promise to improve both mental
             and physical health due to its effect on cardiovascular risk
             factors and outcomes and thus warrants particular attention
             in future trials.},
   Doi = {10.1097/01.psy.0000163453.24417.97},
   Key = {fds270831}
}

@article{fds270832,
   Author = {Parekh, PI and Blumenthal, JA and Babyak, MA and LaCaille, R and Rowe,
             S and Dancel, L and Carney, RM and Davis, RD and Palmer, S and INSPIRE
             Investigators},
   Title = {Gas exchange and exercise capacity affect neurocognitive
             performance in patients with lung disease.},
   Journal = {Psychosom Med},
   Volume = {67},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {425-432},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15911906},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: This study examined the relationship between
             cognitive functioning and the severity of underlying lung
             disease in patients awaiting lung transplantation. METHODS:
             Ninety-four patients with end-stage lung disease completed a
             test battery to assess cognitive performance in two domains:
             executive functioning/attention (Trails A and B, COWA,
             Animal Naming, Stroop Color-Word Test, Digit Symbol, and the
             2 & 7 Test) and verbal memory (Digit Span-Backward and
             Forward, WMS-R Logical Memory and Paired Verbal Associates).
             RESULTS: Thirty-seven percent of the patients demonstrated
             moderate to severe cognitive impairment data on two or more
             tests. Adjusting for age and education, there were no
             statistically significant differences on executive
             functioning or verbal memory as a function of specific lung
             disease diagnosis. Lower PCO2 values were associated with
             better cognitive performance on latent measures of executive
             functioning and attention (p = .006) and verbal memory (p =
             .009), whereas higher PO2 values tended to be associated
             with better performance on the executive
             functioning/attention measure (p = .064). Distance walked in
             6 minutes was positively related to verbal memory (p <
             .023). CONCLUSIONS: Impaired neurocognitive functioning may
             be relatively common in patients awaiting lung
             transplantation and is associated with ineffective pulmonary
             gas exchange and reduced exercise tolerance.},
   Doi = {10.1097/01.psy.0000160479.99765.18},
   Key = {fds270832}
}

@article{fds270849,
   Author = {Powell, LH and Catellier, D and Freedland, KE and Burg, MM and Woods,
             SL and Bittner, V and Calvin, JE and Blumenthal, JA and ENRICHD
             Investigators},
   Title = {Depression and heart failure in patients with a new
             myocardial infarction.},
   Journal = {American Heart Journal},
   Volume = {149},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {851-855},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15894967},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is a disabling chronic
             illness that is increasing in prevalence. Despite advances
             in its medical treatment, little is known about its
             psychosocial correlates. This investigation compared the
             prevalence of depression in patients with and without HF who
             were hospitalized with myocardial infarction (MI) and also
             at high psychosocial risk. METHODS: Baseline data from the
             2444 participants in the ENRICHD clinical trial were used.
             Within 28 days of the MI, all patients were assessed for
             depression using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
             Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria, for HF based upon left
             ventricular dysfunction or history of HF and for demographic
             and medical confounders. RESULTS: Eight hundred forty-seven
             patients (34.7%) met the criteria for HF. Major depression
             was observed in 43% in the HF group compared with 36% in the
             non-HF group (P < .001). Multivariate modeling showed a 38%
             increase in odds of HF for patients with major depression,
             after adjustment for sociodemographic factors and medical
             comorbidities (adjusted OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.09-1.76).
             CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that in patients with
             new MI who are at psychosocial risk, major depression is
             more prevalent in those who also have HF. Because major
             depression undermines adherence and lowers quality of life,
             special efforts to diagnose and treat it in post-MI patients
             with HF appear warranted.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.ahj.2004.08.007},
   Key = {fds270849}
}

@article{fds270833,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Sherwood, A and Babyak, MA and Watkins, LL and Waugh,
             R and Georgiades, A and Bacon, SL and Hayano, J and Coleman, RE and Hinderliter, A},
   Title = {Effects of exercise and stress management training on
             markers of cardiovascular risk in patients with ischemic
             heart disease: a randomized controlled trial.},
   Journal = {Jama},
   Volume = {293},
   Number = {13},
   Pages = {1626-1634},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15811982},
   Abstract = {CONTEXT: Observational studies have shown that psychosocial
             factors are associated with increased risk for
             cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, but the effects of
             behavioral interventions on psychosocial and medical end
             points remain uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect
             of 2 behavioral programs, aerobic exercise training and
             stress management training, with routine medical care on
             psychosocial functioning and markers of cardiovascular risk.
             DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: Randomized controlled trial
             of 134 patients (92 male and 42 female; aged 40-84 years)
             with stable ischemic heart disease (IHD) and
             exercise-induced myocardial ischemia. Conducted from January
             1999 to February 2003. INTERVENTIONS: Routine medical care
             (usual care); usual care plus supervised aerobic exercise
             training for 35 minutes 3 times per week for 16 weeks; usual
             care plus weekly 1.5-hour stress management training for 16
             weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported measures of
             general distress (General Health Questionnaire [GHQ]) and
             depression (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]); left
             ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and wall motion
             abnormalities (WMA); flow-mediated dilation; and cardiac
             autonomic control (heart rate variability during deep
             breathing and baroreflex sensitivity). RESULTS: Patients in
             the exercise and stress management groups had lower mean
             (SE) BDI scores (exercise: 8.2 [0.6]; stress management: 8.2
             [0.6]) vs usual care (10.1 [0.6]; P = .02); reduced distress
             by GHQ scores (exercise: 56.3 [0.9]; stress management: 56.8
             [0.9]) vs usual care (53.6 [0.9]; P = .02); and smaller
             reductions in LVEF during mental stress testing (exercise:
             -0.54% [0.44%]; stress management: -0.34% [0.45%]) vs usual
             care (-1.69% [0.46%]; P = .03). Exercise and stress
             management were associated with lower mean (SE) WMA rating
             scores (exercise: 0.20 [0.07]; stress management: 0.10
             [0.07]) in a subset of patients with significant
             stress-induced WMA at baseline vs usual care (0.36 [0.07]; P
             = .02). Patients in the exercise and stress management
             groups had greater mean (SE) improvements in flow-mediated
             dilation (exercise: mean [SD], 5.6% [0.45%]; stress
             management: 5.2% [0.47%]) vs usual care patients (4.1%
             [0.48%]; P = .03). In a subgroup, those receiving stress
             management showed improved mean (SE) baroreflex sensitivity
             (8.2 [0.8] ms/mm Hg) vs usual care (5.1 [0.9] ms/mm Hg; P =
             .02) and significant increases in heart rate variability
             (193.7 [19.6] ms) vs usual care (132.1 [21.5] ms; P = .04).
             CONCLUSION: For patients with stable IHD, exercise and
             stress management training reduced emotional distress and
             improved markers of cardiovascular risk more than usual
             medical care alone.},
   Doi = {10.1001/jama.293.13.1626},
   Key = {fds270833}
}

@article{fds270779,
   Author = {Rozanski, A and Blumenthal, JA and Davidson, KW and Saab, PG and Kubzansky, L},
   Title = {The epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management of
             psychosocial risk factors in cardiac practice: the emerging
             field of behavioral cardiology.},
   Journal = {Journal of the American College of Cardiology},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {637-651},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0735-1097},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15734605},
   Abstract = {Observational studies indicate that psychologic factors
             strongly influence the course of coronary artery disease
             (CAD). In this review, we examine new epidemiologic evidence
             for the association between psychosocial risk factors and
             CAD, identify pathologic mechanisms that may be responsible
             for this association, and describe a paradigm for studying
             positive psychologic factors that may act as a buffer.
             Because psychosocial risk factors are highly prevalent and
             are associated with unhealthy lifestyles, we describe the
             potential role of cardiologists in managing such factors.
             Management approaches include routinely screening for
             psychosocial risk factors, referring patients with severe
             psychologic distress to behavioral specialists, and directly
             treating patients with milder forms of psychologic distress
             with brief targeted interventions. A number of behavioral
             interventions have been evaluated for their ability to
             reduce adverse cardiac events among patients presenting with
             psychosocial risk factors. Although the efficacy of
             stand-alone psychosocial interventions remains unclear, both
             exercise and multifactorial cardiac rehabilitation with
             psychosocial interventions have demonstrated a reduction in
             cardiac events. Furthermore, recent data suggest that
             psychopharmacologic interventions may also be effective.
             Despite these promising findings, clinical practice
             guidelines for managing psychosocial risk factors in cardiac
             practice are lacking. Thus, we review new approaches to
             improve the delivery of behavioral services and patient
             adherence to behavioral recommendations. These efforts are
             part of an emerging field of behavioral cardiology, which is
             based on the understanding that psychosocial and behavioral
             risk factors for CAD are not only highly interrelated, but
             also require a sophisticated health care delivery system to
             optimize their effectiveness.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jacc.2004.12.005},
   Key = {fds270779}
}

@article{fds270836,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Lett, HS},
   Title = {Depression and cardiac risk.},
   Journal = {Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {78-79},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0883-9212},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15818194},
   Doi = {10.1097/00008483-200503000-00005},
   Key = {fds270836}
}

@article{fds270852,
   Author = {Yager, J and Barbour, K and LaCaille, R and Felker, M and Hernandez, A and Russell, S and Milano, C and Stone, E and Brosse, A and Blumenthal,
             J},
   Title = {Depressive symptoms in heart transplant recipients in an
             alternate list program},
   Journal = {Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation},
   Volume = {24},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {S132-S132},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.healun.2004.11.299},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.healun.2004.11.299},
   Key = {fds270852}
}

@article{fds270853,
   Author = {Thurston, RC and Blumenthal, JA and Babyak, MA and Sherwood,
             A},
   Title = {Emotional antecedents of hot flashes during daily
             life.},
   Journal = {Psychosom Med},
   Volume = {67},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {137-146},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15673636},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: Hot flashes are among the most frequently
             reported menopausal symptoms. However, little is known about
             factors associated with their occurrence. Moreover, despite
             the wide use of self-report hot flash measures, little is
             known about their concordance with physiological flashes.
             This study evaluated emotional and behavioral antecedents of
             subjectively and objectively measured hot flashes during
             daily life. It also examined individual differences
             predicting concordance between objective and subjective hot
             flashes. METHODS: Forty-two perimenopausal or postmenopausal
             women (mean age = 50.5 +/- 4.8 years) reporting daily hot
             flashes completed 2 days of ambulatory sternal skin
             conductance monitoring, behavioral diaries 3 times an hour,
             and psychometric questionnaires. Hot flashes meeting
             objective physiological criteria and subjectively reported
             flashes not meeting physiological criteria were assessed.
             Likelihood of hot flashes following emotions and activities
             were examined in a case-crossover analysis. RESULTS:
             Relative to nonflash control times, objective hot flashes
             were more likely after increased happiness, relaxation, and
             feelings of control, and less likely after increased
             frustration, sadness, and stress. Conversely, subjective hot
             flashes not meeting physiological criteria were more likely
             after increased frustration and decreased feelings of
             control. Questionnaires revealed increased negative mood and
             negative attitudes were associated with fewer objective
             flashes and higher false-positive reporting rates.
             CONCLUSION: Increased positive and decreased negative
             emotions were associated with objective hot flashes, whereas
             increased negative and decreased positive emotions were
             associated with subjective flashes not meeting physiological
             criteria. The anecdotal association between negative
             emotions and hot flashes may be the result of self-reported
             flashes lacking physiological corroboration.},
   Doi = {10.1097/01.psy.0000149255.04806.07},
   Key = {fds270853}
}

@article{fds44675,
   Author = {Blumenthal, J.A. and Sherwood, A. and Babyak, M.A. and Watkins, L.L.
             Waugh and R., Georgiades and A., Bacon and S.L., Hayano and J., Coleman and R.E., Hinderliter and A.},
   Title = {Effects of exercise and stress management training on
             markers of cardiovascular risk in patients with ischemic
             heart disease: A randomized controlled trial},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Medical Association},
   Volume = {293},
   Number = {13},
   Pages = {1626-1634},
   Year = {2005},
   Key = {fds44675}
}

@article{fds270857,
   Author = {Hughes, JW and Tomlinson, A and Blumenthal, JA and Davidson, J and Sketch, MH and Watkins, LL},
   Title = {Social support and religiosity as coping strategies for
             anxiety in hospitalized cardiac patients.},
   Journal = {Annals of Behavioral Medicine},
   Volume = {28},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {179-185},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0883-6612},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15576256},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Prospective studies have demonstrated that
             anxiety is associated with an increased risk of mortality
             and sudden cardiac death. There is therefore a need to
             understand what factors contribute to anxiety in patients
             with coronary heart disease (CHD). PURPOSE: This study
             examined whether social support and religiosity are
             individually or jointly associated with lower anxiety in
             cardiac patients. METHODS: Anxiety, perceived social
             support, and religiosity were assessed in 228 (71% male, 29%
             female) hospitalized CHD patients aged 62 +- 11 years.
             RESULTS: Higher levels of social support were related to
             lower levels of state and trait anxiety (state anxiety, r =
             -.26, p < .01; trait anxiety, r = -.30, p < .01;).
             Religiosity was related to lower state anxiety (r = -.27, p
             < .01) but only modestly related to lower trait anxiety
             (trait anxiety, r = -.18, p < .01). The relationship between
             religiosity and trait anxiety was no longer significant
             after controlling for social support (p = .26). CONCLUSIONS:
             These findings suggest that religiosity and social support
             provide a buffer against anxiety in CHD patients and that
             higher levels of social support may account for the
             relationship between religiosity and trait anxiety. These
             findings underscore the importance of social support and
             religiosity as buffers against distress, with possible
             implications for prognosis in a patient group where high
             levels of anxiety appear to confer increased risk of
             mortality.},
   Doi = {10.1207/s15324796abm2803_6},
   Key = {fds270857}
}

@article{fds270839,
   Author = {Newman, MF and Blumenthal, JA and Mark, DB},
   Title = {Fixing the heart: must the brain pay the
             price?},
   Journal = {Circulation},
   Volume = {110},
   Number = {22},
   Pages = {3402-3403},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15569848},
   Doi = {10.1161/01.CIR.0000150860.91937.ED},
   Key = {fds270839}
}

@article{fds270840,
   Author = {Pierson, LM and Bacon, SL and Sherwood, A and Hinderliter, AL and Babyak, M and Gullette, ECD and Waugh, R and Blumenthal,
             JA},
   Title = {Association between exercise capacity and left ventricular
             geometry in overweight patients with mild systemic
             hypertension.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Cardiology},
   Volume = {94},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {1322-1325},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0002-9149},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15541259},
   Abstract = {The purpose of this study was to determine the relation
             between left ventricular (LV) geometry and exercise capacity
             in unmedicated, hypertensive patients. Analysis of the data
             revealed peak oxygen consumption (ml kg(-1) min(-1)) for
             concentric hypertrophy (corrected mean +/- SE 23.5 +/- 1.2)
             was significantly less (F = 3.68, p <0.02) than the
             concentric remodeling (28.1 +/- 1.2) and normal (27.3 +/-
             0.6) geometries. The LV geometric pattern was found to be
             associated with exercise capacity in unmedicated,
             hypertensive patients, such that patients with concentric
             hypertrophy showed reduced capacity.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.amjcard.2004.07.126},
   Key = {fds270840}
}

@article{fds270759,
   Author = {Raja, PV and Blumenthal, JA and Doraiswamy, PM},
   Title = {Cognitive deficits following coronary artery bypass
             grafting: prevalence, prognosis, and therapeutic
             strategies.},
   Journal = {Cns Spectrums},
   Volume = {9},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {763-772},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {1092-8529},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15448586},
   Keywords = {Cognition Disorders • Coronary Artery Bypass •
             Coronary Artery Disease • Depression • Humans
             • Postoperative Complications • Prevalence •
             Prognosis • Risk Factors • adverse effects* •
             epidemiology • etiology* • methods •
             prevention & control* • surgery*},
   Abstract = {There is increasing recognition that coronary artery bypass
             grafting (CABG) may be a risk factor for subtle cognitive
             decline although the presence and pattern of such decline
             has varied across studies. Cognitive deficits may present as
             short-term memory loss, executive dysfunction and
             psychomotor slowing. Although they are usually are not
             severe enough to meet criteria for mild cognitive impairment
             or vascular dementia, they lower quality of life and add to
             hospitalization and out-of-hospital costs. Proposed
             mechanisms include surgical-related trauma, genetic
             susceptibility (eg, apolipoprotein E4 allele),
             microembolization, other vascular or ischemic changes, and
             temperature during surgery. Depression and anxiety levels
             predict subjective perception of these deficits more than
             objective cognitive performance. Both nonpharmacologic (eg,
             emboli reduction, temperature, or glucose management) and
             pharmacologic (eg, dexanabinol, glypromate, nootropics)
             strategies to prevent post-CABG cognitive deficits are under
             investigation. Given the large numbers of subjects who may
             already have CABG associated cognitive deficits, clinical
             trials of agents being tested for Alzheimer's disease (eg,
             donepezil, rivastigmine, memantine, neramexane, ginkgo) may
             also be informative. The results of multicenter long-term
             outcome studies (with matched control groups) as well as
             ongoing treatment trials will more conclusively address some
             of these issues. These data emphasize the need for
             clinicians to monitor cognitive function before and after
             coronary bypass surgery, and to educate patients.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1017/s1092852900022409},
   Key = {fds270759}
}

@article{fds270838,
   Author = {Hughes, JW and Watkins, L and Blumenthal, JA and Kuhn, C and Sherwood,
             A},
   Title = {Depression and anxiety symptoms are related to increased
             24-hour urinary norepinephrine excretion among healthy
             middle-aged women.},
   Journal = {Journal of Psychosomatic Research},
   Volume = {57},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {353-358},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0022-3999},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15518669},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: Depression is a risk factor for morbidity and
             mortality in a variety of populations, and anxiety has also
             been associated with risk of mortality among cardiac
             patients. Dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system may be
             involved in this risk. The primary goal of this study was to
             evaluate the relationship between levels of self-reported
             symptoms of depression and anxiety and 24-hour urinary
             catecholamine excretion. METHOD: Ninety-one women aged 47-55
             years were evaluated. Depression symptoms were assessed with
             the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and state anxiety was
             assessed with the state anxiety portion (SAI) of the
             Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI).
             Twenty-four hour urine collections were assayed for
             epinephrine (EPI), norepinephrine (NE) and cortisol (CORT).
             EPI, NE and CORT were indexed by body surface area to
             control for individual differences in body size. RESULTS:
             Higher levels of depression symptoms were associated with
             increased 24-hour NE excretion (r=.27, P=.009), with
             depressed women (n=17, BDI scores >/=10) exhibiting an
             approximately 25% higher rate of urinary NE excretion than
             women with BDI scores <10 (n=74), P=.007. Higher levels of
             state anxiety were also related to greater NE excretion
             (r=.28, P=.01), and CORT excretion was related to both
             depression (r=.23, P=.02) and anxiety (r=.22, P=.04).
             Depression and anxiety symptoms were unrelated to urinary
             EPI excretion. CONCLUSIONS: The current findings that higher
             levels of depression and anxiety symptoms are related to
             increased 24-hour urinary NE and CORT excretion among women
             suggests that depression and anxiety may be associated with
             increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, and are
             consistent with the possibility that SNS activity may play a
             role in the increased mortality associated with depression
             in community-dwelling older adults.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jpsychores.2004.02.016},
   Key = {fds270838}
}

@article{fds270855,
   Author = {Keefe, FJ and Blumenthal, J and Baucom, D and Affleck, G and Waugh, R and Caldwell, DS and Beaupre, P and Kashikar-Zuck, S and Wright, K and Egert, J and Lefebvre, J},
   Title = {Effects of spouse-assisted coping skills training and
             exercise training in patients with osteoarthritic knee pain:
             a randomized controlled study.},
   Journal = {Pain},
   Volume = {110},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {539-549},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0304-3959},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15288394},
   Abstract = {This study tested the separate and combined effects of
             spouse-assisted pain coping skills training (SA-CST) and
             exercise training (ET) in a sample of patients having
             persistent osteoarthritic knee pain. Seventy-two married
             osteoarthritis (OA) patients with persistent knee pain and
             their spouses were randomly assigned to: SA-CST alone,
             SA-CST plus ET, ET alone, or standard care (SC). Patients in
             SA-CST alone, together with their spouses, attended 12
             weekly, 2-h group sessions for training in pain coping and
             couples skills. Patients in SA-CST + ET received
             spouse-assisted coping skills training and attended 12-weeks
             supervised ET. Patients in the ET alone condition received
             just an exercise program. Data analyses revealed: (1)
             physical fitness and strength: the SA-CST + ET and ET alone
             groups had significant improvements in physical fitness
             compared to SA-CST alone and patients in SA-CST + ET and ET
             alone had significant improvements in leg flexion and
             extension compared to SA-CST alone and SC, (2) pain coping:
             patients in SA-CST + ET and SA-CST alone groups had
             significant improvements in coping attempts compared to ET
             alone or SC and spouses in SA-CST + ET rated their partners
             as showing significant improvements in coping attempts
             compared to ET alone or SC, and (3) self-efficacy: patients
             in SA-CST + ET reported significant improvements in
             self-efficacy and their spouses rated them as showing
             significant improvements in self-efficacy compared to ET
             alone or SC. Patients receiving SA-CST + ET who showed
             increased self-efficacy were more likely to have
             improvements in psychological disability. An intervention
             that combines spouse-assisted coping skills training and
             exercise training can improve physical fitness, strength,
             pain coping, and self-efficacy in patients suffering from
             pain due to osteoarthritis.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.pain.2004.03.022},
   Key = {fds270855}
}

@article{fds270755,
   Author = {Carney, RM and Freedland, KE and Jaffe, AS and Frasure-Smith, N and Lespérance, F and Sheps, DS and Glassman, AH and O'Connor, CM and Blumenthal, JA and Kaufmann, PG and Czajkowski,
             SM},
   Title = {Depression as a risk factor for post-MI mortality.},
   Journal = {Journal of the American College of Cardiology},
   Volume = {44},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {472},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0735-1097},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15261955},
   Keywords = {Depression • Humans • Myocardial Infarction •
             Risk Factors • complications* • mortality* •
             psychology},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jacc.2004.04.030},
   Key = {fds270755}
}

@article{fds270781,
   Author = {Carney, RM and Blumenthal, JA and Freedland, KE and Youngblood, M and Veith, RC and Burg, MM and Cornell, C and Saab, PG and Kaufmann, PG and Czajkowski, SM and Jaffe, AS and ENRICHD Investigators},
   Title = {Depression and late mortality after myocardial infarction in
             the Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease (ENRICHD)
             study.},
   Journal = {Psychosom Med},
   Volume = {66},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {466-474},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15272090},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: The Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease
             study was a multicenter clinical trial in which patients
             with depression and/or low perceived social support after an
             acute myocardial infarction were randomly assigned to an
             intervention consisting of cognitive behavior therapy and,
             in some cases, sertraline, or to usual care. There was no
             difference in survival between the groups. A possible reason
             why the intervention failed to affect survival is that too
             many patients with mild, transient depression were enrolled.
             Another is that some patients died too soon to complete the
             intervention. This analysis evaluates whether there was a
             difference in late (ie, > or =6 months after the myocardial
             infarction) mortality among initially depressed patients who
             had a Beck Depression Inventory score > or =10 and a past
             history of major depression, and who completed the 6-month
             post-treatment assessment. It also examines the relationship
             between change in depression and late mortality. METHODS:
             Out of the 1,165 (47%) of the Enhancing Recovery in Coronary
             Heart Disease study participants who met our criteria, 57
             died in the first 6 months, and 858 (409 usual care, 449
             intervention) completed the 6-month assessment. Cox
             regression was used to analyze survival. RESULTS: The
             intervention did not affect late mortality. However,
             intervention patients whose depression did not improve were
             at higher risk for late mortality than were patients who
             responded to treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Patients whose
             depression is refractory to cognitive behavior therapy and
             sertraline, two standard treatments for depression, are at
             high risk for late mortality after myocardial
             infarction.},
   Doi = {10.1097/01.psy.0000133362.75075.a6},
   Key = {fds270781}
}

@article{fds270745,
   Author = {Bacon, SL and Watkins, LL and Babyak, M and Sherwood, A and Hayano, J and Hinderliter, AL and Waugh, R and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Effects of daily stress on autonomic cardiac control in
             patients with coronary artery disease.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Cardiology},
   Volume = {93},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {1292-1294},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0002-9149},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15135708},
   Keywords = {Coronary Artery Disease • Electrocardiography,
             Ambulatory • Female • Humans • Male •
             Middle Aged • Myocardial Ischemia • Randomized
             Controlled Trials as Topic • Stress, Psychological
             • complications* • etiology • physiopathology
             • physiopathology*},
   Abstract = {Emotional stress has been implicated in the development and
             progression of coronary artery disease, with 1 proposed
             causal pathway being changes in cardiac autonomic tone. One
             hundred thirty-five patients with coronary artery disease
             underwent 48 hours of ambulatory electrocardiographic
             monitoring and completed activity and mood diaries every 20
             minutes while awake. Random-effects model analyses
             associated higher levels of negative emotions (e.g., anger,
             stress, sadness) with decreases in high- and low-frequency
             power, whereas higher levels of positive emotion were
             related to an increase in low-frequency power, independent
             of age, posture, and medications.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.amjcard.2004.02.018},
   Key = {fds270745}
}

@article{fds270858,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Babyak, MA and Carney, RM and Huber, M and Saab, PG and Burg, MM and Sheps, D and Powell, L and Taylor, CB and Kaufmann,
             PG},
   Title = {Exercise, depression, and mortality after myocardial
             infarction in the ENRICHD trial.},
   Journal = {Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise},
   Volume = {36},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {746-755},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0195-9131},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15126705},
   Abstract = {PURPOSE: The large and well-characterized population of
             acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients studied in the
             recently completed Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart
             Disease (ENRICHD) multicenter clinical trial provides a
             unique opportunity to examine the importance of
             self-reported regular physical exercise in a large cohort of
             patients with a recent AMI who are depressed or report low
             levels of social support. METHODS: We prospectively examined
             the association between self-reported physical exercise and
             all-cause mortality and cardiovascular morbidity among 2078
             men (N = 1175; 56.5%) and women (N = 903; 43.5%) with an AMI
             participating in the ENRICHD Trial. Six months after
             suffering an AMI, patients were surveyed about their
             exercise habits and were then followed for up to 4 yr.
             RESULTS: During an average 2 yr of follow-up, 187 fatal
             events occurred. Patients reporting regular exercise had
             less than half the events (5.7%) of those patients reporting
             they did not regularly exercise (12.0%). After adjustment
             for medical and demographic variables, the hazard ratio for
             fatal events was 0.62 (95% CI = 0.44-0.86, P = 0.004). The
             rate of nonfatal AMI among the exercisers was 6.5% compared
             with 10.5% who reported no regular exercise. After
             adjustment for covariates, the hazard ratio for nonfatal AMI
             was 0.72 (95% CI = 0.52-0.99, P = 0.044). CONCLUSIONS: The
             present findings demonstrate the potential value of exercise
             in reducing mortality and nonfatal reinfarction in AMI
             patients at increased risk for adverse events by virtue of
             their either being depressed or having low social
             support.},
   Doi = {10.1249/01.mss.0000125997.63493.13},
   Key = {fds270858}
}

@article{fds304094,
   Author = {Lett, HS and Blumenthal, JA and Babyak, MA and Sherwood, A and Strauman,
             T and Robins, C and Newman, MF},
   Title = {Depression as a risk factor for coronary artery disease:
             evidence, mechanisms, and treatment.},
   Journal = {Psychosom Med},
   Volume = {66},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {305-315},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15184688},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: The present paper reviews the evidence that
             depression is a risk factor for the development and
             progression of coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS:
             MEDLINE searches and reviews of bibliographies were used to
             identify relevant articles. Articles were clustered by
             theme: depression as a risk factor, biobehavioral
             mechanisms, and treatment outcome studies. RESULTS:
             Depression confers a relative risk between 1.5 and 2.0 for
             the onset of CAD in healthy individuals, whereas depression
             in patients with existing CAD confers a relative risk
             between 1.5 and 2.5 for cardiac morbidity and mortality. A
             number of plausible biobehavioral mechanisms linking
             depression and CAD have been identified, including treatment
             adherence, lifestyle factors, traditional risk factors,
             alterations in autonomic nervous system (ANS) and
             hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis functioning,
             platelet activation, and inflammation. CONCLUSION: There is
             substantial evidence for a relationship between depression
             and adverse clinical outcomes. However, despite the
             availability of effective therapies for depression, there is
             a paucity of data to support the efficacy of these
             interventions to improve clinical outcomes for depressed CAD
             patients. Randomized clinical trials are needed to further
             evaluate the value of treating depression in CAD patients to
             improve survival and reduce morbidity.},
   Doi = {10.1097/01.psy.0000126207.43307.c0},
   Key = {fds304094}
}

@article{fds270854,
   Author = {Keefe, FJ and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Health psychology: what will the future bring?},
   Journal = {Health Psychology : Official Journal of the Division of
             Health Psychology, American Psychological
             Association},
   Volume = {23},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {156-157},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0278-6133},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15008660},
   Abstract = {This commentary highlights several important themes and
             trends in this series of articles focusing on the future of
             health psychology. First, the challenges posed by changes in
             populations will only be met if health psychologists can
             develop a contextual competency. Second, with increasing
             evidence for the efficacy of health psychology interventions
             comes heightened interest in testing the effectiveness of
             these interventions. Third, issues of cost-effectiveness of
             health psychology will become increasingly important.
             Fourth, the growing integration of technological advances
             (e.g., telehealth, the Internet) into health psychology has
             major implications. Finally, the numerous changes outlined
             in this series of articles will demand that health
             psychologists extend and refine their theoretical models
             including the biopsychosocial model.},
   Doi = {10.1037/0278-6133.23.2.156},
   Key = {fds270854}
}

@article{fds304905,
   Author = {Kahn, JP},
   Title = {Hostility, coronary risk, and alpha-adrenergic to
             beta-adrenergic receptor density ratio.},
   Journal = {Psychosom Med},
   Volume = {66},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {289-290},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.psy.0000117562.61101.9d},
   Doi = {10.1097/01.psy.0000117562.61101.9d},
   Key = {fds304905}
}

@article{fds270859,
   Author = {Pierson, LM and Bacon, SL and Sherwood, A and Hinderliter, AL and Babyak, M and Gullette, ECD and Waugh, R and Blumenthal,
             JA},
   Title = {Relationship between exercise systolic blood pressure and
             left ventricular geometry in overweight, mildly hypertensive
             patients.},
   Journal = {Journal of Hypertension},
   Volume = {22},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {399-405},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0263-6352},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15076200},
   Keywords = {Adult • Blood Pressure* • Echocardiography* •
             Exercise* • Female • Heart Ventricles •
             Humans • Hypertension • Male • Middle Aged
             • Obesity • Systole • complications* •
             physiopathology* • ultrasonography},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between the graded
             exercise systolic blood pressure (SBP) response and left
             ventricular (LV) geometric structure in patients with
             untreated mild hypertension. PARTICIPANTS: The study
             included 80 sedentary, overweight patients (43 female and 37
             male) with unmedicated high normal blood pressure or stage
             1-2 hypertension. METHODS: An echocardiogram was used to
             determine LV mass and the relative wall thickness (RWT) in
             relation to the chamber dimension. Participants performed a
             maximal graded exercise test, and the SBP was recorded at
             workloads of 2, 4 and 6 metabolic equivalents and at peak
             exercise. Separate statistical models were used to determine
             the influence of LV mass indexed for height(2.7) (LVMIh) and
             RWT on submaximal exercise SBP and peak exercise SBP,
             controlling for resting SBP, age, gender, ethnicity and body
             mass index. RESULTS: A greater RWT was associated with a
             higher submaximal SBP level (P = 0.038). Neither LVMIh (P =
             0.989) nor the interaction of RWT and LVMIh (P = 0.787) were
             related to the submaximal SBP. None of the main or
             interaction effects of RWT and LVMIh were associated with
             the peak exercise SBP level. CONCLUSION: Increases in RWT
             were associated with higher submaximal exercise SBP
             responses in a sample of overweight, unmedicated
             hypertensives. These results suggest that RWT is an
             important determinant of the association between cardiac
             mass and exercise SBP response.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1097/00004872-200402000-00026},
   Key = {fds270859}
}

@article{fds270769,
   Author = {Hinderliter, AL and Blumenthal, JA and Waugh, R and Chilukuri, M and Sherwood, A},
   Title = {Ethnic differences in left ventricular structure: relations
             to hemodynamics and diurnal blood pressure
             variation.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Hypertension},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {43-49},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0895-7061},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14700511},
   Keywords = {Adult • African Continental Ancestry Group* •
             Blood Pressure • Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory
             • Body Mass Index • Circadian Rhythm •
             Echocardiography • European Continental Ancestry Group*
             • Female • Hemodynamics • Humans •
             Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular • Male • Middle Aged
             • United States • Vascular Resistance •
             ethnology* • physiology • physiology* •
             ultrasonography},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that African
             Americans have a greater left ventricular relative wall
             thickness than whites with similar levels of blood pressure
             (BP), whereas other investigators have documented an
             attenuated nocturnal decline in BP and early remodeling of
             the resistance vessels in African Americans. METHODS: To
             further evaluate the contributions of diurnal BP variation
             and vascular remodeling to ethnic differences in left
             ventricular geometry, we measured ambulatory BP, systemic
             hemodynamics, minimum forearm vascular resistance, and left
             ventricular structure in a biracial sample of 171 men and
             women between the ages of 25 and 45 years. RESULTS: Despite
             similar resting BPs, African Americans had a greater indexed
             peripheral resistance, a greater minimal forearm vascular
             resistance, and a smaller nocturnal decline in BP than white
             subjects. African Americans also had a greater left
             ventricular relative wall thickness (0.41 +/- 0.07 v 0.38
             +/- 0.08, P =.048) and a trend toward a greater indexed left
             ventricular mass (41.1 +/- 8.7 v 38.6 +/- 8.6 g/m(2.7), P
             =.087). Ethnic differences in relative wall thickness were
             no longer significant when adjusted for either indexed
             peripheral resistance (P =.173) or sleep systolic BP (P
             =.124). CONCLUSIONS: In our cohort of young men and women,
             African Americans had a greater left ventricular relative
             wall thickness than whites with similar levels of resting
             BP. This early concentric remodeling of the left ventricle
             in African Americans may be mediated, in part, by
             hemodynamic influences, including a greater peripheral
             vascular resistance and a smaller nocturnal decline in
             BP.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.amjhyper.2003.08.007},
   Key = {fds270769}
}

@article{fds40163,
   Author = {Pierson, L.M. and Bacon, S.L. and Sherwood, S. and Hinderliter, A.L. and Babyak, M.A. and Gullette, E.C.D. and Waugh, R. and Blumenthal,
             J.A.},
   Title = {Relationship between exercise, systolic blood pressure, and
             left ventricular geometry in overweight, mildly hypertensive
             patients},
   Journal = {Journal of Hypertension},
   Volume = {22},
   Pages = {399-405},
   Year = {2004},
   Key = {fds40163}
}

@article{fds270780,
   Author = {Carney, RM and Freedland, KE and Jaffe, AS and Frasure Smith and N and Lesperance, F and Sheps, DS and Glassman, AH and O'Connor, CM and Blumenthal, JA and Kaufmann, PG and Czajkowski,
             SM},
   Title = {Depression as a risk factor for post-MI mortality [letter to
             the editor]},
   Journal = {Jacc},
   Volume = {44},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {472},
   Year = {2004},
   Key = {fds270780}
}

@article{fds270850,
   Author = {Bacon, SL and Watkins, LL and Babyak, M and Sherwood, A and Hayano, J and Hinderliter, AL and Waugh, RW and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {The effects of daily stress on autonomic
             cardiac},
   Journal = {American Journal of Cardiology},
   Volume = {93},
   Pages = {1292-1294},
   Year = {2004},
   Key = {fds270850}
}

@article{fds270856,
   Author = {Kahn, JP and Sherwood, A and Hughes, JW and Blumenthal, JA and Suarez,
             EC and Hinderliter, AL},
   Title = {Hostility, coronary risk and Alpha-adrenergic to
             Beta-adrenergic receptor density ratio},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {66},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {289-290},
   Year = {2004},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.psy.0000117562.61101.9d},
   Doi = {10.1097/01.psy.0000117562.61101.9d},
   Key = {fds270856}
}

@article{fds270860,
   Author = {Lett, HS and Blumenthal, JA and Babyak, MA and Sherwood, A and Strauman,
             T and Robins, C and Newman, MF},
   Title = {Depression as a risk factor for coronary artery disease:
             evidence, mechanisms, and treatment},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {66},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {304-315},
   Year = {2004},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15184688},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: The present paper reviews the evidence that
             depression is a risk factor for the development and
             progression of coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS:
             MEDLINE searches and reviews of bibliographies were used to
             identify relevant articles. Articles were clustered by
             theme: depression as a risk factor, biobehavioral
             mechanisms, and treatment outcome studies. RESULTS:
             Depression confers a relative risk between 1.5 and 2.0 for
             the onset of CAD in healthy individuals, whereas depression
             in patients with existing CAD confers a relative risk
             between 1.5 and 2.5 for cardiac morbidity and mortality. A
             number of plausible biobehavioral mechanisms linking
             depression and CAD have been identified, including treatment
             adherence, lifestyle factors, traditional risk factors,
             alterations in autonomic nervous system (ANS) and
             hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis functioning,
             platelet activation, and inflammation. CONCLUSION: There is
             substantial evidence for a relationship between depression
             and adverse clinical outcomes. However, despite the
             availability of effective therapies for depression, there is
             a paucity of data to support the efficacy of these
             interventions to improve clinical outcomes for depressed CAD
             patients. Randomized clinical trials are needed to further
             evaluate the value of treating depression in CAD patients to
             improve survival and reduce morbidity.},
   Key = {fds270860}
}

@article{fds270861,
   Author = {Bacon, SL and Sherwood, A and Hinderliter, A and Blumenthal,
             JA},
   Title = {Effects of exercise, diet and weight loss on high blood
             pressure.},
   Journal = {Sports Medicine (Auckland, N.Z.)},
   Volume = {34},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {307-316},
   Year = {2004},
   ISSN = {0112-1642},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15107009},
   Abstract = {High blood pressure (BP) is a major health problem in the
             US, affecting more than 50 million people. Although high BP
             is among the most common reasons for outpatient visits, BP
             control is often inadequate. It is well established that BP
             can be lowered pharmacologically in hypertensive
             individuals; however, anti-hypertensive medications are not
             effective for everyone, and may be costly and result in
             adverse effects that impair quality of life and reduce
             adherence. Moreover, abnormalities associated with high BP,
             such as insulin resistance and hyperlipidaemia, may persist
             or may even be exacerbated by some anti-hypertensive
             medications. Consequently, there has been a great deal of
             interest in the development and application of behavioural
             interventions in the management of high BP. The main
             behavioural interventions that are recommended to reduce BP
             are exercise and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension
             (DASH) diet. Weight loss is also recommended for BP
             reduction in overweight individuals. Exercise alone is
             associated with reductions of approximately 3.5 and 2.0mm Hg
             in systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP),
             respectively. Patients fed a DASH diet (a diet high in
             low-fat dairy products and fibre, including fruits and
             vegetables) had reductions in SBP and DBP of 5.5 and 3.0mm
             Hg, respectively, compared with those consuming a standard
             US diet. Reductions of approximately 8.5mm Hg SBP and 6.5mm
             Hg DBP accompany weight loss of 8 kg. In overweight
             hypertensive patients, a combined exercise and weight-loss
             intervention has been shown to decrease SBP and DBP by 12.5
             and 7.9 mm Hg, respectively. There is evidence to suggest
             that these decreases in BP are associated with improvements
             in left ventricular structure and function, and peripheral
             vascular health. Both exercise training and weight loss have
             been shown to decrease left ventricular mass and wall
             thickness, reduce arterial stiffness and improve endothelial
             function. These data support the role of behavioural
             interventions in the treatment of patients with elevations
             in BP.},
   Doi = {10.2165/00007256-200434050-00003},
   Key = {fds270861}
}

@article{fds270862,
   Author = {Hinderliter, AL and Blumenthal, JA and Waugh, R and Chilukuri, M and Sherwood, A},
   Title = {Effects of exercise, diet and weight loss on high blood
             pressure},
   Journal = {American Journal of Hypertension},
   Volume = {17},
   Pages = {43-49},
   Year = {2004},
   Key = {fds270862}
}

@article{fds270863,
   Author = {Madden, DJ and Langley, LK and Thurston, RC and Whiting, WL and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Interaction of Blood Pressure and Adult Age in Memory Search
             and Visual Search Performance},
   Journal = {Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B,
             Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {241-254},
   Publisher = {Informa UK Limited},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1076/anec.10.4.241.28973},
   Abstract = {According to one model of the interaction between blood
             pressure and adult age, chronically elevated blood pressure
             accelerates age-related decline in fluid intelligence. To
             test this model, 48 unmedicated individuals with high blood
             pressure (HBP) and 48 individuals with normal blood pressure
             (NBP), comprising three categories of adult age (20-39,
             40-59, and 60-79 years), performed memory search and visual
             search tasks. In contrast to the prediction, performance
             slowing related to HBP was evident for middle-aged adults,
             but not for the older adults, perhaps as a result of
             survival and selective attrition effects. There were
             specific age-related changes associated with memory search
             and visual search, in addition to generalized slowing,
             whereas the HBP-related changes were not
             task-specific.},
   Doi = {10.1076/anec.10.4.241.28973},
   Key = {fds270863}
}

@article{fds270870,
   Author = {Carney, RM and Blumenthal, JA and Catellier, D and Freedland, KE and Berkman, LF and Watkins, LL and Czajkowski, SM and Hayano, J and Jaffe,
             AS},
   Title = {Depression as a risk factor for mortality after acute
             myocardial infarction.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Cardiology},
   Volume = {92},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {1277-1281},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0002-9149},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14636903},
   Abstract = {The ENRICHD clinical trial, which compared an intervention
             for depression and social isolation to usual care, failed to
             decrease the rate of mortality and recurrent acute
             myocardial infarction (AMI) in post-AMI patients. One
             explanation for this is that depression was not associated
             with increased mortality in these patients. The purpose of
             this study was to determine if depression was associated
             with an increased risk of mortality in a subsample of the
             ENRICHD trial's depressed patients compared with a group of
             nondepressed patients recruited for an ancillary study.
             Three hundred fifty-eight depressed patients with an acute
             AMI from the ENRICHD clinical trial and 408 nondepressed
             patients who met the ENRICHD medical inclusion criteria were
             followed for up to 30 months. There were 47 deaths (6.1%)
             and 57 nonfatal AMIs (7.4%). After adjusting for other risk
             factors, depressed patients were at higher risk for
             all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 2.4, 95% confidence
             interval 1.2 to 4.7) but not for nonfatal recurrent
             infarction (hazard ratio 1.2, 95% confidence interval 0.7 to
             2.0) compared with nondepressed patients. In conclusion,
             depression was an independent risk factor for death after
             AMI, but it did not have a significant effect on mortality
             until nearly 12 months after the acute event, nor did it
             predict nonfatal recurrent infarction.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.amjcard.2003.08.007},
   Key = {fds270870}
}

@article{fds270690,
   Author = {Lucas, S},
   Title = {Depression as risk factor for mortality after coronary
             artery bypass surgery.},
   Journal = {Lancet},
   Volume = {362},
   Number = {9394},
   Pages = {1499-1500},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {1474-547X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(03)14701-0},
   Keywords = {Cause of Death • Coronary Artery Bypass •
             Depressive Disorder • Female • Follow-Up Studies
             • Humans • Male • Middle Aged •
             Personality Inventory • Proportional Hazards Models
             • Risk Factors • Severity of Illness Index •
             diagnosis* • epidemiology • mortality •
             mortality* • psychology},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Studies that have shown clinical depression to
             be a risk factor for cardiac events after coronary artery
             bypass graft (CABG) surgery have had small sample sizes,
             short follow-up, and have not had adequate power to assess
             mortality. We sought to assess whether depression is
             associated with an increased risk of mortality. METHODS: We
             assessed 817 patients undergoing CABG at Duke University
             Medical Center between May, 1989, and May, 2001. Patients
             completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression
             (CES-D) scale before surgery, 6 months after CABG, and were
             followed-up for up to 12 years. RESULTS: In 817 patients
             there were 122 deaths (15%) in a mean follow-up of 5.2
             years. 310 patients (38%) met the criterion for depression
             (CES-D > or =16): 213 (26%) for mild depression (CES-D
             16-26) and 97 (12%) for moderate to severe depression (CES-D
             > or =27). Survival analyses, controlling for age, sex,
             number of grafts, diabetes, smoking, left ventricular
             ejection fraction, and previous myocardial infarction,
             showed that patients with moderate to severe depression at
             baseline (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.4, [95% CI 1.4-4.0];
             p=0.001) and mild or moderate to severe depression that
             persisted from baseline to 6 months (adjusted HR 2.2,
             [1.2-4.2]; p=0.015) had higher rates of death than did those
             with no depression. CONCLUSIONS: Despite advances in
             surgical and medical management of patients after CABG,
             depression is an important independent predictor of death
             after CABG and should be carefully monitored and treated if
             necessary.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0140-6736(03)14701-0},
   Key = {fds270690}
}

@article{fds270727,
   Author = {Mackensen, GB and Ti, LK and Phillips-Bute, BG and Mathew, JP and Newman, MF and Grocott, HP and Neurologic Outcome Research Group
             (NORG)},
   Title = {Cerebral embolization during cardiac surgery: impact of
             aortic atheroma burden.},
   Journal = {British Journal of Anaesthesia},
   Volume = {91},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {656-661},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0007-0912},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14570786},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Aortic atheromatous disease is known to be
             associated with an increased risk of perioperative stroke in
             the setting of cardiac surgery. In this study, we sought to
             determine the relationship between cerebral microemboli and
             aortic atheroma burden in patients undergoing cardiac
             surgery. METHODS: Transoesophageal echocardiographic images
             of the ascending, arch and descending aorta were evaluated
             in 128 patients to determine the aortic atheroma burden.
             Transcranial Doppler (TCD) of the right middle cerebral
             artery was performed in order to measure cerebral embolic
             load during surgery. Using multivariate linear regression,
             the numbers of emboli were compared with the atheroma
             burden. RESULTS: After controlling for age, cardiopulmonary
             bypass time and the number of bypass grafts, cerebral emboli
             were significantly associated with atheroma in the ascending
             aorta (R2=0.11, P=0.02) and aortic arch (P=0.013). However,
             there was no association between emboli and descending
             aortic atheroma burden (R2=0.05, P=0.20). CONCLUSIONS: We
             demonstrate a positive relationship between TCD-detected
             cerebral emboli and the atheromatous burden of the ascending
             aorta and aortic arch. Previously demonstrated associations
             between TCD-detectable cerebral emboli and adverse cerebral
             outcome may be related to the presence of significant aortic
             atheromatous disease.},
   Doi = {10.1093/bja/aeg234},
   Key = {fds270727}
}

@article{fds270866,
   Author = {Phillips Bute and B and Mathew, J and Blumenthal, JA and Welsh-Bohmer,
             K and White, WD and Mark, D and Landolfo, K and Newman,
             MF},
   Title = {Female gender is associated with impaired quality of life 1
             year after coronary artery bypass surgery.},
   Journal = {Psychosom Med},
   Volume = {65},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {944-951},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14645771},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To evaluate gender-related differences in quality
             of life (QOL) and cognitive function 1 year after coronary
             artery bypass surgery (CABG) after adjusting for known
             baseline differences. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred
             eighty patients (96 women and 184 men) underwent
             neurocognitive and QOL evaluation at baseline
             (preoperatively) and at 1 year after CABG. Multivariable
             linear regression was used to assess the relationship of
             gender to follow-up QOL and cognitive function. Measures
             used to evaluate QOL were IADL, DASI, work activities
             (SF-36), social activities, social support, general health
             perception (SF-36), CESD, STAI, and symptom limitations.
             Cognitive function was measured with a battery of
             performance-based neuropsychological tests, reduced to a
             four-cognitive domain scores with factor analysis, and a
             self-report measure of cognitive difficulties. Covariates in
             multiple regression models included age, years of education,
             marital status, Charlson Comorbidity Index, hypertension,
             diabetes, race, and baseline QOL/cognitive status. RESULTS:
             Female patients showed significantly worse outcome than male
             patients at 1 year follow-up in several key areas of QOL.
             After adjusting for baseline differences, women are at
             greater risk for increased cognitive difficulties (p= 0.04)
             and anxiety (p= 0.03), as well as impaired DASI (p= 0.02),
             IADL (p= 0.03), and work activities (p= 0.02). Cognitive
             sequelae attributable to bypass surgery were similar between
             men and women. CONCLUSIONS: Even after adjusting for known
             risk factors for compromised QOL and cognitive functioning,
             women do not show the same long-term quality benefits of
             CABG surgery that men do.},
   Doi = {10.1097/01.psy.0000097342.24933.a2},
   Key = {fds270866}
}

@article{fds270867,
   Author = {Mitchell, PH and Powell, L and Blumenthal, J and Norten, J and Ironson,
             G and Pitula, CR and Froelicher, ES and Czajkowski, S and Youngblood, M and Huber, M and Berkman, LF},
   Title = {A short social support measure for patients recovering from
             myocardial infarction: the ENRICHD Social Support
             Inventory.},
   Journal = {Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation},
   Volume = {23},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {398-403},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00008483-200311000-00001},
   Doi = {10.1097/00008483-200311000-00001},
   Key = {fds270867}
}

@article{fds270869,
   Author = {Parekh, PI and Blumenthal, JA and Babyak, MA and Merrill, K and Carney,
             RM and Davis, RD and Palmer, SM and INSPIRE Investigators},
   Title = {Psychiatric disorder and quality of life in patients
             awaiting lung transplantation.},
   Journal = {Chest},
   Volume = {124},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1682-1688},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0012-3692},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14605035},
   Abstract = {STUDY OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between
             psychiatric comorbidity and quality of life in patients
             awaiting lung transplantation. SETTING: Duke University
             Medical Center/Lung Transplantation Program. PARTICIPANTS:
             One hundred patients with end-stage pulmonary disease listed
             for lung transplantation. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS:
             Twenty-five percent (n = 25) of the sample met diagnostic
             criteria for at least one current mood or anxiety disorder.
             Controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, percentage of
             predicted FEV, and lung disease diagnosis, patients with a
             current psychiatric diagnosis reported poorer general
             quality of life (p < 0.0001), poorer disease-specific
             quality of life (p < 0.0001), greater shortness of breath (p
             = 0.01), more symptoms of psychological distress (p <
             0.0001), lower levels of social support (p < 0.0001), and
             fewer positive health habits (p < 0.04) than their
             counterparts without a psychiatric diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS:
             Psychiatric comorbidity affects a significant portion of
             patients awaiting lung transplantation and is associated
             with decreased health-related quality of
             life.},
   Doi = {10.1378/chest.124.5.1682},
   Key = {fds270869}
}

@article{fds339434,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Newman, M and Babyak, MA and Lett, HS and Mark,
             D},
   Title = {Depression as risk factor for mortality after coronary
             artery bypass surgery},
   Journal = {Lancet (London, England)},
   Volume = {362},
   Number = {9394},
   Pages = {1501-1502},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(03)14704-6},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0140-6736(03)14704-6},
   Key = {fds339434}
}

@article{fds270874,
   Author = {Watkins, LL and Sherwood, A and Feinglos, M and Hinderliter, A and Babyak, M and Gullette, E and Waugh, R and Blumenthal,
             JA},
   Title = {Effects of exercise and weight loss on cardiac risk factors
             associated with syndrome X.},
   Journal = {Archives of Internal Medicine},
   Volume = {163},
   Number = {16},
   Pages = {1889-1895},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0003-9926},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12963561},
   Keywords = {Adult • Blood Pressure • Body Composition •
             Body Mass Index • Coronary Artery Disease • Energy
             Intake • Exercise* • Female • Glucose
             Tolerance Test • Humans • Hyperinsulinism •
             Hyperlipidemias • Male • Metabolic Syndrome X
             • Oxygen Consumption • Regression Analysis •
             Risk Factors • Treatment Outcome • Weight Loss*
             • complications • therapy •
             therapy*},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Patients with high blood pressure (BP) often
             exhibit syndrome X, an aggregation of abnormalities in
             carbohydrate and lipoprotein metabolism associated with
             increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). The present
             study evaluated the effects of a 6-month intervention
             involving either aerobic exercise training alone (EX only)
             or exercise combined with a structured weight loss program
             (EX + WL) on CHD risk factors associated with syndrome X.
             METHODS: A total of 53 men and women were selected from a
             larger behavioral intervention trial, who showed the
             hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and high BP characteristic
             of syndrome X. Participants were randomly assigned to EX
             only (n = 21), EX + WL (n = 21), or a waiting list control
             group (n = 11). Before and following treatment, participants
             underwent measurement of glucose tolerance, lipid levels,
             and clinical BP. RESULTS: Hyperinsulinemic responses to
             glucose challenge were significantly reduced in both the EX
             + WL group (P<.001) and the EX-only group (P =.003).
             Participants who showed the largest amount of weight loss
             showed the most robust improvements in abnormal insulin
             responses (EX + WL group, 47% reduction; EX-only group, 27%
             reduction). Diastolic BP was significantly reduced in the EX
             + WL group (96 +/- 4 to 87 +/- 5 mm Hg [mean +/- SD]; P
             =.01), but not in the EX-only group (93 +/- 4 to 89 +/- 5 mm
             Hg [mean +/- SD]; P =.08). Lipid profile was not
             significantly improved by either intervention. CONCLUSION:
             These results suggest that EX + WL is an effective treatment
             for hyperinsulinemia and lowering of diastolic BP in
             patients with the syndrome X.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1001/archinte.163.16.1889},
   Key = {fds270874}
}

@article{fds270872,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Lett, HS and Babyak, MA and White, W and Smith, PK and Mark, DB and Jones, R and Mathew, JP and Newman, MF and NORG
             Investigators},
   Title = {Depression as a risk factor for mortality after coronary
             artery bypass surgery.},
   Journal = {Lancet},
   Volume = {362},
   Number = {9384},
   Pages = {604-609},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12944059},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Studies that have shown clinical depression to
             be a risk factor for cardiac events after coronary artery
             bypass graft (CABG) surgery have had small sample sizes,
             short follow-up, and have not had adequate power to assess
             mortality. We sought to assess whether depression is
             associated with an increased risk of mortality. METHODS: We
             assessed 817 patients undergoing CABG at Duke University
             Medical Center between May, 1989, and May, 2001. Patients
             completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression
             (CES-D) scale before surgery, 6 months after CABG, and were
             followed-up for up to 12 years. FINDINGS: In 817 patients
             there were 122 deaths (15%) in a mean follow-up of 5.2
             years. 310 patients (38%) met the criterion for depression
             (CES-D > or =16): 213 (26%) for mild depression (CES-D
             16-26) and 97 (12%) for moderate to severe depression (CES-D
             > or =27). Survival analyses, controlling for age, sex,
             number of grafts, diabetes, smoking, left ventricular
             ejection fraction, and previous myocardial infarction,
             showed that patients with moderate to severe depression at
             baseline (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.4, [95% CI 1.4-4.0];
             p=0.001) and mild or moderate to severe depression that
             persisted from baseline to 6 months (adjusted HR 2.2,
             [1.2-4.2]; p=0.015) had higher rates of death than did those
             with no depression. INTERPRETATION: Despite advances in
             surgical and medical management of patients after CABG,
             depression is an important independent predictor of death
             after CABG and should be carefully monitored and treated if
             necessary.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0140-6736(03)14190-6},
   Key = {fds270872}
}

@article{fds270644,
   Author = {McCarthy, WJ and Arpawong, TE and Dietsch, BJ and Yancey,
             AK},
   Title = {Effects of exercise and weight loss on hypertension.},
   Journal = {Jama},
   Volume = {290},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {885},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.290.7.885-a},
   Doi = {10.1001/jama.290.7.885-a},
   Key = {fds270644}
}

@article{fds270750,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Sherwood, A and Bacon, SL and Hinderliter,
             A},
   Title = {Effects of exercise and weight loss on hypertension.},
   Journal = {Jama},
   Volume = {290},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {885-886},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {1538-3598},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12928457},
   Keywords = {Diet* • Exercise* • Health Behavior* • Humans
             • Hypertension • Life Style • Weight Loss
             • prevention & control*},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1001/jama.290.7.885-b},
   Key = {fds270750}
}

@article{fds270865,
   Author = {Claar, RL and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {The Value of Stress-Management Interventions in
             Life-Threatening Medical Conditions},
   Journal = {Current Directions in Psychological Science},
   Volume = {12},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {133-137},
   Publisher = {SAGE Publications},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8721.01248},
   Abstract = {Emotional stress has been associated with the development
             and progression of several chronic medical conditions.
             Recently, researchers have assessed the impact of
             stress-management interventions on patients' psychological
             functioning, quality of life, and various disease outcomes,
             including survival. This review summarizes the value of
             stress-management techniques in the treatment of two
             important, life-threatening conditions: coronary heart
             disease and cancer. Results from randomized clinical trials
             indicate that psychological interventions can improve
             patients' psychological functioning and quality of life.
             However, there is limited evidence to suggest that these
             interventions significantly reduce morbidity and
             mortality.},
   Doi = {10.1111/1467-8721.01248},
   Key = {fds270865}
}

@article{fds270868,
   Author = {Watkins, LL and Schneiderman, N and Blumenthal, JA and Sheps, DS and Catellier, D and Taylor, CB and Freedland, KE and ENRICHD
             Investigators},
   Title = {Cognitive and somatic symptoms of depression are associated
             with medical comorbidity in patients after acute myocardial
             infarction.},
   Journal = {American Heart Journal},
   Volume = {146},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {48-54},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12851607},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Depression is common in patients with acute
             myocardial infarction (AMI) and is associated with adverse
             health outcomes. However, the extent to which clinical
             depression is related to comorbid medical conditions is
             unknown. This study examined the degree of association
             between clinical depression and medical comorbidity in
             patients hospitalized with AMI. METHODS: Two thousand four
             hundred and eighty-one depressed or socially isolated
             patients with AMI were enrolled, as part of the National
             Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-sponsored Enhancing
             Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease clinical trial. A
             structured interview was used to diagnose major and minor
             depression and dysthymia; severity of depression was
             measured by the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and the
             Beck Depression Inventory. Level of social support was
             measured by the ENRICHD Social Support Instrument. A
             modified version of the Charlson Comorbidity Index was used
             to measure the cumulative burden of medical comorbidity.
             RESULTS: The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for having major
             depression increased linearly with medical comorbidity (ORs
             1.6, 2.2, 2.7 for each increasing medical comorbidity
             category). This relationship remained after adjusting for
             coronary heart disease severity (ORs 1.4, 1.7, 1.9, P
             <.001). The relationship between severity of depression and
             medical comorbidity was also maintained after excluding
             somatic symptoms of depression (F = 21.5, P <.0001).
             CONCLUSIONS: Patients with AMI and clinical depression have
             significantly greater levels of medical comorbidity than
             nondepressed, socially isolated patients. Further research
             is needed to determine whether comorbid medical illness
             contributes to the more frequent rehospitalizations and
             increased risk of mortality associated with
             depression.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0002-8703(03)00083-8},
   Key = {fds270868}
}

@article{fds270875,
   Author = {Jiang, W and Babyak, MA and Rozanski, A and Sherwood, A and O'Connor,
             CM and Waugh, RA and Coleman, RE and Hanson, MW and Morris, JJ and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Depression and increased myocardial ischemic activity in
             patients with ischemic heart disease.},
   Journal = {American Heart Journal},
   Volume = {146},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {55-61},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12851608},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Depression is relatively common in patients with
             ischemic heart disease (IHD) and is associated with
             increased risk of mortality and morbidity. However, the
             mechanisms by which depression adversely affects clinical
             outcomes of patients with IHD are unknown. This study
             examined the relationship between depression and myocardial
             ischemia during mental stress testing and during daily
             living in patients with stable IHD.Methods and results The
             Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D)
             was administered to 135 patients with IHD to evaluate
             depressive symptoms. Radionuclide ventriculography was used
             to evaluate the occurrence of left ventricular wall motion
             abnormality (WMA) during mental stress and exercise testing.
             Forty-eight-hour ambulatory electrocardiography was used to
             assess myocardial ischemia during daily living. The mean
             CES-D score was 8.2 (SD 7.4, range 0-47) with a median of 7.
             Logistic regression models using restricted cubic splines
             revealed a curvilinear relation among CES-D scores and the
             probability of ischemia. For patients with CES-D scores
             <or=19 (81.5% of study population), a 5-point increment in
             the CES-D score was associated with roughly a 2-fold
             increase in the likelihood of ischemia during mental stress.
             For patients with CES-D scores >19, the relation among
             scores and ischemia during mental stress tended to be
             inversely related, but the portion of the sample is very
             small. Similar patterns of results were noted for CES-D
             scores and ischemia during daily life. CONCLUSIONS: Patients
             with mild to moderate depressive symptoms (CES-D scores
             <or=19) are more likely to exhibit myocardial ischemia
             during mental stress testing and during daily living.
             Myocardial ischemia may be one mechanism by which depression
             increases the risk of mortality and morbidity in patients
             with IHD. The observed inverse association between higher
             level of depressive symptoms and ischemic activity needs to
             be further assessed in large samples.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0002-8703(03)00152-2},
   Key = {fds270875}
}

@article{fds270876,
   Author = {Hughes, JW and Sherwood, A and Blumenthal, JA and Suarez, EC and Hinderliter, AL},
   Title = {Hostility, social support, and adrenergic receptor
             responsiveness among African-American and white men and
             women.},
   Journal = {Psychosom Med},
   Volume = {65},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {582-587},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12883108},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: We examined the relationship between
             beta-adrenergic receptor responsiveness and hostility and
             social support in African American and white men and women.
             METHODS: The participants were 149 men and women, aged 25 to
             45 years with SBP < 160 and DBP < 105. Hostility and social
             support were assessed with standardized self-report
             measures. An isoproterenol challenge was used to evaluate
             beta-adrenergic receptor responsiveness, and a phenylephrine
             challenge was used to evaluate alpha-adrenergic receptor
             responsiveness. RESULTS: Hostility and social support were
             unrelated to alpha-adrenergic receptor responsiveness.
             Hostility and satisfaction with perceived social support
             predicted beta-adrenergic receptor responsiveness in
             multiple linear regression analyses controlling for race,
             gender, age, SBP, and resting heart rate. High hostility was
             associated with reduced cardiac beta-adrenergic receptor
             function among both white and African American men. Low
             levels of satisfaction with social support were associated
             with reduced cardiac beta-adrenergic receptor responsiveness
             among men and women. Hostility and satisfaction with social
             support shared some variance in models predicting
             beta-adrenergic receptor responsiveness. CONCLUSIONS:
             Reduced beta-adrenergic receptor responsiveness is
             associated with higher levels of hostility among men, and is
             associated with lower levels of satisfaction with social
             support among men and women. Impaired beta-adrenergic
             receptor function, which is a common characteristic of
             cardiovascular disease, may be a marker of increased
             cardiovascular disease risk among individuals high in
             hostility and low in social support.},
   Doi = {10.1097/01.psy.0000041546.04128.43},
   Key = {fds270876}
}

@article{fds270775,
   Author = {Djaiani, GN and Phillips-Bute, B and Blumenthal, JA and Newman, MF and Neurologic Outcome Research Group, and CARE Investigators of
             the Duke Heart Center},
   Title = {Chronic exposure to nicotine does not prevent neurocognitive
             decline after cardiac surgery.},
   Journal = {Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {341-345},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {1053-0770},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12827583},
   Keywords = {Aged • Cognition • Coronary Artery Bypass* •
             Female • Ganglionic Stimulants • Humans •
             Male • Middle Aged • Multivariate Analysis •
             Myocardial Infarction • Nicotine • Postoperative
             Complications • Predictive Value of Tests •
             Prevalence • Retrospective Studies • Smoking
             • Stroke Volume • Time Factors • Treatment
             Outcome • adverse effects • drug effects* •
             etiology • physiology • physiopathology •
             surgery • therapeutic use*},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To establish the association between smoking and
             cognitive decline in patients undergoing coronary artery
             bypass graft (CABG) surgery. DESIGN: Retrospective review.
             SETTING: Referral center for cardiothoracic surgery at a
             university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Four hundred seventeen
             patients undergoing CABG surgery. INTERVENTIONS: Based on
             preoperative data, patients were divided into 2 groups:
             smokers (n = 185) and nonsmokers (n = 232). Patients who
             smoked half a pack of cigarettes per day within the last 2
             years were identified as smokers, and patients who did not
             smoke were included in the nonsmoker group. Patients with
             less than a seventh grade education; an inability to read;
             or a history of one of the following medical conditions:
             prior stroke with residual deficit, psychiatric illness,
             renal disease (creatinine > 2.0 mg/dL), or active liver
             disease; or patients who quit smoking prior to surgery were
             excluded from the study. Both groups received similar
             anesthetic and surgical management. All patients received a
             battery of neurocognitive tests both preoperatively and 6
             weeks after CABG surgery. Neurocognitive test scores were
             separated into 4 cognitive domains, with a composite
             cognitive index (the mean of the four domain scores)
             determined for each patient at every testing period.
             MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The overall rate of cognitive
             decline at 6 weeks after surgery in smokers was 36.2%,
             whereas nonsmokers showed a deficit rate of 36.6%.
             Nonsmokers were significantly older and presented for
             surgery on average 6 years later than the smokers. Female
             sex represented a considerably larger proportion of patients
             in the nonsmoker group. Smokers had a higher prevalence of
             myocardial infarction. The univariate analysis of cognitive
             change at 6 weeks adjusted for age, baseline cognitive
             index, and education years showed no difference between the
             2 groups. Sex, history of myocardial infarction,
             hypertension, stroke, transient ischemic attack, and
             duration of cardiopulmonary bypass did not contribute to the
             multivariate logistic regression model and were dropped from
             the final analysis. Significant multivariate predictors of
             neurocognitive dysfunction included age, left ventricular
             ejection fraction, baseline education level, and baseline
             cognitive index. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirmed previous
             findings that age, baseline cognitive function, years of
             education, and impaired left ventricular function are
             independent predictors of neurocognitive decline at 6 weeks
             after CABG surgery. Smoking is neither preventive nor
             causative of cognitive decline after CABG
             surgery.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/s1053-0770(03)00047-8},
   Key = {fds270775}
}

@article{fds270864,
   Author = {Jiang, W and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Depression and ischemic heart disease: overview of the
             evidence and treatment implications.},
   Journal = {Current Psychiatry Reports},
   Volume = {5},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {47-54},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {1523-3812},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12686002},
   Abstract = {In this article, the authors review the evidence that
             depression is a risk factor for ischemic heart disease and
             examine the efficacy and safety of depression treatments in
             patients with ischemic heart disease.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s11920-003-0009-1},
   Key = {fds270864}
}

@article{fds270888,
   Author = {Mathew, JP and Grocott, HP and Phillips-Bute, B and Stafford-Smith,
             M and Laskowitz, DT and Rossignol, D and Blumenthal, JA and Newman, MF and Neurologic Outcome Research Group of the Duke Heart Center, and Cardiothoracic Anesthesiology Research Endeavors
             Investigators of the Duke Heart Center},
   Title = {Lower endotoxin immunity predicts increased cognitive
             dysfunction in elderly patients after cardiac
             surgery.},
   Journal = {Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation},
   Volume = {34},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {508-513},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {1524-4628},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12574568},
   Keywords = {Adult • Age Factors • Aged • Aged, 80 and
             over • Antibodies, Bacterial • Cognition Disorders
             • Coronary Artery Bypass • Endotoxins •
             Female • Follow-Up Studies • Humans •
             Immunoglobulin M • Logistic Models • Male •
             Middle Aged • Multivariate Analysis •
             Neuropsychological Tests • Predictive Value of Tests
             • Risk Assessment • Risk Factors • adverse
             effects* • blood • diagnosis • etiology*
             • immunology*},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although coronary artery bypass
             graft surgery (CABG) improves the quality of life and
             functional capacity for numerous patients, many also exhibit
             impairment in cognitive function immediately after surgery.
             Although the etiology of this cognitive decline is
             multifactorial, the inflammatory response to the primary
             insult may modulate the extent of dysfunction. Patients with
             low preoperative levels of anti-endotoxin core antibody
             (EndoCAb) are more likely to experience adverse outcomes,
             suggesting that decreased immunity to endotoxin causes a
             heightened release of inflammatory mediators. We therefore
             sought to determine the association of decreased EndoCAb and
             the incidence of postoperative cognitive decline. METHODS:
             EndoCAb levels were measured before surgery in 460 patients
             undergoing elective CABG. Cognitive function was measured
             preoperatively and 6 weeks postoperatively. Multivariable
             analysis accounted for the effects of age, Parsonnet score,
             sex, body mass index, baseline cognition, years of
             education, history of hypertension, bypass time, cross-clamp
             time, and number of grafts. RESULTS: At 6-week follow-up,
             122 patients (36%) showed cognitive decline. Lower
             preoperative EndoCAb levels were associated with a greater
             incidence and severity of postoperative cognitive decline.
             The elderly with decreased endotoxin immunity are
             particularly susceptible to this decline (relative risk=1.97
             for age >64). CONCLUSIONS: Reduced preoperative endotoxin
             immunity is a predictor of increased postoperative cognitive
             dysfunction in patients undergoing CABG, particularly in
             those >60 years old. Interventions that increase IgM EndoCAb
             levels might improve cognitive function after cardiac
             surgery.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1161/01.str.0000053844.09493.58},
   Key = {fds270888}
}

@article{fds270645,
   Author = {Berkman, LF and Blumenthal, J and Burg, M and Czajkowski, SM and Watkins, L},
   Title = {Treating depression and low perceived social support after
             myocardial infarction does not increase event-free
             survival},
   Journal = {Evidence Based Cardiovascular Medicine},
   Volume = {7},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {199-200},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebcm.2003.08.004},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.ebcm.2003.08.004},
   Key = {fds270645}
}

@article{fds40111,
   Author = {Mathew, J.P. and Grocott, H.P. and Phillips-Bute, B. and Stafford-Smith, M. and Laskowitz, D.T. and Rossignol, D. and Blumenthal, J.A. and Newman, M.F. for the NORG and CARE
             Investigators of the Duke Heart Center},
   Title = {Lower endotoxin immunity predicts increased cognitive
             dysfunction in elderly patients after cardiac
             surgery},
   Journal = {Stroke},
   Volume = {34},
   Pages = {508-513},
   Year = {2003},
   Key = {fds40111}
}

@article{fds40147,
   Author = {Watkins, L.L. and Sherwood, A. and Feinglos, M. and Hinderliter, A.L. and Babyak, M. and Gulette, E. and Waugh, R. and Blumenthal,
             J.A},
   Title = {Effects of exercise and weight loss on cardiac risk factors
             associated with Syndrome X},
   Journal = {Archives of Internal Medicine},
   Volume = {163},
   Pages = {1889-1895},
   Year = {2003},
   Key = {fds40147}
}

@article{fds40151,
   Author = {Mathew, J.P. and Grocott, H.P. and Phillips-Bute, B. and Stafford-Smith, M. and Laskowitz, D.T. and Rossignol, D. and Blumenthal, J.A. and Newman, M.F. for the NORG and CARE
             Investigators of the Duke Heart Center},
   Title = {Lower endotoxin immunity predicts increased cognitive
             dysfunction in elderly patients after cardiac
             surgery},
   Journal = {Stroke},
   Volume = {34},
   Pages = {508-513},
   Year = {2003},
   Key = {fds40151}
}

@article{fds270871,
   Author = {Investigators, WCFTENRICHD},
   Title = {Effects of treating depression and low perceived social
             support on clinical events after myocardial
             infarction},
   Journal = {Jama},
   Volume = {289},
   Number = {23},
   Pages = {3106-3116},
   Year = {2003},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.289.23.3106},
   Abstract = {CONTEXT: Depression and low perceived social support (LPSS)
             after myocardial infarction (MI) are associated with higher
             morbidity and mortality, but little is known about whether
             this excess risk can be reduced through treatment.
             OBJECTIVE: To determine whether mortality and recurrent
             infarction are reduced by treatment of depression and LPSS
             with cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), supplemented with a
             selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant
             when indicated, in patients enrolled within 28 days after
             MI. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: Randomized clinical trial
             conducted from October 1996 to April 2001 in 2481 MI
             patients (1084 women, 1397 men) enrolled from 8 clinical
             centers. Major or minor depression was diagnosed by modified
             Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,
             Fourth Edition criteria and severity by the 17-item Hamilton
             Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD); LPSS was determined by
             the Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease Patients
             (ENRICHD) Social Support Instrument (ESSI). Random
             allocation was to usual medical care or CBT-based
             psychosocial intervention. INTERVENTION: Cognitive behavior
             therapy was initiated at a median of 17 days after the index
             MI for a median of 11 individual sessions throughout 6
             months, plus group therapy when feasible, with SSRIs for
             patients scoring higher than 24 on the HRSD or having a less
             than 50% reduction in Beck Depression Inventory scores after
             5 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Composite primary end point
             of death or recurrent MI; secondary outcomes included change
             in HRSD (for depression) or ESSI scores (for LPSS) at 6
             months. RESULTS: Improvement in psychosocial outcomes at 6
             months favored treatment: mean (SD) change in HRSD score,
             -10.1 (7.8) in the depression and psychosocial intervention
             group vs -8.4 (7.7) in the depression and usual care group
             (P<.001); mean (SD) change in ESSI score, 5.1 (5.9) in the
             LPSS and psychosocial intervention group vs 3.4 (6.0) in the
             LPSS and usual care group (P<.001). After an average
             follow-up of 29 months, there was no significant difference
             in event-free survival between usual care (75.9%) and
             psychosocial intervention (75.8%). There were also no
             differences in survival between the psychosocial
             intervention and usual care arms in any of the 3
             psychosocial risk groups (depression, LPSS, and depression
             and LPSS patients). CONCLUSIONS: The intervention did not
             increase event-free survival. The intervention improved
             depression and social isolation, although the relative
             improvement in the psychosocial intervention group compared
             with the usual care group was less than expected due to
             substantial improvement in usual care patients.},
   Doi = {10.1001/jama.289.23.3106},
   Key = {fds270871}
}

@article{fds270873,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Sherwood, A and Bacon, SL},
   Title = {Effects of exercise and weight loss on hypertension: Letter
             to the Editor},
   Journal = {Jama},
   Volume = {290},
   Pages = {885-886},
   Year = {2003},
   Key = {fds270873}
}

@article{fds270877,
   Author = {Herman, S and Blumenthal, JA and Babyak, M and Khatri, P and Craighead,
             WE and Krishnan, KR and Doraiswamy, PM},
   Title = {Exercise therapy for depression in middle-aged and older
             adults: predictors of early dropout and treatment
             failure.},
   Journal = {Health Psychology : Official Journal of the Division of
             Health Psychology, American Psychological
             Association},
   Volume = {21},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {553-563},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0278-6133},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12433007},
   Abstract = {Psychosocial factors predicting treatment dropout or failure
             to benefit from treatment were identified in a randomized
             trial of exercise therapy and pharmacotherapy for major
             depression. One hundred fifty-six men and women over age 50
             diagnosed with major depressive disorder were assigned to a
             16-week program of aerobic exercise, medication
             (sertraline), or a combination of exercise and medication.
             Thirty-two patients (21%) failed to complete the program and
             were considered treatment "dropouts." At the end of 16
             weeks, 83 patients (53%) were in remission; the remaining
             patients not in remission were considered treatment
             "failures." Baseline levels of self-reported anxiety and
             lift satisfaction were the best predictors of both patient
             dropout and treatment success or failure across all
             treatment conditions.},
   Doi = {10.1037//0278-6133.21.6.553},
   Key = {fds270877}
}

@article{fds270878,
   Author = {Napolitano, MA and Babyak, MA and Palmer, S and Tapson, V and Davis, RD and Blumenthal, JA and Investigational Study of Psychological
             Intervention in Recipients of Lung Transplant (INSPIRE)
             Investigators},
   Title = {Effects of a telephone-based psychosocial intervention for
             patients awaiting lung transplantation.},
   Journal = {Chest},
   Volume = {122},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1176-1184},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0012-3692},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12377839},
   Abstract = {STUDY OBJECTIVES: To test the efficacy of a tailored
             telephone-based intervention consisting of supportive
             counseling and cognitive behavioral techniques for
             individuals awaiting lung transplantation on measures of
             quality of life and general well-being. METHOD: Patients
             were randomly assigned to either a telephone-based special
             intervention (SI; n = 36) for 8 weeks (average session
             length, 16.3 min) or a usual care (UC) control condition (n
             = 35) in which subjects received usual medical care but no
             special treatment or phone calls. At baseline, and
             immediately following the 8-week intervention, patients
             completed a psychometric test battery. SETTING: Duke
             University Medical Center, Pulmonary Transplantation
             Program. PATIENTS: Seventy-one patients with end-stage
             pulmonary disease listed for lung transplantation. PRIMARY
             OUTCOME MEASURES: Measures of health-related quality of life
             (both general and disease-specific), general psychological
             well-being, and social support. RESULTS: Multivariate
             analysis of covariance, adjusting for pretreatment baseline
             scores, age, gender, and time waiting on the transplant
             list, revealed that patients in the SI condition compared to
             the UC reported greater general well-being (p < 0.05),
             better general quality of life (p < 0.01), better
             disease-specific quality of life (p < 0.05), and higher
             levels of social support (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: A brief,
             relatively inexpensive, telephone-based psychosocial
             intervention is an effective method for reducing distress
             and increasing health-related quality of life in patients
             awaiting lung transplantation.},
   Doi = {10.1378/chest.122.4.1176},
   Key = {fds270878}
}

@article{fds270643,
   Author = {Carney, RM and Blumenthal, JA and Stein, PK and Watkins, L and Catellier, D and Berkman, LF and Czajkowski, SM and O'Connor, C and Stone, PH and Freedland, KE},
   Title = {Depression, heart rate variability, and acute myocardial
             infarction},
   Journal = {Revista De Psiquiatria Clinica},
   Volume = {29},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {158-159},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {September},
   Key = {fds270643}
}

@article{fds270642,
   Author = {Prattichizzo, FA and Galetta, F},
   Title = {Blunted nighttime blood pressure dipping in postmenopausal
             women.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Hypertension},
   Volume = {15},
   Number = {7 Pt 1},
   Pages = {662},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0895-7061},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0895-7061(02)02930-8},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0895-7061(02)02930-8},
   Key = {fds270642}
}

@article{fds270880,
   Author = {Swaminathan, M and McCreath, BJ and Phillips-Bute, BG and Newman, MF and Mathew, JP and Smith, PK and Blumenthal, JA and Stafford-Smith, M and Perioperative Outcomes Research Group},
   Title = {Serum creatinine patterns in coronary bypass surgery
             patients with and without postoperative cognitive
             dysfunction.},
   Journal = {Anesthesia and Analgesia},
   Volume = {95},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {1-8},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0003-2999},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12088934},
   Abstract = {UNLABELLED: Renal dysfunction is common after coronary
             artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. We have previously shown
             that CABG procedures complicated by stroke have a threefold
             greater peak serum creatinine level relative to
             uncomplicated surgery. However, postoperative creatinine
             patterns for procedures complicated by cognitive dysfunction
             are unknown. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that
             postoperative cognitive dysfunction is associated with acute
             perioperative renal injury after CABG surgery. Data were
             prospectively gathered for 282 elective CABG surgery
             patients. Psychometric tests were performed at baseline and
             6 wk after surgery. Cognitive dysfunction was defined both
             as a dichotomous variable (cognitive deficit [CD]) and as a
             continuous variable (cognitive index). Forty percent of
             patients had CD at 6 wk. However, the association between
             peak percentage change in postoperative creatinine and CD
             (parameter estimate = -0.41; P = 0.91) or cognitive index
             (parameter estimate = -1.29; P = 0.46) was not significant.
             These data indicate that postcardiac surgery cognitive
             dysfunction, unlike stroke, is not associated with major
             increases in postoperative renal dysfunction. IMPLICATIONS:
             We previously noted that patients with postcardiac surgery
             stroke also have greater acute renal injury than unaffected
             patients. However, in the same setting, we found no
             difference in renal injury between patients with and without
             cognitive dysfunction. Factors responsible for subtle
             postoperative cognitive dysfunction do not appear to be
             associated with clinically important renal
             effects.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00000539-200207000-00001},
   Key = {fds270880}
}

@article{fds270881,
   Author = {Hinderliter, A and Sherwood, A and Gullette, ECD and Babyak, M and Waugh, R and Georgiades, A and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Reduction of left ventricular hypertrophy after exercise and
             weight loss in overweight patients with mild
             hypertension.},
   Journal = {Archives of Internal Medicine},
   Volume = {162},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {1333-1339},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0003-9926},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12076231},
   Keywords = {Adult • Analysis of Variance • Exercise* •
             Female • Humans • Hypertension • Hypertrophy,
             Left Ventricular • Male • Middle Aged •
             Obesity • Patient Compliance • Severity of Illness
             Index • Time Factors • Treatment Outcome •
             Waiting Lists • Weight Loss* • complications
             • etiology • physiopathology •
             therapy*},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Hypertrophy and concentric remodeling of the
             left ventricle are important manifestations of hypertension
             that are associated with increased morbidity and mortality.
             Although lifestyle interventions are efficacious in lowering
             blood pressure, evidence that they have a beneficial effect
             on target organs has been lacking. OBJECTIVE: To assess the
             effects of regular aerobic exercise or exercise plus weight
             management counseling on left ventricular mass and geometry
             in overweight, sedentary men and women with high-normal or
             mildly elevated blood pressure. METHODS: Eighty-two
             participants in a randomized, controlled trial were assigned
             to supervised aerobic exercise only, a behavioral weight
             management program that included exercise, or a waiting-list
             control group for 6 months. Blood pressure and
             echocardiographic measures of left ventricular structure
             were measured at baseline and at the conclusion of the
             treatment phase. RESULTS: The 45 women and 37 men had a mean
             +/- SD age of 47 +/- 9 years and had a mean +/- SD blood
             pressure of 140 +/- 10/93 +/- 5 mm Hg. Blood pressure fell
             by 7/6 mm Hg in the weight management group and by 3/4 mm Hg
             in the aerobic exercise group. In association with these
             decreases in blood pressure, participants in the
             intervention groups exhibited significant decreases in left
             ventricular relative wall thickness (P =.003), posterior
             wall thickness (P =.05), and septal thickness (P =.004) and
             a trend toward a decrease in indexed left ventricular mass
             (P =.08) relative to the control group. CONCLUSIONS: In a
             cohort of overweight, sedentary men and women, exercise and
             weight loss reduced blood pressure and induced favorable
             changes in left ventricular structure.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1001/archinte.162.12.1333},
   Key = {fds270881}
}

@article{fds270884,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Sherwood, A and Gullette, ECD and Georgiades, A and Tweedy, D},
   Title = {Biobehavioral approaches to the treatment of essential
             hypertension.},
   Journal = {Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology},
   Volume = {70},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {569-589},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0022-006X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12090370},
   Keywords = {Behavior Therapy • Exercise • Humans •
             Hypertension • Weight Loss • diet therapy •
             methods* • therapy*},
   Abstract = {Despite recent advances in the medical management of
             hypertension, chronically elevated blood pressure remains a
             major health problem in the United States, affecting almost
             50 million Americans. It is widely recognized that lifestyle
             factors contribute to the development and maintenance of
             elevated blood pressure. This article critically reviews
             current approaches to the nonpharmacological treatment of
             high blood pressure and highlights outcome studies of
             exercise, weight loss and dietary modification, and stress
             management and relaxation therapies. Methodological issues
             in the assessment and treatment of hypertension are
             discussed, along with possible mechanisms by which lifestyle
             modification may reduce elevated blood pressure.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1037//0022-006x.70.3.569},
   Key = {fds270884}
}

@article{fds270885,
   Author = {Hinderliter, AL and Sherwood, A and Blumenthal, JA and Light, KC and Girdler, SS and McFetridge, J and Johnson, K and Waugh,
             R},
   Title = {Changes in hemodynamics and left ventricular structure after
             menopause.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Cardiology},
   Volume = {89},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {830-833},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0002-9149},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11909568},
   Abstract = {To evaluate the cardiovascular changes associated with
             menopause, we studied hemodynamics at rest, ambulatory blood
             pressure, and left ventricular structure in a biracial
             cohort of pre- and postmenopausal women of similar age,
             race, weight, and blood pressure. Despite similar levels of
             blood pressure, postmenopausal women had a higher indexed
             peripheral resistance (2,722 +/- 757 vs 2,262 +/- 661
             dynes.s.m(2)/cm(5), p <0.01) and a lower cardiac index (2.64
             +/- 0.73 vs 3.10 +/- 0.71 L/min.m(2), p <0.01) than
             premenopausal women. Postmenopausal women also had less
             nocturnal decreases in both systolic (15 +/- 8 vs 19 +/- 8
             mm Hg, p <0.01) and diastolic (12 +/- 6 vs 15 +/- 6 mm Hg, p
             = 0.05) pressures during ambulatory monitoring and higher
             levels of hematocrit (40 +/- 2% vs 38 +/- 3%, p <0.01). In
             association with this greater hemodynamic load,
             postmenopausal women had evidence of early concentric left
             ventricular remodeling, manifested by a greater relative
             wall thickness (0.38 +/- 0.06 vs 0.35 +/- 0.06, p <0.01)
             than that observed in premenopausal women. Differences
             between pre- and postmenopausal women in hemodynamics,
             diurnal blood pressure variation, and left ventricular
             structure were observed in white and African-American
             subjects. These results suggest that menopause is associated
             with hemodynamic changes and left ventricular remodeling,
             which may contribute to the enhanced cardiovascular risk
             observed in postmenopausal women.},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0002-9149(02)02193-8},
   Key = {fds270885}
}

@article{fds270782,
   Author = {Watkins, LL and Blumenthal, JA and Carney, RM},
   Title = {Association of anxiety with reduced baroreflex cardiac
             control in patients after acute myocardial
             infarction.},
   Journal = {American Heart Journal},
   Volume = {143},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {460-466},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11868052},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Although depression has been associated with
             increased mortality in patients after acute myocardial
             infarction (AMI), little is known about the effects of
             depression on autonomic nervous system control of heart
             rate. This study evaluated whether depression is associated
             with impaired baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) in patients with
             AMI. METHODS: Two hundred four hospitalized patients with
             AMI were evaluated 6 +/- 3 (mean +/- SD) days after AMI. BRS
             was assessed using cross-spectral analysis to measure
             baroreceptor-mediated R-R interval oscillations. Depression
             was determined using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, and
             severity of depressive symptoms was measured with the Beck
             Depression Inventory. In order to adjust for possible
             differences in anxiety, we also measured state anxiety using
             the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory. RESULTS: Depression
             was not significantly related to BRS. However, anxiety was
             significantly related to low BRS in multivariate analysis,
             after the potentially confounding variables of age, blood
             pressure, and respiratory frequency were controlled for.
             Comparison of groups with high and low anxiety (on the basis
             of a median split of state anxiety scores) showed that BRS
             was reduced by approximately 20% in the patients with the
             higher anxiety scores (4.7 +/- 3.2 ms/mm Hg vs 5.7 +/- 3.3
             ms/mm Hg, P <.05), after adjustment for differences in age,
             blood pressure, and respiratory frequency. CONCLUSIONS: High
             levels of anxiety, but not depression, are associated with
             reduced vagal control in patients after AMI.},
   Doi = {10.1067/mhj.2002.120404},
   Key = {fds270782}
}

@article{fds270882,
   Author = {Sherwood, A and Gullette, ECD and Hinderliter, AL and Georgiades, A and Babyak, M and Waugh, RA and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Relationship of clinic, ambulatory, and laboratory stress
             blood pressure to left ventricular mass in overweight men
             and women with high blood pressure.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {64},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {247-257},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11914440},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate the
             relationship between left ventricular (LV) mass and blood
             pressure (BP) recorded in the following contexts: in the
             clinic, using standard auscultatory procedures, during a
             typical day using ambulatory BP monitoring, and in the
             laboratory environment during behavioral stress testing.
             METHODS: Ninety-seven men and women with clinic systolic
             blood pressure (SBP) of 130 to 180 mm Hg and/or diastolic
             blood pressure (DBP) of 85 to 110 mm Hg and mild to moderate
             obesity were included in the study. Laboratory stressors
             included the following tasks: Public Speaking; Anger
             Interview; Mirror Trace; and Cold Pressor. LV mass was
             measured using echocardiography and adjusted for body size
             by dividing by height(2.7) to yield LV mass index (LVMI).
             RESULTS: LVMI was positively correlated with clinic SBP (r =
             0.24, p <.05), ambulatory SBP (r = 0.34, p <.01), and
             aggregated laboratory stress SBP (r = 0.28, p <.01). Of the
             individual stressors, only SBP responses to the Mirror Trace
             and Cold Pressor tasks were independently correlated with
             LVMI (r = 0.35 and 0.34, respectively, p values <.01).
             Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that laboratory
             stress SBP remained a significant predictor of LVMI, after
             controlling for BMI and clinic pressure. CONCLUSIONS: These
             findings suggest that cardiovascular responses to behavioral
             stress are associated with individual differences in LVMI in
             men and women with high blood pressure who are overweight.
             Laboratory studies of behavioral stress may help promote our
             understanding of the pathophysiology of LVH.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00006842-200203000-00007},
   Key = {fds270882}
}

@article{fds270783,
   Author = {Stanley, TO and Mackensen, GB and Grocott, HP and White, WD and Blumenthal, JA and Laskowitz, DT and Landolfo, KP and Reves, JG and Mathew, JP and Newman, MF and Neurological Outcome Research Group, and CARE Investigators of the Duke Heart Center},
   Title = {The impact of postoperative atrial fibrillation on
             neurocognitive outcome after coronary artery bypass graft
             surgery.},
   Journal = {Anesthesia and Analgesia},
   Volume = {94},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {290-295},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0003-2999},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11812686},
   Abstract = {UNLABELLED: Neurocognitive decline is a continuing source of
             morbidity after cardiac surgery. Atrial fibrillation occurs
             often after cardiac surgery and has been linked to adverse
             neurologic events. We sought to determine whether
             postoperative atrial fibrillation was associated with
             postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Four-hundred-eleven
             patients were enrolled to receive a battery of
             neurocognitive tests both preoperatively and 6 wk after
             elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery.
             Neurocognitive test scores were separated into four
             cognitive domains, with a composite cognitive index (the
             mean of the four domain scores) determined for each patient
             at every testing period. Multivariable analysis controlling
             for age, years of education, diabetes mellitus, left
             ventricular ejection fraction, and preoperative atrial
             fibrillation compared the presence of postoperative atrial
             fibrillation with change in cognitive function.
             Three-hundred-eight patients completed both pre- and
             postoperative cognitive testing; 69 patients (22%) had
             postoperative atrial fibrillation. Those who developed
             atrial fibrillation showed more cognitive decline than those
             who did not develop postoperative atrial fibrillation (P =
             0.036). Atrial fibrillation was associated with poorer
             cognitive function 6 wk after surgery. Although the
             mechanism of this association is yet to be determined,
             prevention of atrial fibrillation may result in improved
             neurocognitive function. IMPLICATIONS: Neurocognitive
             dysfunction is common after coronary artery bypass graft
             surgery. The relationship between atrial fibrillation and
             neurocognitive dysfunction has not been examined. Our study
             shows that postoperative atrial fibrillation is associated
             with neurocognitive decline.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00000539-200202000-00011},
   Key = {fds270783}
}

@article{fds270883,
   Author = {Sherwood, A and Steffen, PR and Blumenthal, JA and Kuhn, C and Hinderliter, AL},
   Title = {Nighttime blood pressure dipping: the role of the
             sympathetic nervous system.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Hypertension},
   Volume = {15},
   Number = {2 Pt 1},
   Pages = {111-118},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0895-7061},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11863245},
   Keywords = {Adult • African Americans • African Continental
             Ancestry Group • Blood Pressure • Circadian
             Rhythm* • European Continental Ancestry Group •
             Female • Humans • Male • Middle Aged •
             Reference Values • Sympathetic Nervous System •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {There is a marked diurnal variation in blood pressure (BP),
             with BP dipping to its lowest levels during nighttime sleep.
             A day-night dip in systolic BP (SBP) of <10% has been used
             to characterize individuals as nondippers, and is associated
             with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. The
             present study examined the contribution of the sympathetic
             nervous system (SNS) to BP dipping in a biracial sample of
             172 men and women aged 25 to 45 years. Assessments included
             24-h ambulatory BP monitoring and both waking and sleeping
             urinary catecholamines. In addition, cardiovascular alpha-
             and beta-adrenergic receptor (AR) responsiveness was
             determined by the doses of isoproterenol and phenylephrine
             required to attain an increase in heart rate of 25 points
             (CD25) and BP (PD25), respectively. Compared with dippers (n
             = 116), nondippers (n = 56) were more likely to be African
             American and to have a family history of hypertension as
             well as a higher body mass index (BMI). The nighttime fall
             in both norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EPI) excretion
             rates was reduced in nondippers compared with dippers (NE
             dip 9.3 v 13.1 microg/mg; EPI dip 2.7 v 4.0 microg/mg; both
             P < .05). Nondippers also were characterized by heightened
             alpha1-AR responsiveness compared with dippers (PD25 = 252 v
             321 microg, P < .05). These data suggest that the SNS may
             contribute to individual differences in nighttime BP
             dipping, and appears to account in part for blunted BP
             dipping in African Americans.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0895-7061(01)02251-8},
   Key = {fds270883}
}

@article{fds270886,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Babyak, M and Wei, J and O'Connor, C and Waugh, R and Eisenstein, E and Mark, D and Sherwood, A and Woodley, PS and Irwin, RJ and Reed, G},
   Title = {Usefulness of psychosocial treatment of mental
             stress-induced myocardial ischemia in men.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Cardiology},
   Volume = {89},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {164-168},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0002-9149},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11792336},
   Abstract = {This study examined the effects of exercise and stress
             management training on clinical outcomes and medical
             expenditures over a 5-year follow-up period in 94 male
             patients with established coronary artery disease (CAD) and
             evidence of ambulatory or mental stress-induced myocardial
             ischemia. Patients were randomly assigned to 4 months of
             aerobic exercise 3 times per week or to a 1.5-hour weekly
             class on stress management; patients who lived too far from
             Duke to participate in the weekly treatments formed the
             usual care control group. Follow-up was performed at the end
             of treatment and annually thereafter for 5 years. Stress
             management was associated with a significant reduction in
             clinical CAD events relative to usual care over each of the
             first 2 years of follow-up and after 5 years. Economic
             analyses revealed that stress management was associated with
             lower medical costs than usual care and exercise in the
             first 2 years, and that the cumulative cost over 5 years was
             also lower for stress management relative to usual care.
             These results suggest that there may be clinical and
             economic benefit to offering the type of preventive stress
             management and exercise interventions provided to patients
             with myocardial ischemia. Moreover, these findings suggest
             that the financial benefits that accrue from an
             appropriately targeted intervention may be substantial and
             immediate.},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0002-9149(01)02194-4},
   Key = {fds270886}
}

@article{fds270887,
   Author = {Grigore, AM and Grocott, HP and Mathew, JP and Phillips-Bute, B and Stanley, TO and Butler, A and Landolfo, KP and Reves, JG and Blumenthal,
             JA and Newman, MF and Neurologic Outcome Research Group of the
             Duke Heart Center},
   Title = {The rewarming rate and increased peak temperature alter
             neurocognitive outcome after cardiac surgery.},
   Journal = {Anesthesia and Analgesia},
   Volume = {94},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {4-10},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0003-2999},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11772792},
   Abstract = {UNLABELLED: Neurocognitive dysfunction is a common
             complication after cardiac surgery. We evaluated in this
             prospective study the effect of rewarming rate on
             neurocognitive outcome after hypothermic cardiopulmonary
             bypass (CPB). After IRB approval and informed consent, 165
             coronary artery bypass graft surgery patients were studied.
             Patients received similar surgical and anesthetic management
             until rewarming from hypothermic (28 degrees -32 degrees C)
             CPB. Group 1 (control; n = 100) was warmed in a conventional
             manner (4 degrees -6 degrees C gradient between
             nasopharyngeal and CPB perfusate temperature) whereas Group
             2 (slow rewarm; n = 65) was warmed at a slower rate,
             maintaining no more than 2 degrees C difference between
             nasopharyngeal and CPB perfusate temperature. Neurocognitive
             function was assessed at baseline and 6 wk after coronary
             artery bypass graft surgery. Univariable analysis revealed
             no significant differences between the Control and Slow
             Rewarming groups in the stroke rate. Multivariable linear
             regression analysis, examining treatment group, diabetes,
             baseline cognitive function, and cross-clamp time revealed a
             significant association between change in cognitive function
             and rate of rewarming (P = 0.05). IMPLICATIONS: Slower
             rewarming during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was associated
             with better cognitive performance at 6 wk. These results
             suggest that a slower rewarming rate with lower peak
             temperatures during CPB may be an important factor in the
             prevention of neurocognitive decline after hypothermic
             CPB.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00000539-200201000-00002},
   Key = {fds270887}
}

@article{fds40116,
   Author = {Blumenthal, J.A. and Sherwood, A. and Gullette, E.D. and Georgiades, A. and Tweedy, D.},
   Title = {Biobehavioral approaches to the treatment of
             hypertension},
   Journal = {Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology},
   Volume = {70},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {569-589},
   Year = {2002},
   Key = {fds40116}
}

@article{fds40119,
   Author = {Hinderliter, A. and Sherwood, A. and Gullette, E.C.D. and Babyak, M. and Waugh, R. and Georgiades, A. and Blumenthal,
             J.A.},
   Title = {Reduction of left ventricular hypertrophy after exercise and
             weight loss in overweight patients with mild
             hypertension},
   Journal = {Archives of Internal Medicine},
   Volume = {162},
   Pages = {1333-1339},
   Year = {2002},
   Key = {fds40119}
}

@article{fds270776,
   Author = {Brosse, AL and Sheets, ES and Lett, HS and Blumenthal,
             JA},
   Title = {Exercise and the treatment of clinical depression in adults:
             recent findings and future directions.},
   Journal = {Sports Medicine (Auckland, N.Z.)},
   Volume = {32},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {741-760},
   Year = {2002},
   ISSN = {0112-1642},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12238939},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Adult • Aged • Aged, 80 and over
             • Chronic Disease • Depression • Exercise*
             • Female • Humans • Male • Middle Aged
             • diagnosis • epidemiology •
             therapy*},
   Abstract = {This article critically reviews the evidence that exercise
             is effective in treating depression in adults. Depression is
             recognised as a mood state, clinical syndrome and
             psychiatric condition, and traditional methods for assessing
             depression (e.g. standard interviews, questionnaires) are
             described. In order to place exercise therapy into context,
             more established methods for treating clinical depression
             are discussed. Observational (e.g. cross-sectional and
             correlational) and interventional studies of exercise are
             reviewed in healthy adults, those with comorbid medical
             conditions, and patients with major depression. Potential
             mechanisms by which exercise may reduce depression are
             described, and directions for future research in the area
             are suggested. The available evidence provides considerable
             support for the value of exercise in reducing depressive
             symptoms in both healthy and clinical populations. However,
             many studies have significant methodological limitations.
             Thus, more data from carefully conducted clinical trials are
             needed before exercise can be recommended as an alternative
             to more traditional, empirically validated pharmacological
             and behavioural therapies.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.2165/00007256-200232120-00001},
   Key = {fds270776}
}

@article{fds270879,
   Author = {Bross, AL and Sheets, ES and Lett, HS and Blumenthal,
             JA},
   Title = {Exercise and the treatment of clinical depression in
             adults},
   Journal = {Sports Medicine},
   Volume = {32},
   Pages = {741-760},
   Year = {2002},
   Key = {fds270879}
}

@article{fds270768,
   Author = {Newman, MF and Grocott, HP and Mathew, JP and White, WD and Landolfo, K and Reves, JG and Laskowitz, DT and Mark, DB and Blumenthal, JA and Neurologic Outcome Research Group and the Cardiothoracic
             Anesthesia Research Endeavors (CARE) Investigators of the
             Duke Heart Center},
   Title = {Report of the substudy assessing the impact of
             neurocognitive function on quality of life 5 years after
             cardiac surgery.},
   Journal = {Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation},
   Volume = {32},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {2874-2881},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {1524-4628},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11739990},
   Keywords = {Age Distribution • Cardiac Surgical Procedures* •
             Cognition Disorders • Comorbidity • Diabetes
             Mellitus • Educational Status • Female •
             Follow-Up Studies • Health Status • Humans •
             Logistic Models • Male • Middle Aged •
             Multivariate Analysis • Neuropsychological Tests •
             North Carolina • Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
             • Postoperative Complications • Quality of Life*
             • Sex Distribution • Time • adverse effects
             • diagnosis • epidemiology • epidemiology*
             • statistics & numerical data • statistics &
             numerical data*},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The importance of perioperative
             cognitive decline has long been debated. We recently
             demonstrated a significant correlation between perioperative
             cognitive decline and long-term cognitive dysfunction.
             Despite this association, some still question the importance
             of these changes in cognitive function to the quality of
             life of patients and their families. The purpose of our
             investigation was to determine the association between
             cognitive dysfunction and long-term quality of life after
             cardiac surgery. METHODS: After institutional review board
             approval and patient informed consent, 261 patients
             undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass were
             enrolled and followed for 5 years. Cognitive function was
             measured with a battery of tests at baseline, discharge, and
             6 weeks and 5 years postoperatively. Quality of life was
             assessed with well-validated, standardized assessments at
             the 5-year end point. RESULTS: Our results demonstrate
             significant correlations between cognitive function and
             quality of life in patients after cardiac surgery. Lower
             5-year overall cognitive function scores were associated
             with lower general health and a less productive working
             status. Multivariable logistic and linear regression
             controlling for age, sex, education, and diabetes confirmed
             this strong association in the majority of areas of quality
             of life. CONCLUSIONS: Five years after cardiac surgery,
             there is a strong relationship between neurocognitive
             functioning and quality of life. This has important social
             and financial implications for preoperative evaluation and
             postoperative care of patients undergoing cardiac
             surgery.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1161/hs1201.099803},
   Key = {fds270768}
}

@article{fds270738,
   Author = {Grigore, AM and Mathew, J and Grocott, HP and Reves, JG and Blumenthal,
             JA and White, WD and Smith, PK and Jones, RH and Kirchner, JL and Mark, DB and Newman, MF and Neurological Outcome Research Group, and CARE
             Investigators of the Duke Heart Center. Cardiothoracic
             Anesthesia Research Endeavors},
   Title = {Prospective randomized trial of normothermic versus
             hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass on cognitive function
             after coronary artery bypass graft surgery.},
   Journal = {Anesthesiology},
   Volume = {95},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1110-1119},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0003-3022},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11684979},
   Keywords = {Anesthetics, Intravenous • Cognition Disorders •
             Coronary Artery Bypass • Educational Status •
             Female • Fentanyl • Humans • Hypothermia,
             Induced* • Male • Midazolam • Middle Aged
             • Neuropsychological Tests • Postoperative
             Complications • Prospective Studies • etiology
             • methods* • prevention & control*},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Despite significant advances in cardiopulmonary
             bypass (CPB) technology, surgical techniques, and anesthetic
             management, central nervous system complications occur in a
             large percentage of patients undergoing surgery requiring
             CPB. Many centers are switching to normothermic CPB because
             of shorter CPB and operating room times and improved
             myocardial protection. The authors hypothesized that,
             compared with normothermia, hypothermic CPB would result in
             superior neurologic and neurocognitive function after
             coronary artery bypass graft surgery. METHODS: Three hundred
             patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass graft
             surgery were prospectively enrolled and randomly assigned to
             either normothermic (35.5-36.5 degrees C) or hypothermic
             (28-30 degrees C) CPB. A battery of neurocognitive tests was
             performed preoperatively and at 6 weeks after surgery. Four
             distinct cognitive domains were identified and standardized
             using factor analysis and were then compared on a continuous
             scale. RESULTS: Two hundred twenty-seven patients
             participated in 6-week follow-up testing. There were no
             differences in neurologic or neurocognitive outcomes between
             normothermic and hypothermic groups in multivariable models,
             adjusting for covariable effects of baseline cognitive
             function, age, and years of education, as well as
             interaction of these with temperature treatment.
             CONCLUSIONS: Hypothermic CPB does not provide additional
             central nervous system protection in adult cardiac surgical
             patients who were maintained at either 30 or 35 degrees C
             during CPB.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1097/00000542-200111000-00014},
   Key = {fds270738}
}

@article{fds270742,
   Author = {Mendes de Leon and CF and Dilillo, V and Czajkowski, S and Norten, J and Schaefer, J and Catellier, D and Blumenthal, JA and Enhancing
             Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease (ENRICHD) Pilot
             Study},
   Title = {Psychosocial characteristics after acute myocardial
             infarction: the ENRICHD pilot study. Enhancing Recovery in
             Coronary Heart Disease.},
   Journal = {Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation},
   Volume = {21},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {353-362},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0883-9212},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11767809},
   Keywords = {Adult • Aged • Aged, 80 and over • Female
             • Humans • Male • Mental Health* •
             Middle Aged • Multivariate Analysis • Myocardial
             Infarction • Quality of Life* • Social Support*
             • psychology*},
   Abstract = {PURPOSE: Psychosocial factors, such as emotional distress
             and social isolation, have been increasingly recognized as
             important risk factors for patients' recovery from acute
             myocardial infarction (AMI). This study examined age,
             gender, and ethnic differences in depression and general
             distress, social support, and health-related quality of life
             after AMI. METHODS: Data came from a series of 88 patients
             aged 62.1 +/- 14.2 years (46% female) who were hospitalized
             for AMI at eight different US clinical centers participating
             in the Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease
             (ENRICHD) Pilot Study. Standardized psychometric measures
             were administered to assess three psychosocial domains: (1)
             depression and general distress (mental health functioning),
             (2) social support, and (3) health-related quality of life.
             Multivariate analysis of variance was used to examine the
             effects of age, gender, and ethnic differences in each of
             the three psychosocial domains. RESULTS: Female patients
             reported higher levels of depression and distress compared
             with male patients (P = .040). Gender differences in mental
             health functioning differed by age (P = .046), with the
             greatest differences observed among younger female patients.
             Older patients (P = .014) and female patients (P = .025)
             reported lower levels of social support compared with
             younger and male patients, respectively. Minority patients
             did not differ from nonminority patients in mental health
             functioning or social support, and there were no significant
             differences in post-AMI quality of life on the basis of age,
             gender, or ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: The psychosocial risk
             profile after AMI may be different for male and female
             patients, and interventions may need to take account of each
             gender's specific needs.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1097/00008483-200111000-00003},
   Key = {fds270742}
}

@article{fds270784,
   Author = {Carney, RM and Blumenthal, JA and Stein, PK and Watkins, L and Catellier, D and Berkman, LF and Czajkowski, SM and O'Connor, C and Stone, PH and Freedland, KE},
   Title = {Depression, heart rate variability, and acute myocardial
             infarction.},
   Journal = {Circulation},
   Volume = {104},
   Number = {17},
   Pages = {2024-2028},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11673340},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Clinical depression is associated with an
             increased risk for mortality in patients with a recent
             myocardial infarction (MI). Reduced heart rate variability
             (HRV) has been suggested as a possible explanation for this
             association. The purpose of this study was to determine if
             depression is associated with reduced HRV in patients with a
             recent MI. METHODS AND RESULTS: Three hundred eighty acute
             MI patients with depression and 424 acute MI patients
             without depression were recruited. All underwent 24-hour
             ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring after hospital
             discharge. In univariate analyses, 4 indices of HRV were
             significantly lower in patients with depression than in
             patients without depression. Variables associated with HRV
             were then compared between patients with and without
             depression, and potential confounds were identified. These
             variables (age, sex, diabetes, and present cigarette
             smoking) were entered into an analysis of covariance model,
             followed by depression status. In the final model, all but
             one HRV index (high-frequency power) remained significantly
             lower in patients with depression than in patients without
             depression. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that greater autonomic
             dysfunction, as reflected by decreased HRV, is a plausible
             mechanism linking depression to increased cardiac mortality
             in post-MI patients.},
   Doi = {10.1161/hc4201.097834},
   Key = {fds270784}
}

@article{fds270895,
   Author = {Steffen, PR and Sherwood, A and Gullette, EC and Georgiades, A and Hinderliter, A and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Effects of exercise and weight loss on blood pressure during
             daily life.},
   Journal = {Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise},
   Volume = {33},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {1635-1640},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0195-9131},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11581545},
   Abstract = {PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to investigate the
             effects of exercise training and weight loss on blood
             pressure (BP) associated with physical activity and
             emotional stress during daily life. METHODS: One hundred
             twelve participants with unmedicated high normal or stage 1
             to stage 2 hypertension were randomized to one of three
             conditions: a combined exercise and behavioral weight
             management group (WM), an exercise-only group (EX), or a
             wait list control group (CON). BP was assessed in the clinic
             and during 15 h of daytime ambulatory BP monitoring at
             baseline and after 6 months of treatment. RESULTS: Increased
             levels of physical activity and emotional distress measured
             during daily life were associated with increases in systolic
             blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart
             rate (HR), and rate pressure product (RPP). After treatment,
             the WM group had significantly lower DBP, HR, and RPP
             responses during both high and low levels of physical
             activity and emotional distress compared with the CON group.
             The EX group had similar BP levels as the WM group, although
             the EX group had significantly lower BP than the CON group
             during low but not high levels of physical activity and
             emotional distress. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that
             exercise, especially when combined with weight loss, reduces
             BP levels at rest and in situations that typically elevate
             BP such as intense physical activity and emotional
             distress.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00005768-200110000-00004},
   Key = {fds270895}
}

@article{fds270894,
   Author = {Napolitano, MA and Head, S and Babyak, MA and Blumenthal,
             JA},
   Title = {Binge eating disorder and night eating syndrome:
             psychological and behavioral characteristics.},
   Journal = {The International Journal of Eating Disorders},
   Volume = {30},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {193-203},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0276-3478},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11449453},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to examine the
             psychological and behavioral characteristics associated with
             both night eating syndrome (NES) and binge eating disorder
             (BED) in 42 males and 41 females who were enrolled in a
             university-based weight loss center. METHOD: Individuals
             were classified into one of four groups: NES only (N = 23),
             BED only (N = 13), both NES and BED (N = 13), or no
             diagnoses of an eating disorder (N = 34). Analyses of
             covariance (covarying for age and gender) were conducted to
             compare patients with BED and NES. RESULTS: NES patients
             scored lower on disinhibition than BED patients (p <.01).
             Also, individuals who met criteria for both disorders scored
             higher than NES only patients on state anxiety (p <.01),
             disinhibition (p =.08), and trait anxiety (p =.08).
             DISCUSSION: These results suggest that NES represents a
             subcategory among the obese, which also overlaps with binge
             eaters. In addition, anxiety distinguished individuals who
             met criteria for both disorders from patients who were
             diagnosed with either NES or BED.},
   Doi = {10.1002/eat.1072},
   Key = {fds270894}
}

@article{fds270897,
   Author = {ENRICHD Investigators},
   Title = {Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease (ENRICHD) study
             intervention: rationale and design.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {63},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {747-755},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: Depression and low social support are risk
             factors for medical morbidity and mortality after acute MI.
             The ENRICHD study is a multicenter, randomized, controlled
             clinical trial of a cognitive-behavioral treatment for
             depression and low social support in post-MI patients. A
             total of 2481 patients were recruited (26% with low social
             support, 39% with depression, and 34% with low social
             support and depression). Our objective is to describe the
             rationale, design, and delivery of the ENRICHD intervention.
             METHODS: Key features of the intervention include the
             integration of cognitive-behavioral and social learning
             approaches to the treatment of depression and a diverse set
             of problems that can contribute to low social support; rapid
             initiation of treatment after MI; a combination of
             individual and group modalities; adjunctive pharmacotherapy
             for severe or intractable depression; training,
             certification, and supervision of therapists; and quality
             assurance procedures. RESULTS: The trial's psychosocial and
             medical outcomes will be presented in future reports.
             CONCLUSIONS: The ENRICHD protocol targets two complex
             psychosocial risk factors with a multifaceted intervention,
             which is delivered in an individualized manner to
             accommodate a demographically, medically, and
             psychiatrically diverse patient population. Additional
             research will be needed to identify optimal matches between
             patient characteristics and specific components of the
             intervention.},
   Key = {fds270897}
}

@article{fds270640,
   Author = {Aklog, L},
   Title = {Neurocognitive function after coronary-artery bypass
             surgery.},
   Journal = {The New England Journal of Medicine},
   Volume = {345},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {543-544},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM200108163450712},
   Doi = {10.1056/NEJM200108163450712},
   Key = {fds270640}
}

@article{fds270744,
   Author = {Sherwood, A and Thurston, R and Steffen, P and Blumenthal, JA and Waugh,
             RA and Hinderliter, AL},
   Title = {Blunted nighttime blood pressure dipping in postmenopausal
             women.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Hypertension},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {8 Pt 1},
   Pages = {749-754},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0895-7061},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11497189},
   Keywords = {African Continental Ancestry Group • Blood Pressure
             • Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory •
             Cardiovascular Diseases • Circadian Rhythm •
             European Continental Ancestry Group • Female •
             Humans • Middle Aged • Postmenopause • Risk
             Factors • ethnology • physiology •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {Blunting of the normal drop in blood pressure (BP) from day
             to night is emerging as a strong prognostic indicator of
             cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This study evaluated
             the effects of natural menopause on BP dipping in African
             American and white women. A total of 112 women (62
             premenopausal and 50 postmenopausal) took part in the study.
             Pre- and postmenopausal groups were comparable in terms of
             clinic BP, body mass index, and ethnic composition.
             Ambulatory BP was recorded over 24 h during a typical
             workday, with measurements programmed to be taken every 15
             min during waking hours and every 30-minutes during sleeping
             hours. Nocturnal BP dipping was defined as the difference
             between waking and sleep BP. Waking BP did not differ by
             menopausal status. However, nocturnal systolic BP (SBP) and
             diastolic BP (DBP) dipping were attenuated in postmenopausal
             women, with both SBP (P < .05) and DBP (P < .05) higher
             during nighttime sleep in postmenopausal than in
             premenopausal women. Ethnicity was also related to BP
             dipping, with African American women tending to show blunted
             SBP dipping (P = .055) compared with white women; BP dipping
             was most blunted in postmenopausal African American women.
             These observations suggest that blunted nighttime BP dipping
             may contribute to increased cardiovascular disease risk in
             postmenopausal women.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0895-7061(01)02043-x},
   Key = {fds270744}
}

@article{fds270901,
   Author = {ENRICHD Investigators},
   Title = {Enhancing recovery in coronary heart disease (ENRICHD):
             baseline characteristics.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Cardiology},
   Volume = {88},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {316-322},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0002-9149},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0002-9149(01)01652-6},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0002-9149(01)01652-6},
   Key = {fds270901}
}

@article{fds304911,
   Author = {Steffen, PR and Hinderliter, AL and Blumenthal, JA and Sherwood,
             A},
   Title = {Religious coping, ethnicity, and ambulatory blood
             pressure.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {63},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {523-530},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11485105},
   Keywords = {Adaptation, Psychological* • Adult • African
             Americans • Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory
             • Blood Pressure* • European Continental Ancestry
             Group • Female • Humans • Hypertension •
             Male • Middle Aged • Religion and Psychology*
             • Social Support • ethnology • psychology
             • psychology*},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between religious
             coping, ethnicity, and ambulatory blood pressure (ABP)
             measured during daily life. METHODS: A 24-hour ABP was
             obtained from 155 men and women (78 African American and 77
             white) on a typical workday. ABP was averaged over awake and
             sleep periods, and clinic BP was also assessed. Psychosocial
             measures of coping style, negative affect, social support,
             stress, and health behaviors were completed before ABP
             measurement. RESULTS: Multiple regression analyses,
             controlling for demographic variables, revealed a
             significant religious coping by ethnicity interaction for
             ABP (p < .01) and clinic BP (p < .05). Religious coping was
             not related to BP among whites. Among African Americans,
             however, higher levels of religious coping were associated
             with lower awake (p < .05) and sleep (p < .01) ABP. Social
             support satisfaction also was related to lower awake ABP
             among African Americans, but it did not mediate the
             relationship between religious coping and ABP. CONCLUSIONS:
             The results of this study extend previous findings by
             showing that, among African Americans, religious coping and
             BP are related during daily activities as well as in the
             clinic. Lower 24-hour BP load may be a pathway through which
             religiosity and cardiovascular health are
             related.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1097/00006842-200107000-00002},
   Key = {fds304911}
}

@article{fds270749,
   Author = {Rosenberg, EL and Ekman, P and Jiang, W and Babyak, M and Coleman, RE and Hanson, M and O'Connor, C and Waugh, R and Blumenthal,
             JA},
   Title = {Linkages between facial expressions of anger and transient
             myocardial ischemia in men with coronary artery
             disease.},
   Journal = {Emotion},
   Volume = {1},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {107-115},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {1528-3542},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12899191},
   Keywords = {Adult • Aged • Anger* • Coronary Artery
             Disease • Facial Expression* • Female •
             Humans • Male • Middle Aged • Mood Disorders
             • Myocardial Ischemia • Prevalence • Risk
             Factors • Severity of Illness Index • diagnosis
             • diagnosis* • epidemiology • psychology
             • psychology*},
   Abstract = {The authors examined whether facial expressions of emotion
             would predict changes in heart function. One hundred fifteen
             male patients with coronary artery disease underwent the
             Type A Structured Interview, during which time measures of
             transient myocardial ischemia (wall motion abnormality and
             left ventricular ejection fraction) were obtained. Facial
             behavior exhibited during the ischemia measurement period
             was videotaped and later coded by using the Facial Action
             Coding System (P. Ekman & W. V. Friesen, 1978). Those
             participants who exhibited ischemia showed significantly
             more anger expressions and nonenjoyment smiles than
             nonischemics. Cook-Medley Hostility scores did not vary with
             ischemic status. The findings have implications for
             understanding how anger and hostility differentially
             influence coronary heart disease risk.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1037/1528-3542.1.2.107},
   Key = {fds270749}
}

@article{fds270891,
   Author = {Bloomer, RJ and Georgiades, A and Pierson, LM and Sherwood, A and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {AEROBIC FITNESS IS ASSOCIATED WITH REDUCED MYOCARDIAL
             ISCHEMIA DURING MENTAL STRESS TESTING IN PATIENTS WITH
             CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE},
   Journal = {Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise},
   Volume = {33},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {S68-S68},
   Publisher = {Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200105001-00388},
   Doi = {10.1097/00005768-200105001-00388},
   Key = {fds270891}
}

@article{fds270892,
   Author = {Pierson, LM and Sherwood, A and Georgiades, A and Bloomer, RJ and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {COMPARISON OF HEMODYNAMIC RESPONSE DURING MENTAL STRESS AND
             EXERCISE IN PATIENTS WITH CORONARY ARTERY
             DISEASE},
   Journal = {Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise},
   Volume = {33},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {S260-S260},
   Publisher = {Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200105001-01469},
   Doi = {10.1097/00005768-200105001-01469},
   Key = {fds270892}
}

@article{fds304912,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Hart, A and Sherwood, A and Doraiswamy, M and Herman,
             S and Watkins, L and Hinderliter, A and Gullette, E and Krishnan,
             KR},
   Title = {Depression and vascular function in older adults. Evaluating
             the benefits of exercise in a new study at Duke
             University.},
   Journal = {North Carolina Medical Journal},
   Volume = {62},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {95-98},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0029-2559},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11270312},
   Keywords = {Aged • Depressive Disorder • Endothelium, Vascular
             • Exercise* • Humans • Middle Aged •
             Research • Vascular Diseases • complications*
             • etiology* • physiopathology •
             therapy*},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds304912}
}

@article{fds270903,
   Author = {Newman, MF and Kirchner, JL and Phillips-Bute, B and Gaver, V and Grocott, H and Jones, RH and Mark, DB and Reves, JG and Blumenthal, JA and Neurological Outcome Research Group and the Cardiothoracic
             Anesthesiology Research Endeavors Investigators},
   Title = {Longitudinal assessment of neurocognitive function after
             coronary-artery bypass surgery.},
   Journal = {The New England Journal of Medicine},
   Volume = {344},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {395-402},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0028-4793},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11172175},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Cognitive decline complicates early recovery
             after coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) and may be
             evident in as many as three quarters of patients at the time
             of discharge from the hospital and a third of patients after
             six months. We sought to determine the course of cognitive
             change during the five years after CABG and the effect of
             perioperative decline on long-term cognitive function.
             METHODS: In 261 patients who underwent CABG, neurocognitive
             tests were performed preoperatively (at base line), before
             discharge, and six weeks, six months, and five years after
             CABG surgery. Decline in postoperative function was defined
             as a drop of 1 SD or more in the scores on tests of any one
             of four domains of cognitive function. (A reduction of 1 SD
             represents a decline in function of approximately 20
             percent.) Overall neurocognitive status was assessed with a
             composite cognitive index score representing the sum of the
             scores for the individual domains. Factors predicting
             long-term cognitive decline were determined by multivariable
             logistic and linear regression. RESULTS: Among the patients
             studied, the incidence of cognitive decline was 53 percent
             at discharge, 36 percent at six weeks, 24 percent at six
             months, and 42 percent at five years. We investigated
             predictors of cognitive decline at five years and found that
             cognitive function at discharge was a significant predictor
             of long-term function (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These results
             confirm the relatively high prevalence and persistence of
             cognitive decline after CABG and suggest a pattern of early
             improvement followed by a later decline that is predicted by
             the presence of early postoperative cognitive decline.
             Interventions to prevent or reduce short- and long-term
             cognitive decline after cardiac surgery are
             warranted.},
   Doi = {10.1056/NEJM200102083440601},
   Key = {fds270903}
}

@article{fds270890,
   Author = {Georgiades, A and Sherwood, A and Hinderliter, AL and Blumenthal,
             JA},
   Title = {Hemodynamic mechanisms of mental stress-induced
             ischemia},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {63},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {175-175},
   Publisher = {LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000166843200291&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds270890}
}

@article{fds270902,
   Author = {Khatri, P and Babyak, M and Croughwell, ND and Davis, R and White, WD and Newman, MF and Reves, JG and Mark, DB and Blumenthal,
             JA},
   Title = {Temperature during coronary artery bypass surgery affects
             quality of life.},
   Journal = {The Annals of Thoracic Surgery},
   Volume = {71},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {110-116},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0003-4975},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11216728},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to examine the
             effects of temperature on a variety of indices of
             psychologic adjustment and quality of life. METHODS: A total
             of 209 patients randomly received normothermic (warm) or
             hypothermic (cold) conditions during coronary artery bypass
             surgery (CABS), and a number of physical, social, and
             psychologic measures were assessed before as well as 6 weeks
             and 6 months after CABS. RESULTS: Repeated measures analyses
             of covariance revealed significant temperature group main
             effects for anxiety (p = 0.008) and depression (p = 0.039),
             with the normothermic group obtaining lower anxiety and
             depression levels than the hypothermic group at both 6 weeks
             and 6 months after surgery. Additionally, among patients who
             entered the study with higher depression levels, those in
             the hypothermic group tended to have higher depression
             scores at follow-up compared with patients in the
             normothermic condition (p = 0.012). No temperature group
             differences were observed on other quality of life indices.
             CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study indicate that
             hypothermic conditions during CABS are associated with
             higher levels of emotional distress after CABS than
             normothermic conditions, particularly for patients with
             greater stress to begin with.},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0003-4975(00)02350-x},
   Key = {fds270902}
}

@article{fds270905,
   Author = {Khatri, P and Blumenthal, JA and Babyak, MA and Craighead, WE and Herman, S and Baldewicz, T and Madden, DJ and Doraiswamy, M and Waugh,
             R and Krishnan, KR},
   Title = {Effects of exercise training on cognitive functioning among
             depressed older men and women},
   Journal = {Journal of Aging and Physical Activity},
   Volume = {9},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {43-57},
   Publisher = {Human Kinetics},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1063-8652},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/japa.9.1.43},
   Abstract = {The effects of a structured exercise program on the
             cognitive functioning of 84 clinically depressed middle-aged
             and older adults (mean age = 57 years) were examined.
             Participants were randomized to either 4 months of aerobic
             exercise (n = 42) or antidepressant medication (n = 42).
             Assessments of cognitive functioning (memory, psychomotor
             speed, executive functioning, and attention/concentration),
             depression, and physical fitness (aerobic capacity and
             exercise endurance) were conducted before and after the
             intervention. Exercise-related changes (accounting for
             baseline levels of cognitive functioning and depression)
             were observed for memory (p = .01) and executive functioning
             (p = .03). There were no treatment-group differences on
             tasks measuring either attention/concentration or
             psychomotor speed. Results indicate that exercise can exert
             influence on specific areas of cognitive functioning among
             depressed older adults. Further research is necessary to
             clarify the kinds of cognitive processes that are affected
             by exercise and the mechanisms by which exercise affects
             cognitive functioning.},
   Doi = {10.1123/japa.9.1.43},
   Key = {fds270905}
}

@article{fds270785,
   Author = {Newman, MF and Grocott, HP and Mathew, JP and White, WD and Landolfo, K and Reves, JG and Laskowitz, DT and Mark, DB and Blumenthal,
             JA},
   Title = {Neurological Outcome Research Group and CARE Investigators
             of the Duke Heart Center: Report of the substudy assessing
             the impact of neurocognitive function on quality of life
             five years after cardiac surgery},
   Journal = {Stroke},
   Volume = {32},
   Pages = {2874-2881},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {fds270785}
}

@article{fds270889,
   Author = {Newman, MF and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Communication to the editor: Response to Taggart, Browne &
             Halligan},
   Journal = {New England Journal of Medicine},
   Volume = {345},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {545},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {fds270889}
}

@article{fds270893,
   Author = {Rosenberg, EL and Ekman, P and Jiang, W and Babyak, M and Coleman, RE and Hanson, M and O'Connor, C and Waugh, R and Blumenthal,
             JA},
   Title = {Facial expressions of anger predict transient myocardial
             ischemia},
   Journal = {Emotion},
   Volume = {1},
   Pages = {107-115},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {fds270893}
}

@article{fds270896,
   Author = {Grigore, AM and Mathew, J and Grocott, HP and Reves, JG and Blumenthal,
             JA and White, WD and Smith, PK and Jones, RH and Kirchner, JL and Mark, DB and Newman, MF},
   Title = {Neurological Outcome Research Group and C.A.R.E.
             Investigators of the Duke Heart Center: A prospective
             randomized trial of normothermic versus hypothermic
             cardiopulmonary bypass on cognitive function after coronary
             artery bypass graft surgery},
   Journal = {Anesthesiology},
   Volume = {95},
   Pages = {1110-1119},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {fds270896}
}

@article{fds270898,
   Author = {Sherwood, A and Thurston, R and Steffen, P and Blumenthal, JA and Waugh,
             RA and Hinderliter, AL},
   Title = {Blunted nighttime blood pressure},
   Journal = {American Journal of Hypertension},
   Volume = {14},
   Pages = {749-754},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {fds270898}
}

@article{fds270899,
   Author = {Steffen, PR and Hinderliter, AL and Blumenthal, JA and Sherwood,
             A},
   Title = {Religious coping and ambulatory blood pressure: The
             moderating effects of ethnicity},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {63},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {523-530},
   Year = {2001},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11485105},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between religious
             coping, ethnicity, and ambulatory blood pressure (ABP)
             measured during daily life. METHODS: A 24-hour ABP was
             obtained from 155 men and women (78 African American and 77
             white) on a typical workday. ABP was averaged over awake and
             sleep periods, and clinic BP was also assessed. Psychosocial
             measures of coping style, negative affect, social support,
             stress, and health behaviors were completed before ABP
             measurement. RESULTS: Multiple regression analyses,
             controlling for demographic variables, revealed a
             significant religious coping by ethnicity interaction for
             ABP (p < .01) and clinic BP (p < .05). Religious coping was
             not related to BP among whites. Among African Americans,
             however, higher levels of religious coping were associated
             with lower awake (p < .05) and sleep (p < .01) ABP. Social
             support satisfaction also was related to lower awake ABP
             among African Americans, but it did not mediate the
             relationship between religious coping and ABP. CONCLUSIONS:
             The results of this study extend previous findings by
             showing that, among African Americans, religious coping and
             BP are related during daily activities as well as in the
             clinic. Lower 24-hour BP load may be a pathway through which
             religiosity and cardiovascular health are
             related.},
   Key = {fds270899}
}

@article{fds270900,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Hart, A and Sherwood, A and Doraiswamy, M and Herman,
             S and Watkins, L and Hinderliter, A and Gullette, E and Krishnan,
             R},
   Title = {Depression and vascular function in older
             adults},
   Journal = {North Carolina Medical Journal},
   Volume = {62},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {95-98},
   Year = {2001},
   ISSN = {0029-2559},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11270312},
   Key = {fds270900}
}

@article{fds270908,
   Author = {Babyak, M and Blumenthal, JA and Herman, S and Khatri, P and Doraiswamy,
             M and Moore, K and Craighead, WE and Baldewicz, TT and Krishnan,
             KR},
   Title = {Exercise treatment for major depression: maintenance of
             therapeutic benefit at 10 months.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {62},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {633-638},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11020092},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the
             status of 156 adult volunteers with major depressive
             disorder (MDD) 6 months after completion of a study in which
             they were randomly assigned to a 4-month course of aerobic
             exercise, sertraline therapy, or a combination of exercise
             and sertraline. METHODS: The presence and severity of
             depression were assessed by clinical interview using the
             Diagnostic Interview Schedule and the Hamilton Rating Scale
             for Depression (HRSD) and by self-report using the Beck
             Depression Inventory. Assessments were performed at
             baseline, after 4 months of treatment, and 6 months after
             treatment was concluded (ie, after 10 months). RESULTS:
             After 4 months patients in all three groups exhibited
             significant improvement; the proportion of remitted
             participants (ie, those who no longer met diagnostic
             criteria for MDD and had an HRSD score <8) was comparable
             across the three treatment conditions. After 10 months,
             however, remitted subjects in the exercise group had
             significantly lower relapse rates (p = .01) than subjects in
             the medication group. Exercising on one's own during the
             follow-up period was associated with a reduced probability
             of depression diagnosis at the end of that period (odds
             ratio = 0.49, p = .0009). CONCLUSIONS: Among individuals
             with MDD, exercise therapy is feasible and is associated
             with significant therapeutic benefit, especially if exercise
             is continued over time.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00006842-200009000-00006},
   Key = {fds270908}
}

@article{fds270907,
   Author = {Georgiades, A and Sherwood, A and Gullette, EC and Babyak, MA and Hinderliter, A and Waugh, R and Tweedy, D and Craighead, L and Bloomer,
             R and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Effects of exercise and weight loss on mental stress-induced
             cardiovascular responses in individuals with high blood
             pressure.},
   Journal = {Hypertension},
   Volume = {36},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {171-176},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0194-911X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10948073},
   Abstract = {The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of
             exercise and weight loss on cardiovascular responses during
             mental stress in mildly to moderately overweight patients
             with elevated blood pressure. Ninety-nine men and women with
             high normal or unmedicated stage 1 to stage 2 hypertension
             (systolic blood pressure 130 to 179 mm Hg, diastolic blood
             pressure 85 to 109 mm Hg) underwent a battery of mental
             stress tests, including simulated public speaking, anger
             recall interview, mirror trace, and cold pressor, before and
             after a 6-month treatment program. Subjects were randomly
             assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: (1) aerobic exercise, (2)
             weight management combining aerobic exercise with a
             behavioral weight loss program, or (3) waiting list control
             group. After 6 months, compared with control subjects,
             participants in both active treatment groups had lower
             levels of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure,
             total peripheral resistance, and heart rate at rest and
             during mental stress. Compared with subjects in the control
             group, subjects in the exercise and weight management groups
             also had greater resting stroke volume and cardiac output.
             Diastolic blood pressure was lower for the weight management
             group than for the exercise-only group during all mental
             stress tasks. These results demonstrate that exercise,
             particularly when combined with a weight loss program, can
             lower both resting and stress-induced blood pressure levels
             and produce a favorable hemodynamic pattern resembling that
             targeted for antihypertensive therapy.},
   Doi = {10.1161/01.hyp.36.2.171},
   Key = {fds270907}
}

@article{fds270754,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Sherwood, A and Gullette, EC and Babyak, M and Waugh,
             R and Georgiades, A and Craighead, LW and Tweedy, D and Feinglos, M and Appelbaum, M and Hayano, J and Hinderliter, A},
   Title = {Exercise and weight loss reduce blood pressure in men and
             women with mild hypertension: effects on cardiovascular,
             metabolic, and hemodynamic functioning.},
   Journal = {Archives of Internal Medicine},
   Volume = {160},
   Number = {13},
   Pages = {1947-1958},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0003-9926},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10888969},
   Keywords = {Adult • Blood Glucose • Blood Pressure Monitoring,
             Ambulatory • Body Composition • Exercise* •
             Female • Humans • Hypertension • Insulin
             • Life Style • Male • Middle Aged •
             Obesity • Patient Compliance • Severity of Illness
             Index • Treatment Outcome • Waiting Lists •
             Weight Loss* • blood • complications •
             etiology • metabolism • physiopathology •
             therapy*},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Lifestyle modifications have been recommended as
             the initial treatment strategy for lowering high blood
             pressure (BP). However, evidence for the efficacy of
             exercise and weight loss in the management of high BP
             remains controversial. METHODS: One hundred thirty-three
             sedentary, overweight men and women with unmedicated high
             normal BP or stage 1 to 2 hypertension were randomly
             assigned to aerobic exercise only; a behavioral weight
             management program, including exercise; or a waiting list
             control group. Before and following treatment, systolic and
             diastolic BPs were measured in the clinic, during daily
             life, and during exercise and mental stress testing.
             Hemodynamic measures and metabolic functioning also were
             assessed. RESULTS: Although participants in both active
             treatment groups exhibited significant reductions in BP
             relative to controls, those in the weight management group
             generally had larger reductions. Weight management was
             associated with a 7-mm Hg systolic and a 5-mm Hg diastolic
             clinic BP reduction, compared with a 4-mm Hg systolic and
             diastolic BP reduction associated with aerobic exercise; the
             BP for controls did not change. Participants in both
             treatment groups also displayed reduced peripheral
             resistance and increased cardiac output compared with
             controls, with the greatest reductions in peripheral
             resistance in those in the weight management group. Weight
             management participants also exhibited significantly lower
             fasting and postprandial glucose and insulin levels than
             participants in the other groups. CONCLUSIONS: Although
             exercise alone was effective in reducing BP, the addition of
             a behavioral weight loss program enhanced this effect.
             Aerobic exercise combined with weight loss is recommended
             for the management of elevated BP in sedentary, overweight
             individuals.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1001/archinte.160.13.1947},
   Key = {fds270754}
}

@article{fds270910,
   Author = {Carels, RA and Blumenthal, JA and Sherwood, A},
   Title = {Emotional responsivity during daily life: relationship to
             psychosocial functioning and ambulatory blood
             pressure.},
   Journal = {International Journal of Psychophysiology : Official Journal
             of the International Organization of Psychophysiology},
   Volume = {36},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {25-33},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0167-8760},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10700620},
   Keywords = {Activities of Daily Living* • Adaptation,
             Psychological* • Adult • Blood Pressure
             Monitoring, Ambulatory • Blood Pressure* •
             Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena • Emotions*
             • Female • Humans • Interpersonal Relations*
             • Male • Middle Aged • physiology},
   Abstract = {Emotional responsivity refers to acute changes in affective
             states. This study examined the relationship of emotional
             responsivity during daily life with ambulatory blood
             pressure (ABP) and psychosocial functioning. Subjects were
             162 employed men and women, aged 25-45 years. Subjects
             underwent 24-h ABP monitoring in which they completed a
             behavioral diary with each cuff inflation. On a separate
             day, subjects completed a psychometric test battery
             including measures of depression, trait anxiety, and social
             support. Emotional Responsivity, an index of negative
             emotional variability during waking hours, was
             operationalized as the standard deviation of each
             individual's negative emotions scores throughout the day.
             Individuals with high levels of emotional responsivity
             showed greater increases in ABP and heart rate (HR)
             associated with negative emotions. Emotionally responsive
             individuals also reported less satisfaction with social
             support and higher levels of perceived daily stress, trait
             anxiety, and depressive symptoms. These findings suggest
             that psychosocial traits that have been linked to
             cardiovascular disease may be associated with more marked
             cardiovascular activation occurring in response to negative
             emotions experienced throughout the day.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0167-8760(99)00101-4},
   Key = {fds270910}
}

@article{fds270638,
   Author = {Watkins, LL and Krishnan, R and Blumenthal, JA and Grossman,
             P},
   Title = {ANXIETY, DEPRESSION, AND HEART RATE VARIABILITY},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {62},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {86-87},
   Publisher = {Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00006842-200001000-00014},
   Doi = {10.1097/00006842-200001000-00014},
   Key = {fds270638}
}

@article{fds270909,
   Author = {Berkman, LF and Carney, R and Blumenthal, J and Czakowski, S and Hosking, J and Jaffe, A and Babyak, M and Carels, R and Coleman, E and Curtis, S and Davis, L and Fath, K and Forman, L and Hassett, A and Hegde,
             SB and Herman, SH and Hinderliter, A and Khatri, P and Krishnan, KR and Levenberg, S and Mark, D and Marz, P and Matthews, J and McCarthy, R and Mieszkalski, K and Miller, G and Norten, J and O'Connor, C and Puma, J and Rutt, L and Sessions, W and Siegler, I and Wadley, V and Watkins, L and Waugh, R and Williams, R and Zakhary, BG and Powell, LH and Calvin, JE and Clark, DC and Creech, S and Eaton, C et al.},
   Title = {Enhancing recovery in coronary heart disease patients
             (ENRICHD): study design and methods. The ENRICHD
             investigators.},
   Journal = {American Heart Journal},
   Volume = {139},
   Number = {1 Pt 1},
   Pages = {1-9},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0002-8703},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000084631300001&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Abstract = {Psychosocial factors, particularly depression and lack of
             social support, are important predictors of morbidity and
             mortality in patients with coronary heart disease. This
             article describes the design and methods of the Enhancing
             Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease Patients (ENRICHD) study,
             a multicenter, randomized clinical trial involving 3000
             patients enrolled after acute myocardial infarction. ENRICHD
             aims to investigate the effects of a psychosocial
             intervention that targets depression and/or low social
             support on survival and reinfarction among adult men and
             women who are at high risk for recurrent cardiac events
             because of psychosocial factors (depressive or social
             isolation). Design features include the use of an
             individually tailored yet standardized intervention,
             rigorous clinical trial methods, and enrollment of a large
             number of women and minorities.},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0002-8703(00)90301-6},
   Key = {fds270909}
}

@article{fds40085,
   Author = {Carels, R.A. and Szczepanski, R. and Sherwood, A. and Blumenthal,
             J.A.},
   Title = {Ambulatory blood pressure and marital distress in employed
             women},
   Journal = {Behavioral Medicine},
   Volume = {26},
   Pages = {80-85},
   Year = {2000},
   Key = {fds40085}
}

@article{fds40086,
   Author = {Carels, R.A. and Blumenthal, J.A. and Sherwood,
             A.},
   Title = {Emotional reactivity during daily life: Relationship to
             psychosocial functioning and ambulatory blood
             pressure},
   Journal = {International Journal of Psychophysiology},
   Volume = {36},
   Pages = {25-33},
   Year = {2000},
   Key = {fds40086}
}

@article{fds270786,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Sherwood, A and Gullette, ECD and Babyak, MA and Waugh, R and Georgiades, A and Craighead, LW and Tweedy, D and Feinglos,
             M and Appelbaum, M and Hayano, J and Hinderliter,
             A},
   Title = {Exercise and weight loss reduce blood pressure in men and
             women with mild hypertension},
   Journal = {Archives of Internal Medicine},
   Volume = {160},
   Pages = {1947-1958},
   Year = {2000},
   Key = {fds270786}
}

@article{fds270906,
   Author = {Newman, MF and Grocott, HP and Stanley, TO and Mackensen, GB and Kirchner, JL and Mark, DB and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Neurocognitive dysfunction and quality of life after cardiac
             surgery},
   Journal = {The Annals of Thoracic Surgery},
   Volume = {70},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1788},
   Year = {2000},
   Key = {fds270906}
}

@article{fds270911,
   Author = {Carels, RA and Sherwood, A and Szczepanski, R and Blumenthal,
             JA},
   Title = {Ambulatory blood pressure and marital distress in employed
             women.},
   Journal = {Behavioral Medicine (Washington, D.C.)},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {80-85},
   Year = {2000},
   ISSN = {0896-4289},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11147293},
   Keywords = {Adult • Arousal* • Blood Pressure Monitoring,
             Ambulatory* • Conflict (Psychology)* • Female
             • Humans • Marriage • Middle Aged •
             Social Environment • Women, Working •
             psychology*},
   Abstract = {In this investigation, the relationship between marital
             distress and blood pressure during daily life in a sample of
             married employed women was examined. It was hypothesized
             that greater marital distress would be associated with
             elevated blood pressure in the home environment, but not in
             the workplace. Participants were 50 married employed women,
             aged 25 to 45 years. Participants underwent ambulatory blood
             pressure monitoring on a typical workday. The women with
             higher levels of marital distress exhibited greater negative
             emotions and higher levels of blood pressure at home. These
             results suggest that the physiological concomitants of
             stress and emotional upset associated with marital distress
             are manifest in elevated blood pressure that is most
             pronounced in the home environment.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1080/08964280009595755},
   Key = {fds270911}
}

@article{fds270912,
   Author = {Grichnik, KP and Ijsselmuiden, AJ and D'Amico, TA and Harpole, DH and White, WD and Blumenthal, JA and Newman, MF},
   Title = {Cognitive decline after major noncardiac operations: a
             preliminary prospective study.},
   Journal = {The Annals of Thoracic Surgery},
   Volume = {68},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1786-1791},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0003-4975},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10585059},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Cardiac operations frequently are complicated by
             postoperative cognitive decline. Less common and less
             studied is postoperative cognitive decline after noncardiac
             surgery, so we determined its incidence, severity, and
             possible predictors. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients who had
             thoracic and vascular procedures were studied. A
             neurocognitive test battery was administered preoperatively
             and 6 to 12 weeks postoperatively. A change score
             (preoperative minus postoperative) was calculated for each
             measure in each individual. Cognitive deficit (a measure of
             incidence) was defined as a 20% decrement in 20% or more of
             the completed tests. The average scores of all tests and the
             average decline (a measure of severity) were determined.
             RESULTS: The incidence of cognitive deficit was 44.8%.
             Overall the severity of the decline was an average of 15%
             decline. In the 44.8% of patients who had cognitive deficit,
             the severity was 24.7%. Multivariable predictors of
             cognitive decline were age (for incidence and severity) and
             years of education (for severity). CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive
             decline after noncardiac operations is a frequent
             complication of surgical procedures. The severity could
             preclude successful return to a preoperative
             lifestyle.},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0003-4975(99)00992-3},
   Key = {fds270912}
}

@article{fds270913,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Babyak, MA and Moore, KA and Craighead, WE and Herman, S and Khatri, P and Waugh, R and Napolitano, MA and Forman, LM and Appelbaum, M and Doraiswamy, PM and Krishnan, KR},
   Title = {Effects of exercise training on older patients with major
             depression.},
   Journal = {Archives of Internal Medicine},
   Volume = {159},
   Number = {19},
   Pages = {2349-2356},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0003-9926},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10547175},
   Keywords = {Aged • Antidepressive Agents • Anxiety •
             Cognition • Combined Modality Therapy • Depressive
             Disorder • Exercise* • Female • Humans •
             Lung • Lung Volume Measurements • Male •
             Middle Aged • Physical Fitness • Quality of Life
             • Self Concept • Severity of Illness Index •
             drug therapy • physiopathology • psychology •
             therapeutic use* • therapy*},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Previous observational and interventional
             studies have suggested that regular physical exercise may be
             associated with reduced symptoms of depression. However, the
             extent to which exercise training may reduce depressive
             symptoms in older patients with major depressive disorder
             (MDD) has not been systematically evaluated. OBJECTIVE: To
             assess the effectiveness of an aerobic exercise program
             compared with standard medication (ie, antidepressants) for
             treatment of MDD in older patients, we conducted a 16-week
             randomized controlled trial. METHODS: One hundred fifty-six
             men and women with MDD (age, > or = 50 years) were assigned
             randomly to a program of aerobic exercise, antidepressants
             (sertraline hydrochloride), or combined exercise and
             medication. Subjects underwent comprehensive evaluations of
             depression, including the presence and severity of MDD using
             Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,
             Fourth Edition criteria and Hamilton Rating Scale for
             Depression (HAM-D) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)
             scores before and after treatment. Secondary outcome
             measures included aerobic capacity, life satisfaction,
             self-esteem, anxiety, and dysfunctional cognitions. RESULTS:
             After 16 weeks of treatment, the groups did not differ
             statistically on HAM-D or BDI scores (P = .67); adjustment
             for baseline levels of depression yielded an essentially
             identical result. Growth curve models revealed that all
             groups exhibited statistically and clinically significant
             reductions on HAM-D and BDI scores. However, patients
             receiving medication alone exhibited the fastest initial
             response; among patients receiving combination therapy,
             those with less severe depressive symptoms initially showed
             a more rapid response than those with initially more severe
             depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: An exercise training
             program may be considered an alternative to antidepressants
             for treatment of depression in older persons. Although
             antidepressants may facilitate a more rapid initial
             therapeutic response than exercise, after 16 weeks of
             treatment exercise was equally effective in reducing
             depression among patients with MDD.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1001/archinte.159.19.2349},
   Key = {fds270913}
}

@article{fds270765,
   Author = {Watkins, LL and Blumenthal, JA and Kowey, PR and Brandspiegel, HZ and Marinchak, RA and Rials, SJ},
   Title = {Worried to death? [4] (multiple letters)},
   Journal = {Circulation},
   Volume = {100},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {1251-1252},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0009-7322},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10484623},
   Keywords = {Aged • Death, Sudden, Cardiac* • Female •
             Grief* • Humans • Stress, Psychological*},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds270765}
}

@article{fds270918,
   Author = {Carels, RA and Sherwood, A and Babyak, M and Gullette, EC and Coleman,
             RE and Waugh, R and Jiang, W and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Emotional responsivity and transient myocardial
             ischemia.},
   Journal = {Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology},
   Volume = {67},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {605-610},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0022-006X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10450634},
   Keywords = {Adaptation, Psychological • Adult • Aged •
             Angina Pectoris • Angiocardiography • Arousal*
             • Coronary Disease • Electrocardiography,
             Ambulatory • Emotions* • Exercise • Female
             • Humans • Individuality • Male • Middle
             Aged • Myocardial Infarction • Risk Factors •
             psychology • psychology*},
   Abstract = {This study examined the relationship between "emotional
             responsivity" (i.e., individuals who exhibit relatively
             large variations of self-reported tension levels) and
             myocardial ischemia. One hundred thirty-six patients with
             coronary artery disease underwent 48 hr ambulatory
             electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring and laboratory mental
             stress testing using radionuclide angiocardiography.
             Compared with individuals characterized as low emotional
             responders, a higher proportion of individuals characterized
             as high emotional responders exhibited wall motion
             abnormalities in response to laboratory mental stress
             testing and were more likely to exhibit ECG ST-segment
             depression (> or = 1 mm for > or = 1 min) during routine
             daily activities. These results suggest that emotional
             responsivity may represent an individual difference
             characteristic that is associated with an increased
             likelihood of exhibiting myocardial ischemia in both the
             laboratory and the real-world setting.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1037//0022-006x.67.4.605},
   Key = {fds270918}
}

@article{fds270914,
   Author = {Watkins, LL and Grossman, P and Krishnan, R and Blumenthal,
             JA},
   Title = {Anxiety reduces baroreflex cardiac control in older adults
             with major depression.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {61},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {334-340},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10367613},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: Although depression and anxiety predict risk of
             cardiac mortality, the contributions of depression and
             anxiety to vagal cardiac control have not been
             systematically evaluated. The goal of this study was to
             examine the relationship between state anxiety and vagal
             control of heart rate in older adults with major depressive
             disorder (MDD). Older adults (50-70 years old) were selected
             for this study because of the greater cardiac risk
             associated with low vagal cardiac control across this age
             range. METHODS: Fifty-six men and women with MDD were
             evaluated. MDD was diagnosed using the Diagnostic Interview
             Schedule, and severity of depression was measured using the
             Beck Depression Inventory and the Hamilton Rating Scale for
             depression. State anxiety was measured using the Spielberger
             State Anxiety Inventory. Power spectral analysis was used to
             measure two indices of vagal control: baroreflex control of
             heart rate (BRC(SPEC)) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia
             (RSA). RESULTS: State anxiety was negatively correlated with
             levels of BRC(SPEC) (r = -0.32, p < .05), whereas depression
             severity was not related to either RSA or BRC(SPEC).
             Furthermore, BRC(SPEC) was reduced by approximately 33% in
             MDD patients with state anxiety scores (ST-ANX) in the
             highest quartile (ST-ANX > 41, N = 13), compared with
             patients with ST-ANX scores in the lowest quartile (ST-ANX <
             25, N = 14; p < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Anxiety, but not
             depression severity, is associated with reduced BRC(SPEC) in
             older men and women. Future studies are needed to determine
             whether comorbid anxiety contributes to the increased
             cardiovascular risk associated with MDD.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00006842-199905000-00012},
   Key = {fds270914}
}

@article{fds270915,
   Author = {Khatri, P and Babyak, M and Clancy, C and Davis, R and Croughwell, N and Newman, M and Reves, JG and Mark, DB and Blumenthal,
             JA},
   Title = {Perception of cognitive function in older adults following
             coronary artery bypass surgery.},
   Journal = {Health Psychology : Official Journal of the Division of
             Health Psychology, American Psychological
             Association},
   Volume = {18},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {301-306},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0278-6133},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10357512},
   Abstract = {This study examined the effects of coronary artery bypass
             grafting (CABG) on objective and subjective measures of
             neurocognitive functioning. Participants were 170 older
             patients (127 men and 43 women; mean age = 61 years)
             undergoing CABG. Measures of neurocognitive function,
             depression, anxiety, and perceived cognitive abilities were
             administered immediately prior to and 6 weeks following
             surgery. Although objective measures of impaired cognitive
             performance following CABG were not related to perceived
             cognitive difficulties, the presence of anxiety and
             depression was related to the perception of cognitive
             functioning. Patients who reported high levels of anxiety
             and depression 6 weeks after surgery perceived themselves as
             having poorer cognitive function. Interventions designed to
             reduce emotional distress could improve patient's perceived
             cognitive abilities following CABG.},
   Doi = {10.1037//0278-6133.18.3.301},
   Key = {fds270915}
}

@article{fds270917,
   Author = {Sherwood, A and Johnson, K and Blumenthal, JA and Hinderliter,
             AL},
   Title = {Endothelial function and hemodynamic responses during mental
             stress.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {61},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {365-370},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10367618},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: The hemodynamic basis of blood pressure responses
             during psychological stress shows striking individual
             differences that share an interesting similarity with risk
             for cardiovascular disease. Factors accounting for these
             individual differences are poorly understood. The present
             study examined the relationship of vascular endothelial
             function to stress-induced hemodynamic responses. METHODS:
             Subjects were 40 healthy men and women, aged 25 to 44 years.
             Hemodynamic responses were assessed during exposure to a
             battery of four diverse laboratory stressors.
             Endothelium-dependent arterial dilation (EDAD) was measured
             by ultrasound imaging of the brachial artery in response to
             reactive hyperemia. RESULTS: High EDAD response was
             associated with lower resting systolic (p < .01) and
             diastolic blood pressure (p < .05). EDAD response was
             unrelated to blood pressure responses during stress.
             However, systemic vascular resistance responses during
             laboratory stress were significantly greater (p < .02) for
             individuals with low EDAD responses. CONCLUSIONS:
             Exaggerated systemic vascular resistance responses during
             stress may reflect endothelial dysfunction. This association
             may help explain the growing evidence of a relationship
             between stress hemodynamics and cardiovascular disease risk.
             The nature of this association is discussed in terms of a
             possible interplay between the sympathetic nervous system
             and the endothelium in regulation of vascular
             tone.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00006842-199905000-00017},
   Key = {fds270917}
}

@article{fds270916,
   Author = {Rozanski, A and Blumenthal, JA and Kaplan, J},
   Title = {Impact of psychological factors on the pathogenesis of
             cardiovascular disease and implications for
             therapy.},
   Journal = {Circulation},
   Volume = {99},
   Number = {16},
   Pages = {2192-2217},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10217662},
   Abstract = {Recent studies provide clear and convincing evidence that
             psychosocial factors contribute significantly to the
             pathogenesis and expression of coronary artery disease
             (CAD). This evidence is composed largely of data relating
             CAD risk to 5 specific psychosocial domains: (1) depression,
             (2) anxiety, (3) personality factors and character traits,
             (4) social isolation, and (5) chronic life stress.
             Pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the relationship
             between these entities and CAD can be divided into
             behavioral mechanisms, whereby psychosocial conditions
             contribute to a higher frequency of adverse health
             behaviors, such as poor diet and smoking, and direct
             pathophysiological mechanisms, such as neuroendocrine and
             platelet activation. An extensive body of evidence from
             animal models (especially the cynomolgus monkey, Macaca
             fascicularis) reveals that chronic psychosocial stress can
             lead, probably via a mechanism involving excessive
             sympathetic nervous system activation, to exacerbation of
             coronary artery atherosclerosis as well as to transient
             endothelial dysfunction and even necrosis. Evidence from
             monkeys also indicates that psychosocial stress reliably
             induces ovarian dysfunction, hypercortisolemia, and
             excessive adrenergic activation in premenopausal females,
             leading to accelerated atherosclerosis. Also reviewed are
             data relating CAD to acute stress and individual differences
             in sympathetic nervous system responsivity. New technologies
             and research from animal models demonstrate that acute
             stress triggers myocardial ischemia, promotes
             arrhythmogenesis, stimulates platelet function, and
             increases blood viscosity through hemoconcentration. In the
             presence of underlying atherosclerosis (eg, in CAD
             patients), acute stress also causes coronary
             vasoconstriction. Recent data indicate that the foregoing
             effects result, at least in part, from the endothelial
             dysfunction and injury induced by acute stress.
             Hyperresponsivity of the sympathetic nervous system,
             manifested by exaggerated heart rate and blood pressure
             responses to psychological stimuli, is an intrinsic
             characteristic among some individuals. Current data link
             sympathetic nervous system hyperresponsivity to accelerated
             development of carotid atherosclerosis in human subjects and
             to exacerbated coronary and carotid atherosclerosis in
             monkeys. Thus far, intervention trials designed to reduce
             psychosocial stress have been limited in size and number.
             Specific suggestions to improve the assessment of behavioral
             interventions include more complete delineation of the
             physiological mechanisms by which such interventions might
             work; increased use of new, more convenient "alternative"
             end points for behavioral intervention trials; development
             of specifically targeted behavioral interventions (based on
             profiling of patient factors); and evaluation of previously
             developed models of predicting behavioral change. The
             importance of maximizing the efficacy of behavioral
             interventions is underscored by the recognition that
             psychosocial stresses tend to cluster together. When they do
             so, the resultant risk for cardiac events is often
             substantially elevated, equaling that associated with
             previously established risk factors for CAD, such as
             hypertension and hypercholesterolemia.},
   Doi = {10.1161/01.cir.99.16.2192},
   Key = {fds270916}
}

@article{fds270788,
   Author = {Dominick, KL and Gullette, EC and Babyak, MA and Mallow, KL and Sherwood, A and Waugh, R and Chilikuri, M and Keefe, FJ and Blumenthal,
             JA},
   Title = {Predicting peak oxygen uptake among older patients with
             chronic illness.},
   Journal = {Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation},
   Volume = {19},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {81-89},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0883-9212},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10200913},
   Abstract = {PURPOSE: To compare three equations developed to predict VO2
             among patients diagnosed with one of two chronic diseases:
             essential hypertension (HTN), and fibromyalgia (FM). The
             equations included the American College of Sports Medicine
             (ACSM) equation, the FAST equation developed from the
             Fitness and Arthritis in Seniors Trial (FAST), and an
             equation developed by Foster et al. METHODS: One hundred
             twenty-two HTN subjects and 68 FM subjects completed a
             maximum exercise test according to the Duke/Wake Forest
             protocol. Measured peak VO2 was then compared with the VO2
             predicted by the ACSM, FAST and FOSTER equations, using
             several statistical methods. RESULTS: The ACSM equation
             overpredicted peak VO2 in the HTN group by 10.0 +/- 4.0
             mL/kg-1/min-1, and in the FM group by 8.6 +/- 4.9
             mL/kg-1/min-1 (P < 0.0001). The FAST equation, however,
             underestimated peak VO2 by 1.5 +/- 4.2 mL/kg-1/min-1 (P <
             0.01) and 1.0 +/- 3.3 mL/kg-1/min-1 (P < 0.0001) in the HTN
             and FM groups, respectively. The FOSTER equation
             overestimated peak VO2 by 2.3 +/- 3.6 mL/kg-1/min-1 in the
             HTN group and by 2.1 +/- 3.5 mL/kg-1/min-1 in the FM group
             (P < 0.0001). A large degree of variability was found for
             each of the equations. CONCLUSION: Results of this
             investigation indicate that all three equations produced
             peak VO2 values that were statistically different from
             measured values. Although the ACSM equation overestimated
             VO2 by more than 2 metabolic equivalents (METs) in each
             patient group, both the FAST and FOSTER equations produced
             differences that were less than 1 MET. Further research is
             needed to examine the FAST and FOSTER equations among other
             patient populations and with other exercise
             protocols.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00008483-199903000-00001},
   Key = {fds270788}
}

@article{fds270919,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Sherwood, A and Babyak, M and Thurston, R and Tweedy,
             D and Georgiades, A and Gullette, EC and Khatri, P and Steffan, P and Waugh, R and Light, K and Hinderliter, A},
   Title = {Mental stress and coronary disease. The Smart-Heart
             Study.},
   Journal = {North Carolina Medical Journal},
   Volume = {60},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {95-99},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0029-2559},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10344134},
   Key = {fds270919}
}

@article{fds270920,
   Author = {Moore, KA and Babyak, MA and Wood, CE and Napolitano, MA and Khatri, P and Craighead, WE and Herman, S and Krishnan, R and Blumenthal,
             JA},
   Title = {The association between physical activity and depression in
             older depressed adults},
   Journal = {Journal of Aging and Physical Activity},
   Volume = {7},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {55-61},
   Publisher = {Human Kinetics},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1063-8652},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/japa.7.1.55},
   Abstract = {Previous studies of younger, healthy individuals have
             demonstrated an inverse relationship between physical
             activity and depression. The present study addressed the
             relation between self-reported physical activity and
             symptoms of depression in 146 men and women aged 50 years
             and older with major depressive disorder (MDD). Patients who
             met clinical criteria for MDD completed the Beck Depression
             Inventory (BDI) and the Minnesota Leisure-Time Activity
             Questionnaire (MQ). Multiple regression analysis indicated
             that lower levels of physical activity were associated with
             more severe depressive symptoms (p = .04), after adjusting
             for age and gender. The implications of these findings for
             the treatment and prevention of depression are
             discussed.},
   Doi = {10.1123/japa.7.1.55},
   Key = {fds270920}
}

@article{fds40076,
   Author = {Carels, R.A. and Sherwood, A. and Babyak, M. and Gullette, E.C.D. and Coleman, R.E. and Waugh, R. and Jiang, W. and Blumenthal,
             J.A.},
   Title = {Emotional responsivity and transient myocardial
             ischemia},
   Journal = {Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology},
   Volume = {67},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {605-610},
   Year = {1999},
   Key = {fds40076}
}

@article{fds40083,
   Author = {Blumenthal, J.A. and Babyak, M.A. and Moore, K.A. and Craighead, W.E. and Herman, S. and Khatri, P. and Waugh, R. and Napolitano, M. and Forman, L.M. and Appelbaum, M. and Doraiswamy, P.M. and Krishnan,
             R.},
   Title = {Effects of exercise training on older patients with major
             depression},
   Journal = {Archives of Internal Medicine},
   Volume = {159},
   Number = {19},
   Pages = {2349-2356},
   Year = {1999},
   Key = {fds40083}
}

@article{fds270787,
   Author = {Kraus, VB and Gell, N and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {The effect of chronic exercise on circulating biomarkers in
             individuals with musculoskeletal disease},
   Journal = {Clinical Exercise Physiology},
   Volume = {1},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {17-23},
   Year = {1999},
   Key = {fds270787}
}

@article{fds270922,
   Author = {Carels, RA and Szczepanski, R and Blumenthal, JA and Sherwood,
             A},
   Title = {Blood pressure reactivity and marital distress in employed
             women.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {60},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {639-643},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9773771},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: The impact of marital distress on cardiovascular
             responses to an "ecologically valid" laboratory stressor (a
             marital conflict recall task) was examined in maritally
             distressed and non-distressed women. It was hypothesized
             that the presence of high levels of marital distress would
             be associated with elevated blood pressure and heart rate
             responses to a marital conflict task. METHOD: Fifty married,
             employed women, aged 25-45, were recruited into high and low
             marital distress groups, based on total scores on the Dyadic
             Adjustment Scale. Subjects participated in three laboratory
             stress tasks: a marital conflict recall task, a work
             conflict recall task, and a serial subtraction task.
             RESULTS: During the marital conflict recall task, women
             characterized as high in marital distress exhibited higher
             systolic blood pressure (M = 21.4 +/- 9.1 vs. 17.3 +/- 7.7)
             (p < .05) and heart rate (M = 13.6 +/- 9.5 vs. 10.9 +/- 6.5)
             (p < .01) responses, compared with low-distress women.
             However, the association between marital distress and
             cardiovascular response was statistically significant only
             after aggregate responses to the control stressors were used
             as covariates. CONCLUSION: These data indicate that the
             stress associated with recalling a marital conflict was
             manifest in elevated blood pressure and heart rate,
             particularly among women characterized as experiencing high
             levels of distress in their marriage. Future research is
             needed to determine whether the blood pressure differences
             between women who are satisfied with their marriage, versus
             those that are chronically distressed are clinically
             meaningful. In addition, examination of the "ecological
             validity" of laboratory stressors suggests that a useful
             methodology may be to assess task responses, while
             controlling for nonspecific individual differences in
             cardiovascular reactivity.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00006842-199809000-00022},
   Key = {fds270922}
}

@article{fds270923,
   Author = {Rosenberg, EL and Ekman, P and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Facial expression and the affective component of cynical
             hostility in male coronary heart disease
             patients.},
   Journal = {Health Psychology : Official Journal of the Division of
             Health Psychology, American Psychological
             Association},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {376-380},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0278-6133},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9697948},
   Abstract = {This study describes the affective component of hostility as
             measured by the Cook-Medley Hostility Scale (Ho; W. Cook &
             D. Medley, 1954) by examining the relationship between
             facial expressions of emotion and Ho scores in 116 male
             coronary heart disease patients. Patients underwent the
             videotaped Type A Structured Interview, from which facial
             expressions were later coded using the Facial Action Coding
             System. They also completed the Cook-Medley Ho scale. Facial
             expression of the emotion of contempt was significantly
             related to Ho scores; anger expression was not. Also, there
             was a significant interaction between hostility and
             defensiveness, wherein low-defensive, highly hostile people
             showed substantially more contempt expression than others.
             The implications of these findings for the construct
             validity of Ho and for identifying clinically important
             subtypes of hostility are discussed.},
   Doi = {10.1037//0278-6133.17.4.376},
   Key = {fds270923}
}

@article{fds270924,
   Author = {Amory, DW and Croughwell, NA and Kirchner, JL and Blumenthal, JA and White, WD and Gerstle, L and Rohatgi, A and Baudet, B and Grocott, H and Newman, MF},
   Title = {THE QUANTITATIVE ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM (QEEG)},
   Journal = {Anesthesia and Analgesia},
   Volume = {86},
   Number = {Supplement},
   Pages = {7SCA-7SCA},
   Publisher = {Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0003-2999},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000072954100008&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1097/00000539-199804001-00007},
   Key = {fds270924}
}

@article{fds270925,
   Author = {Carels, RA and Sherwood, A and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Psychosocial influences on blood pressure during daily
             life.},
   Journal = {International Journal of Psychophysiology : Official Journal
             of the International Organization of Psychophysiology},
   Volume = {28},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {117-129},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0167-8760},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9545650},
   Abstract = {Ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitoring allows frequent
             non-invasive blood pressure (BP) recordings in a variety of
             settings. Emerging evidence suggests that ABP is a better
             predictor of cardiovascular morbidity than clinic BP.
             Ambulatory blood pressure is influenced by a variety of
             physical, psychological and behavioral factors that comprise
             an individual's daily life. The present article reviews
             psychosocial research relating ABP to psychological factors
             (e.g. Type A behavior pattern, anger/hostility) and
             environmental influences (e.g. job strain). Psychological
             factors and environmental factors alone and in interaction
             with each other appear to substantially influence ABP.
             Interacting physical, psychosocial and behavioral factors
             that comprise daily life provide unique methodological
             challenges to ABP research. Methodological considerations
             (e.g. activity patterns, caffeine and alcohol consumption)
             for performing ABP research are discussed. Evidence outlined
             in this review suggests that psychosocial factors contribute
             to ABP level. To the extent that psychosocial factors
             contribute to ABP cardiac disease, it will be important to
             analyze their effects on underlying disease
             processes.},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0167-8760(97)00090-1},
   Key = {fds270925}
}

@article{fds270751,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Onorato, JJ and Carey, HV},
   Title = {Muscarinic inhibition of substance P induced ion secretion
             in piglet jejunum.},
   Journal = {Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology},
   Volume = {76},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {169-175},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0008-4212},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9635156},
   Keywords = {Animals • Atropine • Carbachol • Cholinergic
             Antagonists • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug •
             Drug Interactions • Gallamine Triethiodide •
             Histamine • Ion Transport • Jejunum •
             Mecamylamine • Muscarinic Agonists • Muscarinic
             Antagonists • Piperidines • Substance P •
             Swine • Time Factors • antagonists & inhibitors*
             • drug effects* • metabolism • pharmacology
             • pharmacology*},
   Abstract = {We examined the effects of the muscarinic agonist carbachol
             on ion secretion induced by substance P (SP) in piglet
             jejunal tissues mounted in Ussing chambers. Tetrodotoxin was
             present in all solutions to inhibit neural activity.
             Carbachol added 10 min prior to 0.75 microM SP dose
             dependently inhibited subsequent SP responses, with 90%
             inhibition at 10 microM carbachol. Addition of an equipotent
             dose of SP (7.5 microM) had no effect on subsequent
             carbachol-induced secretion. Carbachol's inhibition of
             SP-induced secretion was evident for at least 45 min and was
             abolished by prior addition of the M3 receptor antagonist
             4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methyl-piperidine methiodide (4-DAMP),
             but remained intact in the presence of the M2 antagonist
             gallamine or the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine. Atropine
             added 10 min after carbachol restored subsequent SP
             responses toward control levels. Carbachol also reduced
             secretory responses to histamine and, to a lesser extent,
             prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). SP-induced secretion was not
             affected by prior addition of histamine and was reduced by
             PGE2 only at the highest PGE2 concentration. The results
             suggest that activation of the epithelial M3 receptor by
             carbachol inhibits subsequent secretory responses to the
             calcium-mediated agonists SP and histamine in piglet
             jejunum. This may reflect muscarinic activation of a
             negative messenger in epithelial cells that limits Cl-
             secretion.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1139/y98-009},
   Key = {fds270751}
}

@article{fds270760,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {The reasonable woman standard: a meta-analytic review of
             gender differences in perceptions of sexual
             harassment.},
   Journal = {Law and Human Behavior},
   Volume = {22},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {33-57},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0147-7307},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9487790},
   Keywords = {Adult • Female • Humans • Male • Men
             • Public Policy • Sex Factors • Sexual
             Harassment • Social Perception* • United States
             • Women • legislation & jurisprudence* •
             psychology • psychology*},
   Abstract = {Courts and legislatures have begun to develop the
             "reasonable woman standard" (RWS) as a criterion for
             deciding sexual harassment trials. This standard rests on
             assumptions of a "wide divergence" between the perceptions
             of men and women when viewing social-sexual behavior that
             may be considered harassing. Narrative reviews of the
             literature on such perceptions have suggested that these
             assumptions are only minimally supported. To test these
             assumptions quantitatively, a meta-analytic review was
             conducted that assessed the size, stability, and moderators
             of gender differences in perceptions of sexual harassment.
             The effect of the actor's status relative to the target also
             was evaluated meta-analytically, as one alternative to the
             importance of gender effects. Results supported the claims
             of narrative reviews for a relatively small gender effect,
             and draw attention to the status effect. In discussing legal
             implications of the present findings, earlier claims are
             echoed suggesting caution in establishing the reasonable
             woman standard, and one alternative to the RWS, the
             "reasonable victim standard," is discussed.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds270760}
}

@article{fds270933,
   Author = {Carels, RA and Sherwood, A and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {High anxiety and white coat hypertension.},
   Journal = {Jama},
   Volume = {279},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {197-198},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0098-7484},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9438737},
   Keywords = {Anxiety • Blood Pressure Determination* • Humans
             • Hypertension • etiology* •
             physiopathology*},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1001/jama.279.3.197},
   Key = {fds270933}
}

@article{fds270926,
   Author = {Madden, DJ and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Interaction of hypertension and age in visual selective
             attention performance.},
   Journal = {Health Psychology : Official Journal of the Division of
             Health Psychology, American Psychological
             Association},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {76-83},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0278-6133},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9459074},
   Abstract = {Previous research suggests that some aspects of cognitive
             performance decline as a joint function of age and
             hypertension. In this experiment, 51 unmedicated individuals
             with mild essential hypertension and 48 normotensive
             individuals, 18-78 years of age, performed a visual search
             task. The estimated time required to identify a display
             character and shift attention between display positions
             increased with age. This attention shift time did not differ
             significantly between hypertensive and normotensive
             participants, but regression analyses indicated some
             mediation of the age effect by blood pressure. For
             individuals less than 60 years of age, the error rate was
             greater for hypertensive than for normotensive participants.
             Although the present design could detect effects of only
             moderate to large size, the results suggest that effects of
             hypertension may be more evident in a relatively general
             measure of performance (mean error rate) than in the speed
             of shifting visual attention.},
   Doi = {10.1037//0278-6133.17.1.76},
   Key = {fds270926}
}

@article{fds270932,
   Author = {Moore, KA and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Exercise training as an alternative treatment for depression
             among older adults.},
   Journal = {Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine},
   Volume = {4},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {48-56},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1078-6791},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9439020},
   Abstract = {This article reviews the current literature related to
             exercise treatment and depression among older adults.
             Results from investigational studies support the
             antidepressive effects of exercise programs. Aerobic
             exercise is more effective than placebo or no treatment
             controls, and appears to be as effective as more traditional
             treatment methods. However, a number of potential
             methodological problems leave the issue of exercise therapy
             for the treatment of depression unsettled. Some possible
             directions for future research are discussed, along with
             clinical recommendations.},
   Key = {fds270932}
}

@article{fds40065,
   Author = {Carels, R.A. and Sherwood, A. and Blumenthal,
             J.A.},
   Title = {High anxiety and white coat hypertension
             [letter]},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Medical Association},
   Volume = {279},
   Pages = {197-198},
   Year = {1998},
   Key = {fds40065}
}

@article{fds40070,
   Author = {Carels, R.A. and Blumenthal, J.A. and Sherwood,
             A.},
   Title = {Effects of satisfaction with social support on blood
             pressure in normotensive and borderline hypertensive men and
             women},
   Journal = {International Journal of Behavioral Medicine},
   Volume = {5},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {76-85},
   Year = {1998},
   Key = {fds40070}
}

@article{fds270841,
   Author = {Carels, RA and Blumenthal, JA and Sherwood, A},
   Title = {Effect of satisfaction with social support on blood pressure
             in normotensive and borderline hypertensive men and
             women.},
   Journal = {International Journal of Behavioral Medicine},
   Volume = {5},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {76-85},
   Year = {1998},
   ISSN = {1070-5503},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16250717},
   Abstract = {The relation between blood pressure (BP) and two aspects of
             social support, perceived satisfaction and structural social
             support network characteristics, were examined in adults
             classified as having normal BP or borderline hypertension.
             Causal BPs were taken by a trained technician on 3 separate
             visits, each approximately 1 week apart. Participants were
             categorized as borderline hypertensive if screening systolic
             blood pressure (SBP) fell in the range 130-160 mmHG and/or
             diastolic blood pressure (DBP) fell in the range 85-100
             mmHg; BPs below these ranges were considered normotensive.
             Participants underwent ambulatory BP monitoring. Individuals
             classified as normotensive reported significantly greater
             support satisfaction than individuals with borderline
             hypertension. Social network characteristics were not
             associated with BP. During 24 hr of ambulatory BP
             monitoring, high perceived support satisfaction was
             associated with lower SBP and DBP at work, home, and during
             sleep. These data suggest that perceived satisfaction with
             social support is associated with lower BP. The presence of
             social support also may reduce BP levels during daily
             life.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1207/s15327558ijbm0501_6},
   Key = {fds270841}
}

@article{fds270921,
   Author = {Carels, RA and Blumenthal, JA and Sherwood, A},
   Title = {Relationship of psychosocial and neurobehavioral functioning
             in hypertension},
   Journal = {Medicine & Behavior},
   Volume = {1},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {41-42},
   Year = {1998},
   Key = {fds270921}
}

@article{fds331296,
   Author = {Gullette, ECD and Babyak, MA and Sherwood, A and Hinderliter, A and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {DEPRESSION PREDICTS LEFT VENTRICULAR HYPERTROPHY IN
             HYPERTENSIVE INDIVIDUALS},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {60},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {93-93},
   Publisher = {Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)},
   Year = {1998},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00006842-199801000-00024},
   Doi = {10.1097/00006842-199801000-00024},
   Key = {fds331296}
}

@article{fds331297,
   Author = {Khatri, P and Babyak, MA and Clancy, C and Davis, R and Croughwell, N and Newman, M and Reves, JG and Mark, DB and Blumenthal,
             JA},
   Title = {PERCEPTION OF COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT IN OLDER ADULTS
             UNDERGOING CARDIAC SURGERY},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {60},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {107-107},
   Publisher = {Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)},
   Year = {1998},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00006842-199801000-00080},
   Doi = {10.1097/00006842-199801000-00080},
   Key = {fds331297}
}

@article{fds270927,
   Author = {Hlatky, MA and Bacon, C and Boothroyd, D and Mahanna, E and Reves, JG and Newman, MF and Johnstone, I and Winston, C and Brooks, MM and Rosen, AD and Mark, DB and Pitt, B and Rogers, W and Ryan, T and Wiens, R and Blumenthal,
             JA},
   Title = {Cognitive function 5 years after randomization to coronary
             angioplasty or coronary artery bypass graft
             surgery.},
   Journal = {Circulation},
   Volume = {96},
   Number = {9 Suppl},
   Pages = {II-11-4},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0009-7322},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9386068},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Coronary bypass surgery often leads to
             short-term cognitive dysfunction, whereas coronary
             angioplasty does not. Perioperative cognitive dysfunction
             usually resolves, although a subgroup of surgical patients
             may continue to exhibit long-term cognitive dysfunction. The
             purpose of this study was to compare cognitive function 5
             years after randomization to a strategy of either initial
             coronary surgery or initial angioplasty. METHODS AND
             RESULTS: Five centers in the Bypass Angioplasty
             Revascularization Investigation participated in this
             ancillary study. Patients with multivessel coronary disease
             randomized to angioplasty or surgery were eligible at the
             time of their 5-year clinic visit. A battery of five
             measures previously shown to be sensitive to perioperative
             changes in cognitive function was administered, including
             the Logical and Figural Memory Scales from the Wechsler
             Memory Scale, the Digit Symbol and Digit Span subtests from
             the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and Part B of the
             Reitan Trail Making Test. The 125 study patients were
             generally similar to the 133 patients who were eligible but
             did not participate, although study participants were
             significantly younger (P=.003). The 64 patients randomly
             assigned to angioplasty had baseline characteristics similar
             to those of 61 patients randomly assigned to surgery.
             Cognitive function scores were not significantly different
             between angioplasty or surgery patients in an
             intention-to-treat analysis (P=.57). There also was no
             difference in cognitive function scores when the data were
             analyzed according to whether the patient had ever undergone
             bypass surgery (P=.59). CONCLUSIONS: Long-term cognitive
             function is similar after coronary bypass surgery and
             coronary angioplasty in the majority of patients.},
   Key = {fds270927}
}

@article{fds270842,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and O'Connor, C and Hinderliter, A and Fath, K and Hegde,
             SB and Miller, G and Puma, J and Sessions, W and Sheps, D and Zakhary, B and Williams, RB},
   Title = {Psychosocial factors and coronary disease. A national
             multicenter clinical trial (ENRICHD) with a North Carolina
             focus.},
   Journal = {North Carolina Medical Journal},
   Volume = {58},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {440-444},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0029-2559},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9392958},
   Abstract = {In addition to traditional risk factors (cigarette smoking,
             high blood pressure, and elevated cholesterol) psychosocial
             factors (depression, social isolation, and low socioeconomic
             status) have an adverse impact on prognosis of patients with
             CAD. Several studies of psychosocial and behavioral
             treatments provide encouraging evidence for the clinical
             efficacy of psychosocial interventions in CAD patients. A
             new, multicenter clinical trial now underway (see sidebar)
             will evaluate the impact of psychosocial interventions
             (compared to usual care) on all-cause mortality and nonfatal
             MI in post-MI patients with depression or perceived low
             levels of social support or both.},
   Key = {fds270842}
}

@article{fds270928,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Jiang, W and Babyak, MA and Krantz, DS and Frid, DJ and Coleman, RE and Waugh, R and Hanson, M and Appelbaum, M and O'Connor, C and Morris, JJ},
   Title = {Stress management and exercise training in cardiac patients
             with myocardial ischemia. Effects on prognosis and
             evaluation of mechanisms.},
   Journal = {Archives of Internal Medicine},
   Volume = {157},
   Number = {19},
   Pages = {2213-2223},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0003-9926},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9342998},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated that
             myocardial ischemia can be elicited by mental stress in the
             laboratory and during daily life and that ischemia induced
             by mental stress is associated with an increased risk for
             future cardiac events in patients with coronary artery
             disease. OBJECTIVES: To examine the extent to which ischemia
             induced by mental stress can be modified by exercise stress
             management, and to evaluate the impact of these
             interventions on clinical outcomes. METHODS: One hundred
             seven patients with coronary artery disease and ischemia
             documented during mental stress testing or ambulatory
             electrocardiographic monitoring were randomly assigned to a
             4-month program of exercise or stress management training.
             Patients living at a distance from the facility formed a
             nonrandom, usual care comparison group. Myocardial ischemia
             was reassessed following treatment, and patients were
             contacted annually for as long as 5 years to document
             cardiac events, including death, nonfatal myocardial
             infarction, and cardiac revascularization procedures.
             RESULTS: Twenty-two patients (21%) experienced at least 1
             cardiac event during a mean (+/- SD) follow-up period of 38
             +/- 17 months. Stress management was associated with a
             relative risk of 0.26 compared with controls. The relative
             risk for the exercise group also was lower than that of
             controls, but the effect did not reach statistical
             significance. Stress management also was associated with
             reduced ischemia induced by mental stress and ambulatory
             ischemia. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that behavioral
             interventions offer additional benefit over and above usual
             medical care in cardiac patients with evidence of myocardial
             ischemia.},
   Doi = {10.1001/archinte.1997.00440400063008},
   Key = {fds270928}
}

@article{fds270771,
   Author = {Tardiff, BE and Newman, MF and Saunders, AM and Strittmatter, WJ and Blumenthal, JA and White, WD and Croughwell, ND and Davis, RD and Roses,
             AD and Reves, JG},
   Title = {Preliminary report of a genetic basis for cognitive decline
             after cardiac operations. The Neurologic Outcome Research
             Group of the Duke Heart Center.},
   Journal = {The Annals of Thoracic Surgery},
   Volume = {64},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {715-720},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0003-4975},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9307463},
   Keywords = {Age Factors • Alleles • Apolipoproteins E •
             Cardiopulmonary Bypass • Cognition • Cognition
             Disorders • Coronary Artery Bypass • Educational
             Status • Female • Follow-Up Studies • Genetic
             Predisposition to Disease • Genotype • Humans
             • Logistic Models • Male • Memory Disorders
             • Memory, Short-Term • Middle Aged •
             Multivariate Analysis • Nerve Regeneration •
             Psychomotor Performance • Risk Factors • Stress,
             Physiological • Treatment Outcome • adverse
             effects • adverse effects* • etiology •
             etiology* • genetics • genetics*},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Changes in memory and cognition frequently
             follow cardiac operations. We hypothesized that patients
             with the apolipoprotein E-epsilon 4 allele are genetically
             predisposed to cognitive dysfunction after cardiac
             operations. METHODS: The apolipoprotein E-epsilon 4 allele
             was evaluated as a predictor variable for postoperative
             cognitive dysfunction in 65 patients undergoing cardiac
             bypass grafting at Duke University Medical Center. The
             primary outcome measure was performance on a cognitive
             battery administered preoperatively and at 6 weeks
             postoperatively. RESULTS: In a multivariable logistic
             regression analysis including apolipoprotein E-epsilon 4,
             preoperative score, age, and years of education, a
             significant association was found between apolipoprotein
             E-epsilon 4 and change in cognitive test score in measures
             of short-term memory at 6 weeks postoperatively. Patients
             with lower educational levels were more likely to show a
             decline in cognitive function associated with the
             apolipoprotein E-epsilon 4 allele. CONCLUSIONS: This study
             suggests that apolipoprotein E genotype is related to
             cognitive dysfunction after cardiopulmonary bypass. Cardiac
             surgical patients may be susceptible to deterioration after
             physiologic stress as a result of impaired genetically
             determined neuronal mechanisms of maintenance and
             repair.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0003-4975(97)00757-1},
   Key = {fds270771}
}

@article{fds270789,
   Author = {Hayano, J and Jiang, W and Waugh, R and O'Connor, C and Frid, D and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Stability over time of circadian rhythm of variability of
             heart rate in patients with stable coronary artery
             disease.},
   Journal = {American Heart Journal},
   Volume = {134},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {411-418},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0002-8703},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9327696},
   Abstract = {Reproducibility of circadian rhythm of variability in heart
             rate was studied in 40 patients with stable coronary artery
             disease who underwent 48-hour ambulatory
             electrocardiographic recordings at baseline (time 1) and
             after 4 months (time 2). The standard deviation of the R-R
             interval and the low-frequency (0.04 to 0.15 Hz) and
             high-frequency (0.15 to 0.45 Hz) components of variability
             in heart rate were assessed every 5 minutes. In 35 patients
             a significant circadian rhythm was observed at both time 1
             and time 2 in the standard deviation of the R-R interval,
             with the acrophase occurring at around 5:00 AM, in the
             high-frequency amplitude with the acrophase around 3:00 AM,
             and in the low-frequency/high-frequency ratio with the
             acrophase around noon. In these patients, parameters of
             circadian rhythm (mesor, amplitude, and acrophase) showed
             good within-individual reproducibility with an intraclass
             correlation coefficient of 0.63 to 0.95 (p < 0.001 for all).
             In the patients who showed inconsistency about the
             significance of circadian rhythm between time 1 or time 2,
             the amplitude of circadian rhythm, even if significant, was
             found in the lowest five values in the distribution. We
             conclude that the circadian rhythms of cardiac autonomic
             activity are stable over time within individual patients
             with stable coronary artery disease.},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0002-8703(97)70075-9},
   Key = {fds270789}
}

@article{fds270929,
   Author = {Tardiff, BE and Newman, MF and Saunders, AM and Strittmatter, WJ and Blumenthal, JA and White, WD and Croughwell, ND and Davis, RD and Roses,
             AD and Reves, JG},
   Title = {Preliminary report of a genetic basis for cognitive decline
             after cardiac operations. The Neurologic Outcome Research
             Group of the Duke Heart Center.},
   Journal = {The Annals of Thoracic Surgery},
   Volume = {64},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {715-720},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0003-4975},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0003-4975(97)00757-1},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND:Changes in memory and cognition frequently follow
             cardiac operations. We hypothesized that patients with the
             apolipoprotein E-epsilon 4 allele are genetically
             predisposed to cognitive dysfunction after cardiac
             operations. METHODS:The apolipoprotein E-epsilon 4 allele
             was evaluated as a predictor variable for postoperative
             cognitive dysfunction in 65 patients undergoing cardiac
             bypass grafting at Duke University Medical Center. The
             primary outcome measure was performance on a cognitive
             battery administered preoperatively and at 6 weeks
             postoperatively. RESULTS:In a multivariable logistic
             regression analysis including apolipoprotein E-epsilon 4,
             preoperative score, age, and years of education, a
             significant association was found between apolipoprotein
             E-epsilon 4 and change in cognitive test score in measures
             of short-term memory at 6 weeks postoperatively. Patients
             with lower educational levels were more likely to show a
             decline in cognitive function associated with the
             apolipoprotein E-epsilon 4 allele. CONCLUSIONS:This study
             suggests that apolipoprotein E genotype is related to
             cognitive dysfunction after cardiopulmonary bypass. Cardiac
             surgical patients may be susceptible to deterioration after
             physiologic stress as a result of impaired genetically
             determined neuronal mechanisms of maintenance and
             repair.},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0003-4975(97)00757-1},
   Key = {fds270929}
}

@article{fds270930,
   Author = {Murkin, JM and Stump, DA and Blumenthal, JA and McKhann,
             G},
   Title = {Defining dysfunction: group means versus incidence
             analysis--a statement of consensus.},
   Journal = {The Annals of Thoracic Surgery},
   Volume = {64},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {904-905},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0003-4975},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9307516},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0003-4975(97)00743-1},
   Key = {fds270930}
}

@article{fds270931,
   Author = {Luecken, LJ and Suarez, EC and Kuhn, CM and Barefoot, JC and Blumenthal,
             JA and Siegler, IC and Williams, RB},
   Title = {Stress in employed women: impact of marital status and
             children at home on neurohormone output and home
             strain.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {59},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {352-359},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9251153},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the biological and psychological
             effects of role overload, we examined the effects of marital
             (or partnership) status and parental status (defined as
             having children at home) on daily excretion of urinary
             catecholamines and cortisol in a sample of 109 employed
             women. Other measures included work and home strain, and
             social support. METHODS: Urine collection was conducted on
             two consecutive workdays in three separate aliquots, a)
             overnight, b) daytime, and c) evening. Repeated-measures
             analysis of covariance with age and caffeine consumption as
             covariates was conducted on levels of epinephrine,
             norepinephrine, and cortisol in the three aliquots averaged
             across the 2 days. RESULTS: We found a significant main
             effect of parental status on 24-hour cortisol excretion, (p
             < .01) such that women with at least one child living at
             home excreted significantly more cortisol, independent of
             marital status or social support. Women with children at
             home also reported higher home strain (p < .001) but not
             work strain. A significant period of day effect for
             catecholamine levels was found (norepinephrine, p < .001;
             epinephrine, p < .0001) with all subjects showing an
             increase during the workday and little or no decline in
             levels during the evening. Catecholamine levels were
             unrelated to marital status, parental status, or social
             support. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that working
             women with children at home, independent of marital status
             or social support, excrete greater amounts of cortisol and
             experience higher levels of home strain than those without
             children at home.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00006842-199707000-00003},
   Key = {fds270931}
}

@article{fds270934,
   Author = {Williams, RB and Barefoot, JC and Blumenthal, JA and Helms, MJ and Luecken, L and Pieper, CF and Siegler, IC and Suarez,
             EC},
   Title = {Psychosocial correlates of job strain in a sample of working
             women.},
   Journal = {Archives of General Psychiatry},
   Volume = {54},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {543-548},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0003-990X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9193195},
   Keywords = {Adult • Cardiovascular Diseases • Cause of Death
             • Decision Making • Exploratory Behavior •
             Female • Health Status* • Humans •
             Interpersonal Relations • Models, Psychological •
             Personality Inventory • Risk Factors • Social
             Support • Socioeconomic Factors • Stress,
             Psychological • Women, Working • Workload •
             diagnosis* • epidemiology • psychology •
             psychology*},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: This study identifies potential mediators of job
             strain effects on health by determining whether psychosocial
             factors known to predict an increased risk of cardiovascular
             disease and all-cause mortality are higher among women who
             report high levels of job strain. METHODS: Measures of job
             strain and other psychosocial risk factors were obtained in
             a sample of 152 female employees of a local corporation.
             Canonical correlation and analyses of covariance were used
             to assess relationships between job demands and decision
             latitude and other psychosocial risk factors. RESULTS: A
             significant (P = .002) solution to the canonical correlation
             analysis showed that high job demands and low decision
             latitude were correlated with a pattern of psychosocial
             factors consisting of (1) increased levels of negative
             emotions like anxiety, anger, depression, and hostility; (2)
             reduced levels of social support; and (3) a preponderance of
             negative compared with positive feelings in dealings with
             coworkers and supervisors. This pattern was confirmed by
             analyses of covariance that adjusted for demographic and
             specific job characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: The canonical
             correlation analysis results provide empirical support for
             the job strain construct. The most important finding is that
             health-damaging psychosocial factors like job strain,
             depression, hostility, anxiety, and social isolation tend to
             cluster in certain individuals.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1001/archpsyc.1997.01830180061007},
   Key = {fds270934}
}

@article{fds270936,
   Author = {Gullette, EC and Blumenthal, JA and Babyak, M and Jiang, W and Waugh,
             RA and Frid, DJ and O'Connor, CM and Morris, JJ and Krantz,
             DS},
   Title = {Effects of mental stress on myocardial ischemia during daily
             life.},
   Journal = {Jama},
   Volume = {277},
   Number = {19},
   Pages = {1521-1526},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0098-7484},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9153365},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To determine the relative risk of myocardial
             ischemia triggered by specific emotions during daily life.
             DESIGN AND SETTING: Relative risk was calculated by the
             recently developed case-crossover method, in which the
             frequency of a presumed trigger during nonischemic, or
             control, hours is compared with the trigger's frequency
             during ischemic, or case, hours. Outpatients at Duke
             University Medical Center, Durham, NC, underwent 48 hours of
             ambulatory electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring with
             concurrent self-report measures of activities and emotions.
             Occurrences of negative emotions in the hour before the
             onset of myocardial ischemia were compared with their usual
             frequency based on all hours in which ischemia did not
             occur. SUBJECTS: From a sample of 132 patients with coronary
             artery disease and recent evidence of exercise-induced
             ischemia who underwent 48 hours of ambulatory ECG
             monitoring, 58 patients exhibited ambulatory ischemia and
             were included in the analysis. OUTCOME MEASURES: Myocardial
             ischemia during 48-hour ECG monitoring was defined as
             horizontal or downsloping ST-segment depression of 1 mm (0.1
             mV) or more for 1 minute or longer compared with resting
             baseline. The ECG data were cross-tabulated with subjects'
             concurrent diary ratings of 3 negative emotions-tension,
             sadness, and frustration-and 2 positive emotions-happiness
             and feeling in contro-on a 5-point scale of intensity.
             RESULTS: The unadjusted relative risk of occurrence of
             myocardial ischemia in the hour following high levels of
             negative emotions was 3.0 (95% confidence interval [CI],
             1.5-5.9; P<.01) for tension, 2.9 (95% CI, 1.0-8.0; P<.05)
             for sadness, and 2.6 (95% CI, 1.3-5.1; P<.01) for
             frustration. The corresponding risk ratios adjusted for
             physical activity and time of day were 2.2 (95% CI, 1.1
             -4.5; P<.05) for tension, 2.2 (95% CI, 0.7-6.4; P=.16) for
             sadness, and 2.2 (95% CI, 1.1-4.3; P<.05) for frustration.
             CONCLUSIONS: Mental stress during daily life, including
             reported feelings of tension, frustration, and sadness, can
             more than double the risk of myocardial ischemia in the
             subsequent hour. The clinical significance of mental
             stress-induced ischemia during daily life needs to be
             further evaluated.},
   Doi = {10.1001/jama.277.19.1521},
   Key = {fds270936}
}

@article{fds40048,
   Author = {Williams, R.B. and Barefoot, J.C. and Blumenthal, J.A. and Helms, M.J. and Luecken, L. and Pieper, C.F. and Siegler, I.C. and Suarez,
             E.C.},
   Title = {Psychological correlates of job strain in a sample of
             working women},
   Journal = {Archives of General Psychiatry},
   Volume = {54},
   Pages = {543-548},
   Year = {1997},
   Key = {fds40048}
}

@article{fds270935,
   Author = {Szczepanski, R and Napolitano, M and Feaganes, JR and Barefoot, JC and Luecken, L and Swoap, RS and Kuhn, C and Suarez, E and Siegler, IC and Williams, RB and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Relation of mood ratings and neurohormonal responses during
             daily life in employed women.},
   Journal = {International Journal of Behavioral Medicine},
   Volume = {4},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {1-16},
   Year = {1997},
   ISSN = {1070-5503},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16250739},
   Abstract = {Diurnal variations in urinary norepinephrine, epinephrine,
             cortisol, and self-reported mood states were examined in 101
             employed women. Urine was collected on 2 consecutive
             workdays at 3 time periods: (1) overnight, (2) daytime, and
             (3) evening. Self-reports of 14 mood states were combined to
             correspond with the urinary collection periods. Factor
             analyses revealed 3 mood factors: Pressured (rushed, busy,
             stressed, hassled, and tense), Distressed (afraid,
             depressed, bored, and nervous), and Contented (satisfied,
             thoughtful, excited, and calm). The Distressed factor was
             significantly associated with norepinephrine excretion (p
             <.001). The Pressured factor was significantly associated
             with cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine excretion (p
             <.001) independent of age, ethnicity, marital status,
             parental status, department within the company and activity
             level. Secretion of urinary hormones and the Pressured
             factor followed the same diurnal pattern. Specifically, as
             women's self-ratings of feeling pressured initially
             increased and then decreased over the course of the workday,
             urinary hormones also peaked and then dropped. Once time of
             day was statistically controlled, however, the mood factors
             were no longer significantly related to the urinary
             hormones.},
   Doi = {10.1207/s15327558ijbm0401_1},
   Key = {fds270935}
}

@article{fds270937,
   Author = {Siegler, HC and Blumenthal, JA and Barefoot, JC and Peterson, BL and Saunders, WB and Dahlstrom, WG and Costa, PT and Suarez, EC and Helms,
             MJ and Maynard, KE and Williams, RB},
   Title = {Personality factors differentially predict exercise behavior
             in men and women.},
   Journal = {Women'S Health (Hillsdale, N.J.)},
   Volume = {3},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {61-70},
   Year = {1997},
   ISSN = {1077-2928},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9106371},
   Abstract = {Personality assessed with the Minnesota Multiphasic
             Personality Inventory (MMPI) in college was used to predict
             exercise behavior measured at midlife in 3,630 men and 796
             women enrolled in the University of North Carolina Alumni
             Heart Study. Logistic regression models were fitted for each
             of the MMPI clinical scales to test the predictive effect of
             personality, gender, and their interaction on adult exercise
             behavior. Lower depression, social introversion, and
             psychopathic deviance scores were associated with increased
             probability of exercising in midlife for both men and women.
             Furthermore, better psychological health (indexed by lower
             hypochondriases and psychasthenia) in college was generally
             predictive of increased exercise for men, whereas higher
             scores on these same factors predicted midlife exercise for
             women. There were two other patterns of gender interactions:
             (a) for men, lower scores on hysteria and schizophrenia
             scales were associated with increased probability of
             exercising at midlife, whereas these factors were unrelated
             to exercise for women and (b) for women, lower ego strength
             and higher college scores on paranoia and mania were
             associated with exercise behavior at midlife. These data
             suggest that early adulthood personality predictors of
             exercise behavior at midlife are both gender-neutral and
             gender-specific; that is, where no gender differences exist,
             healthier personality traits predict exercise at midlife,
             and when gender differences do occur, healthier college
             patterns of personality predict exercise behavior for men
             and sedentary behavior for women.},
   Key = {fds270937}
}

@article{fds270636,
   Author = {Wenger, NK and Sivarajan Froclicher and E and Kent Smith and L and Ades,
             PA and Berra, K and Blumenthal, JA and Certo, CME and Dattilo, AM and Davis, D and DeBusk, RF and Drozda, J and Fletcher, BJ and Franklin, BA and Gaston, H and Greenland, P and McBride, PE and McGregor, CGA and Oldridge, NB and Piscatella, JC and Rogers, FJ},
   Title = {Cardiac rehabilitation as secondary prevention: Quick
             reference guide for clinicians},
   Journal = {Journal of Pharmaceutical Care in Pain & Symptom
             Control},
   Volume = {4},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {101-125},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {This Quick Reference Guide for Clinicians highlights the
             conclusions and recommendations from Cardiac Rehabilitation,
             Clinical Practice Guideline No. 17, which was formulated by
             a panel representing the major health care disciplines
             involved in cardiac rehabilitation. The conclusions and
             recommendations were derived from an extensive and critical
             review of the scientific literature pertaining to cardiac
             rehabilitation, as well as from the expert opinion of the
             panel. This guide addresses the role of cardiac
             rehabilitation and the potential benefits to be derived in
             the comprehensive care of the 13.5 million patients with
             coronary heart disease in the United States, as well as the
             4.7 million patients with heart failure and the several
             thousand patients undergoing heart transplantation. This
             Quick Reference Guide for Clinicians highlights the major
             effects of multifactorial cardiac rehabilitation services:
             medical evaluation; prescribed exercise; cardiac risk factor
             modification; and education, counseling, and behavioral
             interventions. The outcomes of and recommendations for
             cardiac rehabilitation services are categorized as to their
             effects on exercise tolerance, strength training, exercise
             habits, symptoms, smoking, lipids, body weight, blood
             pressure, psychological well-being, social adjustment and
             functioning, return to work, morbidity and safety issues,
             mortality and safety issues, and pathophysiologic measures.
             Patients with heart failure and after cardiac
             transplantation, as well as elderly patients, are
             specifically addressed. Alternate approaches to the delivery
             of cardiac rehabilitation services are presented.},
   Key = {fds270636}
}

@article{fds270938,
   Author = {Keefe, FJ and Kashikar-Zuck, S and Opiteck, J and Hage, E and Dalrymple,
             L and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Pain in arthritis and musculoskeletal disorders: the role of
             coping skills training and exercise interventions.},
   Journal = {Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical
             Therapy},
   Volume = {24},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {279-290},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0190-6011},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8892142},
   Abstract = {There is growing recognition of the limitations of
             conventional, biomedical approaches to the management of
             pain in individuals having arthritis and musculoskeletal
             disorders. This article provides an overview of newly
             developed biopsychosocial approaches to the management of
             pain in this population. The presentation is divided into
             three sections. In the first section, a biopsychosocial
             model of pain is presented. This model highlights the role
             that biological factors (eg., disease severity, comorbid
             conditions), cognitive-behavioral factors (eg., thoughts,
             emotions, and behaviors), and environmental factors (eg.,
             spouse or family responses to pain behavior) can play in
             influencing the pain experience. In the second section, we
             provide an overview of two newly developed treatment
             protocols based on the biopsychosocial model of pain: a pain
             coping skills training protocol and an exercise training
             protocol. Practical aspects of implementing these protocols
             are illustrated by highlighting how they are applied in the
             management of patients having persistent osteoarthritic
             pain. In the final section of the article, we pinpoint
             several important future directions for research in this
             area. Future studies need to explore the utility of
             combining pain coping skills and exercise training
             protocols. In addition, there is a need to identify
             variables that predict patients' response to biopsychosocial
             treatments.},
   Doi = {10.2519/jospt.1996.24.4.279},
   Key = {fds270938}
}

@article{fds270939,
   Author = {Barefoot, JC and Helms, MJ and Mark, DB and Blumenthal, JA and Califf,
             RM and Haney, TL and O'Connor, CM and Siegler, IC and Williams,
             RB},
   Title = {Depression and long-term mortality risk in patients with
             coronary artery disease.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Cardiology},
   Volume = {78},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {613-617},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0002-9149},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8831391},
   Abstract = {Previous research has established that patients with
             coronary artery disease (CAD) have an increased risk of
             death if they are depressed at the time of hospitalization.
             Follow-up periods have been short in these studies;
             therefore, the present investigation examined this
             phenomenon over an extended period of time. Patients with
             established CAD (n = 1,250) were assessed for depression
             with the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and
             followed for subsequent mortality. Follow-up ranged up to
             19.4 years. SDS scores were associated with increased risk
             of subsequent cardiac death (p = 0.002) and total mortality
             (p < 0.001) after controlling for initial disease severity
             and treatment. Patients with moderate to severe depression
             had a 69% greater odds of cardiac death and a 78% greater
             odds of mortality from all causes than nondepressed
             patients. Increased risk was not confined to the initial
             months after hospitalization. Patients with high SDS scores
             at baseline still had a higher risk of cardiac death > 5
             years later (p < 0.005). Compared with the nondepressed,
             patients with moderate to severe depression had an 84%
             greater risk 5 to 10 years later and a 72% greater risk
             after > 10 years. Patients with mild depression had
             intermediate levels of risk in all models. The heightened
             long-term risk of depressed patients suggests that
             depression may be persistent or frequently recurrent in CAD
             patients and is associated with CAD progression, triggering
             of acute events, or both.},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0002-9149(96)00380-3},
   Key = {fds270939}
}

@article{fds270747,
   Author = {Rizzo, JA and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Is the target income hypothesis an economic
             heresy?},
   Journal = {Medical Care Research and Review : Mcrr},
   Volume = {53},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {243-266},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {1077-5587},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10159929},
   Keywords = {Fee-for-Service Plans • Fees, Medical • Female
             • Health Services Research • Humans • Income
             • Male • Models, Econometric* • Physicians,
             Family • Practice Management, Medical •
             Professional Practice Location • United States •
             economics • economics* • statistics & numerical
             data • statistics & numerical data* • supply &
             distribution* • trends},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1177/107755879605300301},
   Key = {fds270747}
}

@article{fds270942,
   Author = {Gullette, ECD and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Exercise therapy for the prevention and treatment of
             depression},
   Journal = {Journal of Practical Psychiatry and Behavioral
             Health},
   Volume = {2},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {263-271},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {1076-5417},
   Abstract = {The authors review evidence suggesting that regular aerobic
             exercise - walking, jogging, swimming, or biking - reduces
             depression in healthy adults and in patients with major
             depression. Several potential mechanisms for the
             antidepressant effects of exercise are discussed. The
             authors then review the critical elements for writing an
             "exercise prescription" and provide specific guidelines for
             recommending exercise training in clinical practice.
             Copyright© Williams & Wilkins, Waverly Inc.},
   Key = {fds270942}
}

@article{fds270843,
   Author = {Fletcher, GF and Balady, G and Blair, SN and Blumenthal, J and Caspersen, C and Chaitman, B and Epstein, S and Sivarajan Froelicher,
             ES and Froelicher, VF and Pina, IL and Pollock, ML},
   Title = {Statement on exercise: benefits and recommendations for
             physical activity programs for all Americans. A statement
             for health professionals by the Committee on Exercise and
             Cardiac Rehabilitation of the Council on Clinical
             Cardiology, American Heart Association.},
   Journal = {Circulation},
   Volume = {94},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {857-862},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0009-7322},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.cir.94.4.857},
   Doi = {10.1161/01.cir.94.4.857},
   Key = {fds270843}
}

@article{fds270940,
   Author = {Jiang, W and Babyak, M and Krantz, DS and Waugh, RA and Coleman, RE and Hanson, MM and Frid, DJ and McNulty, S and Morris, JJ and O'Connor, CM and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Mental stress--induced myocardial ischemia and cardiac
             events.},
   Journal = {Jama},
   Volume = {275},
   Number = {21},
   Pages = {1651-1656},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0098-7484},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8637138},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical significance of mental
             stress-induced myocardial ischemia in patients with coronary
             artery disease (CAD). DESIGN AND SETTING: Cohort study in
             outpatients in a tertiary care teaching hospital assessed at
             baseline and followed up for up to 5 years. SUBJECTS: A
             total of 126 volunteer patients (112 men, 14 women; mean
             age, 59 years) with documented CAD and exercise-induced
             myocardial ischemia. OUTCOME MEASURES: Patients underwent
             baseline mental stress and exercise testing using
             radionuclide ventriculography and 48-hour Holter monitoring.
             Patients were subsequently contacted by mailed
             questionnaires or telephone to document cardiac events,
             including death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and cardiac
             revascularization procedures. Logistic regression and Cox
             proportional hazards models were used to examine the
             prognostic value of the ischemic measures after adjusting
             for such potential confounding factors as age, baseline left
             ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and history of
             myocardial infarction. RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients (22%)
             experienced at least 1 cardiac event. Baseline mental
             stress-induced ischemia was associated with significantly
             higher rates of subsequent cardiac events (odds ratio, 2.8;
             95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-7.7; P < .05). The LVEF
             change during mental stress was significantly related to
             event-free survival (risk ratio [RR], 2.4; 95% CI,
             1.12-5.14; P = .02), controlling for age, history of prior
             myocardial infarction, and baseline LVEF. This relationship
             remained significant after controlling for electrocardiogram
             (ECG)-defined ischemia during exercise (RR, 2.2; 95% CI,
             1.01-4.81; P < .05). The RR for ECG-defined ischemia during
             exercise testing was 1.9 (95% CI, 0.95-3.96; P = .07) and
             the RR for ambulatory ECG ischemia was 0.75 (95% CI,
             0.35-1.64; P = .47). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of mental
             stress-induced ischemia is associated with significantly
             higher rates of subsequent fatal and nonfatal cardiac
             events, independent of age, baseline LVEF, and previous
             myocardial infarction, and predicted events over and above
             exercise-induced ischemia. These data suggest that the
             relationship between psychological stress and adverse
             cardiac events may be mediated by the occurrence of
             myocardial ischemia.},
   Doi = {10.1001/jama.275.21.1651},
   Key = {fds270940}
}

@article{fds270941,
   Author = {Newman, MF and Croughwell, ND and Blumenthal, JA and Lowry, E and White,
             WD and Reves, JG},
   Title = {Cardiopulmonary bypass and the central nervous system:
             potential for cerebral protection.},
   Journal = {Journal of Clinical Anesthesia},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {3 Suppl},
   Pages = {53S-60S},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0952-8180},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8695116},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0952-8180(96)90013-6},
   Key = {fds270941}
}

@article{fds271044,
   Author = {Mahanna, EP and Blumenthal, JA and White, WD and Croughwell, ND and Clancy, CP and Smith, LR and Newman, MF},
   Title = {Defining neuropsychological dysfunction after coronary
             artery bypass grafting.},
   Journal = {The Annals of Thoracic Surgery},
   Volume = {61},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1342-1347},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0003-4975},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8633938},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Despite the large body of literature documenting
             the presence of cognitive decline after coronary artery
             bypass grafting, there is little consensus as to the
             frequency and extent of cognitive impairment. One potential
             reason for this lack of agreement is the absence of uniform
             criteria for assessing cognitive decline. METHODS: Two
             hundred thirty-two patients underwent cognitive testing the
             day before operation and were examined before discharge, and
             at 6 weeks and 6 months after grafting. For comparative
             purposes, five different sets of criteria were used to
             define cognitive decline. RESULTS: There was little
             agreement between the criteria as to which patients declined
             at each test period. The incidence of decline ranged from
             66% to 15.3% before discharge, 34% to 1.1% at 6 weeks, and
             19.4% to 3.4% at 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: A large variation in
             reported incidence of cognitive decline after coronary
             artery bypass grafting can be attributed to the different
             criteria used to define cognitive impairment.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0003-4975(95)01095-5},
   Key = {fds271044}
}

@article{fds40031,
   Author = {Mahanna, E.P. and Blumenthal, J.A. and White, W.D. and Croughwell, N.D. and Clancy, C.P. and Smith, L.R. and Newman,
             M.F.},
   Title = {Defining neuropsychological dysfunction after coronary
             artery bypass grafting},
   Journal = {Annals of Thoracic Surgery},
   Volume = {61},
   Pages = {1342-1347},
   Year = {1996},
   Key = {fds40031}
}

@article{fds270635,
   Author = {Wenger, NK and Froelicher, ES and Smith, LK and Ades, PA and Berra, K and Blumenthal, JA and Certo, CME and Dattilo, AM and Davis, D and DeBusk,
             RF and Jr, JPD and Fletcher, BJ and Franklin, BA and Gaston, H and Greenland, P and McBride, PE and McGregor, CGA and Oldridge, NB and Piscatella, JC and Rogers, FJ},
   Title = {Cardiac rehabilitation as secondary prevention. Cardiac
             Rehabilitation Guideline Panel.},
   Journal = {American Family Physician},
   Volume = {52},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {2257-2264},
   Year = {1995},
   Month = {December},
   Key = {fds270635}
}

@article{fds270943,
   Author = {Koenig, HG and Blumenthal, J and Moore, K},
   Title = {New version of brief depression scale.},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Geriatrics Society},
   Volume = {43},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {1447},
   Year = {1995},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0002-8614},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.1995.tb06636.x},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1532-5415.1995.tb06636.x},
   Key = {fds270943}
}

@article{fds270945,
   Author = {Jiang, W and Trauner, MA and Coleman, RE and Waugh, RA and Hanson, MW and Frid, DJ and Phillips, BG and Morris, JJ and O'Connor, C and Blumenthal,
             JA},
   Title = {Association of physical fitness and transient myocardial
             ischemia in patients with coronary artery
             disease.},
   Journal = {Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation},
   Volume = {15},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {431-438},
   Year = {1995},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0883-9212},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8624970},
   Abstract = {PURPOSE: To examine the relationship between physical
             fitness and transient myocardial ischemia (TMI) in the
             laboratory and during daily life, in a sample of coronary
             patients with a recent positive exercise test. METHODS: 47
             patients with coronary disease (CAD) participated in
             laboratory mental and exercise stress testing and 48-hour
             outpatient Holter monitoring after being withdrawn from
             ant-ischemic medications. During laboratory testing, left
             ventricular performance was assessed by radionuclide
             ventriculography. Physical fitness was assessed by
             measurement of oxygen consumption during symptom-limited
             exercise treadmill testing. RESULTS: Higher physical fitness
             subjects were less likely to exhibit wall-motion
             abnormalities in response to mental stress (P < .05), and to
             exercise stress (P < .05) testing. They also had smaller
             decreases in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in
             response to mental stress than less fit subjects (P .056),
             and exhibited a mean increase in LVEF during exercise,
             compared to the less fit subjects who exhibited a decrease
             in LVEF (P < .02). Moreover, higher fit subjects exhibited
             fewer episodes of TMI (P < .04), for a shorter duration (P <
             .04), and less total ischemic burden (P < .04) during Holter
             monitoring. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that within a
             population of CAD patients, higher levels of physical
             fitness are associated with less TMI assessed in the
             laboratory and during routine activities of daily
             living.},
   Key = {fds270945}
}

@article{fds270790,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Jiang, W and Waugh, RA and Frid, DJ and Morris, JJ and Coleman, RE and Hanson, M and Babyak, M and Thyrum, ET and Krantz,
             DS},
   Title = {Mental stress-induced ischemia in the laboratory and
             ambulatory ischemia during daily life. Association and
             hemodynamic features.},
   Journal = {Circulation},
   Volume = {92},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {2102-2108},
   Year = {1995},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0009-7322},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7554188},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the
             correspondence of mental stress-induced ischemia in the
             laboratory with ambulatory ischemia and to assess the
             relationship between hemodynamic responses to mental stress
             and the occurrence of ischemia. Although exercise testing is
             usually used to elicit myocardial ischemia, ischemia during
             daily life usually occurs at relatively low heart rates and
             in the absence of strenuous physical exercise. Mental stress
             has been shown to trigger ischemic events in the laboratory
             at lower heart rates but at blood pressures comparable to
             exercise. We therefore compared the extent to which mental
             stress and exercise testing identify patients who develop
             ischemia out of hospital. METHODS AND RESULTS: One hundred
             thirty-two patients with documented coronary disease and
             recent evidence of exercise-induced myocardial ischemia
             underwent 48-hour ambulatory monitoring and radionuclide
             ventriculography during exercise and mental stress testing.
             Patients who displayed mental stress-induced ischemia in the
             laboratory were more likely to exhibit ischemia during daily
             life (P < .021). Furthermore, patients who exhibited
             ischemia during ambulatory monitoring displayed larger
             diastolic blood pressure (P < .006), heart rate (P < .039),
             and rate-pressure product responses (P < .018) during mental
             stress. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with prior positive
             exercise stress tests, mental stress-induced ischemia,
             defined by new wall motion abnormalities, predicts daily
             ischemia independent of exercise-induced ischemia.
             Exaggerated hemodynamic responses during mental stress
             testing also identify individuals who are more likely to
             exhibit myocardial ischemia during daily life and mental
             stress.},
   Doi = {10.1161/01.cir.92.8.2102},
   Key = {fds270790}
}

@article{fds270737,
   Author = {Wenger, NK and Froelicher, ES and Smith, LK and Ades, PA and Berra, K and Blumenthal, JA and Certo, CM and Dattilo, AM and Davis, D and DeBusk,
             RF},
   Title = {Cardiac rehabilitation as secondary prevention. Agency for
             Health Care Policy and Research and National Heart, Lung,
             and Blood Institute.},
   Journal = {Clin Pract Guidel Quick Ref Guide Clin},
   Number = {17},
   Pages = {1-23},
   Year = {1995},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8595435},
   Keywords = {Aged • Exercise Therapy • Health Behavior •
             Health Status • Heart Diseases • Humans •
             Patient Education as Topic • Rehabilitation •
             methods • mortality • psychology •
             rehabilitation*},
   Abstract = {This Quick Reference Guide for Clinicians highlights the
             conclusions and recommendations from Cardiac Rehabilitation,
             Clinical Practice Guideline No. 17, which was formulated by
             a panel representing the major health care disciplines
             involved in cardiac rehabilitation. The conclusions and
             recommendations were derived from an extensive and critical
             review of the scientific literature pertaining to cardiac
             rehabilitation, as well as from the expert opinion of the
             panel. This guide addresses the role of cardiac
             rehabilitation and the potential benefits to be derived in
             the comprehensive care of the 13.5 million patients with
             heart disease in the United States, as well as the 4.7
             million patients with heart failure and the several thousand
             patients undergoing heart transplantation. This Quick
             Reference Guide for Clinicians highlights the major effects
             of multifactorial cardiac rehabilitation services: medical
             evaluation; prescribed exercise; cardiac risk factor
             modification; and education, counseling, and behavioral
             interventions. The outcomes of and recommendations for
             cardiac rehabilitation services are categorized as to their
             effects on exercise tolerance, strength training, exercise
             habits, symptoms, smoking, lipids, body weight, blood
             pressure, psychological well-being, social adjustment and
             functioning, return to work, morbidity and safety issues,
             mortality and safety issues, and pathophysiologic measures.
             Patients with heart failure and after cardiac
             transplantation, as well as elderly patients, are
             specifically addressed. Alternate approaches to the delivery
             of cardiac rehabilitation services are presented.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds270737}
}

@article{fds270946,
   Author = {Thyrum, ET and Blumenthal, JA and Madden, DJ and Siegel,
             W},
   Title = {Family history of hypertension influences neurobehavioral
             function in hypertensive patients.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {57},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {496-500},
   Year = {1995},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8552742},
   Abstract = {This study examined the influence of family history of
             hypertension on neurobehavioral performance. Sixty-two
             hypertensive men and women who reported a family history of
             hypertension (+FH) were compared with 28 hypertensive
             individuals without a family history (-FH) and 32
             normotensive control subjects. A neurocognitive test battery
             that included tests of information processing, verbal
             memory, and figural memory was administered individually to
             each patient. Results showed that +FH, compared with -FH and
             normotensive control subjects, was associated with poorer
             performance on three tests of attention and short-term
             memory (Sternberg reaction time, Trails B, and Digit Span).
             There were no differences between the groups on tests of
             either verbal or figural memory. Other variables, including
             gender, ethnicity, age, years of education, blood pressure,
             state anxiety, depression, and Type A behavior did not
             account for these results. In addition, +FH hypertensive
             subjects reported greater levels of state anxiety and
             depression compared with -FH hypertensive subjects and
             normotensive control subjects. The findings suggest a
             genetic link to impaired cognitive abilities, as observed
             among hypertensive patients relative to their normotensive
             counterparts.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00006842-199509000-00013},
   Key = {fds270946}
}

@article{fds270948,
   Author = {Jiang, W and Blumenthal, JA and Hanson, MW and Coleman, RE and O'Connor,
             CM and Frid, D and Morris, JJ and Waugh, RA},
   Title = {Relative importance of electrode placement over number of
             channels in transient myocardial ischemia detection by
             Holter monitoring.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Cardiology},
   Volume = {76},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {350-354},
   Year = {1995},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0002-9149},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7639158},
   Abstract = {To compare the efficacy of 3-channel ambulatory
             electrocardiographic monitoring (Holter monitoring) with
             2-channel Holter monitoring in the detection of transient
             myocardial ischemia (TMI), channels CM2, CM5, and modified
             II were studied. Sixty patients with documented coronary
             artery disease underwent 48-hour Holter monitoring during
             their normal daily life, followed by exercise stress testing
             in the laboratory monitored by means of radionuclide
             ventriculography and standard 12-lead electrocardiography.
             Analysis revealed that 3-channel Holter monitoring
             identified 24 patients with a total of 205 TMI episodes and
             a total ischemic burden of 371.00 mV-min. By itself, CM2
             would have detected only 3 patients (13% of the TMI
             population), 6 TMI episodes (3% of the total TMI episodes),
             and a 2.4 mV-min ischemic burden (0.7% of the total ischemic
             burden). Modified II alone would have identified 17 patients
             (71% of the TMI population), 160 TMI episodes (78% of the
             total TMI episodes), and 307.24 mV-min of the ischemic
             burden (82% of the total ischemic burden). The combination
             of CM5/modified II identified 23 patients (96% of the TMI
             population), 201 TMI episodes (98% of the total TMI
             episodes), and 370.44 mV-min of the ischemic burden (98% of
             the total ischemic burden). These findings suggest that the
             electrode placement is more important than the absolute
             number of channels in the detection of TMI by Holter
             monitoring.},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0002-9149(99)80099-x},
   Key = {fds270948}
}

@article{fds270947,
   Author = {Newman, MF and Kramer, D and Croughwell, ND and Sanderson, I and Blumenthal, JA and White, WD and Smith, LR and Towner, EA and Reves,
             JG},
   Title = {Differential age effects of mean arterial pressure and
             rewarming on cognitive dysfunction after cardiac
             surgery.},
   Journal = {Anesthesia and Analgesia},
   Volume = {81},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {236-242},
   Year = {1995},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0003-2999},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7618708},
   Abstract = {Central nervous system dysfunction is a common consequence
             of otherwise uncomplicated cardiac surgery. Many mechanisms
             have been postulated for the cognitive dysfunction that is
             part of these neurologic sequelae. The purpose of our
             investigation was to evaluate the effects of mean arterial
             pressure (MAP) during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and the
             rate of rewarming on cognitive decline after cardiac
             surgery. Two hundred thirty-seven patients completed
             preoperative and predischarge neuropsychologic testing. MAP
             and temperature were recorded at 1-min intervals using an
             automated anesthesia record keeper. MAP area less than 50 mm
             Hg (time and degree of hypotension), as well as the maximal
             rewarming rate, were determined for each patient.
             Multivariable linear regression revealed that the rate of
             rewarming and MAP were unrelated to cognitive decline.
             However, interactions significantly associated with
             cognitive decline were found between age and MAP area less
             than 50 mm Hg on one measure, and between age and rewarming
             rate in another, identifying susceptibility of the elderly
             to these factors. Although MAP and rewarming were not the
             primary determinates of cognitive decline in this surgical
             population, hypotension and rapid rewarming contributed
             significantly to cognitive dysfunction in the
             elderly.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00000539-199508000-00005},
   Key = {fds270947}
}

@article{fds289618,
   Author = {Sherwood, A and May, CW and Siegel, WC and Blumenthal,
             JA},
   Title = {Ethnic differences in hemodynamic responses to stress in
             hypertensive men and women.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Hypertension},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {552-557},
   Year = {1995},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0895-7061},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7662238},
   Keywords = {Adult • African Continental Ancestry Group* •
             Aging • Cold Temperature • European Continental
             Ancestry Group* • Female • Hemodynamics •
             Humans • Hypertension • Male • Mental
             Processes • Middle Aged • Pressure • Sex
             Characteristics • Stress, Psychological • United
             States • Vascular Resistance • adverse effects
             • ethnology* • physiology • physiology*
             • physiopathology • physiopathology*},
   Abstract = {Hemodynamic response patterns to three laboratory stressors
             were compared in 63 mildly hypertensive black and white men
             and women. Ethnic groups were matched for age, body mass
             index, and casual blood pressures. Stressors included a
             mental arithmetic task, a simulated public speaking task,
             and a forehead cold pressor test. Blood pressure increases
             during the stressors were similar in the two ethnic groups.
             However, the pressor responses were mediated by greater
             vascular tone in black compared to white subjects. These
             differences persisted whether the hemodynamic response
             pattern was associated with an overall fall (speech task) or
             rise (cold pressor) in systemic vascular resistance. Gender
             differences in the hemodynamic basis of pressor responding
             were also observed. Women, compared to men, exhibited
             greater increases in heart rate and smaller vascular
             contributions to their blood pressure increases during
             stress. Ethnic and gender differences are discussed in terms
             of the neurohumoral mechanisms mediating the cardiovascular
             stress response. The findings are consistent with converging
             evidence suggesting that beta-adrenergic receptor
             down-regulation is characteristic of hypertension in whites,
             whereas heightened vascular alpha-receptor sensitivity or
             early vascular hypertrophy may be a feature of hypertension
             in blacks.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/0895-7061(95)00036-O},
   Key = {fds289618}
}

@article{fds270951,
   Author = {Burnett, RE and Blumenthal, JA and Mark, DB and Leimberger, JD and Califf, RM},
   Title = {Distinguishing between early and late responders to symptoms
             of acute myocardial infarction.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Cardiology},
   Volume = {75},
   Number = {15},
   Pages = {1019-1022},
   Year = {1995},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0002-9149},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7747681},
   Abstract = {The present study identified factors that distinguish early
             responders (i.e., requested medical assistance < 60 minutes
             after the onset of acute myocardial infarction [AMI]
             symptoms) from late responders (i.e., request made > or = 60
             minutes after symptom onset). A questionnaire developed to
             assess demographic characteristics, contextual factors,
             antecedents to symptom onset, and behavioral, affective, and
             cognitive responses was administered in the hospital to 501
             patients with documented AMI. Patients who believed that
             their symptoms were cardiac in nature were more likely to be
             early responders, whereas patients who attributed their
             symptoms to indigestion, muscle pain, fatigue, or another
             cause responded later (p < 0.0009). Early responders
             believed their symptoms to be more serious (p < 0.0001),
             felt more comfortable seeking medical assistance (p <
             0.0001), were more anxious or upset when they first noticed
             symptoms (p = 0.0118), and perceived that they had less
             control of their symptoms (p < 0.0001) than late responders.
             A stepwise multiple regression analysis further suggested
             that unmarried patients responded significantly later than
             married patients, and patients who first experienced their
             symptoms at work responded significantly later than those
             who first experienced their symptoms outside of the home but
             not at work. These results suggest that situational and
             psychological variables are important determinants of
             lengthy decision delays in responding to symptoms of
             AMI.},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0002-9149(99)80716-4},
   Key = {fds270951}
}

@article{fds270845,
   Author = {Murkin, JM and Newman, SP and Stump, DA and Blumenthal,
             JA},
   Title = {Statement of consensus on assessment of neurobehavioral
             outcomes after cardiac surgery.},
   Journal = {The Annals of Thoracic Surgery},
   Volume = {59},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1289-1295},
   Year = {1995},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0003-4975},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7733754},
   Doi = {10.1016/0003-4975(95)00106-u},
   Key = {fds270845}
}

@article{fds270950,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Mahanna, EP and Madden, DJ and White, WD and Croughwell, ND and Newman, MF},
   Title = {Methodological issues in the assessment of neuropsychologic
             function after cardiac surgery.},
   Journal = {The Annals of Thoracic Surgery},
   Volume = {59},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1345-1350},
   Year = {1995},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0003-4975},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7733766},
   Abstract = {This report reviews critical issues facing investigators
             interested in neuropsychologic sequelae after cardiac
             operations: (1) experimental design; (2) selective
             attrition; (3) selection of instruments; (4) moderating
             factors; (5) definitions of cognitive decline; (6)
             statistical analysis; and (7) clinical significance.
             Implications for further research in the area are
             discussed.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0003-4975(95)00055-p},
   Key = {fds270950}
}

@article{fds270952,
   Author = {Newman, MF and Croughwell, ND and Blumenthal, JA and Lowry, E and White,
             WD and Spillane, W and Davis, RD and Glower, DD and Smith, LR and Mahanna,
             EP},
   Title = {Predictors of cognitive decline after cardiac
             operation.},
   Journal = {The Annals of Thoracic Surgery},
   Volume = {59},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1326-1330},
   Year = {1995},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0003-4975},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7733762},
   Abstract = {Despite major advances in cardiopulmonary bypass technology,
             surgical techniques, and anesthesia management, central
             nervous system complications remain a common problem after
             cardiopulmonary bypass. The etiology of neuropsychologic
             dysfunction after cardiopulmonary bypass remains unresolved
             and is probably multifactorial. Demographic predictors of
             cognitive decline include age and years of education;
             perioperative factors including number of cerebral emboli,
             temperature, mean arterial pressure, and jugular bulb oxygen
             saturation have varying predictive power. Recent data
             suggest a genetic predisposition for cognitive decline after
             cardiac surgery in patients possessing the apolipoprotein E
             epsilon-4 allele, known to be associated with late-onset and
             sporadic forms of Alzheimer's disease. Predicting patients
             at risk for cognitive decline allows the possibility of many
             important interventions. Predictive power and weapons to
             reduce cellular injury associated with neurologic insults
             lend hope of a future ability to markedly decrease the
             impact of cardiopulmonary bypass on short-term and long-term
             neurologic, cognitive, and quality-of-life
             outcomes.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0003-4975(95)00076-w},
   Key = {fds270952}
}

@article{fds270791,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Thyrum, ET and Gullette, ED and Sherwood, A and Waugh, R},
   Title = {Do exercise and weight loss reduce blood pressure in
             patients with mild hypertension?},
   Journal = {North Carolina Medical Journal},
   Volume = {56},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {92-95},
   Year = {1995},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0029-2559},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7898595},
   Abstract = {We conclude from our review that exercise and weight loss
             offer some promise as non-pharmacologic treatments for
             hypertension. Unfortunately, most available studies are
             methodologically unsound, and the mechanisms by which
             exercise lowers blood pressure are not known. The use of
             randomized controlled designs, precise and comprehensive
             measurements of blood pressure and fitness, and clearly
             described interventions will be necessary if we are to
             decide whether exercise and diet lower blood pressure in
             patients with hypertension. We are now about to embark on
             such a study (see sidebar) in hopes that it will provide a
             clear answer to the question of whether these
             non-pharmacologic treatments can help the large numbers of
             Americans (and North Carolinians) with high blood
             pressure.},
   Key = {fds270791}
}

@article{fds270953,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Thyrum, ET and Siegel, WC},
   Title = {Contribution of job strain, job status and marital status to
             laboratory and ambulatory blood pressure in patients with
             mild hypertension.},
   Journal = {Journal of Psychosomatic Research},
   Volume = {39},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {133-144},
   Year = {1995},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0022-3999},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7595871},
   Abstract = {The effects of job strain, occupational status, and marital
             status on blood pressure were evaluated in 99 men and women
             with mild hypertension. Blood pressure was measured during
             daily life at home and at work over 15 h of ambulatory blood
             pressure monitoring. On a separate day, blood pressure was
             measured in the laboratory during mental stress testing. As
             expected, during daily life, blood pressure was higher at
             work than at home. High job strain was associated with
             elevated systolic blood pressure among women, but not men.
             However, both men and women with high status occupations had
             significantly higher blood pressures during daily life and
             during laboratory mental stress testing. This was especially
             true for men, in that men with high job status had higher
             systolic blood pressures than low job status men. Marital
             status also was an important moderating variable,
             particularly for women, with married women having higher
             ambulatory blood pressures than single women. During mental
             stress testing, married persons had higher systolic blood
             pressures than unmarried individuals. These data suggest
             that occupational status and marital status may contribute
             even more than job strain to variations in blood pressure
             during daily life and laboratory testing.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0022-3999(94)00087-l},
   Key = {fds270953}
}

@article{fds270954,
   Author = {Burker, EJ and Blumenthal, JA and Feldman, M and Burnett, R and White,
             W and Smith, LR and Croughwell, N and Schell, R and Newman, M and Reves,
             JG},
   Title = {Depression in male and female patients undergoing cardiac
             surgery.},
   Journal = {The British Journal of Clinical Psychology},
   Volume = {34 ( Pt 1)},
   Pages = {119-128},
   Year = {1995},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0144-6657},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7757034},
   Abstract = {The present longitudinal study was designed to determine the
             prevalence of depression in male and female patients
             undergoing cardiac surgery, and to examine what factors are
             associated with depression before and after surgery. One day
             prior to surgery (T1), and one day prior to discharge from
             the hospital (T2), 141 patients completed a psychometric
             test battery including the Center for Epidemiological
             Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), the State-Trait Anxiety
             Inventory (STAI), and the Perceived Social Support Scale
             (PSSS). Data were also collected on 13 physiological
             measures. Forty-seven per cent of patients were depressed
             (defined as a score of 16 or above on the CES-D) at T1.
             Scores on the CES-D significantly increased from T1 (M = 15)
             to T2 (M = 20), with 61 per cent of patients classified as
             depressed at T2. Factors associated with depression at T1
             were female gender, higher state anxiety, and less social
             support. Depressed patients at T2 were characterized by
             higher scores on the STAI at T2 and higher scores on the
             CES-D at T1. The prevalence of depression in cardiac surgery
             patients, particularly women, may be underrecognized and
             warrants increased attention.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.2044-8260.1995.tb01444.x},
   Key = {fds270954}
}

@article{fds270770,
   Author = {Burker, EJ and Blumenthal, JA and Feldman, M and Thyrum, E and Mahanna,
             E and White, W and Smith, LR and Lewis, J and Croughwell, N and Schell,
             R},
   Title = {The Mini Mental State Exam as a predictor of
             neuropsychological functioning after cardiac
             surgery.},
   Journal = {International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {263-276},
   Year = {1995},
   ISSN = {0091-2174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8567193},
   Keywords = {Adult • Aged • Brain Damage, Chronic •
             Coronary Artery Bypass • Coronary Disease • Female
             • Follow-Up Studies • Heart Valve Diseases •
             Heart Valve Prosthesis • Humans • Male •
             Mental Status Schedule • Middle Aged •
             Postoperative Complications • Psychometrics •
             Reference Values • Reproducibility of Results •
             diagnosis* • psychology • psychology* •
             statistics & numerical data* • surgery*},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: The present longitudinal study was designed to:
             1) determine the ability of the Mini Mental State Exam
             (MMSE) to predict neuropsychologic impairment based on
             neuropsychologic testing five to seven days and six weeks
             after cardiac surgery; and 2) to determine whether the
             traditional or the education-related MMSE norms are more
             appropriate to use for this purpose. METHOD: The day before
             surgery (T1), before hospital discharge (T2), and six weeks
             after surgery (T3), 247 subjects completed a battery of five
             neuropsychologic tests. Subjects also completed the Center
             for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale and the
             Speilberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Subjects
             completed the MMSE two to three days after surgery. RESULTS:
             Stepwise regression analyses revealed that the MMSE
             significantly predicted only a small portion of the variance
             in neuropsychologic test performance at T2, and to an even
             lesser extent at T3, over and above the demographic
             variables. In assessing the association between an
             impairment score (derived from the neuropsychologic test
             battery) and the MMSE, we found that the traditional MMSE
             cut-off score maximized specificity (number of true
             negatives) while the education-adjusted MMSE cut-off scores
             maximized sensitivity (number of true positives).
             CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that although the MMSE is
             widely used to assess cognitive mental status, it may have
             limited value in identifying patients with cognitive
             impairment post-cardiac surgery, and special attention must
             be paid to the cut-off scores used in interpreting the
             MMSE.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.2190/VDMB-RJV7-M7UK-YYKG},
   Key = {fds270770}
}

@article{fds270844,
   Author = {Wenger, NK and Sivarajan Froelicher and E and Smith, IK and Ades, PA and Berra, K and Blumenthal, JA and Certo, CME and Dattilo, AM and Davis, D and DeBusk, RF and Drozda, JP and Fletcher, BJ and Franklin, BA and Gaston,
             H and Greenland, P and McBride, PE and McGregor, CGA},
   Title = {Cardiac rehabilitation},
   Journal = {Clinical Practice Guideline},
   Volume = {17},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds270844}
}

@article{fds270944,
   Author = {Burker, EJ and Blumenthal, JA and Feldman, M and Thyrum, E and Mahanna,
             E and White, W and Smith, LR and Lewis, J and Croughwell, N and Schell, R and Newman, M and Reves, JG},
   Title = {The Mini mental state exam as a predictor of
             neuropsychological functioning after cardiac
             surgery},
   Journal = {International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine:
             Biopsychosocial Aspects of Patient Care},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {2},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds270944}
}

@article{fds270949,
   Author = {Sherwood, A and May, CW and Siegel, WC and Blumenthal,
             JA},
   Title = {Ethnic differences in hemodynamic responses to stress in
             hypertensive men and women},
   Journal = {American Journal of Hypertension},
   Volume = {8},
   Pages = {522-557},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds270949}
}

@article{fds304913,
   Author = {Croughwell, ND and Newman, MF and Blumenthal, JA and White, WD and Lewis, JB and Frasco, PE and Smith, LR and Thyrum, EA and Hurwitz, BJ and Leone, BJ},
   Title = {Jugular bulb saturation and cognitive dysfunction after
             cardiopulmonary bypass.},
   Journal = {The Annals of Thoracic Surgery},
   Volume = {58},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1702-1708},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0003-4975},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7979740},
   Keywords = {Aged • Brain • Cardiopulmonary Bypass •
             Cognition Disorders • Coronary Artery Bypass •
             Female • Humans • Male • Middle Aged •
             Oxygen • Oxygen Consumption • Psychological Tests
             • adverse effects* • blood supply • blood*
             • etiology* • metabolism*},
   Abstract = {Inadequate cerebral oxygenation during cardiopulmonary
             bypass may lead to postoperative cognitive dysfunction in
             patients undergoing cardiac operations. A psychological test
             battery was administered to 255 patients before cardiac
             operation and just before hospital discharge. Postoperative
             impairment was defined as a decline of more than one
             standard deviation in 20% of tests. Variables significantly
             (p < 0.05) associated with postoperative cognitive
             impairment are baseline psychometric scores, largest
             arterial-venous oxygen difference, and years of education.
             Jugular bulb hemoglobin saturation is significant if it
             replaces arterial-venous oxygen difference in the model.
             Factors correlated with jugular bulb saturation at
             normothermia were cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen
             consumption (r = -0.6; p < 0.0005), cerebral blood flow (r =
             0.4; p < 0.0005), oxygen delivery (r = 0.4; p < 0.0005), and
             mean arterial pressure (r = 0.15; p < 0.05). Three measures
             were significantly related to desaturation at normothermia
             and at hypothermia as well: greater cerebral oxygen
             extraction, greater arterial-venous oxygen difference, and
             lower ratio of cerebral blood flow to arterial-venous oxygen
             difference. We conclude that cerebral venous desaturation
             occurs during cardiopulmonary bypass in 17% to 23% of people
             and is associated with impaired postoperative cognitive test
             performance.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/0003-4975(94)91666-7},
   Key = {fds304913}
}

@article{fds270792,
   Author = {Newman, MF and Croughwell, ND and Blumenthal, JA and White, WD and Lewis, JB and Smith, LR and Frasco, P and Towner, EA and Schell, RM and Hurwitz, BJ},
   Title = {Effect of aging on cerebral autoregulation during
             cardiopulmonary bypass. Association with postoperative
             cognitive dysfunction.},
   Journal = {Circulation},
   Volume = {90},
   Number = {5 Pt 2},
   Pages = {II243-II249},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0009-7322},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7955260},
   Keywords = {Aging • Cardiopulmonary Bypass* • Cerebrovascular
             Circulation • Cognition • Cognition Disorders
             • Coronary Artery Bypass* • Female •
             Homeostasis • Humans • Intraoperative Care •
             Male • Middle Aged • Neuropsychological Tests
             • Postoperative Complications • Preoperative Care
             • Wechsler Scales • etiology* • physiology
             • physiology* • physiopathology},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Age is a predictor of cognitive dysfunction
             after cardiac surgery, but the mechanism is unknown. The
             purpose of our study was to determine whether age-related
             decrements in cognition are associated with cerebral blood
             flow (CBF) autoregulation during cardiopulmonary bypass
             (CPB). METHODS AND RESULTS: Cognitive function testing was
             completed before surgery and before hospital discharge in
             215 patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass
             grafting (CABG) surgery. The battery consisted of seven
             tests with nine measures designed to evaluate memory, mood
             changes, and visuomotor speed and function. Pressure-flow
             and metabolic-flow cerebral autoregulation during
             hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass were determined using the
             133Xe clearance CBF method and radial artery and jugular
             bulb effluent to calculate cerebral metabolic rate (CMRO2)
             and cerebral AV difference (C[AV]O2). Pressure-flow
             autoregulation was tested by using two CBF measurements at
             stable hypothermia: one at stable mean arterial pressure
             (MAP) and the second 15 minutes later when MAP had increased
             or decreased > or = 20%. Metabolism-flow autoregulation was
             tested by varying the temperature (CMRO2) and measuring the
             coupling of CBF and CMRO2. Individual patient autoregulation
             was correlated with changes in cognitive measures. Cognitive
             performance declined in 6 of 9 measures after CABG surgery.
             Age predicted cognitive decline in 7 of 9 measures;
             short-term memory showed the greatest effect of age.
             Pressure-flow autoregulation during hypothermic CPB showed a
             small but significant (P < .0001) effect of pressure on CBF.
             There was no effect of age on the slope of CBF response to
             changes in MAP (pressure-flow autoregulation). There was a
             major effect of temperature on CBF during CPB (P < .0001).
             Coupling CBF and CMRO2 with changing temperature was
             unaffected by age. Changes in cognition were not associated
             with measures of cerebral autoregulation. However,
             increasing C(AV)O2 is associated with cognitive deficits in
             5 of 9 measures; these associations were independent of age.
             CONCLUSIONS: Increased age predisposes to impaired cognition
             after cardiac surgery. This decline in cognitive function in
             the elderly is not associated with age-related changes in
             cerebral blood flow autoregulation. The association of
             increased oxygen extraction with decline in some measures of
             cognitive function suggests that an imbalance in cerebral
             tissue oxygen supply, which is unrelated to age, contributes
             to acute cognitive dysfunction after cardiac surgery.
             Cognitive dysfunction after CPB in the elderly cannot be
             explained by impaired CBF autoregulation.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds270792}
}

@article{fds270958,
   Author = {Hamer, ME and Blumenthal, JA and McCarthy, EA and Phillips, BG and Pritchett, EL},
   Title = {Quality-of-life assessment in patients with paroxysmal
             atrial fibrillation or paroxysmal supraventricular
             tachycardia.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Cardiology},
   Volume = {74},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {826-829},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0002-9149},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7942563},
   Doi = {10.1016/0002-9149(94)90448-0},
   Key = {fds270958}
}

@article{fds270955,
   Author = {KRAMER, DC and STANLEY, TE and SANDERSON, I and WHITE, WD and CROUGHWELL, ND and LEWIS, JA and BLUMENTHAL, JA and SMITH, LR and TOWNSEND, E and HATTON, AC and GILBERT, W and REVES, JG and NEWMAN,
             MF},
   Title = {FAILURE TO DEMONSTRATE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MEAN
             ARTERIAL-PRESSURE DURING CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS AND
             POSTOPERATIVE COGNITIVE DYSFUNCTION},
   Journal = {Anesthesiology},
   Volume = {81},
   Number = {3A},
   Pages = {A156-A156},
   Publisher = {LIPPINCOTT-RAVEN PUBL},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0003-3022},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1994PJ09100156&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds270955}
}

@article{fds270846,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Mank, DB},
   Title = {Quality of life and recovery after cardiac
             surgery.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {56},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {213-215},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8084966},
   Doi = {10.1097/00006842-199405000-00006},
   Key = {fds270846}
}

@article{fds270957,
   Author = {Trauner, MA and Jiang, W and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Prognostic significance of silent myocardial
             ischemia},
   Journal = {Annals of Behavioral Medicine},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {24-34},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {Transient myocardial ischemia (TMI), a condition in which
             blood flow to the heart is temporarily restricted, has been
             recognized as an important measure of cardiovascular disease
             activity. Episodes of TMI are associated with an increased
             risk of adverse cardiac events, are relatively common in
             patients with coronary artery disease, and are predominantly
             asymptomatic. These asymptomatic episodes of TMI, which may
             be triggered by strenuous physical activity or by daily
             activities involving little physical effort, represent a
             condition known as silent myocardial ischemia (SMI).
             Although the unfavorable prognosis associated with
             symptom-related TMI, commonly referred to as angina pectoris
             (AP), has been well studied, the independent prognostic
             value of SMI has not been adequately addressed. Some studies
             have reported that SMI has independent prognostic
             significance, while other studies have concluded that the
             prognostic significance of TMI is the same whether it is SMI
             or AP. Methodological limitations of past research,
             including poorly defined patient characteristics,
             inadequately defined TMI, and insufficient follow-up
             periods, have contributed to conflicting results. This
             review examines the prognostic importance of TMI and
             specifically addresses the independent contribution of SMI
             over and above that of AP.},
   Key = {fds270957}
}

@article{fds270959,
   Author = {Emery, CF and Blumenthal, JA and Hauck, ER and Ekelund,
             LG},
   Title = {Cardiovascular reactivity to mental stress in hypertensive
             patients receiving atenolol vs enalapril},
   Journal = {Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {232-237},
   Publisher = {Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0883-9212},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00008483-199407000-00005},
   Abstract = {Background. This study compared the effects of the
             cardioselective beta- blocker, atenolol (AT), and the
             angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, enalapril (EN), on
             psychophysiologic reactivity to mental stress among
             hypertensive patients inadequately controlled with a
             diuretic alone. Methods. Thirty hypertensive subjects
             (sitting diastolic blood pressure [DBP] between 95 mmHg and
             115 mmHg) were randomly assigned to either AT (50-100 mg
             once daily) or EN (2.5-40 mg once daily), following a 4-week
             lead-in phase during which subjects were treated with
             hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ; 25 mg once daily). After the
             lead-in phase, subjects were monitored during a 4-week dose
             titration phase, and an 8-week maintenance phase.
             Psychophysiologic testing occurred after 4 weeks on HCTZ
             (Time 1), and again after 12 weeks on HCTZ and either AT or
             EN (Time 2). Testing consisted of a 5-minute resting period
             followed by 5 minutes of mental arithmetic, performed while
             cardiovascular responses were monitored. Cardiovascular
             reactivity scores were calculated at both times of
             measurement. Time 2 reactivity scores were analyzed by
             analysis of covariance, covarying reactivity scores at Time
             1. Results. Heart rate reactivity at Time 2 was
             significantly less for the AT group than for the EN group.
             However, blood pressure reactivity was significantly less in
             the EN group than the AT group. Conclusions. These results
             are consistent with previous studies of beta-blockers, but
             suggest the potential efficacy of EN in attenuating blood
             pressure reactivity to mental stress.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00008483-199407000-00005},
   Key = {fds270959}
}

@article{fds39997,
   Author = {Newman, M.F. and Croughwell, N.D. and Blumenthal, J.A. and White, W.D. and Lewis, J.B. and Smith, L.R. and Frasco, P. and Towner, E.A. and Schell, R.M. and Hurwitz, B.J. and Reves, J.G.},
   Title = {The effect of aging on cerebral autoregulation during
             cardiopulmonary bypass: Association with postoperative
             cognitive dysfunction},
   Journal = {Circulation},
   Volume = {90},
   Pages = {243-249},
   Year = {1994},
   Key = {fds39997}
}

@article{fds270956,
   Author = {Croughwell, N and Newman, M and Blumenthal, JA and White, WD and Lewis,
             JB and Croughwell, ND and Smith, LR and Townsend, EA and Hurwitz, BJ and Leone, BJ and Schell, RM and Reves, JG},
   Title = {Jugular bulb saturation and cognitive dysfunction after
             cardiopulmonary bypass},
   Journal = {Annals of Thoracic Surgery},
   Volume = {58},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1-7},
   Year = {1994},
   ISSN = {0003-4975},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7979740},
   Abstract = {Inadequate cerebral oxygenation during cardiopulmonary
             bypass may lead to postoperative cognitive dysfunction in
             patients undergoing cardiac operations. A psychological test
             battery was administered to 255 patients before cardiac
             operation and just before hospital discharge. Postoperative
             impairment was defined as a decline of more than one
             standard deviation in 20% of tests. Variables significantly
             (p < 0.05) associated with postoperative cognitive
             impairment are baseline psychometric scores, largest
             arterial-venous oxygen difference, and years of education.
             Jugular bulb hemoglobin saturation is significant if it
             replaces arterial-venous oxygen difference in the model.
             Factors correlated with jugular bulb saturation at
             normothermia were cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen
             consumption (r = -0.6; p < 0.0005), cerebral blood flow (r =
             0.4; p < 0.0005), oxygen delivery (r = 0.4; p < 0.0005), and
             mean arterial pressure (r = 0.15; p < 0.05). Three measures
             were significantly related to desaturation at normothermia
             and at hypothermia as well: greater cerebral oxygen
             extraction, greater arterial-venous oxygen difference, and
             lower ratio of cerebral blood flow to arterial-venous oxygen
             difference. We conclude that cerebral venous desaturation
             occurs during cardiopulmonary bypass in 17% to 23% of people
             and is associated with impaired postoperative cognitive test
             performance.},
   Key = {fds270956}
}

@article{fds270960,
   Author = {Burker, EJ and Fredrikson, M and Rifai, N and Siegel, W and Blumenthal,
             JA},
   Title = {Serum lipids, neuroendocrine, and cardiovascular responses
             to stress in men and women with mild hypertension.},
   Journal = {Behavioral Medicine (Washington, D.C.)},
   Volume = {19},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {155-161},
   Year = {1994},
   ISSN = {0896-4289},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8032118},
   Abstract = {In this study, we examined the relation between serum lipid
             levels, gender, and cardiovascular and neuroendocrine stress
             reactivity in patients with mild hypertension. Ninety-nine
             individuals (62 men, 37 women) with mild hypertension
             performed four mental stress tasks: mental arithmetic,
             public speaking, cold stress, and a computer videogame.
             Cardiovascular reactivity scores were computed by
             subtracting the minimum resting blood pressure (BP) and
             heart rate (HR) values from the maximum values obtained
             during each task. Neuroendocrine reactivity was calculated
             as the change from epinephrine and norepinephrine values
             from mean rest to mean task. High and low reactors were
             identified on the basis of median splits of reactivity
             scores, averaged across all four stressors. High systolic
             blood pressure reactors had higher levels of total (TC),
             low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and apo-B than
             did low reactors. High diastolic blood pressure reactors had
             lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)
             and higher levels of LDL-C and apo-B than did low reactors.
             High HR reactors had higher apo-AI:apo-AII ratios than low
             reactors. Lipid levels were not different for high and low
             epinephrine and norepinephrine reactors. Although women were
             noted to have more favorable lipid profiles than men, both
             male and female hypertensive patients who were high reactors
             had less favorable lipid profiles than low
             reactors.},
   Doi = {10.1080/08964289.1994.9935186},
   Key = {fds270960}
}

@article{fds270793,
   Author = {Jiang, W and Hayano, J and Coleman, ER and Hanson, MW and Frid, DJ and O'Connor, C and Thurber, D and Waugh, RA and Blumenthal,
             JA},
   Title = {Relation of cardiovascular responses to mental stress and
             cardiac vagal activity in coronary artery
             disease.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Cardiology},
   Volume = {72},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {551-554},
   Year = {1993},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0002-9149},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8362769},
   Abstract = {Forty-six patients with documented coronary artery disease
             were studied to examine the relation of cardiovascular
             reactivity to mental stress and cardiac vagal activity.
             Cardiac vagal activity was measured by means of
             frequency-domain analysis of heart rate variability with
             48-hour out-of-hospital Holter monitoring. The amplitude of
             the high-frequency component (0.16 to 0.40 Hz) of heart rate
             variability is considered to be an index of cardiac vagal
             activity. Cardiovascular reactivity was measured in the
             laboratory during a 3-minute public speaking task. Results
             revealed that (1) the amplitude of the high-frequency
             component was significantly higher during sleep (24.6 +/-
             11.3 ms) than during waking (18.2 +/- 8.0 ms) (p = 0.002);
             (2) compared to subjects with low diastolic blood pressure
             reactivity, those who displayed high diastolic blood
             pressure reactivity exhibited a significantly lower
             amplitude of the high-frequency component (19.2 +/- 6.9 vs
             23.4 +/- 9.6 ms, p = 0.03). These results indicate that
             decreased cardiac vagal activity may contribute to the
             exaggerated diastolic blood pressure reactivity to mental
             stress in patients with coronary artery disease.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0002-9149(93)90350-l},
   Key = {fds270793}
}

@article{fds270963,
   Author = {Pierce, TW and Madden, DJ and Siegel, WC and Blumenthal,
             JA},
   Title = {Effects of aerobic exercise on cognitive and psychosocial
             functioning in patients with mild hypertension.},
   Journal = {Health Psychology : Official Journal of the Division of
             Health Psychology, American Psychological
             Association},
   Volume = {12},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {286-291},
   Year = {1993},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0278-6133},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8404802},
   Abstract = {The effects of 16 weeks of physical exercise training on the
             psychological functioning of 90 patients with mild
             hypertension were examined. At baseline and after 16 weeks
             of training, patients completed a psychometric test battery
             that included objective measures of neuropsychological
             performance and standardized self-report measures of
             psychosocial functioning. Patients were randomly assigned to
             one of three groups: aerobic exercise, strength training and
             flexibility exercise, or a waiting list control group. After
             training, there were no group differences on any of the
             psychological measures, even though patients who engaged in
             exercise perceived themselves as functioning better in a
             number of psychological domains.},
   Doi = {10.1037//0278-6133.12.4.286},
   Key = {fds270963}
}

@article{fds270834,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Wei, J},
   Title = {Psychobehavioral treatment in cardiac rehabilitation.},
   Journal = {Cardiology Clinics},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {323-331},
   Year = {1993},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0733-8651},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8508457},
   Abstract = {This article reviews the empirical evidence for the use of
             behavioral and psychological therapies in the rehabilitation
             of patients with coronary disease. Exercise training, Type A
             modification, psychological counseling, smoking cessation,
             and dietary modification are considered. It is concluded
             that psychobehavioral therapies offer considerable promise
             to coronary patients in improving quality and quantity of
             life.},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0733-8651(18)30182-6},
   Key = {fds270834}
}

@article{fds270964,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Madden, DJ and Pierce, TW and Siegel, WC and Appelbaum, M},
   Title = {Hypertension affects neurobehavioral functioning.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {55},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {44-50},
   Year = {1993},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8446740},
   Abstract = {This study compared the neurobehavioral performance of
             hypertensive and normotensive men and women using
             neuropsychological, information-processing, and psychometric
             assessments. One hundred subjects, including 68 hypertensive
             and 32 normotensive individuals, completed a test battery
             that yielded scores on measures of speed of information
             processing, verbal and figural memory, psychosocial
             functioning, Type A behavior, and locus of control. Results
             showed that, compared with the normotensive individuals, the
             hypertensives performed more poorly on a set of tasks that
             measure speed of information processing and short-term
             memory (Digit Symbol, Digit Span (Backwards), and Reaction
             Time (slope)). The hypertensives also reported higher levels
             of state anxiety relative to their normotensive
             counterparts. The effects of hypertension on neurobehavioral
             functioning could not be accounted for on the basis of age
             or education.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00006842-199301000-00008},
   Key = {fds270964}
}

@article{fds270847,
   Author = {Croughwell, ND and Newman, MF and Blumenthal, JA and Towner, EA and Baldwin, BI and Schell, RM and Burker, EJ and Frasco, PE and Feldman,
             ME and Lewis, JB and White, WD and Smith, LR and Reves,
             JG},
   Title = {Jugular venous saturation and cerebral arterial venous
             oxygen difference predict cognitive dysfunction after
             cardiac surgery},
   Journal = {Circulation},
   Volume = {88},
   Pages = {1545},
   Year = {1993},
   Key = {fds270847}
}

@article{fds270961,
   Author = {Reves, JG and Newman, MF and Blumenthal, JA and Croughwell, ND and Towner, E and Feldman, M and Lewis, J and White, W and Smith, LR and Wiener, D},
   Title = {Age and cognition after CABG surgery: Role of blood flow
             autoregulation},
   Journal = {Gerontologist},
   Volume = {33},
   Pages = {230},
   Year = {1993},
   Key = {fds270961}
}

@article{fds270962,
   Author = {TOWNER, EA and BLUMENTHAL, JA},
   Title = {THE EFFICACY OF EXERCISE IN THE MANAGEMENT OF
             HYPERTENSION},
   Journal = {Homeostasis in Health and Disease},
   Volume = {34},
   Number = {5-6},
   Pages = {338-345},
   Year = {1993},
   ISSN = {0960-7560},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1993MY69000014&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds270962}
}

@article{fds270965,
   Author = {Steege, JF and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {The effects of aerobic exercise on premenstrual symptoms in
             middle-aged women: a preliminary study.},
   Journal = {Journal of Psychosomatic Research},
   Volume = {37},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {127-133},
   Year = {1993},
   ISSN = {0022-3999},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8463989},
   Abstract = {The effects of aerobic exercise and strength training on
             premenstrual symptoms were evaluated in 23 healthy
             premenopausal women. Premenstrual symptoms were assessed at
             baseline and following 3 months of exercise participation.
             Women who engaged in aerobic exercise significantly
             increased their aerobic capacity, while the women who
             participated in non-aerobic exercise did not. Results showed
             that while participation in both exercise conditions was
             associated with general improvement in many premenstrual
             symptoms, subjects in the aerobic exercise group improved on
             more symptoms, especially premenstrual depression.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0022-3999(93)90079-u},
   Key = {fds270965}
}

@article{fds270735,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Siegel, WC and Appelbaum, M},
   Title = {Failure of exercise to reduce blood pressure},
   Journal = {Annals of Internal Medicine},
   Volume = {116},
   Number = {SUPPL. 1},
   Pages = {15},
   Year = {1992},
   Month = {December},
   Key = {fds270735}
}

@article{fds270968,
   Author = {Hauck, ER and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Obsessive and compulsive traits in athletes.},
   Journal = {Sports Medicine (Auckland, N.Z.)},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {215-227},
   Year = {1992},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0112-1642},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1475551},
   Doi = {10.2165/00007256-199214040-00001},
   Key = {fds270968}
}

@article{fds270970,
   Author = {Fredrikson, M and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Serum lipids, neuroendocrine and cardiovascular responses to
             stress in healthy Type A men.},
   Journal = {Biological Psychology},
   Volume = {34},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {45-58},
   Year = {1992},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0301-0511},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1420654},
   Abstract = {This study examined the relationship between serum lipid
             activity in healthy Type A men and cardiovascular and
             neuroendocrine responses to a behavioral stressor, mental
             arithmetic. Assessment of blood lipids included measures of
             total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol
             (LDLC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), and
             serum triglycerides. Cardiovascular (blood pressure and
             heart rate) and neuroendocrine (epinephrine, norepinephrine
             and cortisol) responses were recorded before (rest), during
             (stress) and after (recovery) the mental arithmetic test.
             Diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure and, to a
             lesser extent, systolic blood pressure levels at rest,
             during stress, and at recovery correlated positively with TC
             levels. In addition, both diastolic and mean arterial
             pressure were positively correlated with the ratio of TC to
             HDLC and with triglycerides during stress and recovery.
             Heart rate did not correlate with any lipid measure.
             Cardiovascular stress-reactivity calculated as change from
             rest to stress did not correlate significantly with any
             lipid measure. Plasma norepinephrine during stress
             correlated positively with triglycerides; a similar trend
             was observed for the TC/HDLC ratio. Plasma cortisol at rest
             and during stress correlated positively with the TC/HDLC
             ratio and serum triglycerides, and negatively with HDLC.
             Plasma norepinephrine reactivity calculated as change from
             rest to stress correlated negatively with HDLC and
             positively with triglycerides. In addition, cortisol
             reactivity was positively correlated with triglycerides. It
             is suggested that the mechanisms mediating Type A behavior
             and coronary heart disease may include increased
             cardiovascular and neuroendocrine responses as well as
             unfavorable lipid profiles.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0301-0511(92)90023-n},
   Key = {fds270970}
}

@article{fds270967,
   Author = {Emery, CF and Hauck, ER and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Exercise adherence or maintenance among older adults: 1-year
             follow-up study.},
   Journal = {Psychology and Aging},
   Volume = {7},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {466-470},
   Year = {1992},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0882-7974},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1388868},
   Abstract = {Follow-up evaluation was conducted of 101 older men and
             women (mean age = 67 +/- 5 years) who had participated in a
             randomized study of physiological and psychological effects
             of aerobic exercise. Eighty-five subjects completed the
             follow-up evaluation, and almost all of them (94%) reported
             continuing with physical activity, as assessed by a
             self-report measure. Total energy expenditure was calculated
             as an indicator of exercise maintenance, and energy
             expenditure at follow-up was predicted from measures of
             physiological functioning, psychological well-being, and
             cognitive functioning obtained at the conclusion of the
             structured exercise program. Greater cardiorespiratory
             endurance, faster psychomotor speed, and lower anxiety
             predicted exercise behavior at follow-up, accounting for 13%
             of the variance in exercise behavior. Gender was not a
             significant predictor of exercise behavior.},
   Doi = {10.1037//0882-7974.7.3.466},
   Key = {fds270967}
}

@article{fds304910,
   Author = {Fletcher, GF and Blair, SN and Blumenthal, J and Caspersen, C and Chaitman, B and Epstein, S and Falls, H and Froelicher, ES and Froelicher, VF and Pina, IL},
   Title = {Statement on exercise. Benefits and recommendations for
             physical activity programs for all Americans. A statement
             for health professionals by the Committee on Exercise and
             Cardiac Rehabilitation of the Council on Clinical
             Cardiology, American Heart association.},
   Journal = {Circulation},
   Volume = {86},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {340-344},
   Year = {1992},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.cir.86.1.340},
   Doi = {10.1161/01.cir.86.1.340},
   Key = {fds304910}
}

@article{fds270969,
   Author = {Croughwell, ND and Frasco, P and Blumenthal, JA and Leone, BJ and White,
             WD and Reves, JG},
   Title = {Warming during cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with
             jugular bulb desaturation.},
   Journal = {The Annals of Thoracic Surgery},
   Volume = {53},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {827-832},
   Year = {1992},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0003-4975},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1570979},
   Abstract = {The objective of this study was to characterize cerebral
             venous effluent during normothermic nonpulsatile
             cardiopulmonary bypass. Thirty-one (23%) of 133 patients met
             desaturation criteria (defined as jugular bulb venous oxygen
             saturation less than or equal to 50% or jugular bulb venous
             oxygen tension less than or equal to 25 mm Hg) during
             normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (after hypothermic
             cardiopulmonary bypass at 27 degrees to 28 degrees C).
             Cerebral blood flow, calculated using xenon 133 clearance
             methodology, was significantly (p less than 0.005) higher in
             the saturated group (33.7 +/- 10.3 mL.100 g-1.min-1) than in
             the desaturated group (26.2 +/- 6.9 mL.100 g-1.min-1),
             whereas the cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen was
             significantly lower (p less than 0.005) in the saturated
             group (1.28 +/- 0.39 mL.100 g-.min-1) than in the
             desaturated group (1.52 +/- 0.36 mL.100 g-1.min-1) at
             normothermia. The arteriovenous oxygen difference at
             normothermia was lower in the saturated group (3.92 +/- 1.12
             mL/dL) than in the desaturated group (5.97 +/- 1.05 mL/dL).
             Neuropsychological testing was performed in 74 of the 133
             patients preoperatively and on day 7 postoperatively. There
             was a general decline in mean scores of all tests
             postoperatively in both groups with no significant
             difference between the groups. We conclude that cerebral
             venous desaturation represents a global imbalance in
             cerebral oxygen supply-demand that occurs during
             normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass and may represent
             transient cerebral ischemia. These episodes, however, are
             not associated with impared neuropsychological test
             performance as compared with the performance of patients
             with no evidence of desaturation.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0003-4975(92)91445-f},
   Key = {fds270969}
}

@article{fds315449,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Siegel, WC and Appelbaum, M},
   Title = {In Reply},
   Journal = {Jama},
   Volume = {267},
   Number = {13},
   Pages = {1777-1778},
   Publisher = {American Medical Association (AMA)},
   Year = {1992},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0098-7484},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1992.03480130088022},
   Doi = {10.1001/jama.1992.03480130088022},
   Key = {fds315449}
}

@article{fds270732,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Siegel, WC and Appelbaum, M},
   Title = {Failure of exercise to reduce blood pressure},
   Journal = {Annals of Internal Medicine},
   Volume = {116},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {15},
   Year = {1992},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds270732}
}

@article{fds270848,
   Author = {Fletcher, GF and Blair, SN and Blumenthal, JA and Caspersen, C and Chaitman, B and Epstein, S and Falls, H and Froelicher, ESS and Froelicher, VF and Pina, IL},
   Title = {Statement on exercise: Benefits and recommendations for
             physical activity programs for all Americans},
   Journal = {Circulation},
   Volume = {86},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {340-344},
   Year = {1992},
   Key = {fds270848}
}

@article{fds270966,
   Author = {Hayano, J and Wei, J and Mukai, S and Takata, K and Fujinami, T and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Autonomic mechanism underlying transient myocardial ischemia
             in daily life analyzed by complex demodulation of ambulatory
             heart rate variability},
   Journal = {Therapeutic Research},
   Volume = {13},
   Pages = {3989-3992},
   Year = {1992},
   Key = {fds270966}
}

@article{fds304909,
   Author = {Stewart, KJ and Kelemen, MH and Gordon, NF and Duncan, JJ and Scott, CB and Arroll, B and Beaglehole, R and Hill, D and Blumenthal, JA and Siegel,
             WC and Appelbaum, M},
   Title = {Failure of exercise to reduce hypertension
             [2]},
   Journal = {Jama},
   Volume = {267},
   Number = {13},
   Pages = {1776-1778},
   Year = {1992},
   ISSN = {0098-7484},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.267.13.1776},
   Doi = {10.1001/jama.267.13.1776},
   Key = {fds304909}
}

@article{fds270975,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Emery, CF and Madden, DJ and Schniebolk, S and Walsh-Riddle, M and George, LK and McKee, DC and Higginbotham, MB and Cobb, FR and Coleman, RE},
   Title = {Long-term effects of exercise on psychological functioning
             in older men and women.},
   Journal = {Journal of Gerontology},
   Volume = {46},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {P352-P361},
   Year = {1991},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0022-1422},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1940092},
   Abstract = {The purpose of this study was to determine the
             psychological, behavioral, and cognitive changes associated
             with up to 14 months of aerobic exercise training. For the
             first 4 months of the study, 101 older (greater than 60
             years) men and women were randomly assigned to one of three
             conditions: Aerobic exercise, Yoga, or a Waiting List
             control group. Before and following the intervention, all
             subjects completed a comprehensive assessment battery,
             including measures of mood and cognitive functioning. A
             semi-crossover design was employed such that, following
             completion of the second assessment, all subjects completed
             4 months of aerobic exercise and underwent a third
             assessment. Subjects were given the option of participating
             in 6 additional months of supervised aerobic exercise (14
             months total), and all subjects, regardless of their
             exercise status, completed a fourth assessment. Results
             indicated that subjects experienced a 10-15% improvement in
             aerobic capacity. In general, there were relatively few
             improvements in cognitive performance associated with
             aerobic exercise, although subjects who maintained their
             exercise participation for 14 months experienced
             improvements in some psychiatric symptoms. However, the
             healthy subjects in this study were functioning at a
             relatively high level to begin with, and exercise training
             may produce greater improvements among elderly with
             concomitant physical or emotional impairments.},
   Doi = {10.1093/geronj/46.6.p352},
   Key = {fds270975}
}

@article{fds270977,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Emery, CF and Madden, DJ and Schniebolk, S and Riddle, MW and Cobb, FR and Higginbotham, M and Coleman,
             RE},
   Title = {Effects of exercise training on bone density in older men
             and women.},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Geriatrics Society},
   Volume = {39},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {1065-1070},
   Year = {1991},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0002-8614},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1753043},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of up to 14 months of
             aerobic exercise on measures of bone density in older
             adults. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial with subjects
             assigned to either an aerobic exercise condition,
             non-aerobic yoga, or a wait list non-exercise control group
             for 4 months. Aerobic fitness and bone density were
             evaluated in all subjects at baseline (Time 1) and after 4
             months (Time 2). A semi-crossover design was utilized with
             all subjects completing 4 months of aerobic exercise,
             followed by another evaluation (Time 3). All subjects were
             then given the option of 6 additional months of aerobic
             exercise, after which they had a fourth evaluation (Time 4).
             SETTING: An outpatient exercise rehabilitation facility at a
             large, major medical center. SUBJECTS: One-hundred-one
             healthy men (n = 50) and women (n = 51) over age 60 (Mean
             age = 67.0), recruited from the community. INTERVENTION: The
             exercise program included stretching, cycle ergometry, and
             walking three times per week for 60 minutes throughout the
             course of the study. OUTCOME MEASURES: Aerobic fitness
             (VO2max) as assessed by cycle ergometry, and bone density
             (bone mineral content) measured by single photon
             absorptiometry. RESULTS: Subjects achieved a 10%-15%
             increase in VO2max after 4 months of exercise training, and
             1%-6% further improvement with additional training. Aerobic
             fitness was associated with significant increases in bone
             density in men, but not women, who maintained aerobic
             exercise for 14 months.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1532-5415.1991.tb02870.x},
   Key = {fds270977}
}

@article{fds270976,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Siegel, WC and Appelbaum, M},
   Title = {Failure of exercise to reduce blood pressure in patients
             with mild hypertension. Results of a randomized controlled
             trial.},
   Journal = {Jama},
   Volume = {266},
   Number = {15},
   Pages = {2098-2104},
   Year = {1991},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0098-7484},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1920698},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: --To assess the effects of physical exercise
             training on blood pressure in patients with mild
             hypertension. DESIGN: --Randomized controlled trial.
             SETTING: --Hospital-based cardiac rehabilitation program.
             PATIENTS: --Ninety-nine men and women with untreated mild
             hypertension (systolic blood pressure, 140 to 180 mm Hg;
             diastolic blood pressure, 90 to 105 mm Hg) were included in
             the volunteer sample. INTERVENTIONS: --Subjects were
             randomly assigned to a 4-month program of aerobic exercise
             training, strength and flexibility training, or to a waiting
             list control group. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: --The main
             outcome measures were systolic and diastolic blood pressures
             measured four times with a random zero sphygmomanometer on 3
             separate days in a clinic setting. RESULTS: --After 4 months
             of exercise training, subjects in the aerobic exercise group
             did not exhibit greater reductions in blood pressure than
             subjects in the control group. We expected a differential
             decline of 5 mm Hg between the aerobic exercise and waiting
             list control groups and found a difference of -1.0 +/- 16 mm
             Hg and -1.2 +/- 10 mm Hg at alpha = .05 for systolic and
             diastolic blood pressure, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:
             --Moderate aerobic exercise alone should not be considered a
             replacement for pharmacologic therapy in nonobese patients
             with mild hypertension.},
   Doi = {10.1001/jama.266.15.2098},
   Key = {fds270976}
}

@article{fds270979,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Matthews, K and Fredrikson, M and Rifai, N and Schniebolk, S and German, D and Steege, J and Rodin,
             J},
   Title = {Effects of exercise training on cardiovascular function and
             plasma lipid, lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein concentrations
             in premenopausal and postmenopausal women.},
   Journal = {Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis : a Journal of Vascular
             Biology},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {912-917},
   Year = {1991},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {1049-8834},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2065042},
   Abstract = {This study examined the effects of aerobic exercise on lipid
             levels in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Fifty
             healthy middle-aged women (mean age, 50 years) were randomly
             assigned to 12 weeks of either aerobic exercise (walking and
             jogging) or nonaerobic strength exercise (circuit Nautilus
             training). Concentrations of total cholesterol, high density
             lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein
             cholesterol, and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol
             were assessed, along with apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, apo
             A-II, apo B, and triglycerides. To document changes in
             aerobic capacity, maximum treadmill testing was performed
             with expired-gas analysis before and after the exercise
             program. Aerobic exercise was associated with an 18%
             improvement in peak VO2. Women in the aerobic group had an
             increased VO2, from 26.7 to 31.4 ml/kg/min (p less than
             0.0001), while the VO2 of the women in the strength training
             group did not change (25.8 ml/kg/min before and after).
             There were no differential changes in lipid levels because
             all subjects experienced slight reductions in high density
             lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol and increases
             in apo A-I and the apo A-I to apo B ratio. There was a
             tendency for the aerobic group to exhibit lower levels of
             apo A-II and a greater apo A-I to apo A-II ratio, however.
             We conclude that premenopausal and postmenopausal women
             experience similar changes in aerobic capacity and lipid
             levels with exercise and that the short-term effects of
             aerobic and nonaerobic exercise on lipid profiles are
             generally comparable.},
   Doi = {10.1161/01.atv.11.4.912},
   Key = {fds270979}
}

@article{fds270982,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Emery, CF and Madden, DJ and Coleman, RE and Riddle,
             MW and Schniebolk, S and Cobb, FR and Sullivan, MJ and Higginbotham,
             MB},
   Title = {Effects of exercise training on cardiorespiratory function
             in men and women older than 60 years of age.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Cardiology},
   Volume = {67},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {633-639},
   Year = {1991},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0002-9149},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2000798},
   Abstract = {This study reports the physiologic effects of up to 14
             months of aerobic exercise in 101 older (greater than 60
             years) men and women. After an extensive baseline
             physiologic assessment (Time 1), in which aerobic capacity
             and blood lipids were measured, subjects were randomized to
             an aerobic exercise condition (cycle ergometry, 3 times per
             week for 1 hour), nonaerobic yoga (2 times per week for 1
             hour), or a waiting list nonexercise control group for 4
             months, and then underwent a second (Time 2) assessment. At
             the completion of the second assessment, all remaining
             subjects completed 4 months of aerobic exercise and were
             reevaluated (Time 3). Subjects were given the option of
             participating in 6 additional months of supervised aerobic
             exercise, and all available subjects completed a fourth
             assessment (Time 4) 14 months after their initial baseline
             evaluation. Results indicated that subjects generally
             exhibited a 10 to 15% improvement in peak oxygen consumption
             after 4 months of aerobic exercise training, and a 1 to 6%
             improvement in aerobic power with additional aerobic
             exercise training. On the other hand, subjects, especially
             men, continued to have improvements in submaximal exercise
             performance (i.e., anaerobic threshold). In addition,
             aerobic exercise was associated with an improved lipid
             profile; subjects participating in aerobic exercise for up
             to 14 months exhibited increased levels of high-density
             lipoprotein cholesterol. Maintenance of regular aerobic
             exercise for an extended time interval is associated with
             greater cardiovascular benefits among older adults than has
             been reported previously.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0002-9149(91)90904-y},
   Key = {fds270982}
}

@article{fds270974,
   Author = {Emery, CF and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Effects of physical exercise on psychological and cognitive
             functioning of older adults},
   Journal = {Annals of Behavioral Medicine},
   Volume = {13},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {99-107},
   Year = {1991},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds270974}
}

@article{fds270980,
   Author = {Suarez, EC and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Ambulatory blood pressure responses during daily life in
             high and low hostile patients with a recent myocardial
             infarction},
   Journal = {Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {169-175},
   Publisher = {Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)},
   Year = {1991},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00008483-199105000-00003},
   Abstract = {This study examined cardiovascular (CV) responses during
             daily activities among patients with myocardial infarction
             (MI) with high and low scores on the Cook-Medley hostility
             (Ho) questionnaire. Ambulatory recordings of heart rate (HR)
             and blood pressure (BP) were recorded during routine daily
             activities, and patients completed a behavioral diary.
             During periods of low emotional stress, patients with low Ho
             scores exhibited higher systolic blood pressure (SBP) than
             patients with high Ho scores. During high levels of
             emotional stress, SBP levels for patients with high and low
             Ho scores did not differ. However, post-hoc comparisons
             showed that emotional stress was associated with greater SPB
             responses for patients with high Ho scores, but not for
             patients with low Ho scores. Additional analyses failed to
             find Ho group differences for CV levels at home and work, or
             during periods of high and low mental effort. The findings
             are discussed in light of laboratory evidence suggesting
             that patients with high Ho scores exhibit increased CV
             responses to stress-provoking tasks.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00008483-199105000-00003},
   Key = {fds270980}
}

@article{fds270981,
   Author = {Siegel, WC and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {The role of exercise in the prevention and treatment of
             hypertension},
   Journal = {Annals of Behavioral Medicine},
   Volume = {13},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {23-30},
   Year = {1991},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds270981}
}

@article{fds270794,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Fredrikson, M and Matthews, KA and Kuhn, CM and Schniebolk, S and German, D and Rifai, N and Steege, J and Rodin,
             J},
   Title = {Stress reactivity and exercise training in premenopausal and
             postmenopausal women.},
   Journal = {Health Psychology : Official Journal of the Division of
             Health Psychology, American Psychological
             Association},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {384-391},
   Year = {1991},
   ISSN = {0278-6133},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1765033},
   Abstract = {Examined the influence of ovarian function on
             psychophysiological stress responses and determined if
             aerobic exercise reduced stress reactivity. Fifty
             premenopausal and postmenopausal women initially were
             subjected to a public speaking task and an
             ice-on-the-forehead procedure, during which time their blood
             pressure and heart rate were monitored and continuous blood
             samples were obtained. Subjects also underwent aerobic
             fitness evaluations with a maximum-exercise treadmill test.
             Subjects were then randomly assigned to a 12-week exercise
             program of either aerobic exercise (e.g., walking and
             jogging at a prescribed exercise intensity) or non-aerobic
             strength and flexibility training and were then reevaluated.
             Results indicated that postmenopausal women exhibited lower
             resting epinephrine levels but greater epinephrine
             reactivity to the speaking task compared to the
             premenopausal women. There were no differences between
             premenopausal and postmenopausal women with respect to
             cardiovascular or catecholamine responses during the cold
             challenge. Premenopausal and postmenopausal women also
             achieved comparable improvements in aerobic fitness.
             However, results of the mental stress testing were complex
             and provided only partial support for the role of aerobic
             exercise in reducing stress responses.},
   Doi = {10.1037//0278-6133.10.6.384},
   Key = {fds270794}
}

@article{fds270972,
   Author = {Fredrikson, M and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Ambulatory blood pressure in relation to serum lipid levels
             in premenopausal and postmenopausal women},
   Journal = {Journal of Ambulatory Monitoring},
   Volume = {4},
   Pages = {199-206},
   Year = {1991},
   Key = {fds270972}
}

@article{fds270973,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Madden, DJ and Burker, EJ and Croughwell, N and Schniebolk, S and Smith, R and White, WD and Hlatky, M and Reves,
             JG},
   Title = {A preliminary study of the effects of cardiac procedures on
             cognitive performance.},
   Journal = {International Journal of Psychosomatics : Official
             Publication of the International Psychosomatics
             Institute},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {1-4},
   Pages = {13-16},
   Year = {1991},
   ISSN = {0884-8297},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1778680},
   Abstract = {The effects of three commonly performed cardiac procedures
             on cognitive performance were evaluated in patients
             undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery (N =
             20), percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)
             procedure (N = 8), or cardiac valve repair (N = 11).
             Patients completed a neuropsychological test battery on the
             day prior to their surgery and at discharge. Results showed
             that valve and CABG patients exhibited declines in
             performance on the Digit Symbol subtest, while PTCA patients
             did not change. Reaction time performance improved for the
             PTCA patients but declined significantly for valve patients.
             These results suggest that common cardiac procedures may
             have measurable effects on cognitive performance, as
             assessed by a relatively brief test battery.},
   Key = {fds270973}
}

@article{fds270978,
   Author = {Hayano, J and Wei, J and O'Connor, C and Frid, D and Waugh, R and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Impaired circadian change in parasympathetic activity in
             patients with transient myocardial ischemia at rest: An
             analysis of 48-hour heart rate variability},
   Journal = {Circulation},
   Volume = {84},
   Pages = {II-651:2587},
   Year = {1991},
   Key = {fds270978}
}

@article{fds270971,
   Author = {Dement, JM},
   Title = {Letter to the editor (I)},
   Journal = {American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal},
   Volume = {51},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {1776-1778},
   Year = {1990},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0098-7484},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.267.13.1776},
   Doi = {10.1001/jama.267.13.1776},
   Key = {fds270971}
}

@article{fds270986,
   Author = {Sherwood, A and Turner, JR and Light, KC and Blumenthal,
             JA},
   Title = {Temporal stability of the hemodynamics of cardiovascular
             reactivity.},
   Journal = {International Journal of Psychophysiology : Official Journal
             of the International Organization of Psychophysiology},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {95-98},
   Year = {1990},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0167-8760},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2269653},
   Keywords = {Adult • Blood Pressure • Cardiac Output •
             Cardiography, Impedance • Competitive Behavior •
             Hemodynamics* • Humans • Individuality • Male
             • Middle Aged • Reaction Time • Time Factors
             • Vascular Resistance • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Cardiovascular responses to a competitive reaction-time task
             were monitored in 13 male subjects tested twice, 3 months
             apart. The temporal stability of blood pressure responses
             was in line with previous reports. However, in this study
             impedance cardiography permitted the investigation of the
             hemodynamic adjustments underlying the observed blood
             pressure responses. Analyses revealed that cardiac output
             and total peripheral resistance responses displayed temporal
             stability, indicating that subjects' blood pressure
             responses on the two occasions were the result of similar
             hemodynamic responses. These data thus extend the literature
             by demonstrating that the hemodynamic response pattern
             itself represents a stable individual difference
             variable.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/0167-8760(90)90050-n},
   Key = {fds270986}
}

@article{fds270795,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Ekelund, LG and Emery, CF},
   Title = {Quality of life among hypertensive patients with a diuretic
             background who are taking atenolol and enalapril.},
   Journal = {Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics},
   Volume = {48},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {447-454},
   Year = {1990},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0009-9236},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2225705},
   Abstract = {The cardioselective beta-blocker atenolol and the
             angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril were
             compared for efficacy, safety, and quality-of-life factors
             in 30 patients with hypertension whose hypertension was
             inadequately controlled with diuretic alone. Atenolol (50 to
             100 mg once a day) and enalapril (2.5 to 40 mg once a day),
             combined with hydrochlorothiazide (25 mg once a day), had
             similar levels of efficacy and safety. A comprehensive
             battery of psychologic assessments for quality of life was
             administered, including measures of anxiety, depression,
             psychiatric symptoms, memory, and psychomotor function.
             These five conceptually based clusters were first analyzed
             by multivariate analysis of variance procedures, followed by
             univariate analyses of the individual variables composing
             each domain. In general, neither atenolol nor enalapril was
             associated with major changes in psychologic functioning.
             The only data cluster with a statistically significant
             change was memory function, primarily as a result of lower
             scores of the digit span (backward) test, for atenolol
             relative to enalapril. These preliminary findings suggest
             that atenolol and enalapril have comparable degrees of
             efficacy and safety, with no major disparities in
             quality-of-life effects, for hypertensive patients with a
             history of taking diuretics and this sort of quality-of-life
             assessment can be performed during trials of
             antihypertensive drugs.},
   Doi = {10.1038/clpt.1990.174},
   Key = {fds270795}
}

@article{fds270766,
   Author = {Siegel, WC and Blumenthal, JA and Divine, GW},
   Title = {Physiological, psychological, and behavioral factors and
             white coat hypertension.},
   Journal = {Hypertension},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {140-146},
   Year = {1990},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0194-911X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2379947},
   Keywords = {Adult • Blood Pressure Determination • Exercise
             Test • Female • Humans • Hypertension •
             Male • Middle Aged • Stress, Psychological •
             etiology* • physiopathology • physiopathology*
             • psychology},
   Abstract = {Patients with hypertension in the clinic but not during
             daily activities ("white coat" hypertension) may be at lower
             risk of hypertensive morbidity and mortality than patients
             with hypertension in both settings ("persistent"
             hypertension). We hypothesized that the white coat
             phenomenon was due to greater blood pressure reactivity to
             the stress of a clinic visit and that, as a consequence,
             white coat hypertensive patients would display greater blood
             pressure reactivity to exercise and mental stress, as well
             as increased emotional reactivity and higher levels of
             anger, anxiety, or depression. We studied 89 patients with
             essential hypertension between 29 and 59 years old with
             ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, treadmill exercise
             testing with oxygen consumption measurement, mental stress
             testing (including mental arithmetic, public speaking, and
             video game tasks), and psychological testing (State-Trait
             Anxiety Scale, Cook-Medley Hostility Scale, Center for
             Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, emotional reactivity
             scale). We defined white coat hypertension as a mean
             ambulatory systolic blood pressure of 135 mm Hg or less and
             diastolic 85 mm Hg or less and persistent hypertension as a
             mean ambulatory systolic blood pressure of 140 mm Hg or more
             or diastolic 90 mm Hg or more. Forty-nine patients were
             classified as persistent hypertensives and 20 as white coat
             hypertensives. No significant differences were seen in
             demographic or clinical characteristics, fitness level,
             blood pressure response to exercise or mental stress, or
             psychological characteristics, except that white coat
             hypertensive patients had lower systolic blood pressures in
             the clinic and during exercise and greater variability of
             clinic diastolic blood pressures.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250
             WORDS)},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1161/01.hyp.16.2.140},
   Key = {fds270766}
}

@article{fds270988,
   Author = {Emery, CF and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Perceived change among participants in an exercise program
             for older adults.},
   Journal = {Gerontologist},
   Volume = {30},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {516-521},
   Year = {1990},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0016-9013},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2394387},
   Abstract = {Data regarding perceived change were collected as part of a
             study of the effects of aerobic exercise training on
             psychological, cognitive, and physiological functioning
             among 101 healthy older adults. Subjects were assigned
             randomly to an aerobic exercise group, a yoga control group,
             or a waiting list group for 16 weeks, after which all
             subjects participated in aerobic exercise for another 16
             weeks. Exercise participants perceived positive changes in a
             wide range of significant life areas, and perceived
             improvement was more closely related to objective
             improvement for physiological indicators than for indicators
             of cognitive functioning or psychological
             well-being.},
   Doi = {10.1093/geront/30.4.516},
   Key = {fds270988}
}

@article{fds270752,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and O'Connor, C},
   Title = {Stress and silent myocardial ischemia. A new research study
             at Duke University Medical Center.},
   Journal = {North Carolina Medical Journal},
   Volume = {51},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {135-138},
   Year = {1990},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0029-2559},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2185426},
   Keywords = {Activities of Daily Living • Affect • Behavior
             Therapy* • Coronary Disease • Exercise •
             Humans • Prognosis • Randomized Controlled Trials
             as Topic • Stress, Psychological • complications
             • diagnosis • etiology* •
             therapy*},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds270752}
}

@article{fds270984,
   Author = {Barefoot, JC and Haney, TL and Simpson, SW and Blumenthal, JA and Williams, RB},
   Title = {Depression and the Assessment of Type A Behavior in a
             Clinical Population},
   Journal = {Psychological Assessment},
   Volume = {2},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {483-485},
   Publisher = {American Psychological Association (APA)},
   Year = {1990},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1040-3590},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.2.4.483},
   Abstract = {The Structured Interview (SI) method of assessing Type A
             behavior (TABP) relies on the subject's voice stylistics,
             whereas the Jenkins Activity Survey (JAS) relies on response
             content. It was hypothesized that depression would affect SI
             assessments by masking voice stylistics but would have no
             impact on JAS assessments. The SI, JAS, and the Zung
             Depression Scale were administered to 2,066 coronary
             patients. As predicted, there was a negative relationship
             between depression and SI-assessed TABP and a modest
             positive relationship between depression and JAS-assessed
             TABP. Analysis of Type A components revealed that loudness,
             explosive speech, and intensity of hostility differed
             between depressed and nondepressed patients. Affective
             states that influence expressivity appear to produce
             misclassifications using SI assessments, especially in
             clinical samples.},
   Doi = {10.1037/1040-3590.2.4.483},
   Key = {fds270984}
}

@article{fds270989,
   Author = {Robinson, M and Blumenthal, JA and Burker, EJ and Hlatky, M and Reves,
             JG},
   Title = {Coronary artery bypass grafting and cognitive function: A
             review},
   Journal = {Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {180-189},
   Publisher = {Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)},
   Year = {1990},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00008483-199005000-00004},
   Abstract = {Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is a well-established
             and common surgical procedure for the treatment of coronary
             artery disease (CAD). Although CABG is associated with
             increased survival, especially in patients with left main or
             3-vessel disease, the effects of CABG on measures of
             cognitive performance are less well known. This review
             examines the incidence and severity of cognitive impairment
             after CABG and suggests that future research will need to
             consider issues of cognitive functions, as well as morbidity
             and mortality, in evaluating the efficacy of treatments for
             CAD.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00008483-199005000-00004},
   Key = {fds270989}
}

@article{fds270990,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Fredrikson, M and Kuhn, CM and Ulmer, RL and Walsh-Riddle, M and Appelbaum, M},
   Title = {Aerobic exercise reduces levels of cardiovascular and
             sympathoadrenal responses to mental stress in subjects
             without prior evidence of myocardial ischemia.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Cardiology},
   Volume = {65},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {93-98},
   Year = {1990},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0002-9149},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2294687},
   Abstract = {Thirty-seven healthy type A men (mean age 42 years) were
             randomly assigned to either an aerobic exercise training
             group or to a strength and flexibility training group.
             Before exercise, subjects underwent comprehensive
             physiologic and behavioral assessments, including graded
             exercise treadmill testing with direct measurement of oxygen
             consumption (VO2) and measurement of cardiovascular (heart
             rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and rate
             pressure product) and neuroendocrine (epinephrine and
             norepinephrine) responses to mental arithmetic. The aerobic
             exercise consisted of walking and jogging at an intensity of
             greater than or equal to 70% maximal heart rate reserve for
             1 hour 3 times/week for 12 consecutive weeks. The strength
             training consisted of 1 hour of circuit Nautilus training 2
             times/week for 12 weeks. At the completion of the exercise
             program, all subjects underwent repeat testing. For the
             aerobic group, peak VO2 increased significantly from 33.6 to
             38.4 ml/kg/min (p less than 0.001), whereas the strength
             group only achieved a slight increase from 34.5 to 35.6
             ml/kg/min (difference not significant). During the mental
             arithmetic, the aerobic group experienced a greater
             reduction in levels of heart rate, diastolic blood pressure
             and rate pressure product than the strength group (after
             completing the exercise training programs). The aerobic
             group also tended to secrete less epinephrine and to show a
             faster recovery than the strength group after the exercise
             program. In addition, the aerobic group tended to exhibit
             less cardiovascular reactivity to mental stress after
             exercise training. These data suggest that aerobic exercise
             reduces levels of cardiovascular and sympathoadrenal
             responses during and after mental stress.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0002-9149(90)90032-v},
   Key = {fds270990}
}

@article{fds39961,
   Author = {Sherwood, A. and Turner, J.R. and Light, K.C. and Blumenthal,
             J.A.},
   Title = {Temporal stability of the hemodynamics of cardiovascular
             reactivity},
   Journal = {International Journal of Psychophysiology},
   Volume = {10},
   Pages = {95-98},
   Year = {1990},
   Key = {fds39961}
}

@article{fds270983,
   Author = {Stanley, TE and Smith, LR and White, WD and Morrison, L and Blumenthal,
             JA and Burker, EJ and Schniebolk, S and Newman, MF and Croughwell, ND and Reves, JG},
   Title = {Effect of cerebral perfusion pressure during cardiopulmonary
             bypass on neuropsychiatric outcome following coronary artery
             bypass grafting},
   Journal = {Anesthesiology},
   Volume = {73},
   Pages = {A93},
   Year = {1990},
   Key = {fds270983}
}

@article{fds270985,
   Author = {Siegel, WC and Blumenthal, JA and Divine, GW},
   Title = {Physiologic, psychologic, and behavioral
             factors},
   Journal = {Hypertension},
   Volume = {16},
   Pages = {140-146},
   Year = {1990},
   Key = {fds270985}
}

@article{fds270987,
   Author = {Fredrikson, M and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Serum lipid levels and ambulatory blood pressure},
   Journal = {Journal of Ambulatory Monitoring},
   Volume = {3},
   Pages = {113-118},
   Year = {1990},
   Key = {fds270987}
}

@article{fds270740,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Bradley, W and Dimsdale, JE and Kasl, SV and Powell,
             LH and Taylor, CB},
   Title = {Task Force III: Assessment of psychological status in
             patients with ischemic heart disease.},
   Journal = {Journal of the American College of Cardiology},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1034-1042},
   Year = {1989},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0735-1097},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2794264},
   Keywords = {Adaptation, Psychological • Attitude to Health •
             Behavior Therapy • Coronary Disease • Employment
             • Humans • Insurance, Health • Patient
             Acceptance of Health Care • Physician-Patient Relations
             • Sick Role • United States • economics
             • psychology*},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/0735-1097(89)90486-5},
   Key = {fds270740}
}

@article{fds270992,
   Author = {Walsh-Riddle, M and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Cardiovascular responses during upright and semi-recumbent
             cycle ergometry testing.},
   Journal = {Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise},
   Volume = {21},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {581-585},
   Year = {1989},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0195-9131},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2691819},
   Abstract = {To compare cardiovascular (CV) responses during cycle
             ergometry testing, 20 unmedicated mild hypertensive subjects
             (10 male, 10 female; mean age = 47.9 yr) underwent exercise
             testing on an upright (UP) cycle and a semi-recumbent (SR)
             cycle. Tests were administered in counterbalanced order on
             two separate days. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP),
             ventilation (VE), and rate pressure product (RPP) were
             recorded at absolute workloads (1.0 and 1.5 l.min-1) as well
             as at relative workloads (50, 75, and 90% of VO2 peak). In
             addition, the CV variables were measured at rest and peak
             exercise for each position. At absolute submaximal levels,
             women had higher HR, VE, and RPP values in both positions,
             reflecting responses at a greater percentage of their
             maximum exercise capacity. At relative workloads, HRs were
             significantly lower at rest and at 75 and 90% VO2 peak in
             the SR position. Men had greater systolic blood pressure
             (SBP) and RPP in both positions, and RPP was significantly
             lower at rest and at 75 and 90% VO2 peak in the SR position.
             Women displayed lower VE at all relative workloads. At peak
             exercise, subjects achieved significantly higher peak heart
             rates on the upright cycle (UP = 163 bpm, SR = 157 bpm). The
             UP cycle was associated with higher levels of peak VO2. The
             ability to achieve a higher HR and greater VO2 at peak
             exercise suggests that the UP cycle ergometer may be a
             preferable mode to the SR ergometer for evaluating maximal
             exercise performance among patients with mild
             hypertension.},
   Key = {fds270992}
}

@article{fds270993,
   Author = {Barefoot, JC and Peterson, BL and Harrell, FE and Hlatky, MA and Pryor,
             DB and Haney, TL and Blumenthal, JA and Siegler, IC and Williams,
             RB},
   Title = {Type A behavior and survival: a follow-up study of 1,467
             patients with coronary artery disease.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Cardiology},
   Volume = {64},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {427-432},
   Year = {1989},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0002-9149},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2773785},
   Abstract = {Patients with documented coronary artery disease, admitted
             to Duke Medical Center between 1974 and 1980, were assessed
             for type A behavior pattern and were followed until 1984.
             The relation of type A behavior to survival was tested using
             data from coronary angiography to control for disease
             severity. Cox model regression analyses demonstrated an
             interaction (p less than 0.01) between type A behavior and
             an index of disease severity in the prediction of
             cardiovascular death. Among those with relatively poor left
             ventricular function, type A patients had better survival
             than type B. This difference was not present among patients
             with better prognoses. Type A behavior did not predict the
             subsequent incidence of nonfatal myocardial infarctions.
             Differential risk modification and differential selection
             into postinfarction status are possible explanations for the
             findings. These results need not conflict with the
             proposition that type A behavior plays a role in the
             pathogenesis of coronary artery disease.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0002-9149(89)90416-5},
   Key = {fds270993}
}

@article{fds270994,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Emery, CF and Madden, DJ and George, LK and Coleman,
             RE and Riddle, MW and McKee, DC and Reasoner, J and Williams,
             RS},
   Title = {Cardiovascular and behavioral effects of aerobic exercise
             training in healthy older men and women.},
   Journal = {Journal of Gerontology},
   Volume = {44},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {M147-M157},
   Year = {1989},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0022-1422},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2768768},
   Keywords = {Aged • Aged, 80 and over • Attitude •
             Emotions* • Exercise* • Female •
             Hemodynamics* • Humans • Male • Middle Aged
             • Physical Fitness* • Psychological Tests •
             Psychomotor Performance • Quality of Life • Random
             Allocation • Respiration* • Yoga},
   Abstract = {The cardiovascular and behavioral adaptations associated
             with a 4-month program of aerobic exercise training were
             examined in 101 older men and women (mean age = 67 years).
             Subjects were randomly assigned to an Aerobic Exercise
             group, a Yoga and Flexibility control group, or a Waiting
             List control group. Prior to and following the 4-month
             program, subjects underwent comprehensive physiological and
             psychological evaluations. Physiological measures included
             measurement of blood pressure, lipids, bone density, and
             cardiorespiratory fitness including direct measurements of
             peak oxygen consumption (VO2) and anaerobic threshold.
             Psychological measures included measures of mood,
             psychiatric symptoms, and neuropsychological functioning.
             This study demonstrated that 4 months of aerobic exercise
             training produced an overall 11.6% improvement in peak VO2
             and a 13% increase in anaerobic threshold. In contrast, the
             Yoga and Waiting List control groups experienced no change
             in cardiorespiratory fitness. Other favorable physiological
             changes observed among aerobic exercise participants
             included lower cholesterol levels, diastolic blood pressure
             levels, and for subjects at risk for bone fracture, a trend
             toward an increase in bone mineral content. Although few
             significant psychological changes could be attributed to
             aerobic exercise training, participants in the two active
             treatment groups perceived themselves as improving on a
             number of psychological and behavioral dimensions.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1093/geronj/44.5.m147},
   Key = {fds270994}
}

@article{fds270996,
   Author = {Madden, DJ and Blumenthal, JA and Allen, PA and Emery,
             CF},
   Title = {Improving aerobic capacity in healthy older adults does not
             necessarily lead to improved cognitive performance.},
   Journal = {Psychology and Aging},
   Volume = {4},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {307-320},
   Year = {1989},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0882-7974},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2803624},
   Abstract = {The effects of aerobic exercise training in a sample of 85
             older adults were investigated. Ss were assigned randomly to
             either an aerobic exercise group, a nonaerobic exercise
             (yoga) group, or a waiting-list control group. Following 16
             weeks of the group-specific protocol, all of the older Ss
             received 16 weeks of aerobic exercise training. The older
             adults demonstrated a significant increase in aerobic
             capacity (cardiorespiratory fitness). Performance on
             reaction-time tests of attention and memory retrieval was
             slower for the older adults than for a comparison group of
             24 young adults, and there was no improvement in the older
             adults' performance on these tests as a function of aerobic
             exercise training. Results suggest that exercise-related
             changes in older adults' cognitive performance are due
             either to extended periods of training or to cohort
             differences between physically active and sedentary
             individuals.},
   Doi = {10.1037//0882-7974.4.3.307},
   Key = {fds270996}
}

@article{fds271000,
   Author = {Sherwood, A and Light, KC and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Effects of aerobic exercise training on hemodynamic
             responses during psychosocial stress in normotensive and
             borderline hypertensive type A men: a preliminary
             report.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {51},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {123-136},
   Year = {1989},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2710907},
   Abstract = {This study assessed the effects of aerobic exercise training
             on cardiovascular responses to a 5-min reaction time
             competition task. Twenty-seven Type A men (aged 30-56)
             participated in this randomized study in which 14 underwent
             supervised aerobic training and 13 strength training, with
             sessions scheduled three times per week for 12 consecutive
             weeks. Aerobic exercise training was associated with a 13.6%
             increase in VO2max compared to 2.9% for the strength group.
             The effects of aerobic exercise training were most evident
             in subjects whose initial casual blood pressure readings
             fell in the borderline hypertensive range (N = 5). These
             individuals exhibited a general reduction in diastolic blood
             pressure (i.e., during rest, competition, and recovery)
             which was associated with a fall in both heart rate and
             total peripheral vascular resistance. Furthermore, diastolic
             pressure reactivity to the competition task was attenuated
             in borderline hypertensive subjects who underwent aerobic
             conditioning. These data are interpreted as preliminary
             findings suggesting that borderline hypertensives may be
             particularly responsive to the cardiovascular benefits of
             aerobic conditioning. For patients who have progressed to
             this stage of hypertensive disease, aerobic exercise may be
             of ameliorative value.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00006842-198903000-00002},
   Key = {fds271000}
}

@article{fds270997,
   Author = {Emery, CF and Pinder, SL and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Psychological effects of exercise among elderly cardiac
             patients},
   Journal = {Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation},
   Volume = {9},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {46-53},
   Publisher = {Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)},
   Year = {1989},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00008483-198901000-00008},
   Abstract = {Aerobic exercise has been associated with improvements not
             only in physiologic functioning, but also in psychologic
             functioning. This review examines the effects of exercise on
             several important aspects of psychologic functioning. Many
             studies of healthy subjects indicate that exercise is
             associated with benefits in various aspects of psychologic
             functioning, including enhanced mood and cognitive
             functioning, reduced psychophysiologic reactivity to stress,
             and behavioral adjustments. However, the results have been
             inconsistent, and past studies have been plagued by
             methodologic problems. Furthermore, few exercise studies
             have been conducted with older cardiac patients. Thus, the
             relationship between psychologic functioning and exercise in
             older cardiac patients is an important area for further
             investigation.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00008483-198901000-00008},
   Key = {fds270997}
}

@article{fds270999,
   Author = {Costello, EJ},
   Title = {Letter to editor},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {28},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {218-221},
   Year = {1989},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds270999}
}

@article{fds39952,
   Author = {Blumenthal, J.A.  and Emery, C.F. and Madden, D.J. and George, L.K. and Coleman, R.E. and Riddle, M.W. and McKee, D.C. and Reasoner, J. and Williams, R.S.},
   Title = {Cardiovascular and behavioral effects of aerobic exercise
             training in healthy older men and women},
   Journal = {Journal of Gerontology},
   Volume = {44},
   Pages = {M147-M157},
   Year = {1989},
   Key = {fds39952}
}

@article{fds270991,
   Author = {Fredrikson, M and Blumenthal, JA and Evans, DD and Sherwood, A and Light, KC},
   Title = {Cardiovascular responses in the laboratory and in the
             natural environment: is blood pressure reactivity to
             laboratory-induced mental stress related to ambulatory blood
             pressure during everyday life?},
   Journal = {Journal of Psychosomatic Research},
   Volume = {33},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {753-762},
   Year = {1989},
   ISSN = {0022-3999},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2621677},
   Abstract = {Cardiovascular activity recorded at rest and during mental
             stress in the laboratory was studied in relation to
             ambulatory recorded cardiovascular activity at work and at
             home. Fifty-five Type A men (M = 42.4 years) underwent a
             standardized laboratory mental stress protocol in which
             systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart
             rate were recorded at baseline and during a 15 min mental
             arithmetic task (MAT). On a subsequent day, ambulatory blood
             pressure and heart rate were recorded at 20 minute intervals
             for 12-14 hr during normal activities at home and at work.
             Subjects completed a behavioral diary concurrently with each
             cuff inflation. High and Low groups were identified based
             upon a median split of their cardiovascular response levels
             at baseline and during the MAT. Subjects with high systolic
             blood pressure levels during the MAT had high systolic blood
             pressure at home, at work, during physical activity, and
             when they reported being 'stressed'. Baseline systolic blood
             pressure in the laboratory was less consistently related to
             ambulatory systolic pressure across ambulatory conditions.
             Diastolic blood pressure at baseline was related to
             ambulatory diastolic blood pressure at work, at home, and
             when resting. Diastolic blood pressure during the MAT was
             associated with higher diastolic pressure at work and at
             home. Heart rate at baseline and during the MAT was related
             to heart rate at work and during physical activity. Change
             scores derived by subtracting mean values during the MAT
             from baseline resting levels were not associated with
             ambulatory blood pressures or heart rates under any daily
             conditions. In the best case, systolic blood pressure
             measured during the MAT was related to systolic blood
             pressure during physical activity, to systolic blood
             pressure and heart rate during mental stress, to systolic
             and diastolic blood pressure at rest, and to systolic blood
             pressure and heart rate at work but not at home. We conclude
             that levels of blood pressure and heart rate measured in the
             laboratory, but not reactivity (i.e, change scores) during
             the MAT, are related to blood pressure and heart rate levels
             recorded in the natural environment, especially in the work
             setting.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0022-3999(89)90091-3},
   Key = {fds270991}
}

@article{fds270995,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Bradley, W and Dimsdale, JE and Kasl, SV and Powell,
             LH},
   Title = {Task Force III: Assessment of psychological status in
             patients with ischemic heart disease},
   Journal = {Journal of the American College of Cardiology},
   Volume = {14},
   Pages = {1016-1042},
   Year = {1989},
   Key = {fds270995}
}

@article{fds270998,
   Author = {Madden, DJ and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Slowing of memory-search performance in men with mild
             hypertension.},
   Journal = {Health Psychology : Official Journal of the Division of
             Health Psychology, American Psychological
             Association},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {131-142},
   Year = {1989},
   ISSN = {0278-6133},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2737172},
   Abstract = {Previous reports have associated hypertension with a slowing
             of cognitive performance, although the component processes
             involved have not been identified. Our report compares the
             performance of 24 men with mild hypertension and 28
             age-matched normotensive men on a test of short-term memory
             search in which the duration of component processes could be
             estimated. The results indicated that the rate of search
             through short-term memory was slower for the hypertensive
             than for the normotensives, whereas the duration of encoding
             and response processes was equivalent for the two groups.
             This hypertension-related slowing of memory comparison was
             independent of participants' error rates and education
             levels.},
   Doi = {10.1037//0278-6133.8.2.131},
   Key = {fds270998}
}

@article{fds271002,
   Author = {Emery, CF and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Effects of Exercise Training on Psychological Functioning in
             Healthy Type A Men},
   Journal = {Psychology & Health},
   Volume = {2},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {367-379},
   Publisher = {Informa UK Limited},
   Year = {1988},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08870448808400360},
   Abstract = {This study was designed to assess the effects of exercise on
             psychological functioning in healthy Type A men.
             Seventy-three middle-aged men (M = 42.2 years) were randomly
             assigned either to an aerobic exercise (AE) training group
             or to a strength and flexibility (SF) training group.
             Subjects completed a comprehensive psychological assessment
             battery prior to beginning the 12-week exercise programs,
             and after completing the programs. The psychological test
             battery included measures of depression, anxiety and stress,
             as well as various psychiatric symptoms. In addition,
             subjects underwent graded exercise treadmill tests (ETT) at
             both times of measurement in order to document changes in
             cardiorespiratory fitness. Aerobic exercise training
             consisted of walking, jogging or stair-climbing at an
             intensity of at least 70% of initial measured maximal oxygen
             consumption (VO2max determined during the treadmill test).
             Strength and flexibility training consisted of circuit
             Nautilus training with no aerobic exercise. Results at the
             conclusion of the 12-week programs indicated that VO2max for
             the AE group increased by 15%, while the SF group did not
             change. Both groups improved on measures of psychological
             well-being; however, there were no differential effects of
             the two exercise programs on measures of psychological
             functioning. These results suggest that improved
             cardiovascular fitness is not necessary for psychological
             improvement among exercise participants. © 1988, Taylor &
             Francis Group, LLC. All rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1080/08870448808400360},
   Key = {fds271002}
}

@article{fds271003,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Madden, DJ},
   Title = {Effects of aerobic exercise training, age, and physical
             fitness on memory-search performance.},
   Journal = {Psychology and Aging},
   Volume = {3},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {280-285},
   Year = {1988},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0882-7974},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3268270},
   Abstract = {We investigated the effects of exercise training on memory
             performance. One group of 13 men (M = 42.92 years of age)
             participated in supervised aerobic exercise (jogging) three
             times a week for 12 weeks. A second group of 15 men (M =
             43.67 years of age) performed anaerobic exercise (strength
             training) for the same period of time. Subjects' reaction
             time (RT) performance in a memory-search task was assessed
             both before (Time 1) and after (Time 2) the 12 weeks of
             exercise training. Results indicated that there was no
             significant change in memory-search performance over time as
             a function of exercise training. Analyses of the Time 2 RTs
             demonstrated that aspects of memory-search performance were
             related significantly both to subjects' initial (Time 1)
             level of fitness and to age, but not to the amount of change
             in fitness associated with aerobic exercise training over
             this 12-week duration in this age group.},
   Doi = {10.1037//0882-7974.3.3.280},
   Key = {fds271003}
}

@article{fds271005,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Emery, CF and Walsh, MA and Cox, DR and Kuhn, CM and Williams, RB and Williams, RS},
   Title = {Exercise training in healthy type A middle-aged men: effects
             on behavioral and cardiovascular responses.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {50},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {418-433},
   Year = {1988},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3413273},
   Abstract = {Thirty-six healthy Type A men (means = 44.4 years) were
             randomly assigned to either an aerobic exercise training
             group or a strength and flexibility training group. Subjects
             completed a comprehensive psychological assessment battery
             before and after the exercise programs consisting of
             behavioral, psychometric, and psychophysiological testing.
             The behavioral assessment consisted of repeated Type A
             interviews that were videotaped for subsequent component
             analyses. The psychometric testing included two self-report
             questionnaires to assess Type A behavior. The
             psychophysiological test consisted of a standard behavioral
             challenge, a mental arithmetic task, performed while
             cardiovascular responses were monitored. Aerobic exercise
             (AE) training consisted of 12 weeks of continuous walking or
             jogging at an intensity of at least 70% of subjects' initial
             maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) as determined by an
             initial treadmill test. Strength and flexibility (SF)
             training consisted of 12 weeks of circuit Nautilus training
             with no aerobic exercise. After 12 weeks of exercise, the AE
             group increased their VO2max by 15%, while the SF group did
             not change. Both groups experienced decreases in overt
             behavioral manifestations of the Type A behavior pattern and
             self-reported Type A traits. However, the AE group showed an
             attenuation of heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood
             pressure, and estimated myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2)
             during the task and had lower blood pressure, heart rate,
             and (MVO2) during recovery. In contrast, the SF group showed
             a significant reduction only in DBP during the task, which
             was likely due to habituation. These results support the use
             of aerobic exercise as a method for reducing cardiovascular
             risk among healthy Type A men.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00006842-198807000-00009},
   Key = {fds271005}
}

@article{fds271004,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Emery, CF},
   Title = {Rehabilitation of patients following myocardial
             infarction.},
   Journal = {Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology},
   Volume = {56},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {374-381},
   Year = {1988},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0022-006X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3294263},
   Doi = {10.1037//0022-006x.56.3.374},
   Key = {fds271004}
}

@article{fds289617,
   Author = {Madden, DJ and Blumenthal, JA and Ekelund, LG},
   Title = {Effects of beta-blockade and exercise on cardiovascular and
             cognitive functioning.},
   Journal = {Hypertension},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {470-476},
   Year = {1988},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0194-911X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2896635},
   Keywords = {Adrenergic beta-Antagonists • Adult • Atenolol
             • Blood Pressure • Diastole • Heart Rate
             • Hemodynamics* • Humans • Hypertension
             • Male • Memory* • Middle Aged • Oxygen
             Consumption • Physical Exertion* • Propranolol
             • Systole • drug effects • pharmacology
             • pharmacology* • physiopathology* •
             psychology},
   Abstract = {Twenty-four men with mild essential hypertension were
             assigned randomly to receive propranolol (n = 9), atenolol
             (n = 7), or a placebo (n = 8). All subjects participated in
             a 12-week study and provided physiological and behavioral
             data four times during the study: after a medication-free
             baseline period (Session 1); after 2 weeks of medication,
             without exercise (Session 2); after 8 weeks of continued
             medication while participating in a program of aerobic
             exercise (Session 3); and after 2 weeks of maintenance
             exercise without medication (Session 4). Subjects' maximal
             oxygen uptake increased significantly between Sessions 2 and
             3, and the magnitude of this increase did not vary across
             the drug groups. Subjects' resting heart rates varied as a
             function of the presence of beta-blocking medication, but
             there was in addition a reduction attributable to exercise
             training that did not vary across the drug groups. The
             decrease in blood pressure associated with beta-blockade
             (Session 2) was not decreased any further by exercise
             training (Session 3). Despite an increase in blood pressure
             following the withdrawal of active medication (Session 4),
             blood pressure remained significantly lower compared with
             the Session 1 baseline level. Performance in a reaction-time
             test of short-term memory functioning improved slightly for
             all three groups between Sessions 1 and 2 and remained
             constant thereafter.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250
             WORDS)},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1161/01.hyp.11.5.470},
   Key = {fds289617}
}

@article{fds271008,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Madden, DJ and Krantz, DS and Light, KC and McKee,
             DC and Ekelund, LG and Simon, J},
   Title = {Short-term behavioral effects of beta-adrenergic medications
             in men with mild hypertension.},
   Journal = {Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics},
   Volume = {43},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {429-435},
   Year = {1988},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0009-9236},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3356086},
   Abstract = {beta-Adrenergic-inhibiting drugs are widely prescribed for
             the treatment of hypertension. These drugs have previously
             been found to influence a variety of psychologic and
             behavioral functions and have, in some cases, been
             associated with serious psychiatric side effects. The
             present study examined psychologic changes associated with
             beta-blockade therapy. Twenty-six men with mild hypertension
             (diastolic blood pressure 90 to 110 mm Hg) were randomly
             assigned to receive either a selective beta 1-antagonist
             (atenolol), a nonselective beta 1- and beta 2-antagonist
             (propranolol), or a placebo. Both before and after a 2-week
             period of drug administration, subjects completed a
             comprehensive assessment of quality of life including
             measures of mood, memory performance, and side effects. In
             general, beta-blocker therapy was associated with relatively
             few adverse symptoms, particularly when compared with
             control subjects taking placebo. Reductions in negative
             emotional states (tension and anger) were observed for
             subjects receiving atenolol, and the largest improvements in
             memory performance were observed for subjects receiving
             propranolol. These results suggest that beta-blocker therapy
             is not invariably associated with negative side effects and
             that some behavioral functions may actually be
             improved.},
   Doi = {10.1038/clpt.1988.54},
   Key = {fds271008}
}

@article{fds271006,
   Author = {Williams, RB and Barefoot, JC and Haney, TL and Harrell, FE and Blumenthal, JA and Pryor, DB and Peterson, B},
   Title = {Type A behavior and angiographically documented coronary
             atherosclerosis in a sample of 2,289 patients.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {50},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {139-152},
   Year = {1988},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3375404},
   Abstract = {To determine the relationship between Type A behavior
             pattern and angiographically documented coronary
             atherosclerosis (CAD), we analyzed risk factor, behavioral,
             and angiographic data collected on 2,289 patients undergoing
             diagnostic coronary angiography at Duke University Medical
             Center between 1974 and 1980. Multivariable analyses using
             ordinal logistic regression techniques showed that Type A
             behavior as assessed by the structured interview (SI) is
             significantly associated with CAD severity after age, sex,
             hyperlipidemia, smoking, hypertension, and their various
             significant interactions were controlled for. This
             relationship, however, is dependent upon age. Among patients
             aged 45 or younger, Type A's had more severe CAD than did
             Type B's; among patients aged 46-54, CAD severity was
             similar between Type A's and B's; and among patients 55 and
             older, there was a trend toward more severe CAD among Type
             B's than among Type A's. These Type A-CAD relationships did
             not appear to be the result of various factors relating to
             the selection of patients for angiography. Type A behavior
             as assessed by the Jenkins Activity Survey was unrelated to
             CAD severity. These findings suggest that SI-determined Type
             A behavior is associated with more severe CAD among younger
             patients referred for diagnostic coronary angiography. The
             reversal of the Type A-CAD relationship among older patients
             may be due to survival effects. Inadequate sample sizes, use
             of assessment tools other than the SI, and failure to
             consider the Type A by age interaction could account for
             failures to find a Type A-CAD relationship in other studies.
             We conclude that the present findings are consistent with
             the hypothesis that Type A behavior is involved in the
             pathogenesis of CAD, but only in younger age groups. The
             Type A effect in the present data is small relative to that
             of both smoking and hyperlipidemia, however, and future
             research should focus more specifically on the hostility and
             anger components of Type A behavior, particularly in younger
             samples.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00006842-198803000-00004},
   Key = {fds271006}
}

@article{fds270632,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Emery, CF and Rejeski, WJ},
   Title = {The effects of exercise training on psychosocial functioning
             after myocardial infarction},
   Journal = {Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {183-193},
   Publisher = {Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)},
   Year = {1988},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00008483-198805000-00003},
   Abstract = {This study was designed to assess the effects of exercise on
             psychosocial functioning in a consecutive series of post
             myocardial infarction (MI) patients referred for cardiac
             rehabilitation. Seventy patients with a recent (less than 1
             year) MI were randomly assigned to either a program of
             moderate-high (65-75% V̇O2 max) or low (< 45% V̇O2 max)
             intensity exercise training for 12 weeks. In addition to
             exercise treadmill testing, subjects completed an extensive
             psychometric test battery including measures of anxiety,
             depression, stress, and Type A behavior. Although both
             groups increased their level of cardiorespiratory fitness by
             15%, no differences were found in any measures of
             psychosocial functioning. However, those patients who were
             initially depressed improved at the completion of the
             program. The clinical significance of these findings are
             discussed.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00008483-198805000-00003},
   Key = {fds270632}
}

@article{fds271001,
   Author = {Fredrikson, M and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Lipids, catecholamines, and cardiovascular responses to
             stress in patients recovering from myocardial
             infarction},
   Journal = {Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {513-517},
   Publisher = {Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)},
   Year = {1988},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00008483-198812200-00003},
   Abstract = {This study examined the relationship of serum lipids to
             cardiovascular and neuroendocrine responses to a behavioral
             stressor, the mental arithmetic test (MAT). Forty-two men
             with a recent (<1 year) myocardial infarction (MI) underwent
             assessment of blood lipids and cardiovascular and
             catecholamine responses to the MAT. Subjects with a high
             ratio of total cholesterol (TC) to high-density lipoprotein
             cholesterol (HDLC) displayed greater levels of epinephrine
             and norepinephrine to the MAT compared with patients with a
             low TC/HDLC ratio. Classification of subjects based on their
             level of neuroendocrine responses to the MAT yielded similar
             results. These data suggest that catecholamine responses to
             stress are associated with high levels of serum cholesterol.
             The results are discussed in terms of how catecholamine
             reactivity and elevated blood lipids may increase the risk
             for developing coronary heart disease (CHD).},
   Doi = {10.1097/00008483-198812200-00003},
   Key = {fds271001}
}

@article{fds271009,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Rejeski, WJ and Walsh-Riddle, M and Emery, CF and Miller, H and Roark, S and Ribisl, PM and Morris, PB and Brubaker, P and Williams, RS},
   Title = {Comparison of high- and low-intensity exercise training
             early after acute myocardial infarction.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Cardiology},
   Volume = {61},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {26-30},
   Year = {1988},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0002-9149},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3337013},
   Abstract = {The effects of the intensity of exercise training on
             cardiorespiratory variables were investigated in a
             consecutive series of men with recent (median 8 weeks) acute
             myocardial infarction. Forty-five patients were randomly
             assigned either to a high- (65 to 75% maximum oxygen
             consumption rate [VO2max]) or to a low-intensity (less than
             45% VO2max) exercise group. Patients engaged in medically
             supervised aerobic training 3 sessions a week for 12 weeks.
             With training, mean VO2max significantly increased by 11%
             (2.09 to 2.31 liters/min) within the high group and by 14%
             (1.93 to 2.21 liters/min) within the low group. Differences
             between groups were not statistically significant. Both
             groups also had comparable changes in heart rate, blood
             pressure and double-product at submaximal and maximal
             workloads. Analysis of blood lipids revealed that both
             groups experienced a significant increase in high density
             lipoprotein cholesterol. There were no significant changes
             in total serum cholesterol or triglycerides. These findings
             suggest that within an unselected population of patients
             after acute myocardial infarction referred for cardiac
             rehabilitation, low- and high-intensity exercise training
             produces relatively similar changes in cardiorespiratory
             variables during the initial 3 months of exercise
             training.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0002-9149(88)91298-2},
   Key = {fds271009}
}

@article{fds271007,
   Author = {Madden, DJ and Blumenthal, JA and Ekelund, LG},
   Title = {Effects of beta blockade and exercise on cardiovascular and
             cognitive functioning},
   Journal = {Hypertension},
   Volume = {11},
   Pages = {466-470},
   Year = {1988},
   Key = {fds271007}
}

@article{fds271010,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Barefoot, J and Burg, MM and Williams,
             RB},
   Title = {Psychological correlates of hostility among patients
             undergoing coronary angiography.},
   Journal = {The British Journal of Medical Psychology},
   Volume = {60 ( Pt 4)},
   Pages = {349-355},
   Year = {1987},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0007-1129},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3426973},
   Abstract = {The Cook-Medley Hostility (Ho) scale (Cook & Medley, 1954)
             has been associated with increased risk for coronary heart
             disease (CHD). There is relatively little information about
             the psychosocial correlates of the Ho scale in clinical or
             adult populations, however. In this study, 132 patients
             (mean age = 53 years) referred for diagnostic coronary
             angiography completed a battery of self-report
             questionnaires including the Minnesota Multiphasic
             Personality Inventory (MMPI), Hopkins Symptom Check List
             (SCL-90), State-Trait Personality Inventory (STPI), Type A
             Self-Rating Inventory (TASRI), and Perceived Social Support
             Scale (PSSS). Examination of the pattern of correlations
             among the Ho scale and the psychometric instruments revealed
             that the Ho scale may be viewed as tapping four general
             behavioural dimensions including anger and hostility,
             neuroticism, social maladjustment and ineffective coping
             style. These findings serve to further understanding about
             the psychological dimensions of hostility as measured by the
             Cook-Medley Ho scale.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.2044-8341.1987.tb02754.x},
   Key = {fds271010}
}

@article{fds271013,
   Author = {Gentry, WD and Aronson, MK and Blumenthal, J and Costa, PT and DiGiacomo, JN},
   Title = {Cardiovascular disease in the elderly. Behavioral, cognitive
             and emotional considerations.},
   Journal = {Journal of the American College of Cardiology},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {2 Suppl A},
   Pages = {38A-41A},
   Year = {1987},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0735-1097},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0735-1097(87)80446-1},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0735-1097(87)80446-1},
   Key = {fds271013}
}

@article{fds271014,
   Author = {Herd, JA and Wood, AJ and Blumenthal, J and Dougherty, JE and Harris,
             R},
   Title = {Medical therapy in the elderly.},
   Journal = {Journal of the American College of Cardiology},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {2 Suppl A},
   Pages = {29A-34A},
   Year = {1987},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0735-1097},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0735-1097(87)80444-8},
   Abstract = {Recommendations concerning nutrition and physical activity
             are an important part of health care in the elderly. There
             is increasing evidence that diet and exercise influence the
             development and progression of cardiovascular disease in the
             elderly as well as the young. Decreases in coronary risk
             factors can be achieved in the elderly by attention to
             proper diet and exercise.},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0735-1097(87)80444-8},
   Key = {fds271014}
}

@article{fds270762,
   Author = {Costa, PT and Krantz, DS and Blumenthal, JA and Furberg, CD and Rosenman, RH and Shekelle, RB},
   Title = {Psychological risk factors in coronary artery
             disease.},
   Journal = {Circulation},
   Volume = {76},
   Number = {1 Pt 2},
   Pages = {I145-I149},
   Year = {1987},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0009-7322},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3297398},
   Keywords = {Age Factors • Coronary Disease • Humans •
             Neurotic Disorders • Prospective Studies • Risk
             • Sex Factors • Type A Personality* •
             complications • psychology*},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds270762}
}

@article{fds270767,
   Author = {Chesney, MA and Agras, WS and Benson, H and Blumenthal, JA and Engel,
             BT and Foreyt, JP and Kaufmann, PG and Levenson, RM and Pickering, TG and Randall, WC},
   Title = {Nonpharmacologic approaches to the treatment of
             hypertension.},
   Journal = {Circulation},
   Volume = {76},
   Number = {1 Pt 2},
   Pages = {I104-I109},
   Year = {1987},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0009-7322},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3297392},
   Keywords = {Behavior Therapy • Biofeedback, Psychology • Blood
             Pressure • Diet, Reducing • Exercise Therapy
             • Humans • Hypertension • Relaxation Therapy
             • diet therapy • therapy*},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds270767}
}

@article{fds271011,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Burg, MM and Barefoot, J and Williams, RB and Haney,
             T and Zimet, G},
   Title = {Social support, type A behavior, and coronary artery
             disease.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {49},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {331-340},
   Year = {1987},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3615762},
   Abstract = {The interaction of Type A behavior and social support in
             relation to the degree of coronary artery disease (CAD)
             severity was investigated. One hundred thirteen patients
             undergoing diagnostic coronary angiography received the Type
             A structured interview (SI) and completed a battery of
             psychometric tests, including the Perceived Social Support
             Scale (PSSS). Statistical analyses revealed a Type by social
             support interaction, such that the probability of
             significant CAD was inversely related to the level of social
             support for Type As but not Type Bs. Type As with low levels
             of social support had more severe CAD than Type As with high
             levels of social support. On the other hand, this
             relationship was not present for Type Bs. These results are
             consistent with the hypothesis that social support moderates
             the long-term health consequences of the Type A behavior
             pattern.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00006842-198707000-00002},
   Key = {fds271011}
}

@article{fds271012,
   Author = {BLUMENTHAL, JA and LEVENSON, RM},
   Title = {BEHAVIORAL-APPROACHES TO SECONDARY PREVENTION OF CORONARY
             HEART-DISEASE},
   Journal = {Circulation},
   Volume = {76},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {130-137},
   Year = {1987},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0009-7322},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1987J078300022&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Abstract = {Over the past 10 years behavioral approaches to the
             treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD) have become widely
             recognized as being a significant complement to traditional
             medical and surgical therapies. The success of approaches to
             secondary prevention now relate to quality, as well as
             quantity, of life. A multifaceted program, including dietary
             management, smoking cessation, physical exercise,
             modification of type A behavior, and psychological
             counseling are components of many cardiac rehabilitation
             programs. Behavioral interventions are effective in reducing
             traditional risk factors for CHD events, and for improving
             the quality of life among victims of a disease with
             significant psychological, as well as physical,
             consequences. However, the effectiveness of behavioral
             interventions for prolonging life is less certain and
             requires more careful evaluation. The mechanisms by which
             behavioral treatments may influence clinical CHD end points
             is also in need of further investigation.},
   Key = {fds271012}
}

@article{fds270746,
   Author = {Bergold, PJ and Blumenthal, JA and D'Andrea, E and Snyder, HW and Lederman, L and Silverstone, A and Nguyen, H and Besmer,
             P},
   Title = {Nucleic acid sequence and oncogenic properties of the HZ2
             feline sarcoma virus v-abl insert.},
   Journal = {Journal of Virology},
   Volume = {61},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1193-1202},
   Year = {1987},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0022-538X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3029415},
   Keywords = {Amino Acid Sequence • Animals • Base Sequence
             • Cell Line • Cloning, Molecular • DNA •
             DNA Restriction Enzymes • Gene Products, gag •
             Genes • Genes, Viral* • Mink • Oncogenes*
             • Retroviridae • Retroviridae Proteins •
             Sarcoma Viruses, Feline • Viral Proteins •
             genetics • genetics* • metabolism},
   Abstract = {Hardy-Zuckerman 2 feline sarcoma virus (HZ2-FeSV), isolated
             from a multicentric feline fibrosarcoma is a
             replication-defective acute transforming feline retrovirus
             which originated by transduction of feline c-abl sequences
             with feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and is known to encode a
             110-kilodalton gag-abl fusion protein with tyrosine-specific
             protein kinase activity (P. Besmer, W. D. Hardy, E. E.
             Zuckerman, P. J. Bergold, L. Lederman, and H. W. Snyder,
             Nature (London) 303:825-828, 1983). The nucleotide sequence
             of the abl segment in the HZ2-FeSV genome was determined and
             compared with the murine and human v-abl and c-abl
             sequences. The predicted transforming protein consists of
             344 amino acids (aa) of FeLV gag origin, 439 aa of abl
             origin, and at least 200 aa of FeLV pol origin
             (p110gag-abl-pol). The 1,317-base-pair HZ2-FeSV v-abl
             segment (fv-abl) corresponds to 5' abl sequences which
             include the region known to specify the protein kinase
             domain. The 5' 189 base pairs of fv-abl correspond to 5'
             c-abl sequences not contained in Abelson murine leukemia
             virus (MuLV) v-abl. The mouse c-abl exon which contains
             these segments was identified, and its nucleotide sequence
             was determined. Comparison of the predicted amino acid
             sequence of fv-abl with those of Abelson MuLV v-abl and
             c-abl revealed five aa differences. The 5' junction between
             FeLV and abl was found to involve a preferred region in FeLV
             gag p30 (P. Besmer, J. E. Murphy, P. C. George, F. H. Qiu,
             P. J. Bergold, L. Lederman, H. W. Snyder, D. Brodeur, E. E.
             Zuckerman, and W. D. Hardy, Nature (London) 320:415-421,
             1986). A six-base homology exists at the recombination site
             between the parental FeLV and the c-abl sequences. The 3'
             junction between fv-abl and FeLV pol predicts an in-frame
             fusion of fv-abl and FeLV pol. A transformed cell line
             containing a truncated gag-abl-pol protein, p85, that lacks
             most of the FeLV pol sequences was obtained by transfection
             of NIH 3T3 mouse cells. This result implies that the pol
             sequences of the p110gag-abl-pol protein are dispensable for
             fibroblast transformation. To assess whether the fv-abl
             segment specifies the unique biological properties of
             HZ2-FeSV, we constructed a Moloney MuLV-based version of
             HZ2-FeSV, Mo-MuLV(fv-abl), in which the fv-abl sequences
             were contained in a genetic context similar to that in
             HZ2-FeSV.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds270746}
}

@article{fds271015,
   Author = {Costa, PT and Krantz, DS and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Task force 2: Psychological risk factors in coronary artery
             disease},
   Journal = {Circulation},
   Volume = {76},
   Number = {1 II SUPPL.},
   Pages = {I145-I149},
   Year = {1987},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds271015}
}

@article{fds270630,
   Author = {Hooker, K and Blumenthal, JA and Siegler, I},
   Title = {Relationships between motivation and hostility among type A
             and type B middle-aged men},
   Journal = {Journal of Research in Personality},
   Volume = {21},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {103-113},
   Year = {1987},
   ISSN = {0092-6566},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0092-6566(87)90001-8},
   Abstract = {Relationships between aspects of personality and the Type A
             behavior pattern (TABP) were examined in a sample of 60
             middle-aged men. TABP classification was determined by the
             Structured Interview (SI) and the Jenkins Activity Survey
             (JAS), while aspects of personality functioning were
             measured by the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) and the
             Jackson Personality Research Form (PRF). It was hypothesized
             that Type A men would score higher than Type B men on the
             motivational drives of need for achievement and need for
             power, and that there would be proportionately more Type As
             than Bs displaying the Inhibited Power Motive Syndrome
             (IPMS). The Aggression and Defendence scales of the PRF were
             combined to form a measure of hostility (PRF-hostility) and
             relationships between need for power, hostility, and TABP
             were examined. Results showed that these motivational
             variables were not directly related to TABP. However, there
             was a strong interaction such that Type As high in need for
             power tended to score highly on PRF-hostility and Type Bs
             high in need for power tended to rate themselves as low on
             PRF-hostility. This suggests that need for power may play a
             role in the expression of hostility, and that this differs
             for Type A and Type B middle-aged men. ©
             1987.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0092-6566(87)90001-8},
   Key = {fds270630}
}

@article{fds270773,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Levenson, RM},
   Title = {Behavioral approaches to secondary prevention of coronary
             heart disease},
   Journal = {Circulation},
   Volume = {76},
   Number = {1 II SUPPL.},
   Pages = {I-130-I-137},
   Year = {1987},
   ISSN = {0009-7322},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3297396},
   Keywords = {Behavior Therapy* • Body Weight • Clinical Trials
             as Topic • Coronary Disease • Counseling •
             Diet • Exercise Therapy • Humans • Risk
             • Smoking • Stress, Psychological • Type A
             Personality* • prevention & control • prevention &
             control* • psychology},
   Abstract = {Over the past 10 years behavioral approaches to the
             treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD) have become widely
             recognized as being a significant complement to traditional
             medical and surgical therapies. The success of approaches to
             secondary prevention now relate to quality, as well as
             quantity, of life. A multifaceted program, including dietary
             management, smoking cessation, physical exercise,
             modification of type A behavior, and psychological
             counseling are components of many cardiac rehabilitation
             programs. Behavioral interventions are effective in reducing
             traditional risk factors for CHD events, and for improving
             the quality of life among victims of a disease with
             significant psychological, as well as physical,
             consequences. However, the effectiveness of behavioral
             interventions for prolonging life is less certain and
             requires more careful evaluation. The mechanisms by which
             behavioral treatments may influence clinical CHD end points
             is also in need of further investigation.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds270773}
}

@article{fds270741,
   Author = {Keefe, FJ and Castell, PJ and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Angina pectoris in type A and type B cardiac
             patients.},
   Journal = {Pain},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {211-218},
   Year = {1986},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0304-3959},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3797016},
   Keywords = {Adaptation, Psychological • Angina Pectoris •
             Exercise Test • Female • Heart Diseases •
             Humans • Male • Pain Measurement • Stress,
             Psychological • Type A Personality* •
             physiopathology • psychology*},
   Abstract = {The type A behavior pattern is characterized by excessive
             competitive drive, a sense of time urgency, enhanced
             aggressiveness, hostility and a persistent desire for
             recognition. Type A behaviour is widely recognized as a risk
             factor in coronary heart disease. This study investigated
             whether type As and Bs differ in their experience of pain
             and pain coping efforts. A group of type A (n = 35) and a
             group of type B (n = 19) cardiac disease patients served as
             subjects. All subjects underwent diagnostic treadmill
             testing and were compared on a variety of pain measures.
             There were no differences between type As and Bs in age,
             sex, presence of state or trait anxiety or severity of
             cardiac disease. Type A patients, however, were much more
             likely than type Bs to be classified on the New York Heart
             Association (NYHA) functional angina scale as having more
             severe pain and functional limitation. Type As were also
             less likely to use pain coping strategies to deal with their
             pain. Those who assess pain and functional impairment in
             cardiac patients using the NYHA scale should be aware that
             type A personality characteristics may affect their
             assessments. Type A patients who tend to make little use of
             pain coping strategies may benefit from systematic training
             in pain control methods. Additional research is needed to
             examine whether type A-B differences in pain and pain coping
             strategies may affect risks of coronary morbidity and
             mortality.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/0304-3959(86)90212-5},
   Key = {fds270741}
}

@article{fds271019,
   Author = {Williams, RB and Haney, TL and McKinnis, RA and Harrell, FE and Lee, KL and Pryor, DB and Califf, R and Kong, YH and Rosati, RA and Blumenthal,
             JA},
   Title = {Psychosocial and physical predictors of anginal pain relief
             with medical management.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {48},
   Number = {3-4},
   Pages = {200-210},
   Year = {1986},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2871582},
   Abstract = {This study was undertaken to identify psychosocial and
             physical characteristics that independently predict anginal
             pain relief. The original study group comprised over 570
             patients in whom the characteristics were identified at the
             time of coronary arteriography and who were followed up
             after 6 months of standard medical therapy. In the subset of
             382 of these patients who were assessed as having NYHA Class
             III or IV angina at the time of angiography, a multivariable
             analysis of 101 baseline descriptors showed that higher
             scores on the MMPI hypochondriasis scale, unemployment, and
             more severe right coronary occlusion were significant
             independent predictors of failure to achieve two-class
             improvement at follow-up. These three characteristics also
             predicted continuing severe angina in a subsequent,
             independent sample of 91 new patients. These findings could
             help physicians select appropriate treatment by
             prospectively identifying patients who are unlikely to
             respond to standard medical treatment of
             angina.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00006842-198603000-00005},
   Key = {fds271019}
}

@article{fds271020,
   Author = {Herman, S and Blumenthal, JA and Haney, T and Williams, RB and Barefoot,
             J},
   Title = {Type As who think they are type Bs: discrepancies between
             self-ratings and interview ratings of the type A
             (coronary-prone) behaviour pattern.},
   Journal = {The British Journal of Medical Psychology},
   Volume = {59 ( Pt 1)},
   Pages = {83-88},
   Year = {1986},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0007-1129},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3964590},
   Abstract = {The study described here explored discrepancies between
             self-ratings and interview ratings of Type A behaviour. A
             total of 281 patients referred for diagnostic coronary
             angiography underwent a comprehensive psychological
             assessment including the Type A structured interview (SI),
             the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and
             two self-report measures of Type A behaviour, the Jenkins
             Activity Survey (JAS) and the Type A Self-Rating Inventory
             (TASRI). Two subgroups of patients were identified--Type A
             subjects whose Type A self-ratings were consistent with the
             SI classification, and subjects who obtained low self-rating
             scores and yet were classified as Type A by the SI. A
             comparison of the MMPI profiles showed that the discordant
             Type As scored lower on MMPI scales 9 (Ma) and 4 (Pd), and
             higher on scales 0 (Si), 2 (D) and F. The personality
             attributes associated with this MMPI pattern are more
             consistent with individual self-reports of Type A behaviour
             than observer ratings during the SI.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.2044-8341.1986.tb02669.x},
   Key = {fds271020}
}

@article{fds271016,
   Author = {Keefe, FJ and Castell, PJ and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Angina pectorisin type A and type B cardiac
             patients},
   Journal = {Pain},
   Volume = {24},
   Pages = {1-218},
   Year = {1986},
   Key = {fds271016}
}

@article{fds271017,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Barefoot, JC and Haney, T},
   Title = {Communication to the editor: Response to
             Bass},
   Journal = {Journal of Psychosomatic Research},
   Volume = {30},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {387},
   Year = {1986},
   ISSN = {0022-3999},
   Key = {fds271017}
}

@article{fds271018,
   Author = {Madden, DJ and Blumenthal, JA and Ekelund, LG and Krantz, DS and Light,
             KC and McKee, DC},
   Title = {Memory performance by mild hypertensives following
             beta-adrenergic blockade.},
   Journal = {Psychopharmacology},
   Volume = {89},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {20-24},
   Year = {1986},
   ISSN = {0033-3158},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3090588},
   Abstract = {Previous experiments have reported deficits in cognitive
             performance following the administration of
             beta-adrenoceptor antagonists. These deficits have not
             appeared consistently, however, and it is not clear from
             previous studies whether changes in the central nervous
             system, rather than end-organ functioning, are responsible.
             The present experiment investigated the effects of beta
             blockade in a memory-search paradigm that distinguished the
             relatively central process of memory comparison from the
             more peripheral processes of stimulus encoding and response
             selection. Twenty-six adult men with mild essential
             hypertension received either a placebo or a beta blocker
             (atenolol or propranolol) for 2 weeks. Although beta
             blockade did occur in the active drug groups, there were no
             significant effects of the drugs on memory-search
             performance.},
   Doi = {10.1007/bf00175183},
   Key = {fds271018}
}

@article{fds304907,
   Author = {Blumenthal, J and Barefoot, J and Haney, T},
   Title = {Anxiety-proneness and coronary heart disease.},
   Journal = {Journal of Psychosomatic Research},
   Volume = {30},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {387},
   Year = {1986},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3999(86)90018-8},
   Doi = {10.1016/0022-3999(86)90018-8},
   Key = {fds304907}
}

@article{fds271021,
   Author = {Harbin, TJ and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Relationships among age, sex, the type A behavior pattern,
             and cardiovascular reactivity.},
   Journal = {Journal of Gerontology},
   Volume = {40},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {714-720},
   Year = {1985},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0022-1422},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4056327},
   Abstract = {Most investigations of Type A behavior and cardiovascular
             responsivity have used age-homogeneous, male samples. In
             this study, heart rate (HR) and blood pressure responses
             were obtained from men and women, age 27 to 70, during
             mental arithmetic and a visual discrimination task called
             the Matching Familiar Figures test (MFF). Both tasks
             produced HR deceleration in Type A women and acceleration in
             Type B women, responses that decreased with age. Men's
             responses were not related to Type A behavior or age.
             Systolic pressure decreased in response to the MFF. This
             response became larger with age in Type Bs and smaller in
             Type As. Diastolic pressure also decreased during the MFF.
             Response amplitude increased with age in Type Bs but was
             unrelated to age in Type As. The results of this study
             indicate that the relationship between cardiovascular
             responding and Type A behavior is complex and may be
             different for men and women and for persons of different
             ages.},
   Doi = {10.1093/geronj/40.6.714},
   Key = {fds271021}
}

@article{fds271024,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Rose, S and Chang, JL},
   Title = {Anorexia nervosa and exercise. Implications from recent
             findings.},
   Journal = {Sports Medicine (Auckland, N.Z.)},
   Volume = {2},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {237-247},
   Year = {1985},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0112-1642},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3849055},
   Doi = {10.2165/00007256-198502040-00001},
   Key = {fds271024}
}

@article{fds271027,
   Author = {Dembroski, TM and MacDougall, JM and Williams, RB and Haney, TL and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Components of Type A, hostility, and anger-in: relationship
             to angiographic findings.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {47},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {219-233},
   Year = {1985},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4001281},
   Abstract = {Previous research has linked the Type A coronary-prone
             behavior pattern to angiographically documented severity of
             coronary atherosclerosis (CAD). The present study sought
             through component scoring of the Type A Structured Interview
             (SI) to determine what elements of the multidimensional Type
             A pattern are related to coronary disease severity in a
             selected group of patients with minimal or severe CAD.
             Multivariate analyses controlling for the major risk factors
             showed no relationship between global Type A and extent of
             disease. Of all attributes measured, only Potential for
             Hostility and Anger-In were significantly and positively
             associated with the disease severity, including angina
             symptoms and number of myocardial infarctions. Further
             analysis revealed that Potential for Hostility and Anger-In
             were interactive in their association, such that Potential
             for Hostility was associated with disease endpoints only for
             patients who were high on the Anger-In dimension. These
             findings support previous research in suggesting that anger
             and hostility may be the critical aspects of the Type A
             pattern in predisposing individuals to risk of
             CAD.},
   Key = {fds271027}
}

@article{fds271028,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Herman, S},
   Title = {Age differences in self-perceptions of type A
             traits.},
   Journal = {Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology},
   Volume = {53},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {264-266},
   Year = {1985},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0022-006X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3998254},
   Doi = {10.1037//0022-006x.53.2.264},
   Key = {fds271028}
}

@article{fds291313,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {In Reply},
   Journal = {Jama},
   Volume = {253},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {980},
   Publisher = {American Medical Association (AMA)},
   Year = {1985},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0098-7484},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1985.03350310061019},
   Doi = {10.1001/jama.1985.03350310061019},
   Key = {fds291313}
}

@article{fds270796,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Relaxation therapy, biofeedback, and behavioral
             medicine},
   Journal = {Psychotherapy (Chicago, Ill.)},
   Volume = {22},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {516-530},
   Publisher = {American Psychological Association (APA)},
   Year = {1985},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0085536},
   Abstract = {Psychologists have become increasingly involved in the
             assessment and treatment of patients with medical disorders.
             A new field known as Behavioral Medicine has recently
             emerged as an area concerned with the integration of
             behavioral and biomedical science. This development has been
             especially visible in the application of relaxation
             therapies and biofeedback in the treatment of patients with
             a variety of medical disorders. This article reviews the
             major forms of relaxation and biofeedback, and discusses the
             current clinical applications for such conditions as pain,
             cardiovascular disorders, and neurological abnormalities.
             Future directions for research and clinical activities are
             discussed.},
   Doi = {10.1037/h0085536},
   Key = {fds270796}
}

@article{fds271026,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Psychologic assessment in cardiac rehabilitation},
   Journal = {Journal of Cardiac Rehabilitation},
   Volume = {5},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {208-215},
   Year = {1985},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a condition with significant
             psychologic and social, as well as physical, consequences.
             As such, psychologic assessment is an important component of
             any cardiac rehabilitation (CR) program. A multidimensional
             framework is proposed, with particular emphasis on five
             psychosocial domains: Personality function and
             psychopathology, neuropsychologic function, physical health
             status, stress and type A behavior, and social and work
             adjustment. The results of the psychologic assessment should
             emphasize the relative strengths and adaptive resources of
             the patient, as well as problem areas. Efforts should also
             be made to integrate psychologic test results with
             evaluations from other disciplines within the CR team so
             that a coordinated treatment program can be formulated. ©
             1985 The American Burn Association.},
   Key = {fds271026}
}

@article{fds289615,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and O’toole, LC and Chang, JL},
   Title = {Is running an analogue of anorexia nervosa? an empirical
             study of obligatory running and anorexia
             nervosa},
   Journal = {Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey},
   Volume = {40},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {94-96},
   Year = {1985},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0029-7828},
   Key = {fds289615}
}

@article{fds271023,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Lane, JD and Williams, RB},
   Title = {The inhibited power motive, type A behavior, and patterns of
             cardiovascular response during the structured interview and
             Thematic Apperception Test.},
   Journal = {Journal of Human Stress},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {82-92},
   Year = {1985},
   ISSN = {0097-840X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3843112},
   Abstract = {The Type A behavior pattern and the inhibited power motive
             have been implicated in the development of coronary heart
             disease (CHD). Since it is widely believed that enhanced
             cardiovascular responsivity may be one mechanism by which
             individuals develop CHD, the present study examined the
             relationship of Type A behavior and the inhibited power
             motive to different patterns of cardiovascular response
             during two behavioral tasks. Forty-one (24 Type A's, 17 Type
             B's) male undergraduates underwent the Type A structured
             interview (SI) and the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
             while a broad range of cardiovascular functions were
             simultaneously recorded. Different patterns of
             cardiovascular response were observed during the SI and TAT,
             and Type A's showed a greater tendency than Type B's to
             exhibit increased heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure
             (SBP), and forearm blood flow (FBF) during the SI and the
             preparatory phase (but not the story-telling phase) of the
             TAT. The inhibited power motive was not related to enhanced
             cardiovascular responsivity during the SI or TAT. The
             implications of these findings for the development of CHD
             are discussed.},
   Doi = {10.1080/0097840X.1985.9936743},
   Key = {fds271023}
}

@article{fds271025,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Herman, S and O'Toole, LC and Haney, TL and Williams,
             RB and Barefoot, JC},
   Title = {Development of a brief self-report measure of the type A
             (coronary prone) behavior pattern.},
   Journal = {Journal of Psychosomatic Research},
   Volume = {29},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {265-274},
   Year = {1985},
   ISSN = {0022-3999},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4032325},
   Abstract = {This study reports the development of a brief self-report
             measure of the Type A behavior pattern based upon a set of
             adjectives derived from the Gough Adjective Checklist (ACL).
             Previous work from our laboratory established a set of
             adjectives identified by experts as being relevant to the
             Type A construct that subsequently was found to successfully
             distinguish Type A individuals from their Type B
             counterparts. In the present study, a Type A self-rating
             scale based on these adjectives was found to be
             significantly related to an established Type A self-report
             instrument, the Jenkins Activity Survey (JAS), and to an
             independent behavioral rating based upon a standard
             structured interview (SI). However, no measure of Type A was
             related to the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) as
             documented by coronary angiography. The advantages and
             disadvantages of the various Type A measures are discussed
             in the context of their ability to identify individuals at
             risk for the development of CAD.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0022-3999(85)90053-4},
   Key = {fds271025}
}

@article{fds271030,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and O'Toole, LC and Haney, T},
   Title = {Behavioral assessment of the type A behavior
             pattern.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {46},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {415-423},
   Year = {1984},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6494385},
   Abstract = {The present study attempted to assess systematically a set
             of behavioral subcomponents associated with the Type A
             behavior pattern. Sixty middle-aged men underwent the
             structured interview (SI) and a repeated version of the SI
             after a four-month interval. A high degree of interrater
             reliability was established for a number of behavioral
             components including speed and volume of speech, motoric
             activity, expiratory sighs, response latency, interruptions,
             unevenness of speech, plosive words, and potential for
             hostility. In general, these behaviors were stable over the
             four-month interval, although they did not all distinguish
             Type As from Type Bs. Only four behaviors successfully
             discriminated Type As and Bs at both interview sessions:
             speed of speech, volume of speech, number of interruptions,
             and potential for hostility. The results are discussed in
             terms of how these behavioral subcomponents may contribute
             to increased risk of premature coronary disease.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00006842-198409000-00003},
   Key = {fds271030}
}

@article{fds271029,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and O'Toole, LC and Chang, JL},
   Title = {Is running an analogue of anorexia nervosa? An empirical
             study of obligatory running and anorexia
             nervosa.},
   Journal = {Jama},
   Volume = {252},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {520-523},
   Year = {1984},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0098-7484},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6737645},
   Abstract = {A recent report suggested that compulsive runners share a
             common set of psychological traits and behavioral
             dispositions with patients with anorexia nervosa. In an
             effort to objectively assess the similarity between anorexia
             nervosa and obligatory running, 43 runners and 24 patients
             with anorexia nervosa completed the Minnesota Multiphasic
             Personality Inventory (MMPI). Results indicated that the
             obligatory runners generally scored within the normal range,
             while the anorectic patients did not. The anorectic patients
             obtained more pathological scores than the runners on eight
             of the ten clinical subscales of the MMPI. Fifty percent of
             the anorectic patients obtained elevations on three or more
             of the MMPI subscales, while no runners obtained more than
             two scale elevations. Depression (scale 2) and psychopathy
             (scale 4) were particularly prevalent in the anorectic
             group. We conclude that obligatory runners do not suffer
             from the same degree of psychopathology as do patients with
             anorexia nervosa.},
   Doi = {10.1001/jama.252.4.520},
   Key = {fds271029}
}

@article{fds271031,
   Author = {Shalom, R and Blumenthal, JA and Williams, RS and McMurray, RG and Dennis, VW},
   Title = {Feasibility and benefits of exercise training in patients on
             maintenance dialysis.},
   Journal = {Kidney International},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {958-963},
   Year = {1984},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0085-2538},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6471676},
   Abstract = {Fourteen of 174 patients receiving maintenance dialysis
             volunteered to participate in a 12-week exercise
             conditioning program. Seven patients attended more than 50%
             (range, 55 to 75%) of the sessions held three times each
             week. These seven patients achieved a 42% (P less than 0.05)
             improvement in work capacity as assessed by maximal oxygen
             consumption during treadmill testing. No changes occurred in
             psychologic functioning, blood pressure control, hematocrit,
             or left ventricular ejection fraction. Seven patients
             attended fewer than half of the sessions (range, 1 to 38%)
             and did not demonstrate improved exercise capacity.
             Psychologic testing at entry revealed that those who did not
             attend regularly had higher scores for hostility, anxiety,
             and depression as compared to those patients who completed
             the program. No other clinical variables distinguished those
             who had good attendance records from those who did not. We
             conclude that exercise conditioning can improve physical
             work capacity in patients with chronic renal failure who are
             receiving maintenance dialysis treatment. Despite this
             potential benefit, the impact of exercise conditioning
             programs such as this may be limited because only a small
             portion of patients on maintenance dialysis are able or
             willing to participate to an extent sufficient to induce
             physiological changes.},
   Doi = {10.1038/ki.1984.117},
   Key = {fds271031}
}

@article{fds271032,
   Author = {Schocken, DD and Blumenthal, JA and Port, S and Hindle, P and Coleman,
             RE},
   Title = {Physical conditioning and left ventricular performance in
             the elderly: assessment by radionuclide angiocardiography.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Cardiology},
   Volume = {52},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {359-364},
   Year = {1983},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0002-9149},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6869288},
   Abstract = {In contrast to young persons, normal elderly persons who
             undergo symptom-limited dynamic exercise demonstrate a
             decrease in left ventricular (LV) contractile performance
             characterized by a decrease in LV ejection fraction. To test
             the hypothesis that physical conditioning can be achieved in
             older persons and produces improvement in the
             exercise-induced decrease in LV ejection fraction observed
             during normal aging, we examined 24 normal elderly persons
             (mean age 72.0 years) before and after a 12-week program of
             physical training. The subjects had been screened for
             evidence of cardiovascular disease including rest and
             exercise stress electrocardiograms. All subjects underwent
             rest and exercise upright sitting radionuclide
             angiocardiography before and after the training program. The
             subjects achieved cardiovascular training effects as
             measured by increased functional capacity and decreased
             double product at one-half the maximum work load attained at
             the initial stress test. A significant increase occurred
             after training in the cardiac index response to exercise (p
             less than 0.02) and in the augmentation of the end-diastolic
             volume index produced by exercise (p less than 0.05).
             However, the exercise-induced decrease in LV ejection
             fraction and increase in LV end-systolic volume index
             remained unaltered by training. In conclusion, although
             older persons can achieve overall training effects from a
             program of physical conditioning, the age-associated
             differences in LV contractile performance remained
             unchanged. Our data suggest that deconditioning is not a
             significant contributor to the decline in LV contractile
             performance in the elderly.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0002-9149(83)90139-x},
   Key = {fds271032}
}

@article{fds271034,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Lane, JD and Williams, RB and McKee, DC and Haney, T and White, A},
   Title = {Effects of task incentive on cardiovascular response in type
             A and type B individuals.},
   Journal = {Psychophysiology},
   Volume = {20},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {63-70},
   Year = {1983},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0048-5772},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6828614},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1469-8986.1983.tb00903.x},
   Key = {fds271034}
}

@article{fds304906,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Califf, R and Williams, RS and Hindman,
             M},
   Title = {Continuing medical education cardiac rehabilitation: A new
             frontier for behavioral medicine},
   Journal = {Journal of Cardiac Rehabilitation},
   Volume = {3},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {637-656},
   Year = {1983},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {Secondary prevention of coronary disease has traditionally
             involved primarily surgery and pharmacologic management.
             However, it has become increasingly evident that successful
             rehabilitation also involves modification of those overt
             behaviors that place cardiac patients at greater risk for
             reinfarction and death. “Behavioral medicine” is a new
             field concerned with the application of behavioral science
             knowledge to medical problems and holds particular promise
             for the area of cardiac rehabilitation. The present review
             summarizes the behavioral strategies currently employed to
             treat coronary patients, with particular attention paid to
             such interventions as exercise, dietary management, smoking
             cessation, psychotherapy, type A modification, and
             procedures to enhance patient compliance. The importance of
             a multidisciplinary approach to successful rehabilitation is
             emphasized. © 1983 The American Burn Association.},
   Key = {fds304906}
}

@article{fds271033,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Califf, R and Williams, RS and Hindman,
             M},
   Title = {Cardiac Rehabilitation: A new frontier for behavioral
             medicine},
   Journal = {Journal of Cardiac Rehabilitation},
   Volume = {3},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {637-656},
   Year = {1983},
   Abstract = {Secondary prevention of coronary disease has traditionally
             involved primarily surgery and pharmacologic management.
             However, it has become increasingly evident that successful
             rehabilitation also involves modification of those overt
             behaviors that place cardiac patients at greater risk for
             reinfarction and death. 'Behavioral medicine' is a new field
             concerned with the application of behavioral science
             knowledge to medical problems and holds particular promise
             for the area of cardiac rehabilitation. The present review
             summarizes the behavioral strategies currently employed to
             treat coronary patients, with particular attention paid to
             such interventions as exercise, dietary management, smoking
             cessation, psychotherapy, type A modification, and
             procedures to enhance patient compliance. The importance of
             a multidisciplinary approach to successful rehabilitation is
             emphasized.},
   Key = {fds271033}
}

@article{fds270797,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Williams, RS and Needels, TL and Wallace,
             AG},
   Title = {Psychological changes accompany aerobic exercise in healthy
             middle-aged adults.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {44},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {529-536},
   Year = {1982},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7163456},
   Abstract = {An attempt was made to assess the effects of aerobic
             exercise on the psychological functioning of a nonclinical
             sample of healthy middle-aged adults. Sixteen subjects
             participated in a 10-week program of regular
             walking-jogging, while a matched control group maintained
             their sedentary life-styles. All subjects completed a
             battery of psychological tests, including the Profile of
             Mood States, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and a
             retrospective questionnaire regarding self-perceptions of
             change. Examination of test scores revealed that scores for
             the exercise group almost always improved, whereas the
             scores for the control group remained the same or
             deteriorated. The exercisers exhibited less state and trait
             anxiety, less tension, depression, and fatigue, and more
             vigor than the controls. These results document the
             potential utility of regular aerobic exercise in promoting
             psychological health in normal adults.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00006842-198212000-00004},
   Key = {fds270797}
}

@article{fds271043,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Williams, RS and Wallace, AG and Williams, RB and Needles, TL},
   Title = {Physiological and psychological variables predict compliance
             to prescribed exercise therapy in patients recovering from
             myocardial infarction.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {44},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {519-527},
   Year = {1982},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7163455},
   Keywords = {Adaptation, Psychological* • Blood Pressure •
             Coronary Circulation • Exercise Test • Female
             • Humans • Lipids • MMPI • Male •
             Myocardial Infarction • Patient Compliance* •
             Physical Exertion* • Stroke Volume • blood •
             psychology • rehabilitation*},
   Abstract = {Previous research has documented high rates of noncompliance
             to prescribed medical therapy in patients recovering from
             myocardial infarction (MI). This study was undertaken to
             determine if patients who subsequently drop out of a
             structured cardiac rehabilitation program could be
             prospectively distinguished from those who remain in the
             program based upon their initial baseline characteristics.
             Thirty-five consecutive patients with recent MIs underwent
             comprehensive physical and psychological assessments at
             entry into the program, and were followed for a period of 1
             year. The 14 patients who dropped out of the program could
             be distinguished from the compliers on the basis of their
             reduced left ejection fraction assessed by first pass
             radionuclide angiography at rest and during peak exercise.
             In addition, their psychological profiles assessed by the
             MMPI indicated the dropouts were more depressed,
             hypochondriacal, anxious, and introverted and had lower ego
             strength than those who remained in the program. Statistical
             analysis further indicated that psychological variables were
             associated with noncompliance independently of physical
             status. These findings suggest that MI patients who are
             unlikely to adhere to this form of medical therapy may be
             prospectively identified based upon their initial physical
             and psychological characteristics.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1097/00006842-198212000-00003},
   Key = {fds271043}
}

@article{fds270851,
   Author = {Williams, RS and Wallace, AG and Hindman, MC and Califf, RM and Blumenthal, JA and Paul Koisch and F and Morey, MC and Wagner, ED and Mau,
             HS and Williams, JS and Rhoads, MK and Erickson, P and Leckie, DJ and James, JM},
   Title = {Duke university’s preventive approach to
             cardiology-DUPAC},
   Journal = {Journal of Cardiac Rehabilitation},
   Volume = {2},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {509-514},
   Year = {1982},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds270851}
}

@article{fds39895,
   Author = {Blumenthal, J.A. and Williams, R.S. and Wallace, A.G. and Williams, R.B. and Needles, T.L.},
   Title = {Physiological and psychological variables predict
             compliances to prescribed exercise therapy in patients
             recovering from myocardial infarction},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {44},
   Pages = {519-527},
   Year = {1982},
   Key = {fds39895}
}

@article{fds271042,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Schocken, DD and Needels, TL and Hindle,
             P},
   Title = {Psychological and physiological effects of physical
             conditioning on the elderly.},
   Journal = {Journal of Psychosomatic Research},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {505-510},
   Year = {1982},
   ISSN = {0022-3999},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7153942},
   Abstract = {A decline in cardiovascular functioning is generally thought
             to occur with advancing age. The purpose of the present
             study was to assess the effects of regular aerobic exercise
             on a group of 24 young-old (65-69) and old-old (70-85 yr)
             volunteers. Comprehensive physiological and psychological
             assessments were conducted in the one week preceding the
             11-week conditioning program, and in the one-week period
             following the conclusion of the program. The conditioning
             program consisted of 30 min of continuous exercise on a
             stationary bicycle ergometer three times weekly for 11
             consecutive weeks. The results of the study document the
             presence of significant training effects: subjects achieved
             longer exercise times and increased exercise workloads.
             Despite these changes, however, psychological changes were
             generally small and nonsignificant. The present data would
             appear to qualify the assumption that exercise is beneficial
             for the elderly.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0022-3999(82)90090-3},
   Key = {fds271042}
}

@article{fds271035,
   Author = {Herman, S and Blumenthal, JA and Black, GM and Chesney,
             MA},
   Title = {Self-ratings of type A (coronary prone) adults: do type A's
             know they are type A's?},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {43},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {405-413},
   Year = {1981},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7313032},
   Abstract = {This study compared self-ratings and interview-band ratings
             of the type A coronary-prone behavior pattern. A Type A
             adjective scale was developed from the Gough-Adjective
             Checklist (ACL), using adjectives rated as characteristic
             and uncharacteristic of the Type A individual by a panel of
             20 Type A researchers. Scores on this scale were compared
             with Type A ratings based on the structural interview.
             Results from a sample of 378 employed males indicate a
             significant linear relationship between self-ratings of Type
             A characteristics and interview-based Type A classification.
             Subsequent item analysis identified a subset of adjectives
             which were endorsed differentially by Type A and Type B
             individuals, and a subset of descriptors which were not
             differentially endorsed by the two groups. Implications of
             these findings for assessment and intervention approaches to
             coronary-prone behavior are discussed.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00006842-198110000-00003},
   Key = {fds271035}
}

@article{fds270774,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and McKee, DC and Williams, RB and Haney,
             T},
   Title = {Assessment of conceptual tempo in the type A (coronary
             prone) behavior pattern.},
   Journal = {Journal of Personality Assessment},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {44-51},
   Year = {1981},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0022-3891},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7218130},
   Keywords = {Adult • Coronary Disease • Female • Humans
             • Impulsive Behavior • Male • Personality*
             • Sex Factors • psychology •
             psychology*},
   Abstract = {Previous research has documented an association between a
             particular behavioral complex termed Type A, and increased
             incidence of coronary heart disease. In an effort to define
             further some of the behavioral characteristics that
             distinguish Type A subjects from their noncoronary-prone
             (Type B) counterparts, subjects were administered a test of
             conceptual impulsivity-reflection. While there were clear
             sex differences in performance, the results of the present
             study offered only qualified support for the notion that
             Type A individuals are more impulsive than Type B
             individuals. One component of Type A, Speed and Impatience,
             was shown to be related to increased impulsivity in women,
             but not in men. The findings suggest the importance of
             considering the interaction of gender with behavioral
             subcomponents of the Type A behavior pattern.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1207/s15327752jpa4501_10},
   Key = {fds270774}
}

@article{fds271036,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and McKee, DC and Williams, RB and Haney,
             T},
   Title = {Assessment of conceptual tempo in the Type A (coronary
             prone) behavior pattern},
   Journal = {Journal of Personality Assessment},
   Volume = {45},
   Pages = {405-413},
   Year = {1981},
   Key = {fds271036}
}

@article{fds271038,
   Author = {Williams, RB and Haney, TL and Lee, KL and Kong, YH and Blumenthal, JA and Whalen, RE},
   Title = {Type A behavior, hostility, and coronary
             atherosclerosis.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {42},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {539-549},
   Year = {1980},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7465739},
   Abstract = {Type A behavior pattern was assessed using the structured
             interview and hostility level was assessed using a subscale
             of the Minnesota Multiphase Personality Inventory in 424
             patients who underwent diagnostic coronary arteriography for
             suspected coronary heart disease. In contrast to non-Type A
             patients, a significantly greater proportion of Type A
             patients had at least one artery with a clinically
             significant occlusion of 75% or greater. In addition, only
             48% of those patients with very low scores (less than or
             equal to 10) on the Hostility scale exhibited a significant
             occlusion; in contrast, patients in all groups scoring
             higher than 10 on the Hostility scale showed a 70% rate of
             significant disease. The essential difference between low
             and high scorers on the Hostility scale appears to consist
             of an unwillingness on the part of the low scorers to
             endorse items reflective of the attitude that others are
             bad, selfish, and exploitive. Multivariate analysis showed
             that both Type A behavior pattern and Hostility score are
             independently related to presence of atherosclerosis. In
             this analysis, however, Hostility score emerged as more
             related to presence of atherosclerosis than Type A behavior
             pattern. These findings confirm previous observations of
             increased coronary atherosclerosis among Type A patients.
             They suggest further that an attitudinal set reflective of
             hostility toward people in general is over and above that
             accounted for by Type A behavior pattern. These findings
             also suggest that interventions to reduce the contribution
             of behavioral patterns to coronary disease risk might
             profitably focus especially closely on reduction of anger
             and hostility.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00006842-198011000-00002},
   Key = {fds271038}
}

@article{fds270753,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Williams, RS and Williams, RB and Wallace,
             AG},
   Title = {Effects of exercise on the Type A (coronary prone) behavior
             pattern.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {42},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {289-296},
   Year = {1980},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7192871},
   Keywords = {Adult • Cholesterol • Coronary Disease •
             Female • Humans • Lipoproteins, HDL • Male
             • Middle Aged • Personality* • Physical
             Education and Training* • Physical Fitness •
             Plasminogen Activators • Risk • Triglycerides
             • blood • prevention & control* •
             psychology},
   Abstract = {This study presents the initial findings of an attempt to
             reduce the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in a group
             of health, middle-aged adults by participation in a
             ten-week, supervised exercise program. Forty-six subjects
             were classified as Type A or Type B based on their scores on
             the Jenkins Activity Survey (JAS). Measures of physiologic
             (blood pressure, serum lipids, body weight, plasminogen
             activator release, and treadmill performance) and
             psychologic (scores on the JAS) variables were obtained
             before and after the exercise program. Subjects were able to
             successfully reduce the physiologic cardiovascular risk
             factors. Moreover, Type A subjects lowered their scores on
             the JAS Type A scale after training, while the scores of the
             Type B subjected remained unchanged. It is concluded that a
             supervised program of regular exercise can successfully
             modify the physiological and psychological variables
             associated with increased risk for CHD in a nonclinical
             sample of healthy adults.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1097/00006842-198003000-00006},
   Key = {fds270753}
}

@article{fds270798,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and McKee, DC and Haney, T and Williams,
             RB},
   Title = {Task Incentives, Type A Behavior Pattern, and Verbal Problem
             Solving Performance},
   Journal = {Journal of Applied Social Psychology},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {101-114},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {1980},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0021-9029},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1980JQ78900001&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Abstract = {A laboratory experiment was conducted to investigate the
             interaction between task incentives and the Type A behavior
             pattern in determining performance during a task of verbal
             problem solving. The results indicated that Type A subjects
             responded more quickly and more frequently than their Type B
             counterparts. In addition, evidence suggested that a
             situational characteristic–whether instructions offered a
             monetary reward or served as an evaluative
             stressor–affected subjects differently depending on their
             behavior pattern classification. These findings suggest that
             Pattern A behavior occurs as a response to challenges
             signifying the potential for reward as well as a threat of
             failure. Implications for future research emphasize the need
             to investigate the characteristics of the situation and the
             task, as well as the individual. Copyright © 1980, Wiley
             Blackwell. All rights reserved},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1559-1816.1980.tb00696.x},
   Key = {fds270798}
}

@article{fds271039,
   Author = {Keefe, FJ and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {The life fitness program: A behavioral approach to making
             exercise a habit},
   Journal = {Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {31-34},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {1980},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0005-7916},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0005-7916(80)90048-8},
   Abstract = {Difficulty in maitaining exercise regimens over long time
             periods is a common problem. This study examined the
             efficacy of a combination of stimulus control and self-
             reinforcement procedures in the acquisition and maintenance
             of a walking exercise program using a multiple baseline
             design. The intervention strategy was introduced
             sequentially to each of three middle-aged, overweight males.
             Levels of exercise increased in a regular and gradual
             fashion following introduction of the behavioral treatment
             techniques. Improvement was maintained over a two-year
             period. © 1980.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0005-7916(80)90048-8},
   Key = {fds271039}
}

@article{fds271037,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Williams, RS and Williams, RB and Wallace,
             AG},
   Title = {The effects of exercise on the Type A behavior
             pattern},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {42},
   Pages = {289-296},
   Year = {1980},
   Key = {fds271037}
}

@article{fds271040,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Thompson, LW and Williams, RB and Kong,
             Y},
   Title = {Anxiety-proneness and coronary heart disease.},
   Journal = {Journal of Psychosomatic Research},
   Volume = {23},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {17-21},
   Year = {1979},
   ISSN = {0022-3999},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/480276},
   Doi = {10.1016/0022-3999(79)90066-7},
   Key = {fds271040}
}

@article{fds271041,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Williams, RB and Kong, Y and Schanberg, SM and Thompson, LW},
   Title = {Type A behavior pattern and coronary atherosclerosis.},
   Journal = {Circulation},
   Volume = {58},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {634-639},
   Year = {1978},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0009-7322},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/688573},
   Abstract = {Previous research has demonstrated an increased rate of
             clinical coronary heart disease (CHD) events among people
             who exhibit a "coronary prone" (Type A) behavior pattern.
             This study was undertaken to determine whether the
             association between behavior pattern Type A and CHD might be
             extended beyond clinical CHD events to include also the
             coronary atherosclerotic process. In addition to usual
             clinical evaluation, 156 consecutive patients referred for
             diagnostic coronary angiography were independently assessed
             on the basis of a structured interview and assigned a rating
             of Type A, Type B, or Type X (indeterminate). Traditional
             physiologic factors--age, sex, cholesterol and cigarette
             smoking--were found to correlate with atherosclerotic
             disease. Type A patients were found in increasing
             proportions among groups of patients with coronary
             occlusions of moderate to severe degree compared with
             patients with only mild occlusions. This increasing
             proportion of Type A patients with increasing disease
             severity remained significant, even when age, sex, blood
             pressure, serum cholesterol level and cigarette smoking
             history were all simultaneously covaried. These findings
             suggest that, independently of traditional risk factors,
             behavior pattern Type A may contribute to the risk of
             clinical CHD events via effects on the atherosclerotic
             process.},
   Doi = {10.1161/01.cir.58.4.634},
   Key = {fds271041}
}

@article{fds270739,
   Author = {Sakulsky, SB and Blumenthal, JA and Lynch, RH},
   Title = {Treatment of thrombosed hemorrhoids by excision.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Surgery},
   Volume = {120},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {537-538},
   Year = {1970},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0002-9610},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/5507343},
   Keywords = {Adult • Diarrhea • Hemorrhoids • Humans
             • Male • Middle Aged • Military Medicine*
             • Thrombosis • United States • Vietnam •
             complications • etiology • surgery •
             surgery*},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0002-9610(70)80025-3},
   Key = {fds270739}
}


%% Papers Published   
@article{fds143928,
   Author = {RM Carney and KE Freedland and B Steinmeyer and JA Blumenthal and LF
             Berkman, LL Watkins and SM Czajkowski and MM Burg and AS
             Jaffe},
   Title = {Depression and five year survival following acute myocardial
             infarction: a prospective study.},
   Journal = {Journal of affective disorders},
   Volume = {109},
   Number = {1-2},
   Pages = {133-8},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0165-0327},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2007.12.005},
   Keywords = {Depressive Disorder, Major • Diagnostic and Statistical
             Manual of Mental Disorders • Female • Follow-Up
             Studies • Humans • Male • Middle Aged •
             Myocardial Infarction • Prevalence • Prospective
             Studies • Questionnaires • Severity of Illness
             Index • Survival Rate • Time Factors •
             diagnosis • epidemiology* • mortality •
             psychology*},
   Abstract = {Depression has been shown to be a risk factor for mortality
             during the 12 months following an acute myocardial
             infarction (MI), but few studies have examined whether it is
             associated with increased risk over longer periods. Most of
             the existing studies utilized depression questionnaires
             rather than diagnostic interviews, the gold standard for
             clinical depression diagnosis. The purpose of this study was
             to determine whether interview-diagnosed clinical depression
             affects survival for at least 5 years after an acute MI.
             Vital status was determined for 163 patients with major
             depression, 195 with minor depression or dysthymia, and 408
             nondepressed patients, during a median follow-up period of
             60 months after an acute MI. Survival analysis was used to
             model time from the index MI to death. There were 106 deaths
             during the follow-up. After adjusting for other risk factors
             for mortality, patients with either major or minor
             depression (HR=1.76; 95% CI: 1.19 to 2.60), major depression
             alone (HR=1.87; 95% CI: 1.17 to 2.98), or minor depression
             alone (HR=1.67; 95% CI: 1.06 to 2.64) were at higher risk
             for all-cause mortality compared to the nondepressed
             patients. Depression is an independent risk factor for death
             5 years after an acute MI. Even minor depression is
             associated with an increased risk. Although it is not known
             whether treating depression can improve survival, patients
             with depression should be recognized as being at increased
             risk long after their acute MI.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jad.2007.12.005},
   Key = {fds143928}
}

@article{fds143798,
   Author = {R Trivedi and A Sherwood and TJ Strauman and JA Blumenthal},
   Title = {Laboratory-based blood pressure recovery is a predictor of
             ambulatory blood pressure.},
   Journal = {Biological psychology},
   Volume = {77},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {317-23},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0301-0511},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2007.11.004},
   Keywords = {Adult • Anger • Blood Pressure • Blood
             Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory* • Circadian Rhythm
             • Cold Temperature • Data Interpretation,
             Statistical • Electroshock • Female •
             Forecasting • Humans • Hypertension • Male
             • Mental Recall • Middle Aged • Psychomotor
             Performance • Reaction Time • Sex Characteristics
             • diagnostic use • physiology • physiology*
             • physiopathology},
   Abstract = {The recovery phase of the stress response is an individual
             difference characteristic that may predict cardiovascular
             risk. The purpose of this study was to examine whether
             laboratory-based blood pressure (BP) recovery predicts
             ambulatory BP (ABP). One hundred and eighty-two participants
             underwent a standard laboratory stress protocol, involving a
             20-min baseline rest period, and four stressors presented in
             a counterbalanced order, each followed by a 10-min recovery
             period. Participants also wore an ABP monitor for 24h during
             a typical workday. Hierarchical regression analyses showed
             that BP recovery accounted for significant additional
             variance for daytime SBP (p<0.001), nighttime SBP (p<0.001),
             daytime DBP (p<0.001), and nighttime DBP (p<0.001), after
             controlling for baseline and reactivity BP. Results suggest
             that persistence of the BP response following stress may be
             a more salient characteristic of the stress response in
             understanding its potential impact on longer term
             cardiovascular regulation.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.biopsycho.2007.11.004},
   Key = {fds143798}
}

@article{fds143955,
   Author = {KA Barbour and TM Edenfield and JA Blumenthal},
   Title = {Exercise as a treatment for depression and other psychiatric
             disorders: a review.},
   Journal = {Journal of cardiopulmonary rehabilitation and
             prevention},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {359-67},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {1932-7501},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.HCR.0000300262.69645.95},
   Keywords = {Anxiety • Bipolar Disorder • Cardiovascular
             Diseases • Cognition • Dementia • Depression
             • Exercise Therapy* • Humans • Lung Diseases
             • Patient Compliance • Practice Guidelines as
             Topic • Stress, Physiological • complications
             • therapy • therapy*},
   Abstract = {This article reviews evidence supporting exercise as a
             treatment for psychiatric disorders. Although data from
             randomized trials are limited, results of studies included
             in this review generally support use of exercise as an
             alternative or adjunctive treatment. Discussion of practical
             issues regarding exercise, potential mechanisms for the
             beneficial effects of exercise, and recommendations for
             future research are provided.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1097/01.HCR.0000300262.69645.95},
   Key = {fds143955}
}

@article{fds143926,
   Author = {PJ Smith and JA Blumenthal and MA Babyak and A Georgiades and A
             Hinderliter, A Sherwood},
   Title = {Effects of exercise and weight loss on depressive symptoms
             among men and women with hypertension.},
   Journal = {Journal of psychosomatic research},
   Volume = {63},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {463-9},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0022-3999},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2007.05.011},
   Keywords = {Depression • Exercise* • Female • Humans
             • Hypertension • Male • Middle Aged •
             Physical Fitness • Weight Loss* • diagnosis •
             epidemiology* • psychology*},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate changes in
             depressive symptoms in hypertensive individuals
             participating in an exercise and weight loss intervention.
             METHODS: This study involved 133 sedentary men and women
             with high blood pressure (BP; 130-180 mmHg systolic BP
             and/or 85-110 mmHg diastolic BP) who participated in a
             6-month intervention consisting of three groups: aerobic
             exercise, aerobic exercise and weight loss, and a waiting
             list control. RESULTS: Participants in both treatment groups
             demonstrated significant improvements in aerobic capacity
             and lower BP compared with participants in the control
             group. Participants in the active treatment groups who had
             mild to moderate depressive symptoms at baseline also
             exhibited greater reductions in depressive symptoms compared
             with participants in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Results
             from the present study suggest that exercise, alone or
             combined with weight management, may reduce self-reported
             depressive symptoms among patients with hypertension.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jpsychores.2007.05.011},
   Key = {fds143926}
}

@article{fds143763,
   Author = {JA Blumenthal},
   Title = {Psychosocial training and cardiac rehabilitation.},
   Journal = {Journal of cardiopulmonary rehabilitation and
             prevention},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {104-6},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {1932-7501},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.HCR.0000265038.69898.b0},
   Keywords = {Coronary Disease • Health Personnel • Humans
             • Inservice Training* • Knowledge • Needs
             Assessment • Personal Satisfaction • Program
             Evaluation • Rehabilitation • Social Support*
             • education • education* •
             rehabilitation*},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1097/01.HCR.0000265038.69898.b0},
   Key = {fds143763}
}

@article{fds143809,
   Author = {JA Blumenthal and MA Babyak and PM Doraiswamy and L Watkins and BM
             Hoffman, KA Barbour and S Herman and WE Craighead and AL Brosse and R
             Waugh, A Hinderliter and A Sherwood},
   Title = {Exercise and pharmacotherapy in the treatment of major
             depressive disorder.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic medicine},
   Volume = {69},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {587-96},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {1534-7796},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0b013e318148c19a},
   Keywords = {Antidepressive Agents • Depressive Disorder, Major
             • Double-Blind Method • Exercise Therapy* •
             Female • Humans • Male • Middle Aged •
             Prospective Studies • Psychotherapy, Group •
             Sertraline • Treatment Outcome • drug therapy*
             • therapeutic use*},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To assess whether patients receiving aerobic
             exercise training performed either at home or in a
             supervised group setting achieve reductions in depression
             comparable to standard antidepressant medication
             (sertraline) and greater reductions in depression compared
             to placebo controls. METHODS: Between October 2000 and
             November 2005, we performed a prospective, randomized
             controlled trial (SMILE study) with allocation concealment
             and blinded outcome assessment in a tertiary care teaching
             hospital. A total of 202 adults (153 women; 49 men)
             diagnosed with major depression were assigned randomly to
             one of four conditions: supervised exercise in a group
             setting; home-based exercise; antidepressant medication
             (sertraline, 50-200 mg daily); or placebo pill for 16 weeks.
             Patients underwent the structured clinical interview for
             depression and completed the Hamilton Depression Rating
             Scale (HAM-D). RESULTS: After 4 months of treatment, 41% of
             the participants achieved remission, defined as no longer
             meeting the criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD) and
             a HAM-D score of <8. Patients receiving active treatments
             tended to have higher remission rates than the placebo
             controls: supervised exercise = 45%; home-based exercise =
             40%; medication = 47%; placebo = 31% (p = .057). All
             treatment groups had lower HAM-D scores after treatment;
             scores for the active treatment groups were not
             significantly different from the placebo group (p = .23).
             CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy of exercise in patients seems
             generally comparable with patients receiving antidepressant
             medication and both tend to be better than the placebo in
             patients with MDD. Placebo response rates were high,
             suggesting that a considerable portion of the therapeutic
             response is determined by patient expectations, ongoing
             symptom monitoring, attention, and other nonspecific
             factors.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1097/PSY.0b013e318148c19a},
   Key = {fds143809}
}

@article{fds143900,
   Author = {A Sherwood and JK Bower and J McFetridge-Durdle and JA Blumenthal and LK
             Newby, AL Hinderliter},
   Title = {Age moderates the short-term effects of transdermal
             17beta-estradiol on endothelium-dependent vascular function
             in postmenopausal women.},
   Journal = {Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular
             biology},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {1782-7},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {1524-4636},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/ATVBAHA.107.145383},
   Keywords = {Administration, Cutaneous • Age Factors • Aged
             • Aged, 80 and over • Aging • Blood Flow
             Velocity • Brachial Artery • Chi-Square
             Distribution • Coronary Disease • Cross-Over
             Studies • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug •
             Double-Blind Method • Drug Administration Schedule
             • Drug Therapy, Combination • Endothelium,
             Vascular • Estradiol • Female • Humans •
             Middle Aged • Multivariate Analysis •
             Nitroglycerin • Norethindrone • Postmenopause
             • Probability • Reference Values • Risk
             Factors • Treatment Outcome • Vascular Patency
             • administration & dosage • administration &
             dosage* • analogs & derivatives* • drug effects
             • physiology • physiology* •
             physiopathology*},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: We evaluated age and coronary heart disease (CHD)
             as potential moderators of the effects of 17beta-estradiol
             on vascular endothelial function in postmenopausal women.
             RESULTS: In a double-blind crossover design, 100
             postmenopausal women aged 50 to 80 years were randomized to
             each of 3 transdermal patches, releasing 17beta-estradiol
             (0.05 mg/d), 17beta-estradiol (0.05 mg/d) + norethindrone
             acetate (NETA, 0.14 mg/d), and placebo. Flow-mediated
             dilation (FMD) and response to 400 microg sublingual
             glyceryl trinitrate (GTN-D) were assessed approximately 18
             hours after patch placement. Age, but not CHD, moderated the
             FMD response to treatment (P=0.01). For women in their
             fifties, the estradiol patch was associated with improved
             FMD (7.69+/-4.79%) compared with placebo (4.81+/-5.97%,
             P<0.05), but the estradiol+norethindrone patch response
             (5.81+/-4.85%) was not significantly different from placebo.
             Women in their sixties and seventies showed no alterations
             in FMD response to either active patch. GTN-D response
             declined with advancing age (P<0.01), with women in their
             seventies exhibiting blunted GTN-D response compared with
             younger women. CONCLUSIONS: The cardiovascular benefits of
             natural estrogen supplementation on vascular endothelial
             function may be dependent on postmenopausal age, with
             improved vascular function evident only in the early
             postmenopausal years. Short-term FMD response to estradiol
             might help stratify individual differences in risks versus
             benefits of HRT.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1161/ATVBAHA.107.145383},
   Key = {fds143900}
}

@article{fds143827,
   Author = {PJ Smith and JA Blumenthal and MA Babyak and BM Hoffman and PM
             Doraiswamy, R Waugh and A Hinderliter and A Sherwood},
   Title = {Cerebrovascular risk factors, vascular disease, and
             neuropsychological outcomes in adults with major
             depression.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic medicine},
   Volume = {69},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {578-86},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {1534-7796},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0b013e31812f7b8e},
   Keywords = {Atherosclerosis • Cerebrovascular Disorders •
             Cognition* • Cross-Sectional Studies • Depressive
             Disorder, Major • Endothelium, Vascular • Factor
             Analysis, Statistical • Female • Humans •
             Male • Middle Aged • Multivariate Analysis •
             Regression Analysis • Risk Factors • United States
             • epidemiology • physiopathology*},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship of
             cerebrovascular risk factors (CVRFs), endothelial function,
             carotid artery intima medial thickness (IMT), and
             neuropsychological performance in a sample of 198
             middle-aged and older individuals with major depressive
             disorder (MDD). Neuropsychological deficits are common among
             adults with MDD, particularly among those with CVRFs and
             potentially persons with subclinical vascular disease.
             METHODS: CVRFs were indexed by the Framingham Stroke Risk
             Profile (FSRP) and serum cholesterol levels obtained by
             medical history and physical examination. Patients completed
             a neuropsychological test battery including measures of
             executive functioning, working memory, and verbal recall.
             Vascular function was indexed by carotid artery IMT and
             brachial artery flow mediated dilation (FMD). Hierarchical
             multiple regression analyses were used to investigate the
             association between CVRFs, vascular disease, and
             neurocognitive performance. RESULTS: Greater FSRP scores
             were associated with poorer executive functioning (b =
             -0.86; p = .041) and working memory (b = -0.90; p = .024).
             Lower high-density lipoprotein levels also were associated
             with poorer executive functioning (b = 1.03; p = .035).
             Higher IMT (b = -0.83; p = .028) and lower FMD (b = 1.29; p
             = .032) were associated with poorer executive functioning
             after controlling for CVRFs. Lower FMD was also associated
             with poorer working memory (b = 1.58; p = .015).
             CONCLUSIONS: Greater CVRFs were associated with poorer
             neuropsychological performance. Vascular dysfunction also
             was associated with neuropsychological decrements
             independent of traditional CVRFs.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1097/PSY.0b013e31812f7b8e},
   Key = {fds143827}
}

@article{fds143822,
   Author = {HS Lett and JA Blumenthal and MA Babyak and DJ Catellier and RM Carney and LF Berkman and MM Burg and P Mitchell and AS Jaffe and N
             Schneiderman},
   Title = {Social support and prognosis in patients at increased
             psychosocial risk recovering from myocardial
             infarction.},
   Journal = {Health psychology : official journal of the Division of
             Health Psychology, American Psychological
             Association},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {418-27},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0278-6133},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.26.4.418},
   Keywords = {Cause of Death • Cognitive Therapy • Comorbidity
             • Depressive Disorder • Female • Follow-Up
             Studies • Humans • Male • Middle Aged •
             Myocardial Infarction • Outcome Assessment (Health
             Care) • Personality Inventory • Prognosis •
             Proportional Hazards Models • Questionnaires •
             Risk Factors • Social Support • diagnosis •
             diagnosis* • epidemiology • mortality* •
             statistics & numerical data • therapy},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To compare the impact of network support and
             different types of perceived functional support on all-cause
             mortality or nonfatal reinfarction for patients with a
             recent acute myocardial infarction (AMI). METHODS:
             Participants were recruited from the Enhancing Recovery in
             Coronary Heart Disease (ENRICHD) trial; 2,481 AMI patients
             with depression or low social support were randomized to a
             cognitive-behavioral intervention or to a usual care control
             group. Data collection for certain measures of social
             support was limited: 2,466 participants completed the
             ENRICHD Social Support Inventory; 2,457 completed the
             Perceived Social Support Scale; 1,296 completed the Social
             Network Questionnaire; and 707 completed the Interpersonal
             Support and Evaluation List, Tangible Support subscale.
             Patients also completed the Beck Depression Inventory and
             were followed for up to 4.5 years. METHODS: Time to death or
             nonfatal reinfarction. RESULTS: Over the follow-up period,
             599 patients (24%) died or had a nonfatal AMI. Survival
             models controlling age, sex, race, socioeconomic status,
             smoking, antidepressant use, and a composite measure of
             increased risk revealed that higher levels of perceived
             social support were associated with improved outcome for
             patients without elevated depression but not for patients
             with high levels of depression. Neither perceived tangible
             support nor network support were associated with more
             frequent adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: AMI patients should be
             assessed for multiple dimensions of perceived functional
             support and depression to identify those at increased
             psychosocial risk who may benefit from treatment.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1037/0278-6133.26.4.418},
   Key = {fds143822}
}

@article{fds143859,
   Author = {JP Mathew and MV Podgoreanu and HP Grocott and WD White and RW Morris and M
             Stafford-Smith, GB Mackensen and CS Rinder and JA Blumenthal and DA
             Schwinn, MF Newman and PEGASUS Investigative
             Team},
   Title = {Genetic variants in P-selectin and C-reactive protein
             influence susceptibility to cognitive decline after cardiac
             surgery.},
   Journal = {Journal of the American College of Cardiology},
   Volume = {49},
   Number = {19},
   Pages = {1934-42},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {1558-3597},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2007.01.080},
   Keywords = {Aged • C-Reactive Protein • Cognition Disorders
             • Cohort Studies • Coronary Artery Bypass •
             Female • Genetic Predisposition to Disease •
             Humans • Incidence • Male • Middle Aged
             • P-Selectin • Polymorphism, Genetic •
             adverse effects* • epidemiology •
             genetics*},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that candidate gene polymorphisms
             in biologic pathways regulating inflammation, cell matrix
             adhesion/interaction, coagulation-thrombosis, lipid
             metabolism, and vascular reactivity are associated with
             postoperative cognitive deficit (POCD). BACKGROUND:
             Cognitive decline is a common complication of coronary
             artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery and is associated with a
             reduced quality of life. METHODS: In a prospective cohort
             study of 513 patients (86% European American) undergoing
             CABG surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, a panel of 37
             single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was genotyped by mass
             spectrometry. Association between these SNPs and cognitive
             deficit at 6 weeks after surgery was tested using multiple
             logistic regression accounting for age, level of education,
             baseline cognition, and population structure. Permutation
             analysis was used to account for multiple testing. RESULTS:
             We found that minor alleles of the CRP 1059G/C SNP (odds
             ratio [OR] 0.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16 to 0.78;
             p = 0.013) and the SELP 1087G/A SNP (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.30 to
             0.85; p = 0.011) were associated with a reduction in
             cognitive deficit in European Americans (n = 443). The
             absolute risk reduction in the observed incidence of POCD
             was 20.6% for carriers of the CRP 1059C allele and 15.2% for
             carriers of the SELP 1087A allele. Perioperative serum
             C-reactive protein (CRP) and degree of platelet activation
             were also significantly lower in patients with a copy of the
             minor alleles, providing biologic support for the observed
             allelic association. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest a
             contribution of P-selectin and CRP genes in modulating
             susceptibility to cognitive decline after cardiac surgery,
             with potential implications for identifying populations at
             risk who might benefit from targeted perioperative
             antiinflammatory strategies.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jacc.2007.01.080},
   Key = {fds143859}
}

@article{fds143930,
   Author = {A Sherwood and JA Blumenthal and R Trivedi and KS Johnson and CM
             O'Connor, KF Adams Jr and CS Dupree and RA Waugh and DR Bensimhon and L
             Gaulden, RH Christenson and GG Koch and AL Hinderliter},
   Title = {Relationship of depression to death or hospitalization in
             patients with heart failure.},
   Journal = {Archives of internal medicine},
   Volume = {167},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {367-73},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0003-9926},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archinte.167.4.367},
   Keywords = {Adult • Aged • Aged, 80 and over • Attitude
             to Death • Depression • Female • Follow-Up
             Studies • Heart Failure • Hospitalization* •
             Humans • Incidence • Male • Middle Aged
             • North Carolina • Patient Compliance •
             Prognosis • Proportional Hazards Models •
             Prospective Studies • Risk Factors • epidemiology
             • mortality*},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Depression is widely recognized as a risk factor
             in patients with coronary heart disease. However, patients
             with heart failure (HF) have been less frequently studied,
             and the effect of depression on prognosis, independent of
             disease severity, is uncertain. METHODS: Two hundred four
             outpatients having a diagnosis of HF, with a ventricular
             ejection fraction of 40% or less, underwent baseline
             assessments including evaluation of depressive symptoms
             using the Beck Depression Inventory and of HF severity
             determined by plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic
             peptide. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were
             used to examine the effects of depressive symptoms on a
             combined primary end point of death and hospitalizations
             because of cardiovascular disease (hereafter referred to as
             cardiovascular hospitalization) during a median follow-up of
             3 years. RESULTS: Symptoms of depression (Beck Depression
             Inventory score) were associated with risk of death or
             cardiovascular hospitalization (P<.001) after controlling
             for established risk factors including HF disease severity,
             ejection fraction, HF etiology, age, and medications.
             Clinically significant symptoms of depression (Beck
             Depression Inventory score >/=10) were associated with a
             hazard ratio of 1.56 (95% confidence interval, 1.07-2.29)
             for the combined end point of death or cardiovascular
             hospitalization. Contrary to our expectation, antidepressant
             medication use was associated with increased likelihood of
             death or cardiovascular hospitalization (hazard ratio, 1.75;
             95% confidence interval,1.14-2.68, P =.01) after controlling
             for severity of depressive symptoms and for established risk
             factors. CONCLUSIONS: Symptoms of depression were associated
             with an adverse prognosis in patients with HF after
             controlling for HF severity. The unexpected association of
             antidepressant medications with worse clinical outcome
             suggests that patients with HF requiring an antidepressant
             medication may need to be monitored more
             closely.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1001/archinte.167.4.367},
   Key = {fds143930}
}

@article{fds143801,
   Author = {DJ Whellan and CM O'Connor and KL Lee and SJ Keteyian and LS Cooper and SJ
             Ellis, ES Leifer and WE Kraus and DW Kitzman and JA Blumenthal and DS
             Rendall, N Houston-Miller and JL Fleg and KA Schulman and IL Piña and HF-ACTION Trial Investigators},
   Title = {Heart failure and a controlled trial investigating outcomes
             of exercise training (HF-ACTION): design and
             rationale.},
   Journal = {American heart journal},
   Volume = {153},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {201-11},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {1097-6744},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2006.11.007},
   Keywords = {Exercise Therapy* • Female • Heart Failure •
             Humans • Male • Research Design • Treatment
             Outcome • therapy*},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Although there are limited clinical data to
             support the use of exercise training as a means to reduce
             mortality and morbidity in patients with heart failure,
             current guidelines state that exercise is beneficial.
             METHODS: The objective of this trial is to determine whether
             exercise training reduces all-cause mortality or all-cause
             hospitalization for patients with left ventricular systolic
             dysfunction and heart failure symptoms. After undergoing
             baseline assessments to determine whether they can safely
             exercise, patients are randomized to either usual care or
             exercise training. Patients in the exercise training arm
             attend 36 supervised facility-based exercise training
             sessions. Exercise modalities are cycling or walking. After
             completing 18 sessions, patients initiate home-based
             exercise and then transition to solely home-based exercise
             after completing all 36 sessions. Patients return for
             facility-based training every 3 months to reinforce their
             exercise training program. Patients are followed for up to 4
             years. Physiologic, quality-of-life, and economic end points
             that characterize the effect of exercise training in this
             patient population will be measured at baseline and at
             intervals throughout the trial. Blood samples will be
             collected to examine biomarkers such as brain natriuretic
             peptide, tumor necrosis factor, and C-reactive protein.
             CONCLUSIONS: Because of its relatively low cost, high
             availability, and ease of use, exercise training is an
             intervention that could be accessible to most patients with
             heart failure. The HF-ACTION trial is designed to
             definitively assess the effect of exercise training on the
             clinically relevant end points of mortality,
             hospitalization, and quality of life in patients with heart
             failure.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.ahj.2006.11.007},
   Key = {fds143801}
}

@article{fds143771,
   Author = {RM Carney and WB Howells and JA Blumenthal and KE Freedland and PK
             Stein, LF Berkman and LL Watkins and SM Czajkowski and B Steinmeyer and J Hayano and PP Domitrovich and MM Burg and AS Jaffe},
   Title = {Heart rate turbulence, depression, and survival after acute
             myocardial infarction.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic medicine},
   Volume = {69},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {4-9},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1534-7796},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.psy.0000249733.33811.00},
   Keywords = {Aged • Autonomic Nervous System • Case-Control
             Studies • Depression • Electrocardiography •
             Female • Follow-Up Studies • Heart Rate •
             Humans • Male • Middle Aged • Myocardial
             Infarction • Risk Factors • Ventricular Premature
             Complexes* • mortality* • physiology •
             physiopathology • psychology*},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: Depression is a risk factor for mortality after
             acute myocardial infarction (AMI), possibly as a result of
             altered autonomic nervous system (ANS) modulation of heart
             rate (HR) and rhythm. The purposes of this study were to
             determine: a) whether depressed patients are more likely to
             have an abnormal HR response (i.e., abnormal turbulence) to
             premature ventricular contractions (VPCs), and b) whether
             abnormal HR turbulence accounts for the effect of depression
             on increased mortality after AMI. METHODS: Ambulatory
             electrocardiographic d